Hotel Design Planning and Development 2001

October 8, 2017 | Author: thanhmai_1701qn | Category: Resort, Inn, Hotel, Hospitality Companies, Tourism
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Architecture book for hotel design...


Tmvelandleisureis the world'slargestandfastest growing industf,v This book anticipates the increasingdemandfor dil'ersehotels,resoru,and leisuelime amenitiesnow appearingworldwide. Hotel Design, Planning and Development presentsthe nnge of significanthotel fipes being del'elopedtodal and illustntesthem in their fiil globalmat' of senings.The bookdiscusses thelatest trends from guestrcomsperchedatop ultn-tall mked-usetowersto lal'ishdesertvillasshadedbl high-risestructuresto exoticalh'themedresorts risingoutof pristinetropicalislandweters.The book planninganddesignconsiderations outlinesessential basedon the latestdau. supportedb1' techdcal infomationandillustrations. includingorignalplans. Analsis and theory supportseachof the major trends that is presented,highlightinghow the designer's work fits into the development of the industryasawhole,andgi\ingaclearunde$tanding of how successfi:l newconcepts de\'-elop. Theoperiencedauthorteamandtheirconffibutors represent boththepmfessional andacademic sidesof the subject.In majorsectionscoveringHotpllJrpps, Design, ajnd Derelopment,the]' provide the developer, architect,designer. and hotel executive with a comprehensive and practicalintemadonal over!iew of hoteldesign. COMENTS: Forc$'ordby Glo Obata, Michael Bedner, andBjomHanson:Part 1- HOIELTI?ES:1.Overview: 2, DowntownHotels;3, SububanHotels;4. Resorts; 5, ConlEntion Hotels; 6,Conference Centers; 7,Residential andCondominium Hotels: 8,N{uite andLrtendefta,v Hotels; 10,Updating L-dsting Hotelsi 9.Super-luxuq'Hotels; 11,Mega-hotels; 12.Mixed-us€ Developmensj 13,Caiino Hotels.Part 2 - DESIGN GIIDE:14,SiteandMaster Floor;16.Guesffoom Plrrung;15,1heGuesffoom iurd SuiteDesign; ll, PublicSpace Design; 18,Administntion l9,TednicalCoodination; 20. l|ndBackrlf-house Design; SpecialSystems; 21. Construction. Pafi 3 DEVEIOPMEI'IT 22,Derdopmeff Planniry; 2J, GUIDE: 24, Future De\,'elopment. Hotel Managenent; APFENDICES: Envimnmental Plaoning Checklisl Budget Coordhation Checklist; HotelClassincations, Ten-year Forccast ofNetOperating lncome:Mark€t Trend ChecHist; Intemational HotelandTravel Organizations; Bibliognphy; Illustration ListandIdeaFinder: Listof hoperti€sand Credits; Inde\.Includes sideba$by I.M.Pei,JohnC. Portman, RobertE. Jl RobefiA.M.Stem.Ian Schrager V/01ff. f\armerValenrine A.khr andHoward J

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< Ill)epage. Anincredibly welc1ne rest1tation (see RattlesH0tel,Singapore r 202).Creative developments ofthemid-1980s suchastheresiorati0n ofthis iconol\telcoming h0teldesiqn helped torchoffthem0stast0nishiu ntessential ngwave 01pr0gress observed intheindustry formany decades. Therevival 0t :rlsfamed east-meets-west hoteldemonstrates thevalue01restoring amaslef'r neo-Renaissance faqade renovatinq l03 deuxesuites, andcrealing anadia :eft mixed-use developrnenl c0mprising 65specialty shops anda mLseum. ll keyinterest arethepublic interiors, highlighting the1920s era,when ihe -Oteserved asboththeworkplace andplayground 01liieraryluminafies such asSomerset l\4augham andNdelCoward. Thehotelis named in h0n0r 0f Singap0re's f0under, SirStamf0rd Raffles.

< A superluxuty h)telt0remenbet tour Seasons Hotel,NewYork(see :: 170and350).Theinnovaiive andelegant rotunda l0bbyof LNl.Pei'sexcit-: Ces creates awarmarrival space l0rNewYork's tallesthotel.Located 0n 0n :-:- Street, amidst lhebestsh0pping andbusiness destlnalions, thehotel ':r: vesacc0 ades l0rits370oversized r00ms andgraciOus style andservice. --: guesls multlevel obbyoflers a variety 0f pOsjtions fromwhjch t0vjew y turning :..:'s-andbeviellved magical lhemassive space intoanintimate i'::'ence,everwhile at0ne011he world's busiest crOssroads. > A tallerultntelKowloon MTRT0we1, HongKong,China(see p.205).C0nsidered 0ne0fthemoslimaginative ultra-high-rise multiuse holeldesigns, thisc0l0ssus of102slories bVS0llArchitects features a peaked r00landornamental spire, traditionally c0unted ina building's height. o'ficia More technically complex forbeing built aspa 0fa land jnKowl00n project reclamati0n Bay, lheproiect combines arestauranl and observatory atitstop,0fficefl00rsinthemiddle, andafive-star hotelwith a 23-st0ry podium atrium al ils base, atopa commercial andparking Thel0caii0n 0fthehotelr00ms, highlighted lntheaccompanyOarage. rg keydlagrams, varies based 0nmarket trend analysis.

ArchitecturalPress Animprint ofButterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill,oxford 0X28DP 225Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, [/A01801-2041 A division Educalional 0lReed andProlessional Publishing Ltd Q

plcgroup A rnember 0itheReed Elsevier

Firstpublished 2001 o Walter A.Rutes, Richad H.funner, andLawrence Adams 2001 Allrights reserved. N0part0fthispublicati0n maybereproduced in pholocopying anymaterial lorm(including 0rstoring inanym€dium by electronic means andwhether 0rnotlransienlly 0rincidenlally tosome permission 0ther useollhispublication) without thewritten 0lthe holder inaccordance copyright except withthepr0visions 0ltheCopyrighl, Designs andPalents Act19880runder thetermsofa licence issued bythe Copyright Licensing Agency Lld,90Tottenham CourlRoad, London, England W1P oLPApplications forlhecopyfight holder's written permission t0reproduce anypaft0flhispublication should beaddressed tothepublishers 0isclaimer Theintormalion andstatemenls herein arebelieved t0bereliable, butarenotlo beconstrued asa waffanty orrepresentatiofl l0rwhichthe authors 0rpublishers legal responsibility. assume Users should undertake veriiicalion sufficient andleslinq t0determine thesuitabilily l0rtheir purpose ownpadicular ol anyinl0mation 0rproducts rcferred toherein. purpose Nowarranty oJlitness l0ra particula ismade. BritishLibrary Calal0gulng in Publication Dala A catalooue recod l0rthisbook isavailable lromtheBrilish Library Library 0l Congrcss Catal0guing in Publication Data A catalogu€ record lorthisbookisavailable iromtheLibnryofCongress rsBN 0 750646071 Produced byGray Publishino, Tunbridqe Wells, Kent Pintedandbound inGreat Britain P€ssLtd,Trowbridge, byCromwell Wilts





his bookis the resultof manyyearsof experiencein thespecialized lieldof hotelarchitectureandinteriordesign-theexperience of the providedus with -ores of peoplewho generously

