IB Geography Option G Notes

September 17, 2017 | Author: Riko Malpense | Category: Urbanization, Sustainability, Urban Sprawl, Slum, Traffic Congestion
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Option G (Urbanization) notes by learning outcomes. Includes case studies....


IB Geography: Options Option G: Urban environments 1. Urban populations 1.1. Urbanization  1.1.1. Define urbanization and explain the variation in global growth rates and patterns. 1.1. Definitions: Urbanization: An increasing percentage of a country’s population coming to live in towns and cities. It may involve both rural to urban migration and natural increase. 1.1.1. The variation in global growth rates and patterns: In most MDCs, the process of urbanization is at an end, with the majority of the population already living in urban areas. This makes the growth rate small, or even negative as people move to rural or suburban areas for reasons that will be expanded on later. In NICs, the process of urbanization is still underway at a high rate, as development typically begins in more industrialized cities, drawing people from rural areas there in the belief that they will have a better life. More developed LDCs see similar growth rates, while less developed, poorer LDCs may still have low urbanization rates due to low industrialization not attracting rural migrants to cities. 1.2. Inward movement  1.2.1. Explain the processes of centripetal movements (rural-urban migration, gentrification, reurbanization/urban renewal). 1.2. Definitions: Rural- urban migration: The movement of population from rural areas to urban areas. Gentrification: The reinvestment of capital into inner-city areas. Re-urbanization/urban renewal: The revitalization of urban areas and a movement of people back into those areas. Brownfield sites: Abandoned, derelict, or underused industrial buildings and land that may be contaminated but have potential for redevelopment. 1.2.1. Explaining centripetal movements: Factors causing rural-urban migration: 

Push factors: o Limited infrastructure

o Little job opportunities o Famine/drought o Overpopulation o Boredom o Difficulty of farm life Pull factors: o A perception that cities are full of jobs o Want for better education o Better transport infrastructure o Better health infrastructure o More entertainment

Factors causing gentrification:   

Lack of land (or cheap land) in cities Overpopulation in city Entrepreneuring real estate agencies

Factors causing re-urbanization/urban renewal:     

Governmental investment Foreign investment Need for more land, particularly cheap land Overpopulation Complaints by people that decayed areas “look bad”

Case Study: Rural to Urban Migration from Caatinga to Sao Paulo Push factors:    

Low unreliable rainfall leads to droughts Difficulty of subsistence farming life No water or electricity infrastructure Few schools and clinics in the area

Pull factors:    

The belief that there are many jobs in Sao Paulo (that are not as back-breaking) Better infrastructure Better access to services such as education and health The glamourous image of Sao Paulo with its ‘bright lights’

Positive effects: 

Overpopulation problem is lessened.

 

Famine and drought problems lessen as there is a smaller population Remittances home can improve quality of life

Negative effects:    

Husbands may not send money home (may just forget about family) Farming may be difficult for the elderly, the children, and the women. May eventually lead to underpopulation problems as all the young men leave. Destruction of traditional family structure.

Case Study: The urban renewal of Cardiff Bay, U.K. Causes: 

Previously, the docks at Cardiff were very busy- but after the construction of a railway in 1840, the docks declined, with the final dock slated to be closed in 1987. This is why the abandoned docks (a brownfield site) were transformed into a residential, manufacturing, and commercial development area. The coastal zone of South Wales had a very large range between high and low tides- at low tide, Cardiff Bay was a bay of mud which looked and smelled repulsive. Thus, a barrage was constructed to ensure that the water remained in the bay at all times.

Results: 

12 000 new jobs, 3 000 new houses, and a million square metres of office, factory, leisure, and social space.

