How to Conduct Bunker Survey

May 12, 2018 | Author: rubinoestela | Category: Fuel Oil, Density, Surveying, Petroleum, Liquids
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How to Conduct Bunker Survey What is Bunker Survey? Survey? The survey is carried out to measure and ascertain the quantity of Bunker onboard at the specific time. This survey is produced the report that states the amount of bunker, usually Fuel Oil (FO) and Diesel Oil (DO), and sometimes Lubricating Oil (LO) is included.

Commonly this is done prior to and after a time charter period than mentions as On Hire Bunker (prior) and Off Hire Bunker (after), the Bunker Survey is required to check the amount Bunker transferred or supplied onto the Ship’s Tanks. This job is associated with Ship’s Chief Engineer, the Person who responsible for bunker onboard. In this post limits to how to conduct the Bunker Survey on the ship tanks only. Survey Tools required for Bunker Surveyor Notes Book, Sounding Tape, Thermometer, Density Meter for Oil (0.750 -1.000), Oil and Water Paste, Petroleum ASTM Table 54B (for Product Oil) and Table 56, Google and Glove, Flashlight, Sampling Can, Bottle or Can for Sampling (if required taken samples). Steps for Conducting Bunker Survey Identify and records the number and Depth of Tank, Reference Height, and Measuring Method recommended to use (Ullage or Sounding) for each Oil Tank. Sounding is determined the level of liquid tank from the bottom of the tank to the liquid surface (typically applied for light liquid). Ullage means to determine the level of liquid of tank by measured the empty space from top of the Tank (the mouth of

Sounding Pipe) to the liquid surface (typically applied for heavy liquid). The both methods will point to the same result. Record the Last Bunker Report, Time and Place of last Bunker supplied, includes the Oil density. Records the quantity of bunker onboard when the ship arrives at Port (arrival Condition) as per Engine Log Book. Checking the accuracy of the Sounding Tape, it is recommended to use your own Sounding Tape. In case we used Ship’s Sounding Tape, please checking the tape. Sounding each Oil Tank and records the level of Oil on the tank. Attached the sounding Tape with Oil Paste to make easy and clear to show of oil level (recommended for Light Oil). Check the Ship’s Draft Marks to get the Ship Trim for Trim correction, and check the ship Inclination or Listing for List Correction, that is required to calculate the Tank Quantity Table. Taken Oil sample, check temperature and oil density, for the accessible tank only. The Service and Settling Tanks are not accessible due to the oil on that tanks were in heating condition at the high temperature. We could records the tank gauging for determining the quantity, the temperature at the thermometer available on each tank, and the Oil Density from the Engine Log Book. If you could not taken the oil sample for checking density, it is recommended to calculate the Density Commingle, by means the Combine Density between two Oils (Old and New Oils) that has mixed on one tanks which they have different in Density. Where it is approaching the actual oil density, the pattern is {(Old Oil Quantity x Oil Density /  Total Oil on Tank) + (New Oil Quantity x Oil Density / Total Oil on Tank)}. Calculations, this stage will involved the Sounding level of each tank, Ship’s Trim and List, Tank Quantity Table (provided by Ship’s Chief Engineer), Oil Density and Temperature, ASTM Table 54B to ascertain the Volume Correction Factor (VCF – to convert from Cubic Meter to Kiloliter) and ASTM Table 54B for Weight Correction Factor (WCF – to convert from Kiloliter to Metric Ton). Example to calculate Density Commingle: FO Tank No. 1 C, total oil on tank 400 Cu.M, Old Oil 200 Cu.M with density 0.9870, and New Oil 200 Cu.M with density 0.9720. Density Commingle = {(200 x 0.9870 / 400) + (200 x 0.9720 / 400)} = 0.4935 + 0.4860 = 0.9795. Issued the Tank Sounding and Bunker Report. I think now you could conduct Bunker Survey, the Detail of Bunker Survey Calculation will be post shortly. Let me know if I miss something by your comments and feedbacks. Regards, Surveyors

Bunker Survey Calculation In my last post How To Conduct Bunker Survey, I have explained the general step for Bunker Survey conducts. Now, the topic is about the way to calculate ship bunker that we have found on the ship tanks. It is suggested to read the last post to become familiar with calculation.

