Hrm 2 Marks Questions and Answers
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HUMAN RESUPURCE MANAGEMENT (2 marks Question and Answers) 1. Define HRM: It is an art of procuring, developing and maintaining the competent workforce in order to achieve the goals of the organization in an effective and efficient manner. 2. What are the objectives of HRM? • • • • •
To help the org. To reach its goal. To employ the skills and abilities of workforce efficiently. To develop and maintain a quality of work life. To provide the org. With well trained and well motivated employees. To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of the society.
3. What are the functions of HRM? • • • • • • • • • • •
Managerial functions Planning Organizing Directing Controlling Operative functions Procurement Human resource development Motivation & Compensation Maintenance Integration
4. What do you meant by procurement function? It is concerned with procuring and employing the people possessing necessary skill, knowledge, aptitude, etc., to achieve the organizational objectives. It covers, the functions such as job analysis, manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility. 5. What do you mean by HRD? It is the process of improving moulding, changing and developing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude, attitude, values commitment, etc., based on present and future job and organizational requirements.
6. What do you mean by compensation? It is the process of providing equitable and fair remuneration to the employees. It includes job evaluation, wage and salary administration, incentives, bonus, fringe benefits, social security measures, etc. 7. What do you meant by maintenance function? Health & Safety Employee Welfare 8. What do you meant by Integration function? • • • • • • •
Grievance Redressal Discipline Team work Collective Bargaining Employee Participation & Empowerment Trade Unions Industrial Relations
9. What do you mean by human relations? It is the process of interaction among human beings. Human relations is an area of management practice in integrating people into work situation in a way that motivates them to work together productively, co-operatively and with economic, psychological and social satisfaction. 10. What are the roles of personnel manager? • • • • • • • •
The roles of personnel manager are as follows: HR planner Recruitment specialist Training and development specialist Negotiator Personnel administrator Employee relations manager Counselor Health and safety officer
11. What are the qualities of HR manager? • • • • • • • • • •
The qualities of HR manager are as follows: Good communication skills Leadership Integrity Dedication Patient Focused Hard working Concern for employees Empathy Initiative
12. What are the skills of HR manager? • • • • • • • • • •
The skills of HR manager are as follows: Behavioral skills Negotiation skills Planning Leadership skills Assertiveness Influencing Persuasion skills Communication skills Interview skills Stress management
13. Differentiate Personnel Management and Human Resource Management Personnel Management
Human Resource Management
1.Employee is viewed as a commodity or tool or equipment which can be purchased and used.
Employee is treated as a resource
2. Employees are treated as cost center and therefore management controls the cost of labour.
Employees are treated as a profit center and therefore, invests capital for human resource development and future utility.
3. Employees are used mostly for organization benefit
Employees are used for the multiple mutual benefit of the organization, employees and their family members
4. Personnel function is treated as only auxiliary.
HRM is a strategic management function
5. Short-term perspective
Human resource policies 1. What do you mean by HR policies? HR policies are systems of codified decisions, established by an organization, to support administrative personnel functions, performance management, employee relations and Human Resource planning. 2. What is the need for HR policy? • • • • • •
HR policies allow an org. To be clear with employee about: The nature of the org. What they should expect from the company What the company expects of them How policies and procedures work at your company What is acceptable and unacceptable behaviour The consequences of unacceptable behaviour
3. What are the features of HR policy? • • • • • •
Some of the features of HR policy are as: Stable Flexibility Derived from personnel objectives of company Guidelines for decision making Standing plan that can be put to use repeatedly while solving problems Ensures uniformity in behaviour
4. Mention some HR policies. • • • • • • • •
Recruitment Policy Selection Policy Compensation Policy Training &Development Policy Transfer Policy Leave Policy Permission Policy Overtime Policy
• • • •
Exit policy Dress code Policy Appraisal Policy Resignation Policy
5. What are the types of policies? • • • • • • •
Originated policies Appealed policies Externally imposed policy General policies Specific policies Written policy Implied policy
6. What are the essentials of sound personnel policy? • • • • • • •
Appropriate numbers Employee friendly Understandable Reasonable Written Stability Precise
7. What are the advantages of written policy? • • • • • •
Future reference Commitment Legally enforceable No favorite discrimination Continuity of action Better control
Human resource planning 1. Define HR planning HR planning is the process by which an org. Ensured that it has right number and right kind of people at the right place and at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently helps the org. To achieve the overall objectives. -EDWIN B. GEISLER
