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Human beings are born equal in dignity and rights. These are moral claims which are inalienable and inherent in all individuals by virtue of their humanity alone, alone, irresp irrespec ecve ve of caste caste,, colour colour,, creed creed,, and place place of birth, birth, sex, sex, cultur cultural al di dieren erence ce or any any othe otherr cons consid ider era aon. on. Thes These e clai claims ms are are arc arcula ulate ted d and and formu ormula late ted d in what what is toda today y know known n as huma human n righ rights ts.. Huma Human n righ rights ts are are somemes somemes referre referred d to as fundamen fundamental tal rights, rights, basic rights, inherent inherent rights, rights, natural rights and birth rights.


r. !usce urga as "asu de#nes $Human rights are those minimal rights, which every individual must have against the %tate, or other public authority, by virt virtue ue of his his bein being g a &mem &membe berr of huma human n famil amily' y' irr irrespe espec cv ve of any any consider consideraon aon.. urga urga as "asu's "asu's de#nion brings brings out the essence essence of human rights. The (niversal eclaraon of Human )ights *(H)+, -/, de#nes human rights as $rights derived from the inherent dignity of the human person.0 Human righ rights ts when when they they are are guar guaran ante teed ed by a wri1 wri1en en cons const tu uon on are are know known n as $2undamental $2undamental )ights0 because a wri1en constuon is the fundamental fundamental law of  the state.


2ollowing are the characteriscs of human rights3

1. Human Rights are Inalienable  4 Human rights are conferred on an individual

due to the very nature of his existence. They are inherent in all individuals irrespecve of their caste, creed, religion, sex and naonality. Human rights are conferred to an individual even a5er his death. The dierent rituals in dierent religions bear tesmony to this fact. . Human Rights are Essen!al an" Ne#essar$ 4 6n the absence of human rights,

the moral, physical, social and spiritual welfare of an individual is impossible. Human rights are also essenal as they provide suitable condions for material and moral upli5ment of the people. %. Human Rights are in #&nne#!&n 'ith human "ignit$ (   To treat another

individual with dignity irrespecve of the fact that the person is a male or female, rich or poor etc. is concerned with human dignity. 2or eg. 6n --7, 6ndia has enacted a law that forbids the pracce of carrying human excreta. This law is called 8mployment of 9anual %cavengers and ry :atrines *;rohibion+ which sll has to be [email protected] in various sociees. 6ndia itself is an example where women, children, dalits, bonded labourers, etc, is trying hard to be a part of  mainstream. 6nspite of all these, the world [email protected] the (.=.Aharter of -B which states that human rights are inalienable aspect of mankind. The origin of  human rights may be traced to the theory of =atural )ights derived from the concept of =atural :aw, as propounded by ancient Creek %toic ;hilosophers and further developed by Thomas Hobbes and !ohn :ocke. The
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