The bunker calculation is simple and needs the following: - Tank Sounding data and Tank Capacity Table. The Corrected Sounding means below is the sounding after correcting with vessel’s trim and list. - Temperature of Oil on Tanks, - Oil Density @15*C, - Table ASTM 54B (VCF) and Table ASTM 56 (WCF). Now we could go with sample of 1 tank to test the calculation. ** Question : FO Tank No. 1 Center, Corrected Sounding = 3.27 Meter, Temperature = 34*C,and density @ 15*C = 0.9903 (given density). Tank Volume at Sounding 3.20 M = 157.20 Cubic Meter, at Sounding 3.30 M = 163.60 Cubic Meter.

** Answer : - The Quantity in Metric Ton = Oil Vol x VCF x WCF, - Observe Volume = {(3.27 – 3.20) / (3.30 – 3.20) x (163.60 – 157.20)} + 157.20 = (0.07/0.10) x (6.40) + 157.20 = 4.48 + 157.20 = 161.68 Cu.M. - T 54B (VCF) > Density @ 15*C 0.9903 = 0.9870 (see the above picture you need to interpolate if any different numbers on both columns). ASTM Table 54B – T 56 (WCF) : Density @15*C 0.9903 = 0.9892 (Quick formula with reducing factor for WCF is Density @ 15*C – 0.0011 = 0.9903 – 0.0011 = 0.9892). We don’t need to see the table anymore. - So, The Quantity in MT is 161.68 x 0.9870 x 0.9892 = 157.85 MT. Sample calculation tanks sounding attached below.

Note : If you do calculation with Volume in Barrel, just usesASTM Table 6B for  VCF , ASTM Table 11 for WCF in Long Ton and then ASTM Table 13 for WCF in  Metric Ton . For the above calculation, you could try the software 7s-BunkerCal (Password:  123456 ). Download available at http://www.box.com/s/xec50bv5mzrln1q0cra1 Just drop your comments around this topic. Regards, Surveyors

1.

plz send me astm table nd astm table 54b of copy soft copy in my mail [email protected] thanking you naresh

2.

naresh on December 21, 2011 at 1:19 pm said:

dear sir, would u plzz send me the soft copy of astm table nd 54b table for just reference plz send me in my mail thank you naresh

3.

Surveyors on November 30, 2011 at 12:00 pm said:

Dear Gaj, Thanks for your correction. The mistype has already fixed on the post.

Regards, Surveyors

gaj on November 29, 2011 at 6:06 pm said:

4.

Can you please clarify in worked example how you got the figure of 0.9903? Isn’t the given density at 15C is 0.9870?Thanks,

5.

Surveyors on November 29, 2011 at 8:37 am said:

Dear Tore, WCF is a factor for converting volumes to weight-in-air. See also the definition at http://www.sevensurveyor.com/petroleum-calculation-series-definition/  Regards, Surveyors

Tore103 on November 28, 2011 at 11:14 pm said:

6.

What is the physical principle to use the WCF?

7.

Surveyors on November 23, 2011 at 9:46 am said:

Dear Naresh, I have just inserted 2 posts about petroleum survey. I will post more next time. Regards, Surveyors

8.

naresh on November 15, 2011 at 7:50 pm said:

sir thank for ur tremodous information about bunker will plz give me some valuable information about petroleum products survey.thank u waiting for replay

Nabil on November 9, 2011 at 6:36 pm said:

9.

dear all, im looking for relation direct between density at 15 and density observed, by this way: Density 15=f (Dobs,T) and tanks.

10.

Surveyors on October 18, 2011 at 10:20 am said:

Dear Harendra, The oil nature is the more temperture hit, the more volume reach. If your tank capacity is 50m x 25m x 10m = 12,500 m3, you should find the the quantity in m3 at 1m ullage. As per above tank, you 1m ullage is 50m x 25m x 9m = 11,250 m3. The 11,250 m3 is the maximum volume in m3 that required for your tank. Check the astm table for your cargo density and heating temperature. If use astm table 54b, when density 0.910 @ 20*c the factor is 0.9962. Then 11,250 m3 x 0.9662 = 11,207.25 m3 @ 15*c. If the heating applied, then temperature increased to 30*c and density at 0.910 the factor in astm table 54b is 0.9886, and your volume m3 will be increased to 11,207.25 m3 : 0.9886 = 11,336.49 m3. That means you have loaded excessive volume to the intended ullage. To cope with this issue, you should calculate the final volume m3 after heating where: 11,250 m3 x 0.9886 = 11,121.75 m3 @ 15*c. and 11,121.75 m3 : 0.9962 = 11,164.17 m3. Just find the ullage that point to 11,164.17 m3. Your cargo will be save at 1m ullage after heating. Actually it has the simple formula; loaded volume = volume m3 at intended ullage x VCF final (0.910 @ 30*c) : VCF initial (0.910 @ 20*c) 11,250 m3 x 0.9886 : 0.9962 = 11,164.17 m3. Regards, Surveyors