R. NicholasLoope,AllisonD. Mehta,Alejandro (ASW), N/orales JohnNicolls, MichaelNowlis, Don Olson,DavidOswald,BradfordPerkins, JohnPortmanlll,JamesRappaport, l\4ichael Redlin,Roque r insightsabout design and with examplesof Rey(ASW),ForrestRichardson, lllonaRider,Debra pho- Robinson, work.Wecreditthearchitects, designers, Robson,CoreySannes,Eliot Stephani andotherswhoencouraged usandpro- Soffes,DavidStipanuk, WilliamTablerJr.,Garritt uswithmaterialabouttheiroroiectsintheList Toohey, KimWalker, JamesTortorella, JohnWall,Dr. Oedits becauselhere are morethan we can lvlarkWarner,Elizabeth Wedge,MonetteWilliams, acknowledgehere. GailWilson, GeorgeWong,Kellogg Wong,Stanley k owea specialdebtto threegiantsintheindus- Wong,JimWood,AsegulYalim,and LarryZiebarth. archilectGyoObata,designerMichaelBedner, We cannotofferenoughthanksfor the patience nnancial consultant BjornHanson, whoagreed and enormousgood judgmentof the editorsat itroduce the book with personalobservations Architeclural Pressin Oxford,GrayPublishing in theirdistinguished careersand with projec- Kent,andW.WNortonin NewYork:lvarieN4ilmore, aboutthe futureof hotelarchitecture, design, Sian Cryer, Neil Warnock-Smith, Lesley Gray, In addition,sincerethanksto develooment. NancyGreen,JulieTillerand RobertGraywithout Kastner, ValLehr,LM.Pei,JohnPortman, Jr., whoseassistance thisbookwouldnotbe oossible. RobertA.M.Stern,and HowardWolff Also,overthe pastfewyears,studentsat Cornell, Schrager, for NewYorkUniversity, and otheruniversities took on fovidinga seriesof sidebarcommentaries projects chapters. individual research orassisted withthemany and manygoodfriendspro- drawingsthat illustratethe book. These include Or ownassociates helpfulcomments throughout thewritingof the JeromeChen(Cornell), (NYU), JeanDubyna Carlos (NYU), andotherswentfar beyondthe callof dutyin Fernandez NaomiHori(NYU), Keisuke Nakae go to Peter (University resources. Thanksespecially of NewHaven),EduardoOuintero(CorMustafa Abadan,Brandon Adams,RajAhuja, nell),CarlaSilva(Cornell), andCassyTristam(RMII RobertAshton.FaustoBaba,Robert l\4elbourne). Ed(Aexander, Theirinterestand enthusiasm for the JodieBenzer, HorstBinzer, detailsof hotelplanningissuesareinfectious. JamesBelluardo, WendyBrenman, 8Mh, TedBrumleve, Pope Thereare too many individualcontributorsto RobertoCapponi,JackClark,MarkCoffee, acknowledge eachone.Wewantto thank,however, Dann,ArthurDawson,KennethDemay,Jan the manyhotelexecutives whoidentified theircomPeter Dixon, Sandra Dove-Lowther, pany's most excitingnew properties,the repreEaton, Dr Blair Ford, Robert Glazier, sentatives of thescoresof architectural andinterior Gossen,MichaelGawron,Amy Hall,Sid designfirmswho providedmaterial,the photograYoshiroHashimoto, GregHartmann, Alan pherswhoculledtheirverybestshots,all of whom BillHendrickson, TiffanyHighfield, JohnHill, willingly metourendlessrequests foradditional inlorHomiah,MarkHornberger, TomHurley, Steve mation.Mostof all,however, we mustrecognize the VictorKell,PeterKuttner, UndaKastner, Nick sacrifices madeby ourfamilieswhohaveprovided David O. Levine,Anne Lloyd-Jones, J. us withincredible supportand encouragement to Loughran, WilliamLouie,RobertJ. Lynch, complete thisproject. Thankyouall.

Dedication Wededicate thisbookto ourpartners, children, andgrand-children, withloveanddeepappreciation fortheirsupportandencouragement.




Acknowledgmenls Foreword . Biorn Hanson Bednet Gyo0bata. MichaelJ. Preface

Part1 HotelTypes 1 overview



2 4

' . Genealogy Tree. Varieties Evolutionary . Planning andDesign Classilicati0ns . Hotel Milestones Considerations

Hotels 2 Downtown


Hotels' Devel0pment andTourist Downtown Business . Design Considerations andPlanning 'Sense . Place andTheatef by of considerations ' ' . Guestrooms Public Spaces A.l\4. Stern Robert ' . . H0tels Boutique Reuse Trends Adaptive ' Modern and toEconomy Size. Luxury ' . Renovation and TraditionalNewConstruction . Amenilies and t0Chain Quifty Independent . 'More toSleep' bylan thana Place Gimmicks ' . Planninq Considentions and SchragerDesign ' . Hotels Entertainment Trends Downt0wn Hotels Downtown Waterlront

Holels 3 Suburban


. Trends . Airport Hotels andl\4otels Roadside ' 0lfice andDesign Consideralions Hotels. Planning InnsandBedandBreaklast Hotels. Country Park . Hyblids and Inry'B&B Categories lnns. Country . . Inns lvlallHotels University 0therSubuhan . Planning . SmallTown H0tels andDesign Holeis . TIends Considerations

4 Resorts

' . Trends . Significant Examples Considentions ' Resorts andCondominium Vacation 0wnership ' . Condominium Resorts Examples Signilicant . . andOesign Hotels Planning Trends Marina ' Ski ' Trends . Signilicant Examples Considerations ' . Considerations andPlanning Resorts Development ' . Enmples Significant Design Considerations . Ecoloqical . EcotouristResorts Trcnds ' ' Trends . l\4ain-line Ecotourism ResDonsibility . Theme Destinati0n ComplexesResort Multires0rt . . Planning . lntluences l\4ethodology Parks . Signilicant Devel0pment Considerati0ns . Tlends . Cruise Ships. Trends Examples

Holels 5 Convention


. Downtown Planning andDesign Considerati0ns . Center Hotels Conventi0n Headquarters Conventi0n . orResort Convention Hotels Suburban ' Trends . Public Areas Hotels Planning

Cenlers 6 Conlerence


. Conlerence Types: Center l\4eetings lvlarket TheSmall andNolfoFProfit University, Resort, Corp0rate, Executive, ' . Planning andDesign Considerations Centers . ExamplesTrends Signilicant

152 H0tels andCondominium 7 Residenlial ' Design C0nsiderations andPlanning Devel0pment ' Trends . Significant Examples Considerations

Hotels andEnended-stay I All-suiie


Holels I Superluxury


. Signilicant Considerations Planninq andDesign . . Residential Trends Trends Examples


. Planning Besorts Beach, Goll, andTennis . . considetati0ns Design C0nsiderati0ns ' . F.xamples Significant Envir0nmental Consideralions . Planning and SpaBesorts Development . Significanl . Desiqn Considerations Considerations . . . 0evelopment ExamplesTrends VacationVillages . . Design Planning Considentions Considentions

. Guestrooms . Public Spaces Design Considerations .'FoulSeasons . andSuitesBack-ot-houseAreas byLNLPei' New York, Luxury 0n57thStreel' Hotel . Trends C0nsiderati0ns Devel0pment andPlanninq

