HL Topic 5- Imperial Russia, Revolutions, Emergence of Soviet State

August 6, 2018 | Author: Hayley Johnson | Category: Vladimir Lenin, Nicholas Ii Of Russia, International Politics, Soviet Union, Russian Empire
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5. Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853 - 1924 


Background of the Peasantry 

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2 types state peasants – inhabitants of crown estates o landlord’s peasants – serfs o Serfs were bound to land, state peasants had much more freedom Allocation of land was inefficient for produce Serfs were not allowed to earn money so s o they paid in labour (berschina) State peasants paid rent 

Emancipation of the Serfs Failings of Serfdom  

80% of Russian population were serfs Bad for Serfs Increase in productivity did not match population growth o Worse poverty o Bad for nobility System did not provide enough income for changing economy o Bad for State Did not encourage innovation or experiment  o Led to Russia falling behind international community economically o Instability Food shortage led to unrest, led to peasant violence outbreaks o Detriments of Change

Nobility Loss of land and service o Avoid weaknesses they saw in other othe r western countries where the o serfs had been emancipated Feared loss of autocracy o Serfs Did not associate their problems with the Tsar or the system, but  o with their landlords The majority of peasants neither understood nor were interested o in their rights

All were scared of the implications of emancipations and change in general Introducing Emancipation

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Alexander II used the defeat of the Crimean War to show the need nee d for change Reinforced through Nicholas’ I attitude to serfdom o Used growing unrest of serfs to encourage fears of revolution from below Used full weight of autocratic power Serfs believed they would be emancipated after those who had been drafted had finished their service at war. When this did not happen, there was more unrest  November 1857 – plan of actions was released Each province was to form a committee to address the issue (they did so reluctantly) ’58 – ’60 – meetings were held with province representatives Feb 1861 – Emancipation decree was published The Decree

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Serfs received land from states of nobility Compensation was paid to the nobility by the state The peasants had to repay the state for this (49 yr mortgage) The ‘mir’ was established for administering the land Impacts of Emancipation

Peasants Were not happy with the decree o  Did not want to pay for land that their family had been farming for generations  Did not blame Tsar, thought that their landlord’s were lying  Couldn’t afford the 49 yr mortgage, they were paying for revenue lost which was often twice the value of the land Many aspects stayed the same o  The ‘mir’ did not encourage initiative or experiment   The strip system continued  Peasants were still outside the main body of law, binding them to their lifestyle  Peasants liked the ‘mir’ because it provided collective security Land distribution o  Each peasant wanted more land due to the population pressure  There was not enough to go around -> unemployment   Land was distributed unfairly in quality and quantity Nobility Unprepared for life without serfs o

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Nobility were forced to sell a lot of land Were no longer able to act as a stabilising force Their position and power were based on serfdom -> Emancipation condemned them as a class

Other Reforms Local Government    

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Prior to his ascension there was no local govt -> admin inefficiency The zemstva (locally elected councils) were established 1864 Zemstva had responsibility for public education, health, economic development, public services and infrastructure Alexander II wanted to retain nobility as a bulwark, so the seats were divided between classes Taxing continued to favour nobility 1870 – similar system was set up in towns (duma) Legal Reform

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Different types of courts and officials were ill trained tr ained and illiterate 1864 – major reforms occurred Salaries were set high to avoid bribery, public trials were introduced, appeal courts were set up This meant the judiciary was mostly independent and fair The education of the officials put them in position to become radicals Military Reform

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Failures of the military outline in the result and impacts of the Crimean war Comand structure was inflexible and inefficient  Punishment was severe and barbaric The parade ground was more important than actual combat in training Service for conscripts was 25 years -> became seen as a sentence and undesirable 1861 – Miliutin appointed minister for War Decentralised administration and supply Set up army schools Length of service reduced PEASANTS WERE TREATED THE SAME AS NOBLES!! -> nobility rejected this idea Education

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Primary education was increased Schools were no longer affiliated with the church -> ministry of education Universities were given control over administrative matters Censorship was cut down majorly

Scholarships and financial aid were given, foreigners could attain degrees as well -> more people had access to education Due to the growth of radical ideas fostered by the encouragement of  educations, Golvonin was replaced by Tolstoy (ministers of education) Women’s education was furthered Economy