1.3. Outward movement  1.3.1. Explain the processes of centrifugal movements (suburbanization, counterurbanisation, urban sprawl.) 1.3. Definitions: Counterurbanisation: The movement of a population away from inner urban areas to a new town, a new estate, a commuter town, or a village on the edge or just beyond the city limits/rural-urban fringe. Suburbanization: The outward growth of towns and cities to engulf surrounding villages and rural area. This may result from the outmigration of population from the inner urban area to the suburbs or from inward rural-urban movement. Urban sprawl: The unplanned and uncontrolled physical expansion of an urban area into the surrounding countryside. It is closely linked to the process of suburbanization. 1.3.1. Explaining centrifugal movements: Factors causing suburbanization:

   

The affordability of motor vehicles for normal people after WWII Cheapness of homes (due to lowered price of farmland) and lower interest compared to innercity areas Willingness of authorities to provide utilities such as electricity, water, etc. Expansion of public transport networks

Factors causing counter-urbanization: 

Push factors: o High land prices o Congestion o Pollution o High crime rate o A lack of community o Declining services Pull factors: o The perception that smaller settlements had:  A closer sense of community  Better environment  More safety

Factors causing urban sprawl: 

Suburbanization o Low-interest loans given by American government to families that built their own homes after WWII Lack of adequate city planning in the mid-1900s.

Case Study: Counter-urbanization to St. Ives from London: Factors drawing migrants:    

A “picturesque” town with Victorian and Georgian houses and links with Oliver Cromwell Close to the main East Coast railway line and a major highway, making access to London easy (although it is about 100 km north of London.) Worsening quality of life in London due to overpopulation and pollution (River Thames is very polluted, occasional smog) Better air quality

Effects:  

Increased development of rural farmland into housing developments Increase of both young commuters (in the town centre) and old retirees (in the more rural part of town)

   

A higher average income 25% of the St. Ives population commuting to work daily The railway line being revitalized, with journey times reduced greatly More medium- and high-order services than previously, such as designer clothes shops and antique dealers.

Case Study: Urban Sprawl in Houston: Factors causing the sprawl:     

State annexation laws that allowed the city to absorb surrounding areas Mechanisms that allow develops to create quasi-governmental authorities to finance far-reaching utility extensions The relative cheapness of building out rather than up Lack of physical barriers such as rivers, lakes, or mountains Lack of zoning laws

Effects:     

High levels of commuting (high levels of CO 2 emissions and other air pollution) More water use and a loss of wildlife More time used up driving from one place to another Inefficient transport system Increased risk of obesity (due to a higher reliance on vehicles.)

1.4. Natural change  1.4.1. Explain the contribution of natural change to patterns of population density within urban areas. 1.4. Definitions: Natural change: A change in population due to increasing or decreasing birth rates. 1.4.1. The contribution of natural change: Only a small part of urbanization is a result of natural increase. For example, the increase in population of Delhi, India’s capital city, is 75% because of rural-urban migration and only 25% by natural increase- and that natural increase is contributed to by the young people from rural areas migrating in. 1.5. The global megacity  1.5.1. Explain the global increase in the number and location of megacities (population over 10 million people) 1.5. Definitions: Megacity: A city with a population of over 10 million people.

1.5.1. Explaining the global increase: As NICs develop, more migrants are attracted from rural areas to cities, ballooning their populations. Furthermore, increased development means better qualities of life, which may allow for a lower infant mortality rate and a lower overall mortality rate, also increasing populations. Megacities are increasing because more and more NICs are developing, when before, it was only MDCs such as America and Japan that had them. Problems of megacities:       

Congestion Loss of farmland due to urban sprawl Disease easily spreads Slums and other makeshift housing due to a lack of housing Bad air quality Difficulty of implementing water and electricity infrastructure Unemployment and underemployment issues

2. Urban Land Use 2.1. Residential areas  2.1.1. Explain the location of residential areas in relation to wealth, ethnicity, and family status (stage in life cycle)  2.1.2. Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation (such as slums, squatter settlements, areas of low-cost housing and inner-city areas).  2.1.3. Examine the causes and effects of the movement of socioeconomic groups since the 1980s. 2.1. Definitions Shanty settlements: Makeshift dwellings erected without official permission, usually of makeshift materials such as cardboard, corrugated iron, plastic, and other such materials. 2.1.1. Explaining the location of residential areas: Wealth:

In older European cities, low-income families tend to live in the inner-city zone in smaller apartment building or townhouses, while high-income families live in the suburbs in large houses. However, if gentrification occurs low-income families may move to other areas. In newer North American and Australian cities, high-income families may live in expensive innercity apartments while low- income families live in the suburbs.