Holels 10 Updaling Eristing


11 mega-holels


. Adaptive . Restorations. Additions Renovations . Re-use Trends . Significant C0nsiderati0ns Planning andDesign . Trcnds Examples

contents Developmenls 12 Mixed-use


. Development Mixed-use C0mplexes andPlanning . Design . Significant C0nsiderations C0nsiderati0ns . Trends . Planned Eramples Communily . Senior . Developments andAssisled-living Residences . Development Retirement Conlinuing-care Communities . Design . andPlanning C0nsiderations Considerations . lvledical Trends Hotels

Hotels It Gasino


Part3 Developnent Cuide


22 Developmenl Planning 360 . FeasibilityAnalysis . Facilities ProjectSequence ' 'Development Programming software' by . Prototype Bobert E.Kastner Development

Resort Sites. Suburban Sites. ljrban Sites. Analfzing theProlect Site. Developing lhel\4asler Plan. Trends Analyzing Alternative PlanConfigurations: Slab, Tower, . Defining Atrium C0nfiguralions theGuestroom and . Documenting Program Suite theGuestroom l\4ix

Guestroom andSuileDesigo


. Room Establishinq Design Criteria Dimensions and . Designing Configurations theIndividual . Suites. Accessible Guestr0om Guestroom/ . Guest . Gueslroom Design Bathroom Universal . Prop0sing Equipment andTechn0logy theGuestr0om . Trends ff&EBudgel

Space Design f? Pnblic


Anival. Lobby. 'Hotel Public Space' byJ0hnC. hrtman, Jr. . F00d andBeverage outlets. Program . Design . andPlanning 0bjectives 0biectives . . Function Space Pr0gram andPlanning objectives . . . oesign Criteria Recreati0n Facilities Parking Signage andlconographics: Tabletop, Artand Uniforms, Mitacis.



. Construclion . Furniture, Proiect Delivery Schedule Fixtures, andEquiDmenl


Flool 15 lhe Guestroom


. Telecommunications . Energy Information Processing 'The . . Conlrol Life-salety Systems Sensible Application olHigh Technology Design' t0Hotel byValentine A. . Audio bhr . Securily Systems andVideo Systems

21 Conslruclion

Planning &'leandMaster


20 Special Syslems


. Planning l)€vel0pmenl Considerali0ns andDesign . Considerations TheCasin0 Gaming Floor. . Trends Examples Significant

2 Design Guide

19 Technical Coordination 326 . Types 0tProlessional Services Agreements . Technical Budgeting, Estimating, andCostControl . Architectural . Guides andEngineerin0 Systems Building andLile-safety Codes

ldminislrationandBack-ol-h0use Design s12 Adminislration offices. Food Preparation andSt0rage Areas. Receiving, Trash, andGeneral St0rage . Laundryand lcas . EmployeeAreas . Engineering tlousekeeping andlvlechanical Areas


23 HotelManagemenl 378 . Housekeeping . Rooms Department Department . Human Food andBeverage Department Resources . Accounting . Marketing Department Department . Prope(y andSales Department operations . Multi-unit Deoartment 00erati0ns

24 Future Developmenl




. 'Spacetels Innovative Trends andMarinetels' by . Howard J.Woltf l\4emonble Spaces


EnvironmentalPlanningChecklist Budget Coordination Checklist HotelClassilications Ten-year Forecast of Netoperating Income Nlarket Trend Checklist International HotelandTravel 0rganizations Bibliography lllustration ListandldeaFinder

393 394 399 400 402 403 404 405

ListofProperties andCredits







Eventhe Basicamenities also are important. Do smallestdetailscanaffecta guesl'sexperience. papers? room my ls the bathI have to spread out GyoObata,FNA roombigenoughto setoutmytoiletries? CanI easand Co-Chaiman Co-Founder get lobby from my room? Are the wallsthick ily to the Helmuth,Obata+ Kassabaum, lnc hear my neighbor's television? enough so I don't Sf. Louls,M/ssourl Theseall are questionswe must consideras we As business andleisure travelbecomemoreinter- designhotelsand resortsfor today'sdiscerning twined, today's hotels must accommodatethe traveler. Hotels overlapping desiresandneedsof thetraveler. need to providemorethingsto more people-a Second HoDes for Bus;ness Guests placeto work,relax,gather,entertain thefamily,eat, wireless We shouldtry to make hotels,especiallyurban, drink,and shop. Modems,computers, hotels,feellikesecond and convention phones,andfaxmachines arebecoming roomstan- suburban, expectations are now homesfor businessguests.Thesehotelsmust dards while entertainment andleisure amenities greater thanjusta tenniscourtor indoorpool.The offera fullrangeof business convergenceof the themed hotel has brought We recentlycompleteda leadershipcenterfor a major corporationin St. Louis.The design was increased competition to the hotelindustry. Butwhetherit is an urbanhigh-rise or a remote drivenby the company'sdesireto createa collaborativelearningenvironment-aplacewherepeohumanexperience ultimalely determines a retreat, the companycould come Whataretravelers lookingfor?After ple from throughout hotel'ssuccess. group.ll is crucial togetherto exchangeinformationand redesign all,theyarenota homogeneous Thisprivate that hoteldesignstake intoaccounlthis diversity. processes-tolearnto thinkdifferently. 'leadershipretreat'consistsof a workshoparea Our designsmustreflectthe imageof the owner and operatoralong with the natureof the local for lectures,break-outrooms,a dining room, surroundings-andproducespacethat embraces lodges,and livingareas. Becauseemployees these{actors.lvlyjob as an architectis to create stay at the centerfor severaldays al a time,we wonderful destinations of preference thatprovidethe spenta greatdeal of time studyingthe roomfeaand tures.Theroomshadto be warm,comlortable returnsfor the ownerand operator. rightfrnancial whilealsobeingconducive forconducting In thisbook,Rutes,Penner, andAdamsdissect inviting, planningand DUSrness. the emergingtrendsand essential designcriteriaof many differenttypes of hotels throughout theworld.Eachtypeoffersits ownrenMixed.use Pror?cls ditionof a wonderful travelexperience, WhenI travel,size-or lackthereof-isveryimpor- Mixed-usecentersthat incorporatehotels offer optionsforthebusiness andholiday travtant.I preferto stayin small,quainthotels.On the unlimited LeftBankof Paris,roomsmaybe slightlycramped, eler.These'citieswithincities'benefitthe retailer, butit is allaboutatmosphere. Inboutiquehotelsthe hotelowner, andguests. Wedesigned TheGalleria architectis givena greatopportunity to createan in Houstonas one of the lirstshoppingmallsto interesting environment aroundeverycorner.Larg- incorporate mixeduses,Galleriaguestscan ice A er hotels,though,neednot oveMhelmvisitors. skate indoorsbetweenbusinessmeetingswhile largerprogramprovidesan opportunity for design- watchingcolleaguesshop. Over the years,The ers to breakthe hotelinto smallercomponents, Galleriahas capturedthe public'simagination its attraction to local.national,and bringingit downto a humanscale.Thisgivesvisitors and maintained a morecomfortable and personalexperience. international visitors.