2. What are the objectives of HR planning? • • • •
The objectives of HR planning are as follows: Forecast personnel requirements Cope with changes Use existing man power productively Promote employees in a systematic manner
3. State the importance of HR planning HR planning is a highly important and useful activity. If used properly, it offers a number of benefits: • Reservoir of talent • Prepare people for future • Expand or contract • Cut costs • Succession planning 4. What is skill inventory? Summary of the skills and abilities of non-managerial employees used in forecasting supply are known as skill inventories. 5. What is replacement chart? A portrayal of who will replace whom in the event of a job opening are known as replacement chart. 6. What do you mean by succession planning? -Identification of likely vacancies for higher level executives and locating likely successors to fill up the vacancies. 7. What is the different HR plans? • • • •
Recruitment plan Redeployment plan-program for transferring and retraining existing employees. Training plan Productivity plan – work simplification • Mechanization • Productivity Bargaining • Job redesign
8. What is job analysis? A systematic exploration of the activities surrounding and within a job is known as job analysis. Investigation of tasks, duties & responsibilities to do a job is known as job analysis. 9. What are the advantages of job analysis? • HR Planning • Recruitment &selection • Placement &Induction • Training • Performance Appraisal • Job Evaluation • Counseling • Safety 10. Define job description. A written statement of what the jobholder does (duties and responsibilities), how the job is done, under what conditions and why is known as job description. 11. What are the components of job description? • • • • • •
Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties Authority of incumbent Standard of performance Working conditions
12. Define job specification. A profile of the human characteristics (knowledge, skills and abilities) needed by a person doing a job is known as job specification.
13. Define HRIS Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is a system designed to supply information required for effective management of HR in an organization. Objectives of HRIS Some of the common objectives of HRIS in operation in various enterprises are as follows: 1. To make the desired information available in the right form to the right person and at the right time. 2. To supply the required information at a reasonable cost. 3. To use the most efficient methods of processing data. 4. To provide necessary security and secrecy for important and / or confidential Information. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 1. Define Performance Appraisal? Performance appraisal is a systematic and objective way of evaluating both work related behavior and potential of employees. 2. Define Job evaluation. -Process of valuing or pricing the worth of the job in comparison with other jobs in the organisation. 3. What are the methods of job evaluation? • Ranking method • Classification method • Factor Comparison method • Point method 4. Differentiate job evaluation and performance appraisal? • Job evaluation: Systematic way of assessing the relative worth of a job • Determines wage rates for different jobs • Shows how much job is worth •
Performance appraisal: It is assessing worth of job holder • Determines incentives and reward for superior performance • How well a individual is doing an assigned work.
5. What are the features of performance appraisal? • Systematic process • Tries to establish plan for further improvement • Not one shot deal. Carried out periodically • Future oriented activity • May be formal or informal 6. What are the methods of performance appraisal? Individual Evaluation method • Confidential report • Essay evaluation • Critical incident method • Check list • Graphic rating scale • Forced choice method • MBO II multiple-person evaluation method • Ranking • Paired comparison method • Forced distribution method Other methods • 360Degree performance appraisal • Field review • Assessment center
7. What do you mean by 360 Appraisal? Systematic collection of performance on individual or group from number of stakeholders-customers, employees (immediate superior, subordinates, peers and self) 8. What do you mean by MBO? -Process whereby the superiors and subordinates in an organization jointly identifies its common goal, define each individuals responsibilities and use these measuers as guide for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members.
9. What is critical incident method? The approach focuses on certain behaviour of an employee that make all the difference between effective and non-effective performance of a job. 10. What is job enrichment? It means vertical loading of a job. It attempts to increase a persons level of output by providing the person with exciting, interesting and challenging work . 11. Differentiate Wage and salary? o Wage: Amount paid by employer for the service of blue-collar employees. It could be hourly, daily, weekly or fortnightly. o Salary: Remuneration paid to the clerical and management personnel. It depends on monthly or yearly basis. 12. What do you mean by cost of living Index? Cost of living Index is a price index that measures relative cost of living over time. Cost of living index is calculated from price data to express the difference in cost of living between two cities. • Food • Alcohol and tobacco • Household items • Personal Care • Clothing 13. What do you mean by D.A.? Dearness Allowance is paid to employees in order to enable them to face the increasing dearness of essential commodities.
