MEANING OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Human beings are born equal in dignity and rights. These are moral claims which are inalienable and inherent in all individuals by virtue of their humanity alone, alone, irresp irrespec ecve ve of caste caste,, colour colour,, creed creed,, and place place of birth, birth, sex, sex, cultur cultural al di dieren erence ce or any any othe otherr cons consid ider era aon. on. Thes These e clai claims ms are are arc arcula ulate ted d and and formu ormula late ted d in what what is toda today y know known n as huma human n righ rights ts.. Huma Human n righ rights ts are are somemes somemes referre referred d to as fundamen fundamental tal rights, rights, basic rights, inherent inherent rights, rights, natural rights and birth rights.
DEFINITION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
r. !usce urga as "asu de#nes $Human rights are those minimal rights, which every individual must have against the %tate, or other public authority, by virt virtue ue of his his bein being g a &mem &membe berr of huma human n famil amily' y' irr irrespe espec cv ve of any any consider consideraon aon.. urga urga as "asu's "asu's de#nion brings brings out the essence essence of human rights. The (niversal eclaraon of Human )ights *(H)+, -/, de#nes human rights as $rights derived from the inherent dignity of the human person.0 Human righ rights ts when when they they are are guar guaran ante teed ed by a wri1 wri1en en cons const tu uon on are are know known n as $2undamental $2undamental )ights0 because a wri1en constuon is the fundamental fundamental law of the state.
CHARACTERISTICS AND NATURE OF HUMAN RIGHTS
2ollowing are the characteriscs of human rights3
1. Human Rights are Inalienable 4 Human rights are conferred on an individual
due to the very nature of his existence. They are inherent in all individuals irrespecve of their caste, creed, religion, sex and naonality. Human rights are conferred to an individual even a5er his death. The dierent rituals in dierent religions bear tesmony to this fact. . Human Rights are Essen!al an" Ne#essar$ 4 6n the absence of human rights,
the moral, physical, social and spiritual welfare of an individual is impossible. Human rights are also essenal as they provide suitable condions for material and moral upli5ment of the people. %. Human Rights are in #&nne#!&n 'ith human "ignit$ ( To treat another
individual with dignity irrespecve of the fact that the person is a male or female, rich or poor etc. is concerned with human dignity. 2or eg. 6n --7, 6ndia has enacted a law that forbids the pracce of carrying human excreta. This law is called 8mployment of 9anual %cavengers and ry :atrines *;rohibion+ which sll has to be [email protected]
in various sociees. 6ndia itself is an example where women, children, dalits, bonded labourers, etc, is trying hard to be a part of mainstream. 6nspite of all these, the world [email protected]
the (.=.Aharter of -B which states that human rights are inalienable aspect of mankind. The origin of human rights may be traced to the theory of =atural )ights derived from the concept of =atural :aw, as propounded by ancient Creek %toic ;hilosophers and further developed by Thomas Hobbes and !ohn :ocke. The