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Reutern -> minster for finance 1862 Created unified treasury and centralised administration 1862 – budgets were published Railway network was extended to encourage exports Banks and savings associations set up so money lenders were not relied upon ‘Pale of Settlement’ limit the areas in which Jews could settle to border lands 1865 – Pale was abolished to further economy, anti-Semitism was still strong. Foreign Policy

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Peaceful Europe Complete annexation of Warsaw to guard Western border Austria, Britain, France were opposed to these demands Threat from Napoleon forced powers to cooperate, and Alexander got  most of his demands Quadruple Alliance – Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia – great powers had special rights and responsibilities and therefore rights to intervene on other sovereignties Holy Alliance – Alexander II’s doing, commitment to Christianity Christianity in international and domestic relations Encouraged expansion in Asia Encouraged Franco-austrian rivalry which backfired leading to to Polish revolt  Withdrew from European affairs to focus on internal reforms until 1873 – Dreikaiserbund

Policies of Alexander III (1881- 94) and Nicholas II (18951917): backwardness and attempts at modernization; nature of tsardom; growth of opposition movements The New Conservatism

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Counter- reforms Safeguard system ( August 1881) – gave governor generals and police more power Arrest and imprison suspects for 3 months o Close down and fine local press o Close down zemstva and duma o Immediately applied to 10 provinces including St Petersburg Pe tersburg and Moscow o Police state – eroded the press, judicial system and compromised the o zemstva’s authority Land captains – centrally appointed delegates of the governor generals who could interfere with the local government. Wanted to return to autocratic system – rejected liberalism Russification

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Russification = attempting to create a single ‘Russian’ nationality out of the multinational Russian Empire. Admired Bismarkian Germany which had a single united nationality Successes Caucasian and Turkik learned to speak and read Russian o Ukraine were described as ‘little russians’ despite their distinct national o identity Negative consequences Eroded power of Georgian and Armenian landowning elites o Imposed Russian language on Baltic provinces o Abolished Finland’s army, introduced Russia as the official language, o abolishing the Finnish government component in each province Onslaught on Polish culture in terms of language and military as well as o oppression. Jews also had their rights severly violated. Denied vote, limits on o education, pale of settlement. 2/3 of jews were expelled due to violence and pogroms

Economic Development  

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Although Alexander had made considerab le progress with Russia’s economy, so had Britain and Germany The type of revolution that worked in Britiain and Germany could not be achieved in Russia because Economy had been hindered by serfdom and its abolution o The country was so large in terms of population and geography o The autocracy feared the proletariat  o Russia had to spend beyond its means to maintain a competitive military o establishment  The depression had forced most of Europe into protectionism (tariffs on o imported goods) Finance Ministers: Nikolai Bunge (1881-7) tried to control expenditure Ivan Vyshnegradsky (1887-92) increased taxes, secured French loans Put pressure on the peasantry o 1891-91 = worst famine in 19th century. 2 million lives. o Witte (Prime Minister) (1892 – 1900) 2 phases of industrialisation o  unstable first phase, impoverishment, dislocation and social protest   second phase – increased wealth eased tensions and created a more complex and harmonious society Saw that Russia could begin its industrialisation with the most modern o methods and techniques and therefore achieve industrial efficiency more quickly 7 years of rapid industrialisation followed o Compress and accelerate first phase o Loans from the French o Trans-siberian railway o Gold standard – increased inflow of foreign capital o Social Policies o  Factory inspectorate controlling use of child and female labour  Limit hours for workers  Permit trades unions Russia ran up huge debts as a result of Witte’s policies o  Agriculture

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Contrast between industrial and agricultural policies after 1881 Ministry of Interior focused on peasantry and agriculture, a griculture, Witte focused o on industry – 2 confliction directions Shortcomings of emancipation Inadequate land provision o Rural population expansion o When govt most needed to export grain prices were depressed o 1891 -2 Famine – poor govt response. Peasants still had to pay tax 1900 Agricultural crisis

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consequence of huge population growth Peasant riots Govt responded with force and set up Commission on Agriculture – Stolypin Weaken Mir and give peasants more independence worked!!

