History, Principles, Concepts and Laws in LIS

July 14, 2017 | Author: Roxanne Peña | Category: Library Science, Libraries, School Library, Preservation (Library And Archival Science), Librarian
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Library and Information Science History, Principles, Concepts and Laws...


LIS Refresher Program 2016

I. Nature of Information and Information Science A. Knowledge Spectrum – the connectedness of data, information, knowledge and wisdom (Ackoff, 1989) 1. Data – mere letters, numbers or symbols 2. Information – interpreted data; contextualized data; data presented in comprehensible form 3. Knowledge – information integrated in a larger body of knowledge; applied or potentially applicable to some end (Rubin, 2000) 4. Wisdom – the application of knowledge as contained in human judgment, centered around certain criteria or values B. Characteristics of Information 1. Inherent Characteristics of Information a. Abstract, objective – can be structured, analyzed, synthesized, extracted, summarized, abstracted, reviewed, classified, stored and recalled, interrelated to other pieces of information, shared, transmitted, suppressed, destroyed, disseminated b. Concrete, objective – can be recorded, transmitted, translated, stored and recalled, surrogated c. Concrete – can be stored, converted to other media, duplicated, stored and recalled, interrelated, formatted, surrogated, suppressed, relegated, destroyed 2. User Dependent Characteristics a. Subjective – can be evaluated, interpreted, used, misused, valued, interrelated to use b. Contextual –can be variably interpreted depending on the context of the user c. Choice of selection of media 3. Properties of Information needs a. Information need is a relative concept b. Quantifying information need is difficult c. Information needs are often poorly expressed d. Information need changes upon receipt of information C. Educational, Recreational and Informational (ERI) Needs of Users (Rubin, 2000) 1. ERI infrastructure can be viewed as a process where information is created, disseminated and used and it has these five components a. Creators b. Products c. Distributors d. Disseminators e. Users 2. ERI infrastructure as devices used to transmit information and knowledge. These include books, periodicals, newspapers, television, radios, MP3 players, etc. 3. ERI infrastructure as networks that serve as major channels for communication of information and knowledge. Networks enable the transfer of information from one source to another and from a source to a user. Such networks include telephone lines, radio, television networks and of course the Internet. 4. ERI infrastructure as media structures that produce, distribute knowledge and information. a. Media industries i. Print industry ii. Telephone/mobile phone industry iii. Radio industry iv. Television industry v. The database industry b. Patterns of media use i. Consumer and educational books ii. Newspapers

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 iii. Radio iv. Television v. Theatres vi. Videos and DVD vii. Video Games 5. ERI infrastructure as institutions that provide the foundation for knowledge creation and dissemination a. Libraries b. Schools and Academic Institutions c. Non-formal educational units D. Understanding Information Needs, Use and Users 1. Concepts a. Information need – recognition that your knowledge is inadequate to satisfy a goal that you have (Case, 2002); it is a condition b. Information want – desire for information to satisfay an uncertainty 2. Importance of studying information needs – individuals may not know what information they need, but for librarians to satisfy the needs (and wants) of their clients, they need to be equipped with the skills to proper reference interview to determine such. Having a clear understanding of information needs also contributes to the proper/better design of information systems 3. Approaches to studying information needs a. Individual based b. Institution (libraries) based c. Discipline based 4. Some findings on information needs/wants studies a. There is a difference between information seeking and information gathering b. People usually search information in some context c. People prefer personal rather than institutional sources d. People seldom see librarians as source of information e. Information seeking process proceeds in stages i. Initiation ii. Selection iii. Exploration iv. Formulation v. Collection vi. Presentation f. Search abilities vary among individuals g. Principle of least effort h. People’s search behaviour on the web vary greatly i. Personal attributes  Horizontal information seeking –skimming  Navigators – more time spent in finding their way around the web as they actually view what they find  Viewers – short time spent on e-books and e-journal sites  Squirreling behaviour – saving information for future use  Checkers – assess authority ii. Web use of the young vary from their parents (older generation)  Students use the web for everything  Vary in terms of time spent  Varying search skills depending on experience and exposure  Gives equal importance to discussion lists and actual journal/book files