Foreword vii The designerof mixed-use developments and hotelsalsomuslconsider andstudythesurrounding area.ArenaCentral,a mixed-use facilitywe're currentlydesigningin Birmingham,England, includes a 450-bedhotel,officeandresidential components,and an arrayot entertainment and leisure facilities. Reintegrating the sitewithcentralBirmingham's urbanfabricwasthe majorchallenge. A comprehensive understanding of the site'shistory context,andcurrentcondition-andappreciation for the city'sarchitecture-helped formulatethe redevelopment strategy.

cernin the design,Supporting stiltselevateguestroombungalows abovetherainforestfloorto preservethefragilenatureof theflora,launa,andwater lable.Themainlodgerestson an'expressed base of localriverstone.Interiorlobbyfinishesfeaturea selectpaletteof Indonesian woods,marble,and stone.Allfurnishings andtextiles weredesignedand manufactured in Indonesia. A 250-bedresortandhealthspahotelontheDead Seain Jordan,ownedby BTCof Jordanand operated by MarriottInternalional, also shows how important it is to relyon theknowledge of theowner, operator, andlocalcommunity. HOK,asthearchitect, reliedon collaboration withthe localdesign,engi Besort Hoters neering, andconstruction community inAmman.The Travelers expecttoday'shospitality facilities to reflect resortplanusesindigenous Jordanian architecture, inwhichtheyarelocat- bothin termsof materials andenhance theenvironment andshading techniques. ed.Thisis especially truewithresorts.Thearchitect Theschemecreatesa lushinnercourtfeaturinga mustunderstand the land,sile,and environmental two-tierpoolwithwaterfalls, whirlpools, and local considerations in additionto the culture.Thechal- plantlife.Theinterior drawson localmaterials to crelengeforthearchitectis,first,to identifywhat'sspe- ate a welcoming, cool,and relaxing environment. cialaboutthe locationand,second,to capitalize on Responding to thetherapeutic wondersof theDead withoutmimicking ts strengths otherplaces. Sea,a full-service healthand beautyspa liesnear Goneare the dayswhen a beachand a hotel theshoreline, Thesuccessful designofthescheme made a resort.Today'sguests are active and springsfroma combination of technology andoper Forinstance, demandto be entertained. theyprefer ationalknow-howalongwiththeskillandenergyof hteractingwithnatureinsteadof justgazingat it. ln thelocalclientteam. Flawaii, Hiltonawaitsfinalpermitapprovalto begin I cannottalk about traveldestinations without of anartificial lagoonreef,complete @nstruction with mentioningski resorts.I love to ski. l've never ish, walkways, waterfalls, and undersea caves. designeda skiresortbutI havea greatideaforone, Becauseskiersareloadeddownwithbootsandski equipment, I thinkit's important to minimize the Emtircnmen|8, and Cuttua,Sensilivily changein elevation wherepeoplewalk,shop,dine, I wantto emDhasize theimDortance of environmental and catchlitts.Makingit easyfor peopleto move We are designingresort seemssimple,butit'sso important. ad culturalsensitivity. projectsall over the world and recognizethat Thepointis thatplanning a successiul hotelor rcrking in differentcountriesrequiresan apprecia- resortis allaboutimproving thehumanexperience. :x| for ditferentcriteria.Unspoiledbeautyand naf WhetherDeooletravelto an urbanhoteltoweron drawtoday'stourists-it's both businessor to a ski resorton vacation,guestswalk rral environmenls esponsibleand greatbusiness. awayfeelinggood,bad,or indifferent. lf thefeeling The mosteffectiveway we havefoundto take is notgood,you'velostyouraudience. assets,localcustoms, dvantage of environmental td culturesis to usethe owner'sand operatols An Unquenchabre thirst For More Elth ol knowledge.We also form collaborative ctalionships with local design prolessionals, I congratulate theauthorsof thisbookfor preparing mnufacturers,and suppliersto makesurethatwe such a comprehensivereferencepiece. Hotel brporate indigenousmaterialsthroughoutour Design.Planning andDevelopment Vovidespractical lsorts. adviceon howto maximize thehumanexoerience TheSheraton TimikaHotel,a remoteresortat the inthisever-changing industry| alsoapplaudtheownof a tropicalrainforestin lrianJaya,Indone- ersandoperators thathaveresponded to travelers' is oneof myfavoriteprojects,andillustrates the unquenchable thirstformore.Thedemand formore o1 the relationshipbetweena resort specificandcomprehensive hotelsand resortshas its environmenl. Minimizing the impactof the helpedcreatea moresophisticated designindustry. on the environment wasa criticalcon- Justturnthe pagesandtakea look.






Perspective Developer's

MichaelJ. Bedner and CEO CoJounder HilschBednerAssoc/ates SantaMonica, California

Dr BjornHanson,Ph.D. LJP PricewaterhouseCoopers GloballndusuyPaftner, NewYotk,NewYotk

HirschBednerAssociateshas been fortunateto playa significant designindusrolein thehospitality try for morethan35 years.Duringthattime,we've introducednew conceptsand helped redefine olderones.We'veseentrendscomeand go, and comebackagain.Throughit all,we've sometimes andthe learned to distinguish between thetimeless transitoryin terms of emotions,lifestyles,and desrgns. designof Likemosttypesof design,theinterior hotelsand resortsevolveswith the changesand aswellasthe in materials andtechnology advances shifting experiencesand expectationsof the guests.Unlikemosttypesof buildings, hotelsand resortsare designedfrom the insideout, with a greateremphasis spacesandhowthe on theinterior guestswillinteractwithinthem. Addingto the challengesol creatingfunctional, pleasing, andtimeless designsforhotelsandresorts are othercomplexvariables.Today'stouristsand moreselective, andfar arebettereducated, travelers more sociallyresponsible.They demand more for, local culturaland attentionto, and sensitivity and concerns.Succircumstances environmental designmusthavea senseof style cessfulhospitality andoffera specialfeelingof place.Flashygimmicks with designelements and temporaryexperiments to achievingthe idealbalare majorimpediments anceof graceand beautywhilerespectingpractical operatingconsiderations. Thoseof us at HBAare pleasedand proudto haveworkedwiththe authorsof thisbookin a varietyof waysoverthe pastthreedecades.Weshare in a dynamicandexciting enterwiththeman interest prise*thedesignof hotelsandresortsin allcorners of theworld.Theysharewithus our understanding notonlyrnbotof whatmakesa projectsuccesstul, in more important aspects, but tom-linebusiness designandhumanterms.

The past 10 yearshavebeen a periodof extraof thelodgingindusordinary changeinthehistory and for development try withso manyimplications linancing. Just a few of thesechangesand their aregivenbelow. implications lo,wer bteek even an of USlodgingdatahighlights Ourfirm'sanalysis astoundingstructuralchange in the occupancy occurequired fora hotelto breakeven:break-even pancyhasdecreasedfrom65.5percentin the late 1980sto 51.5 percent.Thelargestfactorinthisdraeffectof increases maticchangeis the cumulative in theaverageroomrateabovetherateof inflation. more revenuefrom rate meansless Essentially, Othertactors revenueis neededfromoccupancy. is thereducednumoccupancy lowering break-even '100occupiedroomsfroma ber of employeesper high of 81 in 1986to about75 today.This is the resultof management actionssuch as employee programs, makingsome services empowerment optional(suchas turn-downservice),useoJtechnology (reducingaccounting,switchboardand lessprofitable andde-emphasizing otherpositions), as wellas thechangein mixto limit departments, ed-servicehotels.Other factorsthat have contributedto lower break-evenoccupancyinclude lowinterestrates. lowerdebtleverage andrelatively occupancyis that The resultof lowerbreak-even developers and lendersface lessriskof the types in the early1990sthan of lossestheyencountered coverat anytime in historyand that debt-service age ratios,the primarytestusedby lenders,areat alltimehighs. Increasing scgmentatton Thereis a greaterrangeof choicesof lodgingproductsthaneverbefore.Manyo{ theseexhibithighly requireverysmallparcelsof favorableeconomics, project land,havelower costsand,therefore,are and limitedfinance. Some extended-stay easierto less on thanone conceptscanbedeveloped service a range of speacre.Guestsmaychooseacross price points, many lodging types and cialized for which, in turn, allows increasingdemand, properties in additional the developmentof new