Opposition Workers World economy slump 2900  wage cuts, strikes, lockouts etc. o Govt forms trade unions and exploits nationalism and anti Semitism o 1881 assassination – Nicholas II makes state more oppressive o Universities – oppressiveness of govt on curriculum causes strikes Populists Marxists Marxism = emergence of a new political and economic order, equal and o fair with no classes and therefore no class struggle. New ideas were needed to accommodate the revolution – Marxism o Appealed to intelligentsia through its scientificness and utopian vision o Social democrats Socialist Revolutionaries Wanted to help the people o More emotional view of revolution appealed to the peasants o Party was based on political group in areas of rural unrest  o Party’ s incoherence and lack of long term programme meant that it relied o upon short term economic distres Liberals Liberalism: intellectuals, education reforms made it more popular o Union of Liberation o  Aimed to end autocracy

Significance of the Russo-Japanese War; 1905 revolution; Stolypin and the Duma; the impact of WWI on Russia

Russo Japanese War 

Causes of Russian making o Russia’s aims  Expansionist policy in the Far East – make up for relative decline in Europe - Witte  Obtain Ice-free port   Distract attention from domestic troubles Territorial disputes between Russia and Japan over: o  Korea  Manchuria 1904 – Russian Govt rejects Japanese proposals for the settlement of  o Korea


Russia greatly underestimated the strength of Japan Emporer Meiji (196 – 1914) had made great reforms o Japan gained Port Arthur (Korea) and Mukden (Manchuria) in early 1905 o Final defeat at sea in May 1905 o o Predictable commander’s strategy of Russia Distances over which supplies had to be transported in Russia o Consequences Russian govt obliged to make peace – Treaty of Portsmouth o Japanese gain Manchuria and Korea o National humiliation o Incompetence of govt revealed o Excited social unrest that it had aimed to dampen o Build up of tension which led to 1905 revolution o o

The 1905 Revolution 

Causes Govt responsibility - Witte  Repression  Taxation  Lack of leadership Social unrest  o Economic recession o Bad harvests o Peasants = anger over mortgage payments o Workers = anger over unemployment and wages o Russo – Japanese War defeat  o Revolution (1905 - 6) Bloody Sunday – Gapon o Strikes in major cities o o

Liberals = Milyukov leads the ‘Union of Unions’ Peasant revolts = seizure of land o Workers = Soviets formed o  Mutinies in services Resolution Liberals = October Manifesto o  Duma  Civil rights Peasants = mortgage lowered and eventually abolished o Workers = crushed o Fundamental laws restate tsar’s absolute power o Significance of 1905 First broad based challenge to stardom, o Was it a revolution? o Russian govt is not easy to overthrow o o

Stolypin   

President of the Council of Ministers - July 1906 “suppression first and then reform” reform should be introduced as a way of reducing bitterness on which opposition fed industrial progress couldn’t solve Russia’s problems, rapidly growing population must be fed Shortages in food had been created by Bad harvests in the 1890s o Govts land policies o Peasants were scared that govt would seize their land because they couldn’t pay their mortgages Govt announced that outstanding repayments would be cancelled o ‘Wager on the strong’ Aim: create prosperous, productive peasants – supporters of tsarist  o regime Means: o  Replace strip system with fields similar to those in western Europe  Voluntary resettlement of the peasants to populate remoter areas Standard historian view: he had little real chance of reforming agriculture since the Russian Peasantry was so backward and time constraints

Dumas 

Tsar Nicholas II limited power of the Duma Substantial loan from France meant less hold on the govt’s finances o 2 houses – 1 elected, 1 state appointed. State apt could veto any decision o by elected Tsar had Supreme Autocratic Power o Vyborg Appeal

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Reformists demanded that Duma had more power Caused Duma to be dissolved Encouraged people to not pay taxes and disobey conscription – resulted in scattered violence Stolypin policy of repression – Martial Law, military courts were used to quell disturbances

1st  Duma


2nd Duma (1907)

3rd Duma (1907 – 12)

4th Duma (1912 – 14)

Character Dominated by reformist  parties Clash between revolutionaries and right  wing parties Election rigged by Stolypin to produce more co-operative deputies from moderate parties Dominated by right-wing parties again willing to co-operate