11.

harendra yadav on October 9, 2011 at 11:15 pm said:

sir,i am mariners to prepation for secondmate exam.I want to calculation regarding ASTM table for exam purpose.as my question…. Q (1)–a cargo tank 50x25x10m has the ullagepipe 0.6m high.oil of density [email protected]*c in vacuum is loaded at the temperature of 20*c.The oil will be heated during the voyage to a temperature of 30*c,at which time a minimum ullage of 1 m from the top of the pipeis required.calculate the loading ullage.(use ASTM table) pls give me full method with sove question. thanks

12.

kumar on September 30, 2011 at 5:21 pm said:

hi can you send me astm table 54b (PDF) showing in the above example

13.

Benjamim on September 28, 2011 at 3:21 pm said:

Bom dia Senhor. Gostaria de receber mais informacoes sobre calclo de calado

14.

eng. ezzat awa on August 2, 2011 at 3:15 am said:

hi can you send me astm table 54b (PDF) showing in the above example kind regards

15.

Remars S. Bayot on July 22, 2011 at 2:56 pm said:

sir can you give me some guide of how to calculate LPG ship’s that are discharging ammonia?

i hope you can give me one sir…. thanks..

16.

Surveyors on July 1, 2011 at 11:43 am said:

Dear Sivamagesh, Thanks for your comment. As you are working with the surveyor company, it would be better to learn directly from your company colleague. Regards, Surveyors

sivamagesh on June 27, 2011 at 9:17 pm said:

17.

Sir, I want to known about draft survey basically what can i do for that now I am working in Inspecrate Griffth India pvt ltd as a tally clerk I want to known about draft survey and bunker survey accurately I want some examples about draft and bunker survey calculation.Kindly teach me ya. My personal mail I.D is [email protected] My contact number is 09789903768. Thks & Rgds G.Sivamagesh

18.

Surveyors on February 17, 2011 at 10:00 am said:

Hi Korso, The copies you meant is not legal copy to distribute, you should order it from ASTM website. For references, I have load the simple program for ASTM table, you could check at software page. Hope you can work with it. Regards, Faisal

19.

Surveyors on February 17, 2011 at 9:23 am said:

Hi Naina, Sorry for late reply. I have some assignments to do. The calculation presented on the post is for general use, there is no different way to calculate between small ship and big ship. Regards, Surveyors

20.

Surveyors on February 17, 2011 at 9:19 am said:

Dear Paul, You may take long distance course for marine survey at IIMS (international Institute For Marine Surveyor). please check the site http://iims.org.uk for more detail. Regards, Faisal

21.

Surveyors on February 17, 2011 at 9:16 am said:

Hi Evgeny, Thanks, it is correct when the temperature at 31 and density 0.9905 you will get VCF at 0.9891. But I was made the calculation at temperature 34 and density 0.9903 where the VCF is 0.9870. You could check the software page where I have load table 54B program, hope it useful. Regards, Faisal Regards, Faisal

22.

Surveyors on February 17, 2011 at 9:11 am said:

Hi Zakir, Thanks for commenting. Regards, Faisal

23.

KORSO T. ILIES on February 13, 2011 at 9:50 pm said:

Hi, I’m a young marine surveyor from algeria, and I would thank you verry mutch for all the informations you’re provinding us with, in fact the country were I am information are practically not available at all, and I would like to ask you if you can provide me with a copy of Table ASTM 54B (VCF) and Table ASTM 56 (WCF), that would help me verry mutch, many thanks in advance, and have a nice swell, best regards

24.