Ethnicity: 

Due to racial discrimination, people of non-white ethnicities in European and North American countries tended to be poorer than their white counterparts, leading to them living in lowincome areas. Alternately, even today, migrants may group together not due to a shared economic status, but due to a shared culture. o ex. Richmond, B.C. has a large population of Asian inhabitants, most notably Taiwanese, Chinese, and Hong Kongers. (It used to have a large Japanese population before WWII)

Family status: 

In general, for a middle-income child, they will live in a middle-income house, then move to a cheap rental when they set off on their own, move to a more expensive starter home if they get married, and may move a couple more times to more expensive homes should they have children before moving to a cheaper retirement home. The same process applies to low-income families, but they are more likely to move to cheaper homes.

2.1.2. Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation:


Hoyt model of city structures

The Burgess model of city structures

Areas of low-cost housing tend to lie in the middle of town, where the oldest and cheapest homes are found- unless these homes have undergone urban renewal. Alternately, they may be found by industrial areas or close to noisy transport areas such as an airport.

Slums tend to lie on the outskirts of town, where rural-to-urban migrants find themselves after migrating to the city. 78.2% of the urban population in LDCs are found in slums, representing 32% of the world’s total urban population. Slums are typically located in areas planners do not want, such as steep slopes, floodplains, and areas close to industrial complexes. People in slums find it difficult to come out due to discrimination against slum dwellers, the difficulty of finding a ‘proper’ job in the formal sector, the expenses of everyday life, among other reasons. Case Study: The shantytown of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya: Causes: 

The British government importing African migrant workers, then refusing to The shantytown Kibera, in Nairobi. It takes up an area of around 2.5 square kilometres. give them a place to live. The Kenyan government that followed decided to go with a laissez-faire attitude with Kibera, not providing the slum with any infrastructure but not destroying it either. Rural migrants also entered Kibera after coming to Nairobi.

Facts:      

  

Contains an estimated 150 000 to 250 000 residents. The average shanty size is 3.7 by 3.7 metres long and houses around eight people. They are made with mud walls screened with concrete at times, with a corrugated tin roof. The cost of renting a shanty is 700 Kenyan shillings a month Electricity access is 20% Sewage and waste is thrown into the Ngong River- which overflows into homes and footpaths in rainy seasons, spreading disease. (Some residents rely on the Ngong River for water supplies due to bad water infrastructure and expensive water kiosks). Very high disease rates Very low education rates (37% of school-age children were not going to school) Ethnic violence is common between different tribes (and there is no law enforcement due to police refusing to enter the shantytown)

Solutions: 

NGOs providing legal assistance clean drinking water, improved sanitation, health care, and education.

The government is not providing any legal, educational, or health services in Kibera. This means that it is dependent of the whims of foreign organizations.

2.1.3. The causes and effects of the movement of socio-economic groups: [Refer to Case Studies] 2.2. Areas of economic activity  2.2.1. Explain the spatial pattern of economic activity, the zoning or urban and suburban functions and the internal structure of the CBD.  2.2.2. Describe the informal sector: its characteristics and location in urban areas.  2.2.3. Examine the causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service, and manufacturing activities to new locations, including brownfield sites. 2.2. Definitions: Central Business District (CBD): The commercial and economic core of a city. Informal sector: The section of the economy that is not registered with the government, is not regulated and does not pay taxes. The informal sector is sometimes called the black market. Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI): The point with the highest land values in a city. 2.2.1. The spatial pattern of city sectors: Structure of the CBD:        

Concentration of department stores, chain stores, and specialist retail outlets. Banks of businesses Multi-storey development (extended vertical scale) Limited horizontal scale Concentrated day-time population High pedestrian density Low residential population May be some limited light manufacturing, derelict land, transport terminals, office areas, and specialist services around the core of the CBD.