14. What do you mean by perquisites? Perquisites are special benefits given to executives, often referred to as perks to retain them in the organization. 15. What do you mean by incentives? Motivational devices used such as bonuses or commission to encourage special work effort.
16. Differentiate financial and non-financial incentives? Remuneration is a component of both financial and non-financial reward; financially, in terms of cash and benefits received; non-financially in terms of recognition, status and esteem, e.g. The status of full private use of a motor vehicle. • • •
Financial incentives: Bonus Promotion Non –financial incentives: Perks
• • • • •
Holiday package Pride on his own work Self esteem Recognition Sense of achievement and being part of the team
Recruitment and Selection 1. Recruitment The process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. 2. What are the sources of recruitment? • Internal sources • Employee reference • Previous employee • Promotion, transfer • External sources • Campus recruitment employment exchange • Walk in interview 3. Merits of internal recruitment • Employees are motivated to improve their performance • Morale of the employees is increased • Industrial peace prevails in the enterprise because of promotional avenues 4. Merits of external recruitment • • •
Qualified personnel is picked up Fresh talent is encouraged Creates competitive spirit
5. What are the factors should be taken in to consideration in formulating recruitment policy? • Government policies • Personnel policies of the competing organization • Recruitment sources • Recruitment needs • Recruitment cost • Selection criteria 6. List out the modern techniques of recruitment • Walk-in • Consult-in • Head-hunting • Body shopping • Business alliances • Tele recruitment • 7. Recruitment process: • Screen applications • Invite short-listed candidates • Hire consultant search firm for conducting tests • Choose tool to conduct tests to use as support data 8. What is recruitment cost? The full cost of recruitment includes costs paid to third parties such as the recruitment fee, advertising, assessment paid to a search and selection firm. These internal costs include internal time, mainly: deciding that a new post/replacement is needed, design of job spec/person spec/package, internal interview time, decision time, cost of covering an empty post with interims, cost of repeating the recruitment exercise if the new hire does not work out etc., 9. How can the recruitment cost be reduced? • Avoid conveyance allowance • Automated application tracking system • Minimize the persons in the recruitment process • Adapt telephonic interview, reference • Decrease the attrition rate 10. What are the alternatives to recruitment? • Overtime • Sub-contracting • Employee leasing • Temporary employees • Outsourcing operations
11. Define selection Selection is a process which involves series of steps or hurdles by which the candidates are screened and most suitable candidates is are chosen for the vacancy in the organization 12. Difference between recruitment and selection? Recruitment Selection The process of searching for prospective Picking up the suitable candidate from employees and stimulating them to apply unsuitable. for jobs in the organization. 2. Positive process Negative process 13. What are the steps involved in selection methods in general • Receiving of application forms • Preliminary interview • Application blanks • Selection test • Final interview • Medical checkup • Placement • Induction 14. What are the types of selection interview? • Directive interview • Non-directive interview • Stress interview • Situational interview • Panel interview 15. What are the kinds of selection tests? • Achievement tests • Aptitude test • Interest test • Personality tests • Intelligence tests • Situational test 16. Errors in interviewing • Halo effect • Leniency • Projection
17. Stress interview Stress interviews are deliberate attempts to create pressure to observe how an applicant perform under stress 18. What is the purpose of selection test? To assess the individual difference scientifically 19. What is aptitude test? To test the clerical, mechanical, mathematical ability of candidates 20. What is placement? Matching job requirements with qualifications of candidate. 21. Induction Induction is a process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins the company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily. 22. Objectives of induction • Putting the new employee at his/her ease. • Creating interest in his bob and the company • Providing basic information • Indicating the standards of performance and behavior expected of him • Creating the feeling of social security 23. What do you mean by internal mobility? Movement of employee within organization through transfer, promotion and demotion. 24. Transfer Shifting of person from one place to another with or without any change in hierarchy of positions. Types of transfer • Penal transfer • Replacement transfer • Production transfer • Rotation transfer • Personal transfer • Remedial transfer • Shift transfer 25. Purpose of transfer • To punish • To utilize the skills
• • • •
To adjust manpower To fulfill personal reasons or needs To meet the organizational requirement To make the employee versatile.