Mohamed on February 8, 2011 at 12:41 pm said:

Dear Surveyors I am not suveyor, I hv been working as Executive Operations in a shipping company since 2006. I would like to know how to calculate bunker in tug boats with the BHP 2500 to 4000 BHP. and also pls guide to me to calculate Draft survey of barge from the capacity of 5000 DWT to 20,000 DWT. I hv been assign to give presentatino about these two by Thursday. Your kind help in this regard is highly appreciated. Regards Naina

Paul Okuneh on February 6, 2011 at 4:09 am said:

25.

Thanks very much for your concern in educating people freely. I need your advice on the best certification I should go as regards Inspection Jobs. I am a Nigerian. Regards. Paul Okuneh

Evgeny on February 5, 2011 at 9:36 am said:

26.

Dear Faisal, Good day! You have a mistake VCF in example table and as a result next steps of calculation is wrong. As per API MPMS Chapter 11.1 (ASTM D 1250-04 and IP 200/04), Table 54B for your density +15C 0.9905 and fuel temp. +31C the true VCF is 0.9891. Best Regards,

27.

zakir on February 1, 2011 at 4:23 pm said:

I am switching from sea to shore job as a bigginner in ship survey your works and comments will be of good help for me. Thanks for your valuable contribution in sharing knowledge for the advancement of the shipping industry in the area of surveying

28.

Surveyors on February 1, 2011 at 4:03 pm said:

Thanks Capt. Miguel.

29.

Surveyors on February 1, 2011 at 4:03 pm said:

Thanks Gouanfo,

Welcome onboard of Marine Surveying. You could contribute your sea experience here. Regards, Faisal

gouanfo innocent on January 26, 2011 at 6:45 pm said:

30.

as I am switching from sea to shore job as a bigginner in ship survey your works and comments will be of good help for me. Thanks for your valuable contribution in sharing knowledge for the advancement of the shipping industry in the area of surveying

CAPT. MIGUEL SAIZ MONROY on January 26, 2011 at 1:32 am

31.

said: VERY GOOD INFORMATION …THANKS A LOT…. INDEPENDENT SHIP & CARGO SURVEYOR – CURRICULUM VITAE Capt. ( r ) MIGUEL SAIZ MONROY ( Lic. No. 17085010 – DIMAR –Col.). MARINE SURVEYOR, ISM & ISPS INSPECTOR CONSULTANT, MARITIME INSPECTIONS, DELIVERY / REDELIVERY, BUNKER SURVEYS, DRAFT SURVEYS, PORT CAPTAIN, PORT OPERATIONS, CARGO INSPECTIONS, CONDITION SURVEYS, ON HIRES / OFF HIRES IN COLOMBIAN NORTH PORTS.Capt. ( r ) MIGUEL SAIZ MONROY – [email protected]; http://surveyor2007.spaces.live.com C. de C. No. 17085010 de Santa Fé de Bogotá, D.C. – Licencia de Navegación No. 17085010 – D I M A R – COLOMBIA N I T No. 17085010 – 0 – Régimen Simplificado Tel / Fax No. 5 7 5 – 3 0 1 5 9 7 5 – M o b i l e s: 3 0 0 8 0 2 6 7 6 7 y 3 0 0 8 0 3 7 2 0 7 – VHF Ch 16 Calle 72 No. 39 – 222 – Piso 2 – Carrera 41 No. 71 – 79 Piso 2 – Barranquilla –  Colombia – S.A.

32.

Surveyors on January 22, 2011 at 1:05 pm said:

Thanks Vasim, Hope you could help the other surveyors.

Regards, Surveyors

Vasim A.S. on January 14, 2011 at 7:06 pm said:

33.

Dear all Surveyor’s…… If u want any kind of imformation or problem in calculation or any dout …. I will sol for u people…. Contact me on :- [email protected]

captaouf on December 27, 2010 at 1:43 am said:

34.

that in a report i must mention the amout of the damage exemple the collision between the ship and the tugboat

35.

Surveyors on December 8, 2010 at 2:29 pm said:

Dear Erwin, Thanks. Yes, it is the easiest way to do draft survey. Best Regards, Surveyors

36.

Surveyors on December 8, 2010 at 2:25 pm said:

Dear Silvio, Yes, you need to attach Table ASTM 54B for the calculation program. Regards, Surveyors

37.