CBDs may decline due to:     

Urban sprawl means it is difficult for many residents to go to the city centre Cost of development and upkeep is too high Too much congestion Investors and businesses are attracted to periphery sites that are cheaper and have similar access to markets As time passes, the CBD ages and is perceived as dirty and unsafe with poor infrastructure.

Consequences of CBD decline:

     

Change in functions (to more modern functions) Migration of town core Modernization of shopping functions (such as covered shopping areas) Transitional zone formed (where commercial activities overflow from the CBD) The emergence of specialized areas (ex. The entertainment district Soho in London) Urban renewal

The Bid-Rent Theory: The bid-rent theory theorizes that retailers are willing to pay the most for a key location near the CBD, while industrial and commercial are willing to pay less, and residential the least. As due to the principle of distance decay, the further land is from the PLVI, the cheaper it is, residential areas tend to be located far from the CBD while retailers tend to be found close to it. 2.2.2. The informal sector: The informal sector is typically around the CBD where there is street vending, as this is where pedestrian density is the greatest. Alternately, it may be found around residential areas, particularly within slum areas and squatter areas such as river embankments. Advantages: 

  

• Provides unskilled and semi-skilled migrants, with informal, temporary but intermediate work as no qualifications or training is typically required in the informal sector. + Unregulated Working Hours. • The informal economy makes a significantly large contribution to the urban wealth of city; for instance it was the basis of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century throughout Europe. • Handmade products from raw materials sold to tourists help preserve the culture and traditions. • Informal businesses can be setup as opposed to setting up a formal business which is proven to be difficult with large costs and delays; informal businesses help provide a way out of poverty for the poor population as people get employed and don't have to pay tax.

Disadvantages:  

• Crime, prostitution, drugs, smuggling, protests and riots are all reoccurring problems which exist within the local sectors due to little legal civilian and job protection. • Therefore the security of the residents living with the informal sector is often compromised and concerning; it turns away potential visitors such as tourists and has a bad impact on the city's image. • Informally run businesses have little or no legal aid or protection from political issues and incidents, which are likely to occur in the informal sector; furthermore the lack of legal property ownership limits access to credit. • Workers within the informal economy are occasionally exposed to health and safety risks.

 

• Additionally workers are also deprived of rights and benefits associated with law and regulations. • Laws and rules are often not followed through by the workers - because they cannot afford to and/or they have no choice; an example is the lack of protective clothing and adequate instruction, which causes contamination by toxic chemicals and heavy metals, found in solvents and recycled waste.

2.2.3. The causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service, and manufacturing activities to new locations, including brownfield sites Retailing:   

1970s: Decentralization of food shops 1980s: Decentralization of furniture shops. Development of large out-of town regional shopping centres. The decline of the CBD. 1990s: The revival of the CBD through the development of large-scale retailing centres in or near the CBD. Convenience stores in the outer urban area.

Causes:  

The rising prices of the CBD The greater mobility of the population

Manufacturing: Causes of abandonment:       

1. Comparatively large size 2. Time or service factor unimportant 3. Large ground area per person required 4. Nuisance features (odours, noise, fire hazard etc.) 5. Specialised buildings required 6. Serious problem of waste disposal 7. Large quantities of fuel and / or water required

Causes of staying:        

1. Time or service factor as important element 2. Specialised, highly skilled work 3. Small size 4. Obsolete buildings suitable 5. Close contact with market required 6. Style factor important 7. Established transport network (rail,ship) 8. Inertia

Manufacturing areas that leave are typically re-occupied by services which have a higher return per net area.