26. Promotion Upward movement of an employee form current job to another that is higher in pay, responsibility and organisational level. 27. Dry promotion Upward movement of an employee form current job without increase in pay. 28. Objectives of promotion • Recognition of employee • Device to retain and reward • Increase individual and organizational effectiveness • Build loyalty; morale • To impress upon others that opportunities are opting to them also in the organization 29. Employee separation • Initiated by employee • •
Initiated by employer • Layoff • Retrenchment • Suspension • Discharge • Dismissal 30. Define attrition Normal separation of employees due to retirement, resignation or death is called attrition. 31. Lay-off Layoff is temporary separation of employee from employer for the reason beyond the control of the employer. The employee name is not removed from the muster-roll. 32. Reasons for lay-off :
• • • • • •
Decrease in demand Non availability of raw material Power break down Machine breakdown Global competition Changing technology
33. Retrenchment Retrenchment is permanent separation of employee from employer due to Surplus manpower, changing technology, poor demand, economic changes etc., 34. Distinguish between lay-off and retrenchment Lay-off 1. Layoff is temporary separation of employee from employer for the reasons beyond the control of the employer.
Retrenchment Retrenchment is permanent separation of employee from employer due to surplus manpower or redundancy etc., Employer-employee relationship comes to an end.
Employer-employee relationship does not come to an end.
35. What do you mean by outplacement help? Efforts made by employer to help retrenched workers to find the job. 36. Suspension: • Prohibiting the employee from attending work and performing his normal duties from specified time on disciplinary grounds such as • Fighting • Violation of rules • Insubordination • Illegal activities • Sleeping during working hours • Chronic absents • Alcohol drinking 37. What do you mean by discharge? Termination of employee with notice and service benefits due to incompetence, reduction in production volume in business, technological obsolescence etc.,
38. What do you mean by dismissal? Termination of employee without notice and without service benefits on disciplinary grounds.
39. Difference between dismissal and discharge.
Discharge 1. Termination of employee with notice and service benefits. 2. Not necessarily due to indiscipline But also for incompetence, reduction in Production volume in business, Technological obsolescence etc., 3. Does not affect the future employment.
Dismissal Termination of employee without And service benefits Due to misconduct only.
Do affect the future employment as it creates a black mark against Employee.
40. Employee turnover The rate of change in the working staff of an organization during a definite period. 41. Causes of employee turnover • Dissatisfaction with job • Low remuneration • Long hours of work • Poor working condition • Illness, accident • Housing or transport problem 42. Voluntary retirement scheme (vrs)/ golden handshake. “It is a exit policy regarding retrenchment of the surplus manpower” To trim the man power. Employees are allowed to retire before their actual retirement date. Companies offer very attractive package of benefits to employees opt for vrs. 43. What is exit interview? Exit interview is a conversation between a departing employee and a representative of the organization (preferably from either the functional head of the employee or someone from the hr department)
Unit iv 1. Define health General state of physical, mental and emotional well being 2. Define safety protection of person’s physical health from danger or harm. 3. What are occupational hazards? Chemical substances Gases, fumes Biological hazards Environmental hazards 4. Define industrial accidents it may be defined as “an occurrence which interrupts or interferes with the orderly program of work in an industrial establishment”. the factory act 1948, defines it as follows “an accident is an occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person who makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48 hours”. 5. Causes of accidents. the following are the general causes of accidents. Dangerous machine. Unsafe infrastructure. Moving machines. Personal weakness. Ignoring the safety legislations. Electrical causes. 6. What is industrial fatigue? fatigue may be defined as, a negative appetite for activity, and a reduction in the ability to do work as a consequence of previous work. 7. What is safety policy. every factory must formulate and implement a safety policy. The objective of such a policy should be to eliminate or reduce accidents and injuries in the workplace. 8. What is safety committee? to promote safety consciousness among employees, safety committees could be constituted, under the chairmanship of a safety officer. The committee should consist of representatives from workers and supervisors.