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 E. Information Storage and Retrieval – work on this area constituted the bulk of the field of information science then. 1. Concepts a. Information retrieval systems – devise interposed between a potential end-user of an information collection and the information collection itself (Harter, 1986) b. Relevance of information retrieval i. Relevant to the user – user defines the context of relevance ii. Relevant to the topic – item retrieved is relevant specific to the subject regardless of a given user 2. Concerns a. Evaluating Information Retrieval Systems i. Recall – the fraction of relevant instances retrieved ii. Precision – fraction of retrieved instances that are relevant b. Search Models i. Boolean searching ii. Searching by type of entry iii. Free text c. Database and File Structure d. Human Computer Interface i. Four categories of knowledge that interact with each other to affect the use of information systems  World knowledge  Systems knowledge  Task knowledge  Domain knowledge ii. Natural language processing (NLP) looks into how humans can communicate with computers using their natural language. In developing such systems here are four areas for considerations:  Speech recognition  Command recognition  Content analysis and representation  System interaction e. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems F. Value of Information and Value-Added Processes 1. Societies that possess the highest quality of information are likely to prosper economically, socially and politically 2. Value added functions are performed by LIS professionals to increase value of information by making it more accessible a. Access processes – classification, indexes, subject headings b. Accuracy processes – bibliographic control, use of standards c. Browsing processes - colocation d. Currency processes – weeding and ordering later editions, using latest index terms e. Flexibility (adaptability) processes f. Formatting processes – physical arrangement and presentation of information g. Interfacing processes – providing assistance to users h. Ordering processes –organization of the collection i. Physical access processes – circulation systems, checkout desks, study areas, shelving II. Theories and Philosophy of LIS A. Librarianship as a profession 1. Professional Models a. Trait model – One way to characterize a profession is by determining whether or not an occupation exhibits particular traits.

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 i.

Common professional traits shared by LIS however librarianship does not correspond to all of these traits  They are service oriented and altruistic in its orientation rather than profit making  Professional associations old conferences, produce publications, promulgate codes of ethics, and accredit educational institutions  Professional associations possess normative authority, including standards of conduct and work ii. Proposed different traits to satisfy the requirements of the profession as the following do not include concepts of enforcement and monopoly (Gardner & Shulman, 2005, P. 14).  Commitment to serve the interest of clients, in particular, and the welfare of the society, in general  A body of theory or special knowledge with its own principles of growth and reorganization  A specialized set of professional skills, practices and performances unique to the profession  A capacity to render judgments with integrity under conditions of both technical and ethical certainty  An organized approach to learning from experience both individually and collectively, thus growing new knowledge from the context of practice  A professional community responsible for the oversight and monitoring of quality in both practice and professional education b. Control model – as suggested by Winter (1988); the distinguishing features of a profession are based on different degrees of power and the nature of the control that each exercises. i. Three ways librarians exert control  Classifying knowledge as a means of organizing it  Indexing knowledge so it can be accessed  Understanding the formal and informal organization of various bodies of knowledge ii. Other types of control according to Winter  Collegial control – professional practice is controlled by those who provide the service  Client control – individuals who use the services determine their wants and needs by the means by which they are satisfied  Mediated control – there is balance between collegial control and client control c. Values model – LIS professional serve the public good by bringing people in contact with knowledge. In doing so, LIS professionals also support fundamental democratic values by ensuring that all people have equal access to that knowledge. Under this view, the professional foundation of LIS is not its techniques but its fundamental values. 2. Perception about libraries a. Stereotypes i. Negative perceptions – impede recruitment in the field and affect the status and growth of the profession as a whole  Spinsters  Hair in a bun  Look stern  Authoritarian and say shh all the time  Male librarians as intellectual effeminates ii. Positive perceptions –  Male librarians as organized, approachable and friendly  Writers often portray librarians in a positive light b. Personality types i. Submissive and lack qualities of leadership