Foreworo .,rl markets. Thisincremental demandis notonlydriven turn, has fueledrapid consolidation with the five by is fueledby emergingtastesand pre- largestlodgingcompaniesnowcontrolling over40 ferencesfor suchofferingsas eco-lodging, adven- brands. holidays,and learning ture travel,health-oriented vacations. lndusry Globalization few Dramaticchangesalsohaveoccurredwithsources Forexample, intheearly1990s, of capital. onlyfive percentof holel roomsin the united stateswere In2000thenumberis over underoublicownershio. 18 oercent.Also imoortantis that the numberof roomscontrolled by publiccompanies, whether management, is throughownership, or franchise, now over 62 percent.In exchangefor accessto relatively inexpensive capitalthesecompaniesare subjectto the analysisand scrutinyof the public markets and,asa result,arehighlyfocusedon quargroMhin earnteFover-quarter and yeaFover-year ings. Returnsfrom dividendsto shareholders typicallyare only aboutonejourthof the cost of orivatedebt.Accessto caoitalfuelsnewconstrucThisaccesslo tionand consolidation.

Inthe1980s,majorinternational lodgingcompanies werealmostexclusively focusedontheirhomecountry whetherit was in the UnitedStates,Europe,or Asia. But as the lodgingconsumerhas become moreinternational, so havethe hotelmanagement globalization companies. This increasing is supported by the lower cost of international travel, increasedinternational businessactivity,and the increasing availability oftechnology, At theturnof the century,unlikeonlya fewyearsago,two of thefive largestlodgingcompaniesin the worldare based outside theUSA. Theseandothermajorissues willcontinue to shape the industryin the nextdecades.Therehas never beena timewithso manycomplexities andpossibilitiesfor developers, lenders,and investors-ora futurefullof suchchallenges andopportunities.


Ire u/fatelShanghaiWorld Financial Center, propossd China(seepp.209-210). Everburgeoning Shanghai's second multiuse vertically lieredultratellowe (94stories), byKPFArchitects, combines hotel,office,andrelated amenities ina unique andstfiking design, focused 0na speclacular rcofto0 visitors' cenler neafthelop.Thesizeandlocation 0f theh0telcomponent withinsuchstructures, ashighlighted in theaccompanying keydiaqram, is based 0npredesign market-trend research.


illuminating thetimeless l-or theirkindForeword goals of the world's largest industry we F Bedner, I immensely thankGyoObata,lVlichael the majordisciand BjornHanson,who represent plinesinvolved withhoteldevelopment anddesign. As architects, we admitto a certaintinglingsensationeachtimewe hearof another'ultratel'tower, hotelprototypesdevone of the most impressive book,Hotel elopedinthe15yearssinceourprevious Planningand Design,was published.Perhapsthe nextfewdecadeswll seeas excitingconceptsfor new environments, such as 'spacetels,'and 'marinetels.' proportion Withan increasing of developmentworldwidestimulatedby holelsand new it is megatrends changingtheiressential character, againtime to analyzethe changingstateof art in hoteldesign,planning, anddevelopment. meaning Theinqulry beginswiththeword'hotel,' mansion,borrowedfromthe Frenchsoonafterthe ArnericanRevolutionin an effortto expressthe of the new multifacetedinns that soohistication appeared.Fromtheironset,thesenovelmixed-use establishments servedthevariedneedsof a rapidly new resiexpandingsociety,freelyincorporating and industrialfeaturesin dential,commercial. hotels.Theseincludedthe firstgrandballroomin NewYork,an atriumand lvlerchants' Exchangein lobbyin NewOrleans, Eoston,a domedEuropean Their anda theater, shops,andlaundryin London, naturecompetitive natureadvanced the competitive ns/vesttechnologies suchas gasandelectriclight irg, centralheat,telephones, and elevators. needsand desiresmorethan ever Consumer today,ranging dive hoteldesignanddevelopment from 100-storyultratelsto a varietyof new enterhotelslilerally illuminating locations tainment suchas tla/v York'sTimesSquareand Toronto's SkyDome othernovelconcepts include the sladiumcomplex. tatestnicheboutiquehotelsand the responseto megatrendwith urban ttE healthconsciousness a€sortspas. Our imaginations happllypassthroughdifferent as architecls, educators, and fbms of experience lDtel executives, but we are unanimousin never succession bdorehavingseena moreextraordinary

of inspireddesignscreatedbythecollaboration and wisdomof ownersand developers, archilectsand designers, operators andconsultants. Theyknowlull well that successlies in the most oooularand foMard-looking marketdesignconcepts.While supportedby socioeconomic research,as in all growingindustries, thehotelindustry thrives on the markelresearch ol prevailing trendsto shapefulure development. Such trendsincludea vast emergingglobal marketplace and,mostimportantly, increasingly sophisticated consumers, freelypursuinghighlyper sonalizedDerceotions of choiceand value,These oftenarecombined withavidinterests inecotourism, environmental conservation, historicpreservation, educationand self-development, as well as the pophealthconsciousness expanding of a maturing ulation. Otherexpectations include increasing numbers of familyvacations,in part enhancedby vacation ownership, and greateropportunities and business travelforwomen.l\4ostguestsclearlypreferinformal buthigh-styled residential decorandfunctionality in the guestroomor suitecombinedwithexcitingcuisineandentertainment, dramatic themedshopping, exoticgamingvenues,and uniquesportsexperiengolf,shared yachtownership, cesincluding spectacular and year-round skiing.New choicesfor getaways include vacation o\,{nership andcruiseships,urbanand parks,low-density suburban leisure multiuse communities,and pioneering resorlregions. ecotourist In the followingchapterswe expandupon the producltrends of today's huge and budding rangingfromnovelthemingto demandgenerators, the internet.We observethat many of today's productattributes did notevenexista decadeortwo ago.Sosophisticated aretoday'smarketsthatcertain once-popular conceptshavefadedintooblivion whilesomepreviouslynegativetrailsare now consideredpositiveattractions. Therefore, we are pleasedto be ableto interpret loday'sdesign,technology,and creativeconceptswhich offer such brightprospectsfor the future. WalterA. Futes,Richard H. Pennet and Lawrence Adams



F-lctel Types iih conceptsranging downtownand suburban emphasis on strongly f romresorttheme structures reinvent their targetingspecificmarket parksto efficient ambiance throughinnovativesectorsso thatthe hotelmay renovations, extended-stays andfrom restoration, betterfulfillitsfunction.For highJashion boutique hotels additions, and adaptive example,luxuryresortsand virtualofficesuites, reuse. to flexible super-luxury hotelsneed Part1 reviewsmorethan50 small,superbrestaurants and different typesof hotelsnow Thesuccessf ul conference healthspasto maintain their flourishing in today's center,whichsignificantly clientele. increasingly customized differsfromthe convention marketplace. resortor mega-hotel, Thispartbeginswithan Separate for chaptersaredevotedto each instance, is clearlyaddressedoverview tracingthehotel's For in termsof designoptions, evolution of 12 majorcategories. andthe latest planning, hotels example, suburban anddevelopment forecastsof itsfuture as wellas development, viewedin an offermanychoicesas varied considerations perspective, as airporthotelsarefrom socialandcultural historical and inns,whileresorts implications. country Future trends summarizes thesein a chart an ever-widening areoutlinedin eachcategory on hotelmilestones. The encompass andsummarized in thefinal evolutionary treediagramis arrayas uniqueas the n h e n t o r n f P r r t ? A retreat is from the ecotourist another themethreading resort.Countless continuing convention themeis the throughthesechapters.