9. What is safety engineering. to minimize workplace accidents, proper engineering procedures could be followed. Fencing of machinery, adequate space between machines, parts and equipment, use of material handling equipment, safety devices, proper maintenance of machines etc; are undertaken to prevent accident from occurring. 10. What is safety training? safety training can also reduce accidents. It is especially useful in case of new recruits. Training in safe practices, procedures, material handling, first aid, fire prevention etc; could be offered to them. Posters, news letters, display, slogans and signs could also be used to promote safety consciousness throughout the organization. 11. What is safety audit? by means of periodic inspection by safety committees, safety officers, chief executives to the plans, stores, premises & kitchen areas to find out safety standard, presence of fire hazard materials, etc. And take immediate corrective actions when fire hazard or safety hazards are noticed.
12. Define job stress. ·job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual's performance and overall well-being of his body and mind. One or more of a host of physical and mental illnesses manifests job stress.
13. What are the causes of work stress? Job insecurity Lack of communication. No appreciation. Not clear about the company’s objectives. 14. What are the symptoms of work stress? Fatigue Irritability Weight gain Weight loss Sleep disturbances. 15. Define office management
“the art of guiding the personnel of the office in the use of materials, methods, machines and equipment appropriate to their environment in order to achieve its specified purpose”. To preserve all the records of the business. 16. What is the purpose of office? To handle incoming correspondence. To plan the policies of the business and ensure their implementation. To maintain accounts, statutory and non-statutory books etc. Of the business.
17. Advantages of personnel records: It is a proper and permanent record for further reference. The records are the witness if any dispute arises. Policy making. Legal requirements. Evidence. General use
Unit-v Time management Definition: time management is commonly defined as the management of time in order to make the most out of it. 4’d’s of time management: do: - what is to be done by you and do it fast. dump: - do not do what need not be done. delay: -do not do now what can be done later. delegate: -do not do yourself hat can be done equally well by your juniors.
Impoartance of time management: Time is a relative concept. Time cannot be substituted. Time is precious and perishable. Time is irreversible and irreplaceable. All activities on earth are time bound. Time is an important and supreme managerial resource. Time management grid: the management grid is on the two key dimensions of the management. The urgency and importance of tasks for attention.
Time management grid urgency I M P O R T A N T
Quardrant 1 Urgent and important “fire fighting”.
Quadrant 2 Important but not urgent “quality time”.
quardrant 3 Urgent but not important “distinction”.
Quadrant 4 Neither urgent nor important “time wasting”.
Flexible work arrangements:
flexible work arrangements are alternate arrangement or schedule from the traditional working day and week. It can be useful method to maintain unit service which supporting employees personal needs. It can be a win-win situation for both departments and employees. The benefits of flexible work arrangements: Increased ability to attract, retain and motivate high performing and experienced employees. Reduced absenteeism Help employees manage their responsibilities outside of work. Increased job satisfaction, energy, creativity and ability to
Examples of fleible work arrangement: Flex time. Reduced hours / part time. Compressed workweek. Tele work / tele commuting. Job sharing. Banking of hours/annualized hour. Gradual retirement.
flexitime : flextime is a plan whereby employees’ workdays are built around a core of mid day hours, such as 11.00 am to 2.00 pm. Workers determine their own starting and stopping hours. For example, they may opt to work from 7.00am to 3.00pm or from 11.00am to 7.00 pm. 9) compressed work schedule: employees work their total of full time hours in fewer days by working more hours a day. The day off can be same for all employees or it may vary or rotate. 10) what do you mean by tele-commuting? here employees work at home, usually with computers, and use phones and the Internet to transmit letters, data, and completed work to the home office. 11) what do you mean by job sharing?
job sharing allows two or more people to share a single full-time job. For example, two people may share a 40-hour-per-week job, with one working mornings and the other working afternoons. 12)time wasters : » » » » » » » » » »
interruption. waiting■ searching. mistake. travel. telephone. file, mail & paper. drop in visitors i guests. defective tools. meeting.