# IB Biology - Ecology & Evolution - Tree Density IA

July 29, 2017 | Author: jctung | Category: Quantitative Research, Uncertainty, Data, Standard Deviation, Accuracy And Precision

#### Short Description

Descripción: This is an example of Biology Internal Assessment for the International Baccalaureate Diploma. This only th...

#### Description

Internal Assessment Coversheet and Self-Assessment Student Name: Jessie Tung Jhy Chi

SL/HL

Session: Candidate Number:

May 2012

Investigation title:

Syllabus topic(s): Teacher’s Instructions and help given:

Candidate declaration: “I confirm that this work is my own work and is the final version. I have acknowledged each use of the words or ideas of another person, whether written, oral or visual.” Signed:

Date: Type your name on the line above.

Teacher’s Feedback: Design

Data Collection and Processing

Conclusion and Evaluation

Table 1 show the distance of young trees from the initial position in each quadrant highlighted data refers to the ones collected by us

Set 1

2.70

3.30

2.60

8.76

Set 2

2.88

4.73

6.40

1.31

Set 3

5.29

2.11

6.60

3.67

Set 4

2.60

5.15

3.49

2.68

Set 5

8.91

3.10

6.30

7.15

Set 6

8.40

4.89

12.67

6.12

Set 7

1.33

2.28

1.07

1.38

Set 8

1.33

2.67

3.46

3.10

Set 9

3.48

1.40

1.96

1.84

Set 10

5.10

2.16

2.00

1.63

Set 11

2.24

1.90

1.55

4.03

Set 12

1.17

3.17

1.92

3.48

Set 13

4.10

4.32

2.12

5.05

Set 14

1.62

4.55

5.20

4.90

Set 15

2.14

3.47

3.44

7.86

Set 16

1.76

4.58

4.59

7.15

Set 17

4.00

2.42

1.47

1.37

Set 18

1.05

5.05

1.51

2.54

Set 19

1.79

4.21

3.69

3.22

Set 20

1.07

2.39

5.19

1.21

Set 21

5.29

2.11

6.60

3.67

Set 22

2.60

5.15

3.49

2.68

Set 23

8.91

3.10

6.30

7.15

Set 24

8.40

4.89

12.67

6.12

Set 25

2.64

4.16

4.08

4.39

Set 26

2.72

4.07

1.87

4.87

Table 2 shows calculation of the area of young forest. Area / m2 Quadrant 1

Set 1

7.29

10.89

6.76

76.74

Set 2

8.29

22.37

40.96

1.72

Set 3

27.98

4.45

43.56

13.47

Set 4

6.76

26.52

12.18

7.18

Set 5

79.39

9.61

39.69

51.12

Set 6

70.56

23.91

160.53

37.45

Set 7

1.77

5.20

1.14

1.90

Set 8

1.77

7.13

11.97

9.61

Set 9

12.11

1.96

3.84

3.39

Set 10

26.01

4.67

4.00

2.66

Set 11

5.02

3.61

2.40

16.24

Set 12

1.37

10.05

3.69

12.11

Set 13

16.81

18.66

4.49

25.50

Set 14

2.62

20.70

27.04

24.01

Set 15

4.58

12.04

11.83

61.78

Set 16

3.10

20.98

21.07

51.12

Set 17

16.00

5.86

2.16

1.88

Set 18

1.10

25.50

2.28

6.45

Set 19

3.20

17.72

13.62

10.37

Set 20

1.14

5.71

26.94

1.46

Set 21

27.98

4.45

43.56

13.47

Set 22

6.76

26.52

12.18

7.18

Set 23

79.39

9.61

39.69

51.12

Set 24

70.56

23.91

160.53

37.45

Set 25

6.97

17.31

16.65

19.27

Set 26

7.40

16.56

3.50

23.72

Table 3 shows the calculation of percentage error of trees in young forest Percentage Error/± % Quadrant 1