Surveyors on December 8, 2010 at 2:21 pm said:

Dear Ali, I will post it shortly. Regards, Surveyors

38.

erwin on December 5, 2010 at 12:01 pm said:

dear surveyor, if found no trim and hell correction, we just only make vessel on evenkeel and going to calculated the quantity. tks

39.

silvio duarte on December 1, 2010 at 1:15 am said:

dear sirs We need information on discharging supervision of marine bulk oil, in connection with ullaging of ship’s tanks and quantity calculation. The computer system will be needed together with table ASTM 54B. Could you please revert on this issue.

40.

capt yacine on November 26, 2010 at 11:26 pm said:

draft survey: 2 em trim correction: what the precedure the found 2 trim correction the are 2 methode i want now secon d methode for second trim correction thank

41.

ali hussein on November 24, 2010 at 5:44 am said:

Dear Faisal Could you please, send me and explain the wedge formula. Thanks in advance yours faithfully

42.

Surveyors on November 2, 2010 at 1:54 pm said:

Mr. A, The Bunkering Process is commonly as the transfering oil from one ship to another. The process is simple, the feeder ship or barge that carried oil, will be alongside at the ship that needs the oil (lets say it mother). After alongside, the feeder will prepare the pump and hose to connecting to the mother ship manifold. The mother tanks and/or flowmeter is checked and prepared by the ship crews. When all preparation is completed, the feeder will start to pump the oil to the mother tank as amount agreed. The quantity agreed could be ascertained by sounding or pointed by flowmeter. After completing the transfer, the tanks or flowmeter will re-check to get the quantity. Then the feeder cast off. Regards, Surveyors

43.

Mr.A on October 29, 2010 at 6:30 pm said:

sir i need to know about bunkering process in detail…….

44.

Surveyors on October 20, 2010 at 1:53 pm said:

Dear Tyler, Thanks for your correction, it was mistyped and should be 3.20. I have changed it on the mentioned post. Regards, Surveyors

45.

tyler on October 20, 2010 at 2:25 am said:

thanks very useful step by step but please explain why you use 3.05 (where does it come from) in below part Observe Volume = {(3.27 – 3.20) / (3.30 – 3.05) x (163.60 – 157.20)} + 157.20 = (0.07/0.10) x (6.40) + 157.20 = 4.48 + 157.20 = 161.68 Cu.M.

46.

VINAY on October 20, 2010 at 2:17 am said:

Hi

47.

Surveyors on September 27, 2010 at 1:12 pm said:

Hi Ixora, The ullage and sounding are only the method to find the level of liquid on the tank. After finding the liquid level, you could use the calculation for both with same formula. Regards, Faisal

48.

fatihah on September 26, 2010 at 4:09 pm said:

dear Faisal, it is this bunker calculation can be used in ullage or sounding calculation.

49.

Surveyors on August 8, 2010 at 11:55 am said:

Dear Nash, Thanks for feedback. The 34C should not be there, I have make mistyping.

Regards, Surveyors

nash on August 1, 2010 at 1:24 am said:

50.

hello surveyors, i do understand everything but , i dont understand is how ure getting the [email protected] C, you have not shown the T56 table here its very confusing here with WCF. WITH REFERNCE TO THE EXAMPLE ABOVE IVE COPIED THE CONFUSING PORTION BELOW “”T 56 (WCF) : Density @15C 0.9903 at 34 C = 0.9892 (Quick formula with reducing factor for WCF is Density @ 15C – 0.0011 = 0.9903 – 0.0011 = 0.9892). We don’t need to see the table anymore”"

51.

Surveyors on July 30, 2010 at 2:20 am said:

Hi Rahdian, Thanks, you also could send your contribution for this blog. Have a nice day as well. Regards, Surveyors

Rahdian on July 28, 2010 at 4:49 pm said:

52.

Hi Faisal, You are great, you give a good contribute for as . Have a nice day

53.

Hi Reene..

Surveyors on July 26, 2010 at 10:12 pm said:

Please be noted that the author of this blog is Surveyors / Faisal not Sadanand as you are mentioned. Regards, Surveyors

Reene on July 24, 2010 at 3:16 am said:

54.

oh sorry my mail ID is : [email protected]

Reene on July 24, 2010 at 3:15 am said:

55.

Dear Sadanand, I need soft copy of this ASTM table . Could you please send me this ASTM54B Table softcopy. Plz…in the image above I couldn’t see any values. I need this table very urgent. Plz send me soon. It’s request from me.