Airpod Hoiel ExecutiveTfoiningCenter Unive6ly Conference Cantgr SuburbonConvenlionCenler SuburbonCommunity Holel Office PorkHote Shopping Moll Holel




LimitedServiceslo Super-Budgel Ryokon/ Indiqn Dqk Bungoow


Country nn

Hospice EuropeonInn

DowniownBusiness & TourlslHo'iel Downtown Convent on HoJel Mixed Use& EnledoinmentHoiel


Hi-RiseMegoiel BouliqueHotel Adopiive Reuse- Reslorqtion Ciy Club, WellnessCenler / Heqllhlel Audrc

levelopmentscan be plannedbetterto blend in ,vth the naturallandscape.Also, throughphased authorlties can moreeasrlyrnonitor the levelopment, againstexceedingapproveddensities revelopment controls.F-or example, The rr ignoringenvironmental ) /-Ca(llo.'Higl-la1ds'r Asoel 'equi'es10 more :ran 20 acres(8 ha)to createa villagesettinginclud-g retail,dining,entertainment, and servicefacilities 'ar guestsand visitors.

operatorspreferf replacesln the mainpublicspaces and as practica, n hotelsuitesand condorninium the number andvacationownershp units.However, by of fireplacesin sornelocatons may be restricted regulat onswhichmightlimitthem,say, environmental to a fewspecf c suites.Airconditoning,on theother hand,may not be requlredif summertemperatures as s oftenthe case at higherelevaare comfoftabLe, tions.Intheroomsandsuitesshowersmightbe sub siitutedfor bathtubs n some units Durablejinish


Part1: HotelTypes

materialsmustbe usedthroughout the interiorsto avoidthedamagingeffectof skiboots.Hard-surface stoneflooringshouldbe usedat entrance areasdue to heaw boot trafficand dampness.However, for acoustical reasons, densecarpetis required in other publicareas,to cushionthe bootsteps. Bar and loungeareasshouldbe designed10 enhancethe uniquecamaraderie thatoccursat ski lodges,amongskiersof allages.Multiple outletsmay be necessary to meetthedifferingneedsof diverse agegroups.Themaincocktailloungeor a lobbybar, offeringa fireplace, comfortable Jurnishings, mountainviews,and entertainment generallyis for more guests.Butanotherbar nearaffluentmjddle-aged by mayattractthe moreboisterous hasa dancefloor,popularmusic,anddoesn'tabsolutely require outside views.Finding waysto combine the diverseagegroups,astheyrecalltheday'sskiruns, contributes to the lodge'spleasantatmosphere. Whilelunchis at mosta lightsnack,dinnerat ski lodgesis considered an important socialoccasion for morediscussion of skiingexperiences and reenergizing forthenextday.Restaurants shouldhave naturalIight,wlthoutdoordecksfordaytimeuse,and raisedinterior levels to enhance mountain views. An idealrestaurant mix includesan upscaledinner restaurant, a three-meal caf6,and an optionalsellserveindoor/outdoor kioskfor lightda)4imesnack service.

SignificantSki Resorts Amongthemostsigni{icant advanced designconceptsresponding to vitaltrendsin thegrowingski lodgemarket arethefollowing examples, aswellas thoseincluded intheearlier section, Vacation OwnershipandCondominium Resorts. Amangani, Jackson Hole, Wyoming In the NativeAmericanlanguageof the Shoshone, ganl means'home,'whereasamanis Sanskrilfor 'peaceful.' Anywayyoutakeit, this intimate4o-unit besfof-eveMhing skiresortis designedfora variety ot atmospheres inwhichto relax,play,concentrate on passions, or whatever thesettinginspires. Theresort couldnot be bettersuitedto its locationamidstthe grandeur of theTetonRangein northwest Wyoming. fhen1dernskilodgewithdranatic viewsAmangani, Jackson Hole,Wyoming. Thetwo Sited at an elevation of nearly7,000ft (2,135m) on story, high-windowed l0unqe celebntes breathtakinq views 0flheGrand Tet0n range, framed buite,all-weather swimming bythelodge's rugged sandstone c0lumns. Likeitspublicspaces, thesuitesfeature luxuti- thecrestof anundulating ousconJorts, fromfireplaces bytheresort's115ft (35m) longpooland andbalconies t0 slate-floored sh0wers andsoaking tubs is ensured wiihmountain views, andiurnishings decorously whirlpool, harm0nizin0 withlhewestem withmagnificent m00d(see nearby viewsof meadows forafurther o.C-23 view). andsnow-caooed mountains.


101 |

setting, thesuperb Responding to itsinspirational rugged solutionhighlights and novelarchitectural walls,combinedwith moderninterior sandstone isthelounge, withitsredwood Mosistriking finishes. windowsframingdramatic ceilingandtwo-story-high views. withmountain balconies Theluxurious suitesfeature reflecting thewestviews,f replaces, andfurnishings platformbeds,wovencowhide ernmood king-size tables.Thesuites chairs,andpinestumpoccasional featurea privaledressingroomandspaciousbathroomwitha deepsoakingtubwithitsownpanoramsuites, viewInaddition to the29standard ic mountain and include eightupgraded suites accommodations threedeluxesuites. Themoodof the 65-seatgrillis set by a large andfruitwood fireplace andcinnamon wood-burning librarywithnaturaldaylight tabletops.A spacious of booksonwestadjoinstheloungewitha selection jlora cultureandregional ernandNativeAmerican andfauna,plusCDs,videos,andgames.An adjaisavailable fireplace centroomwitha wood-burning Thehealth dining. andspecial-occasion formeetings exercise sturooms, two features Jour treatment spa individualized a space for rooms, and dios,steam programs. 2,500acres TheAlpineresortareaencompasses In Lodge,Winlhlop,Washinglon. andadditi1n SunMountain (1,000ha) of ski trailsand snowboarding terrain. Theskilldgeren1vati1n style0f theoriginal design thisruqged stoneandtimbellodge,thetraditional expanding skiingbeginsa iewminutes Extensive cross-country ranging f[0mlire craiting decorative elements andenhanced bylocalartisans waspreserved snow- place dog-sledding, fromtheresort. Snowmobiling, lixtures. t0ps andlnventive lighting mantels, tosplitlogtable screens andcarved horseback riding,mountain shoeing, sleigh-rides, gol{ aswell river raft ng, and tennis, fly fishing, biking, are ecotourist events nature tours and scheduled as year-round. is The resort's ambiance available of the rooted in the Rocky l\,4ountains appropriately inthe nestled American Westandthecattleranches valleys. nearby Sun fuountain Lodge, Winthrop, Washington Lodge Likethe ski industryitself,Sun l\4ountain in itself to meet significant changes reconstructed preferences. The resort's rugged timber customer fortherensetthedesigncharacter logexpression guestroom In nearby building. thelodge, ovationof a public were updated and others, and service areas older restaurant, and meeting roorns, boardroom, a library new wing of were added, along with a retailshops guestrooms. 50 additional mountain, lake,and Inspired by the magnificent Valculture of the l\,4ethow riverviewsas wellasthe ley artisans whoseworkgracesthe originaland interior, the designers and craftspeople enhanced

