Human Behaviour (2)

March 11, 2019 | Author: gopscharan | Category: Chemical Synapse, Neurotransmitter, Stress (Biology), Self-Improvement, Neuron
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HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AND LIFE PROCESSESS INTRODUCTION Our brain is considered as most complex organ and centre piece of nervous system. Our brain is divided into three interconnected layers- central core, limbic system and cerebral cortex which regulate the everyday’s activities. Brain is physical organ like muscles and bone, the brain is unique unique and it is psychol psychologic ogical al organ, organ, ultimate ultimately ly responsi responsible ble for our moods moods of despair despair and elati elation on,, our our sense sense of wellb wellbei eing ng and and our our sensa sensatio tion, n, perce percepti ption on of outsi outside de world world and and our our awareness awareness of its meaning. e must trace, if we have to gain a meaningful understanding understanding of our personality and why we behave as we do. STRUCTURE OF NEURON Brain is !the psychological organ’ it gives rise to the mind that is to mental processes "such as perception, memory and language# and mental experiences. $ll the brain activities are carried by neurons or brain cells. %here are three types of neurons&•

'ensory neurons, respond to input from senses

(otor neurons, sends signals to muscles to control movements

)nterneuron stands between the neurons that register what’s out there and those that control movements.

*ach neuron has certain parts&%he central part of a neuron is called the cell body. )t has a nucleus, which regulates cells’s function and a cell membrane, which is the skin of the cell. %he sending end of neuron is the  $+O, the long cable like structure extending extending from cell’s body, along which signals travel to other neurons, neurons, muscles or bodily organs. *ach *ach neuron has only a single axon. axon. (ost axons has many branches called %*()$', so that a neuron can send a message to more than one place place at a time. time. $t the ends of the termina terminals ls are %*()$ %*()$  B/%% B/%%O' O',, little little knob knob like like struc structur tures es that that relea release se chemi chemica cals ls into into space space betwe between en neuro neurons ns when when neuro neurons ns has has been been triggered. (ost of neurons, communicate by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters that affect other neurons, neurons, usually at their receiving end. *ach neuron neuron has only one sending end that only have one axon, but having many receiving ends called 0*0)%*'. 0endrites receive messages from the axons of other neurons. ACTION POTENTIAL euron at rest have to maintain negative charge within them called resting potential. 0uring rest, more positively charged ions called cations and sodium ion are outside than inside and more negatively charged are inside the neurons , membranes membranes covering the axon has very small holes or pores called 12$*' , which open and close . hen neuron receives enough stimulation from other neurons, some of channels open, allowing exchange of ions that changes charge in the axon. %his exchange moves down towards terminal buttons. hen a neuron is resting and not conducting a nerve impulse, the inside of cell has negative charge. $ stimulus which excites the cell will make the inside charge a little less negative. $t rest , sodium ions cannot enter because even though the cell membrane is permeable , the openin openings gs are too small at this time for big sodium sodium ions to enter enter .when cell cell receives receives strong

stimulation from other cell, the cell membranes opens up the special gates, one after the other , allowing the sodium ions to rush into cell .this causes inside the cell ,positive and outside of the cell to become negative. %his electrical reversal changes is called action potential. )t takes 3 of 3444th second , so the neural message travel very fast from 5 miles per hour in the slowest and 564 miles per hour in other neurons. %his action potential travelling down the axon. $fter the action potential passes, the cell membrane !pumps’ out the sodium ions back outside the cell and closing the gates until next action potential comes. SYNAPSE AND THEIR FUNCTIONS %he ends of axons actually reaches out several branches called axon terminals. %he tip of each terminal has a little knob called synaptic knob or terminal buttons. )t has number of little sac like structures called '7$8%)1 9*')1*'. )nside the synaptic vesicles, are the chemicals suspended in fluid called neurotransmitters. Between terminal buttons and dendrites of another neuron, there is fluid filled space called '7$8'* or synaptic gap. 'ynaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitter molecules whereas dendrites of next neuron contain *1*8%O ')%*'. %hey have particular shape allows only a particular neurotransmitter to fit into it. hen electrical charge reaches the synaptic vesicles, they release their neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap. (olecules float and many fit into the receptor sites, activating the next cell. NEUROTRANSMITTERS eurochemists and pharmacologists have identified a number of neurotransmitters at synapse. •

 $1*%7*12O)*&- it is the neurotransmitter found at the synapse between neurons and muscle cells. )f acetylcholine receptors sites on the muscle cells are blocked in some way, then muscle will be paraly:ed or unable to contract

;$B$"g.aminobutyric acid#&- it is the common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain . ;$B$ can help to calm anxiety.

'*O%O)&- it is a neurotransmitter found in the lower part of the brain and it can act as an excitory or inhibitory chemical depending upon its location in the area of brain . it is mainly associated with mood , sleep and appetite. ower levels of serotonin are linked with depression.