Set 1

0.27

0.33

0.26

0.88

Set 2

0.29

0.47

0.64

0.13

Set 3

0.53

0.21

0.66

0.37

Set 4

0.26

0.52

0.35

0.27

Set 5

0.89

0.31

0.63

0.72

Set 6

0.84

0.49

1.27

0.61

Set 7

0.13

0.23

0.11

0.14

Set 8

0.13

0.27

0.35

0.31

Set 9

0.35

0.14

0.20

0.18

Set 10

0.51

0.22

0.20

0.16

Set 11

0.22

0.19

0.16

0.40

Set 12

0.12

0.32

0.19

0.35

Set 13

0.41

0.43

0.21

0.51

Set 14

0.16

0.46

0.52

0.49

Set 15

0.21

0.35

0.34

0.79

Set 16

0.18

0.46

0.46

0.72

Set 17

0.40

0.24

0.15

0.14

Set 18

0.11

0.51

0.15

0.25

Set 19

0.18

0.42

0.37

0.32

Set 20

0.11

0.24

0.52

0.12

Set 21

0.53

0.21

0.66

0.37

Set 22

0.26

0.52

0.35

0.27

Set 23

0.89

0.31

0.63

0.72

Set 24

0.84

0.49

1.27

0.61

Set 25

0.26

0.42

0.41

0.44

Set 26

0.27

0.41

0.19

0.49

Table 4 shows the calculation of the absolute uncertainty of the area of trees in young forest

Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Set 4 Set 5 Set 6 Set 7 Set 8 Set 9 Set 10 Set 11 Set 12 Set 13 Set 14 Set 15 Set 16 Set 17 Set 18 Set 19 Set 20 Set 21 Set 22 Set 23 Set 24 Set 25 Set 26

Absolute Uncertainty of Area/± m2 Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2 Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4 1.97 3.59 1.76 67.22 2.39 10.58 26.21 0.22 14.80 0.94 28.75 4.94 1.76 13.66 4.25 1.92 70.73 2.98 25.00 36.55 59.27 11.69 203.39 22.92 0.24 1.19 0.12 0.26 0.24 1.90 4.14 2.98 4.21 0.27 0.75 0.62 13.27 1.01 0.80 0.43 1.12 0.69 0.37 6.55 0.16 3.19 0.71 4.21 6.89 8.06 0.95 12.88 0.43 9.42 14.06 11.76 0.98 4.18 4.07 48.56 0.55 9.61 9.67 36.55 6.40 1.42 0.32 0.26 0.12 12.88 0.34 1.64 0.57 7.46 5.02 3.34 0.12 1.37 13.98 0.18 14.80 0.94 28.75 4.94 1.76 13.66 4.25 1.92 70.73 2.98 25.00 36.55 59.27 11.69 203.39 22.92 1.84 7.20 6.79 8.46 2.01 6.74 0.65 11.55

Table 5 shows the calculation of density, total area and standard deviation of young forest Total Area/m2

2136.50

Standard Deviation

30.93

Density /m2

27.07

Table 6 shows the distance of old trees from the initial position in each quadrant and highlighted data refers to the ones collected by us Distance/ m (±0.02 m) Quadrant 1