Bachelor Thedesign 0fthis Gllch,Vail,C0l0rad0. fheAlpine skilldgelheRilz-Callton premier amenities aswellas 0f recreational skircso incorporates a lull angeandvariety byrccesslng thearriva units. Thevjews 0fthehotelareenhanced difierent types 0fresidentia lobby level andgu€sl vehicles. l-arge spectat0l tefiaces a1lhe itsstanding cou toconceal have wide views 0ftheskisl0pes. rcom balconies

roz I

Part1: HotelTypes

Thenegaskivillage sec}nd hjnercsutconmunily planc0ncept WestRock Resort, LakeCascade, ldaho.Based 0na master deve oped project attheturn0l thecentury, a 3,460-Iesidence is thefirstmajorUSskires0rt creaied invirtually threedecades Supported bythestate, thlsal-season reso 0nthe7 672ft (2,340m)Wesll\/lountain, featuring lishngaswellasskingandsn0wb0arding, s bengdeveOped byan internalonal growth skiconsoiLm.EnvirOnmental aullr0f tiesandecon0mic advocates areevauating thepropOsal, c0ntaining 20skl iltsand (79,000 850,000 ft'? m10lvillage c0mmerciat space.

collaborated on suchdecorative elemenis as lightingfxtures, fireplace screens, carvedmantels, desk Loos, customfabrics, a'rdalwork. fhe Rltz-Ca ton Asper Highlands and The Ritz.Cartton Club Aspen Hightands, Despiteboasting someo{ the mostexpertskiterrainin NorthAmerica andthegreatest vertical drop in Colorado, the AspenHighlandsski area fell behindthetimes.Inadequate liftscreated longlrnes and the virtuallyundeveloped base area led to gradualdecreases popularity. in theskimountain's Eventually, GeraldHines, a part{ime Aspenresident andlnternational developer, in partnership withthe AspenSkiCompany, sparked therebuilding of the skitrailsandcreateda multiunit villageat thebase flanked bytworesidential neighborhoods including townhouses withdirectskiaccess. Its architecture drawson the Americanrustic designtradition exemplified bysuchadmired structuresas theAhwahnee Innin Yosemite Valley, Old Faithful LodgeinYellowstone Park,Timberline Lodge at l\,4ount Hood,and ParadiseLodgeat [,4ount Rainier. Nativestone,logs,and roughclapboards form solid walls and broadeaveswhich shed powdery Aspen's guestsandressnowandprotect identsfromthestrongsunlight.


I Suchdifferent faciorsas fitnessconsciousness andimproved skFlearning techniques, andvacationownership designsstrongy appealing to the phenomenon, second-home willstrongly stimulategrowthof ski resorts. I Theincreasing importance of summer resort activitieswill promotedevelopment of new resods basedon thesite'syear-round appea.

I Ski resortswill add modest-sized conference and meetingcentersto extendbusinessinto shoulderand off-seasonperiods.Conferees enjoymultiplerecreational opportunities whrch aboundat skiresorts, evendurng thenonskiing months.

I Ski resortswill adopt elementsof vacation ownership in theirguestroom layoutsto better accornmodate longerstaysand morefrequent usein theoff-season.

I Environmental concerns willbe satisfied by planninganddensity controls aswellas designtechniques such as undergroundparkingand clustering of skilodgevillages to betterpreserve majoropenspaces.



Ecotourist Resorts Cleay theprcblemof manandnatureis notoneofproplay,oreven vidinga decontive background forthehuman ameliorating thegrimcity;it is thenecesstty of sustaining challenge nature assourceoflife,milieu,teachetsanctum, and,mostof all,of rediscovering nature'scorollary of the (lanlvlcHarg, unknown intheself,thesource ofmeaning. DesignwithNature\ Theworld'sheightened concern forthesurvival ofthe planetanda newawareness of the preciousness of ecosyslems and cullureshasfueledthe threatened globalemergence in the pastdecadeof ecotourism as one of the strongestgroMh areasin the travel indusiryTravelers rangefrompassionale advocates responsibility to thosewantingto expeof ecological rienceunspoiled nature, itswildlife, andindigenous cultures up close.lvlosttravelers areeagerto escape theirhomogenized settingsandexperience the local environment or itspeople.Ecolourist resortsspecializein catering to theseneedsin varyingdegrees.

Theec\tourist res\rtperched 0nwater Pang*otLautResod,Lumut,Malaysia. Besidinginthethatch-roofed over-water cabins strung alongthe\{inding w00dpier,guests enj0y whileimmerced in the siimulatinq exposure t0 native culture andthewonders 0f nalure (seep.C-l6fora fu herview). comforts rcsort 0fa luxury

EcologicalResponsibility sustainable development, and green Ecotourism, architecture in manywaysare descendants ol the movement of the 1960sand 1970s environmental when'backto nature'was the call.Over30 years ago, TheWholeEafthCatalogprovideda sourcebook who of toolsfor livingoff the landfor a generation of ecological responsibility. embraced theprinciples It provideddetailedtechnicalinformation on alterna'tiveenergyand fuel sources,recycling,organic agriculture, and other nonpolluting, ecofriendly technologies. Stanley Selengut, a civilengineer who resort hasbeencalledthe godfatherof ecotourlsm princiutilizedmanyof theecological development, plesof sustainable designinthecreation of anexperin the US imentalresortwhichhe calledHarmony, wasdesigned Virginlslands. Harmony to runon solar andwind powerand leaveits hillyocean{rontsile as undisturbed as possible.Floortilesweremade fromslagand discardedglass,carpetingfromlast month'splasticbottles.Rooftopsolarhol-water and photovoltaiccollectorsaugmentedby windmills providepowerPassive systemssuchas cross-venglazing,and a wind-scoop at tilation,heafresistant theroofDeakheloto maketheinteriors comfortable. whichthenis storedin cisGuiterscatchrainwater, for lateruse.Interior ternsbuiltintothefoundations, wallpaperis madefromrecyclednewsprint, Occupancysensorsdetectlack of motionand turn off rooms. oowerin unoccuoied

fheecotourist resott wind,andninwatet Harmony MahoBayCamps, ol solat, USViF gin lslands.Designed t0 run0nsolarandwindpo\{erandto leave itshillyoceanlront site theresort fundamental issues asundisturbed aspossible, embraces 0fsustainable archiguests tecture andecojriendly techn0l0gies whileproviding withavaluable andenterbininghospitality experience.