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 ii. Male and female librarians exhibited personality of deference, passivity and self-abasement iii. Different library types attracted different personality types (as to librarians) c. Role of gender i. First female clerk was hired by the Boston Public Library in 1852 ii. By 1910, more than 75% of the library workers were females iii. Librarianship fit the values of work for women (at that time) th iv. The feminization of public librarianship in the 19 century created an inferior image for the profession that it might not have had if it remained the domain of male scholars v. Image and status – women are more likely to serve as children’s librarians or in cataloguing positions B. Education and training 1. History a. Before 1850, there was no training for librarians except trial and error b. From 1850 to 1875 apprenticeship was done for those who were to work in libraries c. 1876 to 1923 marked the development in library education i. The technical education model was adopted because the British classical model was inappropriate and apprenticeship was lacking ii. The proliferation of public libraries through Andrew Carnegie necessitated the training of librarians to man these institutions iii. Melvil Dewey contributed a lot to the development of library education  Dewey Decimal Classification  He organized the national meeting of librarians in 1876 ushering therefore the development of the American Library Association where he became its secretary  He also created the American Library Journal  In 1879 he promoted the systematic training for librarianship by establishing the School of Library Economy at Columbia College (which transferred later on to New York State Library School in 1889 but reverted to Columbia in 1926) 2. Philippine Library Education a. Philippine library education started in 1914 at the University of the Philippines as an Associate in Arts degree b. Philippine Librarianship is governed by RA 9246 c. It is only in the Philippines that librarians are required by law to pass a licensure exam to practice the profession d. There are graduate and undergraduate programs for LIS in the Philippines offered by approximately 70 LIS schools all over the country C. Seven Values of LIS 1. Service – Libraries and librarians are all about serving the people and society 2. Reading and the book are important 3. Respect for truth and the search for truth 4. Tolerance 5. The public good – in every policy that librarians make or for every rule that librarians impose, the public good should always come first 6. Justice 7. Aesthetics D. Ranganathan’s Five Laws of Librarianship 1. Books are for use 2. Books are for all 3. Every book its reader 4. Save the time of the reader 5. The library is a growing organism

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 E. Gorman’s New Laws 1. Libraries serve humanity 2. Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated 3. Use technology intelligently to enhance service 4. Protect free access to knowledge 5. Honor the past and create the future F. Roles of LIS Professionals 1. Educational role a. Libraries provide critical support to the teaching and learning functions of educational institutions b. Libraries provide the materials to answer information needs of users 2. Information role a. Providing access to information b. Evaluating information III. Chronology and Development of LIS A. Ancient Civilizations 1. Earliest mission of ancient libraries – maintain records archive a. Temples were the social and economic center of Sumerian (and other ancient) civilization(s) and it is here where pertinent records of businesses, estates, money, literary texts etc. were kept. b. When writing developed, record keeping followed suit 2. Religious and practical mission a. Egyptian scrolls contained literary texts, historical records, practical and spiritual texts/information b. Edfu – House of Papyrus – contains collection of writings on administration, magic, astronomy, astrology an dmedicine c. Library of Rameses II in Thebes (1200-1300 BC) – may have contained both spiritual and medicinal materials as the inscription read Healer of the Soul 3. Scholarship and research a. Ashurbanipal – King of Assyria (8BC) – his library in Nineveh maintained not only archival records but reference materials and educational material as well; it contains collection of materials from other lands in clay tablets and were translated in their language. Collection included: Sumerian and Babylonian materials on literary texts, history, omens, astronomical calculations, mathematical tables, grammatical and linguistic tables, and dictionaries as well as commercial records and laws b. In 5 BC aristocrats in Greece maintained oral culture – thus the supposed knowledge of Socrates is a bit contested since these are only documented by Plato in his writings, thus there is no clear delineation between which are Plato’s and which are Socrates’ words c. Alexandrian Museum and Library – founded by Ptolemy Soter and Ptolemy Philadelphus with the objective of collecting the entirety of Greek literature thus collecting materials from the known world (i.e. confiscating cargoes of books, copying them and returning them later on); these were then translated into Greek 4. Public Libraries a. The rise of the Roman Empire led to a change in the objectives of libraries. Various Roman generals built libraries in their own villas and were opened to others who do not have the same. This was the start of the public library concept. b. During the time of Julius Caesar, there was an increasing belief that works of literature were to some extent public property that should be available to all citizens even when only 10% of the citizens can read. c. The building of the first public library in Rome was the idea of Julius Caesar but was completed by Asinius Pollio and is given credit to this.