Set 1

1.30

5.60

5.12

1.50

Set 2

1.58

3.26

3.43

2.88

Set 3

7.86

3.04

1.97

3.73

Set 4

1.14

2.95

3.37

2.81

Set 5

1.42

7.00

8.33

2.69

Set 6

6.18

8.40

1.16

12.88

Set 7

1.42

2.11

1.12

3.41

Set 8

2.14

4.51

6.78

2.05

Set 9

5.50

9.20

9.40

3.34

Set 10

8.00

1.05

5.10

3.25

Set 11

4.27

2.01

2.63

3.03

Set 12

1.78

1.93

9.20

5.20

Set 13

4.00

2.12

4.60

1.13

Set 14

4.50

3.44

2.23

1.89

Set 15

2.50

1.22

1.93

1.02

Set 16

4.51

3.76

3.59

4.45

Set 17

1.56

2.26

4.30

1.44

Set 18

2.30

2.10

7.00

2.08

Set 19

2.69

4.10

7.40

5.89

Set 20

1.89

2.58

2.25

3.73

Set 21

7.86

3.04

1.97

3.73

Set 22

1.14

2.95

3.37

2.82

Set 23

2.97

3.72

2.20

6.40

Set 24

7.43

6.21

1.82

9.57

Set 25

2.75

6.60

3.56

2.80

Set 26

4.42

3.60

4.50

4.62

Table 7 shows calculation of the area of old forest. Area / m2 Quadrant 1

Set 1

1.69

31.36

26.21

2.25

Set 2

2.50

10.63

11.76

8.29

Set 3

61.78

9.24

3.88

13.91

Set 4

1.30

8.70

11.36

7.90

Set 5

2.02

49.00

69.39

7.24

Set 6

38.19

70.56

1.35

165.89

Set 7

2.02

4.45

1.25

11.63

Set 8

4.58

20.34

45.97

4.20

Set 9

30.25

84.64

88.36

11.16

Set 10

64.00

1.10

26.01

10.56

Set 11

18.23

4.04

6.92

9.18

Set 12

3.17

3.72

84.64

27.04

Set 13

16.00

4.49

21.16

1.28

Set 14

20.25

11.83

4.97

3.57

Set 15

6.25

1.49

3.72

1.04

Set 16

20.34

14.14

12.89

19.80

Set 17

2.43

5.11

18.49

2.07

Set 18

5.29

4.41

49.00

4.33

Set 19

7.24

16.81

54.76

34.69

Set 20

3.57

6.66

5.06

13.91

Set 21

61.78

9.24

3.88

13.91

Set 22

1.30

8.70

11.36

7.95

Set 23

8.82

13.84

4.84

40.96

Set 24

55.20

38.56

3.31

91.58

Set 25

7.56

43.56

12.67

7.84

Set 26

19.54

12.96

20.25

21.34

Table 8 shows the calculation of percentage error of trees in old forest Percentage Error/± % Quadrant 1

Set 1

0.13

0.56

0.51

0.15

Set 2

0.16

0.33

0.34

0.29

Set 3

0.79

0.30

0.20

0.37

Set 4

0.11

0.30

0.34

0.28

Set 5

0.14

0.70

0.83

0.27

Set 6

0.62

0.84

0.12

1.29

Set 7

0.14

0.21

0.11

0.34

Set 8

0.21

0.45

0.68

0.21

Set 9

0.55

0.92

0.94

0.33

Set 10

0.80

0.11

0.51

0.33

Set 11

0.43

0.20

0.26

0.30

Set 12

0.18

0.19

0.92

0.52

Set 13

0.40

0.21

0.46

0.11

Set 14

0.45

0.34

0.22

0.19

Set 15

0.25

0.12

0.19

0.10

Set 16

0.45

0.38

0.36

0.45

Set 17

0.16

0.23

0.43

0.14

Set 18

0.23

0.21

0.70

0.21

Set 19

0.27

0.41

0.74

0.59

Set 20

0.19

0.26

0.23

0.37

Set 21

0.79

0.30

0.20

0.37

Set 22

0.11

0.30

0.34

0.28

Set 23

0.30

0.37

0.22

0.64

Set 24

0.74

0.62

0.18

0.96

Set 25

0.28

0.66

0.36

0.28

Set 26

0.44

0.36

0.45

0.46

Table 9 shows the calculation of the absolute uncertainty of the area of trees in old forest

Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Set 4 Set 5 Set 6 Set 7 Set 8 Set 9 Set 10 Set 11 Set 12 Set 13 Set 14 Set 15 Set 16 Set 17 Set 18 Set 19 Set 20 Set 21 Set 22 Set 23 Set 24 Set 25 Set 26

Absolute Uncertainty of Area/± m2 Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2 Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4 0.22 17.56 13.42 0.34 0.39 3.46 4.04 2.39 48.56 2.81 0.76 5.19 0.15 2.57 3.83 2.22 0.29 34.30 57.80 1.95 23.60 59.27 0.16 213.67 0.29 0.94 0.14 3.97 0.98 9.17 31.17 0.86 16.64 77.87 83.06 3.73 51.20 0.12 13.27 3.43 7.79 0.81 1.82 2.78 0.56 0.72 77.87 14.06 6.40 0.95 9.73 0.14 9.11 4.07 1.11 0.68 1.56 0.18 0.72 0.11 9.17 5.32 4.63 8.81 0.38 1.15 7.95 0.30 1.22 0.93 34.30 0.90 1.95 6.89 40.52 20.43 0.68 1.72 1.14 5.19 48.56 2.81 0.76 5.19 0.15 2.57 3.83 2.24 2.62 5.15 1.06 26.21 41.02 23.95 0.60 87.65 2.08 28.75 4.51 2.20 8.64 4.67 9.11 9.86