Part1: HotelTypes

hasmuchto maintains thatecolourism Selengut educational experience dowithproviding a valuable According to him,'Thequalities needto thetraveler. ecotourism aremoreattuned10the edJorsuccessful jndustry entertainment thanrealestatedevelopment. lvlostresortstry to protectguestsfromexperience, butwetryourbestto putthemintotheexperience.' Alsoreferredto as 'soft-pathtourism,'an imporwithisto provideexperience tantgoalof ecotourism Thereis a responsibility incumbent out disruption. on boththe developer and the touristto prevent and to avoidnegadamageto fragileecosystems Forsuchconon indigenous cultures. tiveinfluence as the servaliongroupsand trade organizalions Ecotourist Society, the goalls to setthe standards travelto and to supportresponsible of ecotourism naturalareaswherethe environment anditswildlife Kedewatan, Bali,Indonesia. Visitors t0thisBali fheecj-ethn1l1urist resorlAmandari, natural setting butals0 is beingconserved neseresort not0nlytoluxutious service andthemajestic aretreated and the well-beingof the local 0ftheirculture. Employees make dailyofler- population 0fitspeople andtheintricacies t0therichness meansencouris sustained. Thisusually intothelandscape. Naiive agingresoftsthatutilizerecycled shrines thatarewoven ingsolfood,flowers, andcl0thl0theHindu or locallyproduced rellect spiritual andcultural cos- building materials, methods, andarchitecture theindigenous building enermaterials, employsolaror alternaiive (see p.C 16forafurlher view). mology gies,provideenvironmental education, designlo donatepartoftheir blendinwiththeirsunoundings, profitsto localconservation etforts,recyclewaste servelocallygrownand produced andwastewater, foodand beverages, and selland displayhandF craftsof localartisans. 'Ethno-tourism' (or eco-ethno{ourism) is a term the culturaland spiritualdimenusedto emphasize development andto promote the sionsof sustainable of regional cultureand experience andconservation heritage. archeologists andanthropoloConsequently, gistshavebecomeimportant consultants of theecoresort'sdesignanddevelopment team. ethno{ourist Amandari, Kedewahn,

BaIi, lndonesia

Bali,embodies Amandari, a luxuryresortin Central principles of ecotourism manyof thefundamenlal and ethnotourism. lt is sitedon an escarpment perchedabovea rivergorgeandsurrounded byterracedricefields.According to ownerAdrianZecha, Amandaricreatesa platformfor touriststo absorb theemotive, cultural context-theJeeling ol oldBali. Seeking to be at onewiththevillageli{e,Amandari thestaffto practice theirreligion andfolk encourages landart.Hindushrines arewovenintotheresort's scapewherea Hindupriestmayofferprayersto a replicaoJ a Balinesetiger.Eachday,employees makeofieringsof food,flowers,and cloth. Bali,thesoleHinduislandin Indonesia, mixesits fheec\t\utistresoftattherainf1rest's edgethetatonTimikaH0tel,kianJaya,Indonepowerful with and Hinduism doses of animism reception, lobby, restaumnt, meeting r0oms, andJitness center sia.Themainlodgehousing Bali ancestor worship. Constructing a hotel in is a guestroom resls0nanexpressed base 0fl0calriverstone whilethe bunqalows areelevated on preserving (see p. very inlricate science, often involving Balinese flagile C-16 for a further view). stiltsabove therainforest floor, the ecosystem

Resorts craftspeople whobelievehotelsareIivingthingswiih order.Consideration must a complex cosmological be givento thearrangement of hotelusessothatthe kitchen, thelaundryandthehealthclub,forexample,arefacingin cosmologically correctdirections. Treesarethehomesof thespirits;therefore, whena treetrunkis usedas a columntheendwhereit was cut nearthegroundmustalwaysfacedownward. Thedesigners of Amandari wereexacting intheir Baliuseof localmaterials and buildingmethods. rubbedstones nesemasons together byhandinthe mannerto produceperfectmortarless traditional joints.Landscape archilect Michael Whitedesigned poolto echotheformof thericetertheswimming raceson whichtheresortwasbuilt.Theformerrice terraces laterwerereplanted withrice,fruittrees,and gardens in orderto remedyerosion thatwasplaguingthegorge. Whitetranslormeda deJorested mountainarea lntoa beautilul Balinese romantic courtyard andgardenutilizing a designprinciple calledsiterepairas delineated by Christopher Alexander in his pioneeringbookon designmethodology, A Paftern proposing Language.In the conceptof siterepair, Alexander states:'Buildings mustalways be builton :hose parts of the land which are in the worst condition, notthe best.And,on no accountplace in theplaceswhlcharemostbeautiful. In buildings 'act. do the ooDosite. Considerthe site and its cuildings as a singlelivingecosystem. Leavethose beautiful, comareasthatarethe mostprecious, 'ortable,and healthyas theyare,and buildnew in thosepartsof thesitewhichareleast structures 3leasant.'

1os I

fheecot1utist wildeness resolHotelExplola LakePehoe, P0ised enPatagonia, Chile. onthewater's edge andresembling a shlpatsea,thearchitecture 0fthisadventures0me resort isdesigned winds 70rnph 10endure sustalned 01over thatfrequently whip across the (see p.C-17 surlace 01the lake 10r alu herview). connectedby boardwalks raisedabovetheground llora.Rather to protect thenative thanblending into itssurroundings, thehoteldesignpurposely distinguishesbetweenartificial yet in a and wilderness nonintrusive mannerlikea shipat sea. Locatedin theAtacamaDesertin northernChile the ExploraAtacamais a sisterto the Patagonian resort.The desertis one of the driestplaceson humidity earth,withrelative ofienas lowas2 percent As a result, andoccasionally approaching 0 percent. the sky is remarkably clearand the sunlightvery

Exptora en Patagonia and Exptora en Atacama, Chire A specialbreedof ecotouristresortsarelocatedin These :.e mostremoteandextreme environments. :ften arethe mostbeautiful to visitfor the more TheExplora Patagonia is one adventurous tourists. sJchresortsetinthewildsoftheAndesamidstgiant -ajestichorn-shaped peaks,glacierfedlakesand in Patagonia :.lmordiallorests.Weather canbequite -:ensewithsustained windssometimes reaching in excessof 70 mph.Thehotelservesas a basecamp 'lr explorations intothe spectacular surrounding ,'. derness. Tominimize damageto theterrain the hotelwas :esignedasa seriesof smallstructures withno inter-ediatespacebetween indoorsandout.Thepool - luse sitsontheedgeof LakePehoeandthemain :-ildinghasno porch,terrace, oryard.Buildings are

Theec\t1urist desert resolHotelExplora enAtacama, SanPedlodeAtacama, Chile. guests Beneath theresoft's expansive verandas andtrellises takercluge fr0mtheintense sunlight caused bythedeserl's extreme l0whumidity whileviewinq llamas andalpacas lhatwander (see p.C-17 thr0ugh ihelields surfounding thecomplex iOrafurther view).


Part1: HotelTypes trellises are strong.Wideverandas andexpansive partsofthecomplex designed connecting to shield sunlight. Eventhough the guestsfromthe intense the settingis extremely arid it has plentyof water fromthe runoffof theAndesl\,4ountains and undergroundaquifers. Thelandscape designcalledfor preserving builtby the the canalsand aqueducts tribesto irrigate their ancienlIncaandTiahuaniaco fieldsIorthousands ofyears.Tominimize disruption inwildlife, irrigated fieldsthatsurround thehotelare opento roarringpacksof llamasandalpacas.

Ecotourism Main-line

islandof Anguilla. The state-otthe-a Caribbean hydroponicprocess producespollutant-andpesticideJree fruits,vegetables, andedibleflowers preparing meals in the resort's restaurant usedfor Thereare still great realms of emply ocean, deserts r'eaching to the cuNature of the eatth, silent,ancient forestsand tocl
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