3. Urban stress 3.1. Urban microclimate  3.1.1. Explain the effects of structures and human activity on urban microclimates, including the urban heat island effect and air pollution 3.1. Definitions: Urban heat island: The phenomenon where urban areas tend to be hotter than the surrounding countryside by 2-4oC. 3.1.1. The effects of structures and human activity on urban microclimates: Radiation and sunshine: 

Radiation and sunshine is diffused through reflection off of buildings and scattering due to air pollution, causing reduced visibility.

Clouds and fogs: 

Due to increased air pollution and increased convention (Urban Heat Island), summer sees thicker cloud covers and winter sees radiation fogs or smogs.

Pressure and winds: 

Turbulence and gusting around tall buildings creates strong local pressure. Deep, narrow streets are calmer unless aligned with prevailing winds to funnel. Typically lower wind speeds due to urban roughness and building heights.

Humidity: 

Due to higher temperatures and less moisture, humidity is low.

Precipitation: 

More intense storms, due to greater instability and greater convection.

Urban heat island:  

Lower wind speeds Urban pollution trapping radiant energy

  

Fossil fuel burning releases heat Buildings have low albedo and high emissivity Heat diffusion is lessened due to airflow changes

Case Study: The Urban Microclimate of Houston, Texas Urban heat island effect:  

Has increased by 0.8oC since 1985 to 2014 Has dimensions of approximately 4 000 km 2 and has increased by 650 km 2 since 1985 thanks to urban sprawl

Pollution:    

Houston is one of America’s most polluted cities Coal power plant releases toxic mercury Violates air quality standard for ozone and thus is very smoggy This is due to urban sprawl (and partially because of the coal plant), which increases commuting distance and thus pollution greatly.

Wind speeds:  

The release of heat from the pavement results in weaker convection and thus weaker offshore breezes. This contributes to air pollution, as it takes longer for the pollution to be blown away. o An attempted solution is the installation Grasspave, a porous paving material- however, its coverage is very, very, small as of 2014.

Precipitation:  

Precipitation levels have increased since the 1970s. It is hypothesized that the effect of the urban heat island on convection in the air cause this anomaly, but it is not certain.

3.2. Other types of environmental and social stress  3.2.1. Examine the other symptoms of urban stress including congestion, overcrowding and noise, depletion of green space, waste overburden, poor quality housing, social deprivation, crime, and inequality. 3.2.1. Symptoms of urban stress: Congestion: In MEDCs:

       

Increased number of motor vehicles Increase dependence on cars as public transport declines Major concentration of economic activities in CBDs Inadequate provision of roads and parking Frequent roadworks Roads overwhelmed by sheer volume of traffic Urban sprawl, resulting in low-density built-up areas and increasingly long journeys to work Developing of out-of-town retail and employment, leading to cross-city commuting.

In LEDCs:        

Lower private car ownership Less dependence on the car, but growing Many cars are poorly maintained and are high polluters Growing centralization and development of CBBDs, increasing traffic in urban areas Heavily reliance on affordable public transport Shorter journeys, but getting longer Rapid growth, resulting in enormous urban sprawl and long journeys Emergence of out-of-town development due to economic development

Case Study: Congestion in Nairobi, Kenya:  

Has proper road capacity of one third of its 3.1 million population Economic effects: o Traffic jams cost the country $578 000 US a day due to lost productivity o Fuel costs are higher for commuters (and the poorest live in the outskirts, meaning they must pay even more) o Businesses lose out as people do not want to travel as much o Kenyans may lose their jobs due to being late o Due to corruption, foreign aid given to address this problem as the congestion is seen as normal, if irritating. Social effects: o Lack of communication due to lost time may lead to a loss of power of wives and children o Stress and anger is aggravated by congestion, which can lead to domestic violence o Physical health effects such as organ dysfunction may be caused by stress o Crime is facilitated by congestion, as it’s simpler for thieves to escape unspotted (and those desperate to get the work will let thieves escape as they cannot risk leaving their vehicle). Environmental effects: o Heavy air pollution (Air pollution index of 62.50)  also caused by industrial factories, but contributed to by the congestion o When roads are widened and newly constructed, the amount of green space is lowered