Table 10 shows the calculation of density, total area and standard deviation of old forest

Total area/m2

2101.91

Standard Deviation

26.11

Density/m2

20.21

Graph 1 shows the density of trees in both forest with their standard deviation. 50 40 Tree Density/m2

30 20 10 0

20.54 Young Forest

20.21 Old Forest

-10

Qualitative Data Young forest: -

It was located on a steeper part of the forest The trees were not cut down It’s trunk is bigger than the human wrist There were more wild grasses surrounding the trees

Old forest: -

We considered it as a tree when its diameter of the trunk is bigger than a human wrist The trees were cut down It was located on a flatter surface of the forest

Sample Data processing -

To get the area, Microsoft Excel power of 2 function is used. o For example : =Power(I3,2) To get the percentage error, this formula is used “=((0.05/E5))*2*L6” , E5 being the initial distance and L6 being the area resulting from the squared of the initial distance To get absolute uncertainty, each area is multiplied with their respective percentage error. To get the total area, the SUM formula is used in Microsoft Excel o For example : =SUM(Y12:AB12) To get the standard deviation, the STDEV formula is used in Microsoft Excel o For example : =STDEV(I3:L28) To get the density, total area is divided by the total amount of trees, which is 104.

Data Collection and Processing

A S P E C T

Complete / 2

Partial / 1

Not at all / 0

Recording raw data

Records appropriate quantitative data and associated qualitative raw data, including units and uncertainties where relevant.

Records appropriate quantitative and associated qualitative raw data, but with some mistakes or omissions.

Does not record any appropriate quantitative raw data OR raw data is incomprehensible.

Processing raw data

Processes the quantitative raw data correctly.

Processes quantitative raw data, but with some mistakes and/ or omissions.

No processing of raw data is carried out OR major mistakes are made in processing.

Presenting processed data

Presents processed data appropriately and, where relevant, includes errors and uncertainties.

Presents processed data appropriately, but with some mistakes and/or omissions.

Presents processed data inappropriately OR incomprehensibly.

-

Aspect 1: Recording Raw Data DCP1.1

DCP1.3

Most labs provide opportunities for Associated qualitative data (observations). Units of IV and DV present and correct. Absent or incorrect leads to zero awarded. Uncertainties correct (± __ )

DCP1.4

All data are recorded correctly and honestly

Data Collection and Processing

DCP1.2

DCP1.5

Decimal points consistent throughout

DCP1.6

Decimal points consistent with precision of

DCP1.7

the measuring equipment Raw data clearly distinguished from processed data (possibly separate table)

Aspect 2: Processing Raw Data DCP2.1

Calculations to determine DV carried out, if necessary

DCP2.5

Standard deviations included where appropriate, to appropriate decimal places

DCP2.2

Calculations or statistical tests appropriate to investigation and address RQ

DCP2.6

Uncertainties adjusted/removed to reflect any calculations carried out.

DCP2.3

Mathematics correctly applied

DCP2.7

Processed data (and decimal places) consistent with precision of recorded data

DCP2.4

Formula (or excel equivalent) stated. Better worked examples given.

Aspect 3: Presenting Processed Data DCP3.1 DCP3.2

Titles self-explanatory and complete Consistent decimal places

DCP3.7 DCP3.8

DCP3.3

Uncertainties/ errors included

DCP3.9

DCP3.4 DCP3.5

Appropriate choice of graph Axes labeled clearly, including metric/ SI units and uncertainties of values

DCP3.10 DCP3.11

DCP3.6

Axes scaled appropriately

DCP3.12

Error bars included, unless insignificant Error bar source (e.g. standard deviation) stated and s.d. data are correct Appropriate best-fit curve should be present unless comparing means Tables & graphs do not break across pages Effective use of space leads to clarity of presentation Graphs clear, colouring appropriate