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MEANING OF HUMAN RIGHTS

Human beings are born equal in dignity and rights. These are moral claims which are inalienable and inherent in all individuals by virtue of their humanity alone, alone, irresp irrespec ecve ve of caste caste,, colour colour,, creed creed,, and place place of birth, birth, sex, sex, cultur cultural al di dieren erence ce or any any othe otherr cons consid ider era aon. on. Thes These e clai claims ms are are arc arcula ulate ted d and and formu ormula late ted d in what what is toda today y know known n as huma human n righ rights ts.. Huma Human n righ rights ts are are somemes somemes referre referred d to as fundamen fundamental tal rights, rights, basic rights, inherent inherent rights, rights, natural rights and birth rights.

DEFINITION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

r. !usce urga as "asu de#nes $Human rights are those minimal rights, which every individual must have against the %tate, or other public authority, by virt virtue ue of his his bein being g a &mem &membe berr of huma human n famil amily' y' irr irrespe espec cv ve of any any consider consideraon aon.. urga urga as "asu's "asu's de#nion brings brings out the essence essence of human rights. The (niversal eclaraon of Human )ights *(H)+, -/, de#nes human rights as $rights derived from the inherent dignity of the human person.0 Human righ rights ts when when they they are are guar guaran ante teed ed by a wri1 wri1en en cons const tu uon on are are know known n as $2undamental $2undamental )ights0 because a wri1en constuon is the fundamental fundamental law of  the state.

CHARACTERISTICS AND NATURE OF HUMAN RIGHTS

2ollowing are the characteriscs of human rights3

1. Human Rights are Inalienable  4 Human rights are conferred on an individual

due to the very nature of his existence. They are inherent in all individuals irrespecve of their caste, creed, religion, sex and naonality. Human rights are conferred to an individual even a5er his death. The dierent rituals in dierent religions bear tesmony to this fact. . Human Rights are Essen!al an" Ne#essar$ 4 6n the absence of human rights,

the moral, physical, social and spiritual welfare of an individual is impossible. Human rights are also essenal as they provide suitable condions for material and moral upli5ment of the people. %. Human Rights are in #&nne#!&n 'ith human "ignit$ (   To treat another

individual with dignity irrespecve of the fact that the person is a male or female, rich or poor etc. is concerned with human dignity. 2or eg. 6n --7, 6ndia has enacted a law that forbids the pracce of carrying human excreta. This law is called 8mployment of 9anual %cavengers and ry :atrines *;rohibion+ which sll has to be [email protected] in various sociees. 6ndia itself is an example where women, children, dalits, bonded labourers, etc, is trying hard to be a part of  mainstream. 6nspite of all these, the world [email protected] the (.=.Aharter of -B which states that human rights are inalienable aspect of mankind. The origin of  human rights may be traced to the theory of =atural )ights derived from the concept of =atural :aw, as propounded by ancient Creek %toic ;hilosophers and further developed by Thomas Hobbes and !ohn :ocke. The
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