Noise: Noise pollution typically arises from airports, train stations, and some factories. While this is troublesome for new inhabitants, typically people grow used to the noise pollution within a month so long as it is not too loud. As well, noise pollution can help create low-income housing which is otherwise in a nice area. Depletion of green space: This is bad for the environment. However, it is also bad socially, as parks are a good meeting place and help keep the spirits of urban residents up. Case Study: Green Space in Singapore  

Singapore’s total area is 712 km 2 mean that alternative energy sources are difficult to implement. Still, it has attempted to at least increase its green spaces and become a City in a Garden. o Economic benefits include boosted appeal to foreign businesses and increased liveability attracting tax-payers o There are 1.4 million roadside trees and the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve makes up one of two primary rainforests in the world located within city limits. o Park connectors are used to connect residential areas to parks and nature sites The CEO of the National Parks Board says that community involvement is also a major part of the City in a Garden vision.

Waste overburden: An example would be Kibera, Nairobi- due to a lack of waste-collecting infrastructure, the waste builds up in the Ngong River, spreading disease. Poor quality housing: This occurs due to:    

A lack of quality in the housing A lack in the quantity of housing A lack of affordability in housing A lack of housing tenure

It can lead to many social issues described in the Kibera case study. Social deprivation, crime and inequality: Marginalized groups tend to be poorer, leading them to a life of crime. Unemployed and uneducated people also tend to turn to crime with no other choices. Men tend to be more likely to turn to

crime than women in many LDCs, likely because women tend to have less physical power than men and are culturally indoctrinated to believe themselves lesser. Some sly examples of inequality are the fact that schools in the US receive funding from the property taxes in the area and stereotyping. Overcrowding: Overcrowding can lead to many of the aforementioned problems.

4. The Sustainable City 4.1. The City as a System  4.1.1. Describe the city as a system in terms of: o Inputs (energy, water, people, material, products, food) o Outputs (solid, atmospheric, and liquid waste, noise, people)  4.1.2. Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled and an unsustainable (open/linear city system) with uncontrolled inputs and outputs. 4.1.1. Describing the city: Cities take in inputs and spew out outputs. Outputs may be reused and recycled as inputs. 4.1.2. Sustainable vs. Unsustainable Cities: Circular metabolism cities minimize new inputs and maximize recycling. Linear metabolism cities consume and pollute at a high rate. Methods to improve sustainability include:       

Reducing the use of fossil fuels by promoting public transport Keeping waste production to locally treatable levels Providing green spaces Reusing and reclaiming brownfield sites Encouraging community involvement Conserving non-renewable resources Using renewable resources.

4.2. Case Studies  4.2.1. Referring to at least two city case studies, discuss the concepts of: o Sustainable city management o The urban ecological footprint

Case Study: Curitiba, the Sustainable City:   

Curitiba grew from 150 000 people in the 1950s to 1.8 million in 2013. It initially suffered from problems such as mass unemployment, transport congestion, the lack of basic services and uncontrolled slum growth. The redesigning of Curitiba dealt with those mistakes.

Redesigning: 

In the 1960s, the mayor involved the people in a competition for a Curitiba master plan and discussed the best entries with everyone. Architects took the best plan and adjusted it to make it viable, while keeping in mind the wants of the people.