0O8$()*&- it is found in the brain and have different effects depending upon its location. )f too little dopamine is released in a certain area of brain, it results in 8arkinson’s disease and too much dopamine results in '12). PLANNING&-nurse must develops plans in collaboration with patient and significant support people according to client’s health state , level of anxiety, support resources, coping mechanisms. ?. IMPLEMENTATION:- nurse can choose one of these methods of intervention that will be effective for client . 2ealth promotion strategies &- it includes&-

*xercise helps to relieve tensions , promotes a feeling of well being and relaxation •

 Optimal utrition helps in increasing the body’s resistance to stress. 8eople need to avoid excess of caffeine , salt, sugar and fat and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals . •

'leep helps in restoring the body’s energy levels and managing stress.

%ime management helps in less stress situations.

(inimi:ing anxiety&- nurses must carry out measures to minimi:e anxiety and stress of patient for example , encourage the patient to take deep breaths before giving inCections or massaging the client to relax. 

/sing relaxation techniques & - several relaxation techniques are used to relax the mind and tension . urse should encourage the clients to use these techniques in stressful situations like during child birth, before and during painful procedures or postoperatively to cope with pain. %hese techniques includes&

Breathing exercises


8rogressive relaxation



(usic therapy

2umor and laughter therapy.

%hese are the various strategies which can be used to deal with stress and person will be able to prevent and minimi:e the effects of stressors on the body.

SLEEP e have to sleep because it is needed to sustaining normal levels of cognitive skills such as speech, memory, and innovative and flexible thinking. )n other words, sleep plays an important part in brain development 1

 $ behavior characteri:ed by a change in consciousness and marked by a set of particular behaviors. •

Brain and body rest

Brain engages in several activities

Brain (echanisms 1ontrolling 'leep 'leep is promoted by a complex set of neural and chemical mechanisms 0aily rhythm of sleep and arousal

suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus

pineal gland’s secretion of melatonin

'low-wave sleep

 nuclei of the medulla and pons and the secretion of serotonin

♦ •

*( sleep ♦

neurons of the pons

STAGES OF SLEEP 'leep occurs in a recurring cycle of K4 to 334 minutes and is divided into two categories& non*( "which is further split into four stages# and *( sleep. %here are four stages in the non*( sleep.*( stands for rapid eye movement. on-*( sleep •

0uring the first stage of sleep, weIre half awake and half asleep. Our muscle activity slows down and slight twitching may occur. %his is a period of light sleep, meaning we can be awakened easily at this stage. ithin ten minutes of light sleep, we enter stage two, which lasts around 54 minutes. %he breathing pattern and heart rate start to slow down. %his period accounts for the largest part of human sleep. 0uring stage three, the brain begins to produce delta waves, a type of wave that is large "high amplitude# and slow "low frequency#. Breathing and heart rate are at their lowest levels.

'tage four is characteri:ed by rhythmic breathing and limited muscle activity. )f we are awakened during deep sleep we do not adCust immediately and often feel groggy and disoriented for several minutes after waking up. 'ome children experience bed-wetting, night terrors, or sleepwalking during this stage. *( 'leep

%he first apid *ye (ovement "*(# period usually begins about 64 to K4 minutes after we fall asleep. e have around three to five *( occurrences a night.  $lthough we are not conscious, the brain is very active - often more so than when we are awake. %his is the period when most dreams occur. Our eyes dart around, and our breathing rate and blood pressure rise. 2owever, our bodies are effectively paraly:ed, which is said to be natureIs way of preventing us from acting out our dreams.  $fter *( sleep, the whole cycle begins again. EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

'leep deprivation not only has a maCor impact on cognitive functioning but also on emotional and physical health. 0isorders such as sleep apnea, a temporary suspension of breathing, occurring in some newborns "infant apnea# and in some adults during sleep, which result in excessive daytime sleepiness that have been linked to stress and high blood pressure. esearch has also suggested that sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity because chemicals and hormones that play a key role in controlling appetite and weight gain are released during sleep.

 $fter Cust one night without sleep, concentration becomes more difficult and attention span shortens a great deal.

ith continued lack of sufficient sleep, the part of the brain that controls language, memory, planning and sense of time is severely affected, practically shutting down.


'omnambulism  sleepwalking

ightmares - frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from *(

ight terrors - sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions "e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration# that occur during slow-wave sleep

arcolepsy - overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up

'leep apnea - failure to breathe when asleep   B)B)O;$827 

Fosskyn (.stephan.osenberg'.obin.8sychology in context.> rd edition. ew 0elhi& 0orling Findersley ")ndia# pvt.ltdL 544M.8p-@MM-@K3.

ade 1arole, tavris carol .psychology.edtion M th .ew 0elhi& 0orling Findersley ")ndia# pvt.ltdL 544M.8p-@>M-@?@.

(organ %.clifford, king $.ichyard, 'chopler Dohn, eis: . Cohn. )ntroduction to psychology. *dition 6 th. ew 0elhi & %ata (c;raw-hill publishing company ltdL 3KK>.8p>54->>4.


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http&JJen.wikipedia.orgJwikiJ2omeostasis stress / stress

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