56.

sankadio on July 24, 2010 at 1:43 am said:

good calculation

57.

surveyors on July 7, 2010 at 1:04 am said:

Dear Indran, I have published two posts about bunker survey, you could re-read http://sevensurveyor.com/2010/02/22/how-to-conduct-bunker-survey/ and http://sevensurveyor.com/2010/03/27/bunker-survey-calculation/ . Then you could download at downloading sidebar on my website the “Bunker survey guide.pdf” and “MEASUREMENT OF PETROLEUM ON BOARD MARINE VESSELS.pdf”. The four resources is good enough to guide you for conducting bunker survey. If you are serious, you could learn by joining the survey company in your country as well.

Regards, Surveyors

surveyors on July 7, 2010 at 12:38 am said:

58.

Hi Aly, I have ever answers the same comment as you had. Kindly check one of the comment at post Draft Survey Procedures and Calculation >> http://sevensurveyor.com/2009/08/25/draft-survey-procedures-and-calculation Regards, Surveyors

indran on July 2, 2010 at 8:08 pm said:

59.

Dear sir, I just starting to learn how to conduct bunker surveying , give some info from where i start. Thank you indran

aly hussein on June 17, 2010 at 7:31 pm said:

60.

Dear Surveyor, thank you indeed for Your contribution on this site,kindly pls explain, how I can calculate the Trim & List correction of sounding, in case there are no Trim & List correction tables are available on board. best regards Aly Hussein 61.

Pingback: Marine and Cargo Surveyors

62.

surveyors on May 30, 2010 at 2:25 pm said:

Daer Abu, Thanks for your reading and comment.

ABU SMITH on May 17, 2010 at 8:05 pm said:

63.

THANKS FOR THIS INFORMATIONS

aly hussein on May 12, 2010 at 2:46 pm said:

64.

Dear Sadanand Could you please explain, how you find out the Trim correction & List correction for sounding, in case there are no Trim & List correction tables are available on board. yours faithfully Aly Hussein

aly hussein on May 12, 2010 at 2:31 pm said:

65.

Dear Sadanand, Good day Way of simple explanation and a wonderful Regards, Aly Hussein

66.

Sadanad,

surveyors on May 1, 2010 at 5:47 pm said:

Briefly, I can afford you with the calculation you meant. For the complete one, may be post later. Example with Capacity Table : Fuel Tank No. 1C. Sounding : 1.50 M or 1,500 MM. Vessel’s Trim : 1.00 M. Vessel List : 1.0 degree to Starboard Side. Trim Correction for Tank No. 1C in MM  ——————————– TRIM ——————————–  SOUNDING …… -1.00 / 0.00 / 1.00 / 2.00 / … …. 1.00 …………… -200 / 000 / 200 / 400 / … …. 2.00 …………… -600 / 000 / 400 / 600 / … …. 3.00 …………… -600 / 000 / 600 / 800 / … List Correction for Tank No. 1C in MM  ——————————— PORT / STARBOARD ———— LIST ….. / 3.0 / 2.0 / 1.0 / 0.0 / 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0 / … Corr …… 300 / 200 / 100 / 000 / -100 / -200 / -300 /  From the both tables we could get the corrected sounding as below : Corrected Sounding (CS) = Sounding (S) + Trim Correction (TC) + List Correction (LC) TC at S 1.50 M and Trim at 1.00 M is 300 MM (by Interpolation) LC at List 1.0 degree to starboard (the right part beside 0.0 degree) is -100 MM. CS = S + TC + LC. CS = 1500 + 300 +(-100) = 1,800 – 100 = 1,700 MM or 1.70 M. That’s all.. Surveyors

67.

Sadanand on April 27, 2010 at 6:22 pm said:

Dear all, Please explain the specimen of calculation to find out the corrected sounding corrected with trim and list.

Regards, Sadanand

68.

surveyors on April 14, 2010 at 8:57 am said:

Thanks Sadanand, Hope could find more interesting topic on the next post. Regards, Faisal

69.

Sadanand on April 13, 2010 at 4:36 pm said:

Dear Surveyor, The above post is excellent and gives a detailed survey procedure. Your contribution to this site is phenomenal. Thanks a lot. Best Regards, Sadanand

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