Sustainable developments: 

Transport o Radial arterial roads with express lanes for express buses and normal lanes for local buses and cars o Cheap buses used instead of subway o Only one ticket is necessary for a journey no matter how many times they change buses  It used to be based on distance, but it was changed after it was realized it disadvantaged low-income families who lived on the outskirts of town. o 75% of commuters use public transportation: there is now 25% less congestion and 30% less fuel consumption compared to other cities. o Each bus holds up to 270 people o Tube-like bus station (seen to the right) maximizes efficiency Land use and public services o All income ranges have easy access to public transport o Citizenship streets are built along arterial roads close to heavily used bus terminals, offering access to public utilities

Environmental Cleanup Programme: 90% of Curitibans have access to sewage systems and 100% have access to clean drinking water o Lighthouses of Knowledge provide access to books and the Internet and the staff work in collaboration with the schools. At the top is a police officer, which improves security in residential areas (as they are placed in residential areas). o Special centres to feed street children. o Pedestrianized shopping streets have increased profits and reduce traffic. Recycling o Thanks to children learning about it in school, parents were convinced to recycle. o Recycling plants employ recovering alcoholics and homeless people o Styrofoam is shredded to stuff quilts for the poor o In favelas, in exchange for sorting their rubbish, they receive basic food (that the city buys from local farmers) o It costs no more than landfill and improves public health, creates jobs, and improves nutrition o 20% of waste is diverted and 70% of households take part Green space o 1.5 million trees have been planted o 54 m2 per resident (recommended is 16 m2 per resident :D) Economic sustainability o An Industrial City 10 km west-south-west of the city is located in an area that blows pollution away from the city and protects local water sources o Housing units were built in the area so workers could cycle. o Provides 200 000 direct and indirect jobs 

 

Case Study: Chengdu, the (Un)sustainable City: 

Chengdu has undergone great urban growth in the past few decades: o 1950s, early 1960s: Industrialization due to governmental policies o 1960s and 1970s: Urban growth restricted by preventing people from moving from rural to urban or vice versa o 1980s onwards: Rapid and accelerating urban growth. 1979 economic reforms created  employment opportunities  surplus rural labour  Relaxations in the hukou system, allowing for migration  Boundary changes o Administrative boundary changes make up 40% of the urban growth in the past fifty years. Housing sustainability: o Issues:  Lack of housing  High-rise development overshadowing old housing  Overcrowded six, seven-storey housing made in the 1950s and 1960s  Many houses with no piped water and sanitation are in the inner city area

o Solutions:  Up-market housing is increasing as well as high-rise apartment blocks  Renting is a solution now  Low-cost rooms and flats have been produced Employment sustainability: o Issues:  Rising unemployment  The closure of many “inefficient” factories  Rural-to-urban migration after the relaxation of hukou  Poverty is an issue as increasing affluence raises the threshold level for living standards  Female urban workers are clashing with rural migrants in the informal sector o Solutions:  Services and construction work = important migrant jobs  High tech industrial development  Creates many jobs for highly educated Chinese but not migrants Transport sustainability: o Issues:  Car ownership is increasing  Separating housing from employment requires commuting  Leisure-related travel up  Cyclists and moterized traffic conflict  Air and noise pollution up  Public transport is lacking o Solutions:  Radial pattern of rings helps to easily connect different areas of the city  Wide multi-line principal roads with bicycling lanes  Expressways out of city  Metro and light rail system planned Environmental sustainability: o Issues:  Pollution in nearby Fu and Nan rivers  Air pollution o Solutions:  Lining roads with trees  Rehabilitation project of Fu and Nan rivers  Riverside upgrading by removing slum housing and adding green space  Relocated displaced residents and businesses to fancy new buildings  Flood control (before, there was flooding once every 10 years)  Improved water quality with sewers and wastewater outlets blocked unless passing through water treatment plant

Encouraged to switch from low-quality charcoal briquettes to electricity and solar panels. Urban ecological footprint is still fairly large as environmental sustainability is not at the forefront of Chinese developer’s minds 

4.3. Sustainable strategies  4.3.1. Evaluate one case study of each of the following: o One socially sustainable housing management strategy o One environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy o One strategy to control rapid city growth resulting from immigration Case Study: Kibera Housing Management Strategy:    