Achievements Short lived – little achieved Dissolved in disorder – little achieved Committees did achieve effective work in social reform Social reform work  continued, but prepared to criticise govt 

Impact of WWI on Russia 

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The socialist parties abandoned their policies and committed themselves to the national war effort in all warring countries Bolsheviks were vilified as traitors The pressure of total war on all countries was immense; of the 6 empires engaged in WWI, only Britain and France survived. Inflation Russia had largest gold reserves of any European country o Government spending rose from 4m to 39m during the war  increased o taxation and foreign loans Gold standard was abandoned  govt printed more money, led to o longterm inflation Food supplies and transport  Requisitioning of supplies by military made it difficult for peasants to o sustain agricultural output. Inflation made trading unprofitable so peasants began hoarding o Army had first claim on food and transport  o Lack of transport meant that urban areas stopped receiving food from the o country There was a growth in railways rai lways but it did not meet the demands of war o 1916 – Petrograd and Moscow were receiving only a 1/3 of their food and o fuel needs.

The army Russia put less than half the troops into the field per capita than Germany o or France did Largest army of all countries o Lack of equipment  o Problem was not lack of resources but poor administration. o Role of the Tsar Strong central leadership was desperately needed o 1915 Nicholas II had taken over direct command co mmand of Russia’s armed o services in order to rally the nation around him as Tsar o He was now personally responsible for Russia’s performance o

Morale High at the start but with food shortages and long casualty lists o 1916 – pessimism and defeatism o

1917 Revolutions: February/March Revolution; Provisional Government and Dual Power (Soviets); October/November Bolshevik Revolution; Lenin and Trotsky

February/March Revolution 

Background – opposition to the tsar 1916 – all sections of population thought Tsar was inept  o First moves in February revolution were not made by the revolutionary o parties but by the Tsars strongest supporters MISTAKE: Tsar refused to cooperate with non-govt organizations. o MISTAKE: dismissed duma’s appeal to replace his cabinet with a ‘ministry o of national confidence’ whose members would come from the Duma Progressive bloc was formed as a result  – Kadets, Octobrists, Nationaliss o Industrialists AIM: prevent revolution to enable to the govt to end the war o Bloc tried to persuade him to make concessions o Unstable govt – 4 PMs in 15-16 o o Rasputin: achievement in reorganizing the army’s medical supplies system. Rasputin and Alexandra became the focal point of the growing hatred of  o Tsardom. They thought that if he had become a part of it, the system wasn’t worth saving Revolution What made February 1917 different was the range of opposition to the o govt and the speed with which it turned into a revolution 25 February: Petrograd paralyzed by a city-wide strike o When contingents of police and militia were sent in, they either fought  o each other or joined the demonstrators Alexander Kerensky, leading SR member in the Duma, called for the tsar o to stand down as head of state or be deposed. Petrograd Soviet : Mensheviks had set up the soviet made up of: o  Provisional committee – reformist elements of the old duma  Soviet – representing the striking workers and rebellious troops Tsar abdicates on 2nd March. o Bolsheviks o  Neither in 1905 or February revolution  All their leaders were in exile Petrograd o  According to Trotsky “Petrograd achieved the Feb. rev. There was no struggle anywhere except in Petrograd’  2000 casualties  The high-ranking officers who first told Nicholas to stand down  Aristocratic Duma members – refused to disband on tsars orders  Army could not control population Length of war destroyed Tsardom o

Provisional Government and Dual Power  

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Prince Lvov leader of Provisional Govt  – old duma in new form Weaknesses of Prov. Govt. Not elected  lacked authority  judged on how well it dealt with o nations problems Limited by unofficial partnership with Petrograd Soviet  o Kerensky – SR leader, chairman of Soviet and minister in Prov. Govt. Soviet Order Number 1 – decrees of Provisional Govt in regard to military affairs had to be approved by Pet. Sov.  Prov. Gov had no control over army Early Co-operation Widespread elation in Petrograd o Willingness to maintain state authority by people o Allowed Prov. Gov. achievements o  Amnesty for political prisoners  Trade unions were legal  8 hr working day  replace of tsarist police with “people’s milita”  full civil and religious freedoms  preparations for the election of a constituent assembly these changes did not regard issues of war and land.
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