600 apartments in 17 nearby buildings Rent $10 US/month for one room Nine years to rehouse all slum residents Planned to have all the infrastructure cities have- green spaces, schools, waste management, markets, sewage systems etc. o Economically sustainable:  Children receive education, which helps them break out the cycle of poverty.  Provides jobs (for construction and upkeep) to slum residents o Environmentally sustainable:  Reduces heavy pollution in Kibera  Green spaces produce oxygen and lower pollution-producing buildings o Socially sustainable:  Gets rid of the “eyesore” of Kibera  Provides basic services to slum dwellers However: o Economically unsustainable:  Cost the Kenyan government 3.4 trillion Ksh but only 5 000 people have been relocated (cough corruption cough)  Slum-dwellers make $2/day on average, and much is in the form of goods and food- apartments are unaffordable  Informal sector employees find it difficult to find jobs in the organized nature of the apartments  Middle-class Nairobians aren’t banned from renting the apartments, meaning that college students are living in them instead. o Environmentally unsustainable:  Giving the 150 000- 200 000 people in the slums access to sewage, water, and waste infrastructure will cause a huge strain, simply in areas outside of Kibera. o Socially unsustainable:

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Only men are slotted to receive permanent housing- not women. 20% of the people in a zone refused to relocate, making it impossible for the government to destroy the slums to make new buildings

Case Study: The Wadi Hanifah valley of Saudi Arabia   

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For years, the Wadi Hanifah valley was a rubbish dump and a public health hazard, treated as an open sewer. Seasonal flooding also swept pollutants into residential neighbourhoods and left stagnant water, spreading disease. Since 2001, the area has been imporved: o Clearing rubbish o Grading the banks o Landscaping and replanting native flora o A facility that transforms urban run-off into water clean enough for irrigation and fishing through bioremediation- natural processes to repair environmental damage.  A linked series of wetland habitats uses natural oxygenation to remove harmful bacteria and other pollutants without human intervention It has also brought gentrification to previously unfashionable neighbourhoods along the coast However, there was no public consultation, and $1.5 billion US was sunk into a scheme when 1/3 of households are unconnected to mainline sewage. It is also bringing social change, as people of all ethnicities and locales mix with impunity- women are unveiling, for example.

Case Study: Bath’s Population Management Strategy 

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Bath is a city in southwest England. Due to its historic attraction such as Roman baths and Georgian architecture, it attracts nearly 4 million visitors each year, leading to much in-migration (and stress on transport due to tourists). It is also surrounded by a green belt, which restricts urban sprawl. Thus, it needs to safeguard land for industrial development (due to its reliance on the fickle tourist industry) while producing more housing. Strategies include:  Rejuvenating neglected inner-city areas such as the Western Riverside  High-density residential areas integrated with leisure and industrial sites, reached by a light rapid transit system (are planned)  Adjusting green belt boundaries to allow a bit more urban sprawl o However, these strategies bring the risk of creating exclusive suburbs where wealthy people live and work, and if even more people are attracted by the new area, the problem will only worsen.

As it located on a bend of the River Avon, there are limited crossing points into the city centre, leading to traffic bottlenecks. Air pollution levels are horrible at the London Road bottleneck, for example.  Steep hills discourage walking and cycling- 48% of workers commute by car.  However, Bath has succeeded in implementing “park and ride” schemes that allow commuters to park their cars at designated lots then take the transit.  That being said, Bath has not succeeded (socially) in implementing a ‘bus gate’ scheme which would prevent private traffic from entering certain roads to the city centre, due to businesses complaining about losing business and the increased congestion caused at the city edges.  As well, the buses contribute to air pollution so they need to be revampedperhaps buses that use bio-diesel or by using electric trams. o Only 28% of Bath’s waste was recycled- population increases, waste will increase, leading to problems. 

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