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 d.

These Roman public libraries contained religious articles along with public records and general literature available for borrowing. These libraries included halls where authors can recite their works and hold public forum. e. Romans recorded their history using papyrus scrolls which were then replaced by parchment codex for practical reasons B. Medieval Times – while Western Europe experienced political, economic and social chaos, the archival and scholarly missions of libraries were sustained by Byzantine and Moslem libraries 1. Emperor Constantinus founded the Imperial Library in 353 AD which ontained Christian and Latin works along with Greek materials 2. University libraries also flourished in Constantinople 3. Preservation of Greek classics by Byzantine libraries made Renaissance possible 4. Libraries were commonplace in the Moslem Empire (650 AD-1000 AD) because the culture afforded reading and learning 5. Royal Library in Damascus contained materials from throughout the world on a wide variety of topics including medicine, philosophy, history and literature 6. Research and learning was the focus of university libraries 7. Monasteries provided a means of isolating Christian adherents from the disorder spreading across Europe 8. Mission of monastic libraries : to provide a place for spiritual reflection, to archive religious texts, and to reproduce religious and sometimes secular texts. 9. St. Benedict of Monte Cassino said that the monastic life was to concentrate on spiritual matters and to avoid secular thoughts. As such, monks were tasked with the following: reading and studying books, copying books in their scriptorium 10. Monasteries produced beautifully illuminated copies of books which are supposed to reveal the beauty of God 11. Cathedral libraries rose during the late middle ages and were much bigger than monastic libraries and less dominated by religious works 12. Less contemplative and more secular orders like the Dominicans and Franciscans gave rise to academic centers in Bologna, Paris and Oxford which supported not only theological studies but also classical and professional instruction in law, medicine and philosophy. Therefore, the collection in these specific libraries have also varied in terms of the concentration of these universities but were primarily there in support of the educational needs of the institutions. C. Renaissance 1. The Renaissance was primarily an aristocratic enthusiasm and great private libraries were developed by leading literary figures such as Petrarch and Boccaccio, who themselves were sponsored by popes or Renaissance princes such as the dukes of Urbino and Medici (who are passionate book collectors themselves) 2. Due to these private collections, many Greek classics were preserved and handed down to our current generation 3. The invention of printing press and its subsequent development enabled the following: a. Producing exact copies of books b. Producing more titles and more copies c. Having more subjects d. Creation of new techniques for the organization of published materials e. Stimulation of literacy and education of the general population D. Modern times 1. College libraries were developed. Harvard University library started as a modest collection of about 5,000 volumes. Yale University library started with 2,500 volumes. 2. Libraries for religious purposes were still in place, as maintained in England. However, special libraries were also developed such as agricultural libraries, antiquarian society libraries, art society libraries, hotel

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 reading rooms, ladies’ libraries, law libraries, mechanics’ libraries, medical libraries, prison libraries, railroad libraries, saloon reading rooms, scientific and engineering libraries, sewing circle libraries, state libraries, university libraries, and YMCA libraries. 3. It can be said that social libraries emerged from these highly specialized libraries where individuals contributed to the purchase of the collection. Two types of social libraries emerged: a. Proprietary libraries – those who have contributed money for the library actually owned the materials purchased thereby making them stockholders b. Subscription libraries – individuals would pay corresponding fees for the use of the materials but they do not own the items. 4. The modern times also saw the development of circulating libraries whose selections include popular literature such as romance novels. 5. Special libraries were established as well where the library’s goal was to provide the information needs of the individuals of a particular organization and focused its collection development around this objective rather than just build a collection per se. 6. The modern times saw much of the development in libraries and these developments have made the libraries to how they are now. 7. Standards in cataloguing and classification were initiated by known personalities such as Dewey, Cutter, Jewett, Panizzi, and were developed further by library associations 8. Production of library cards and the computerization of the library catalog were later on developed to make the services more efficient 9. The Library of Congress was developed in terms of its collection and it became the National Library E. Contemporary Times th 1. The later part of the 19 century saw the full partnership of universities/academic institutions and their respective libraries. 2. Research libraries also developed side by side with the development of the modern educational model F. Libraries and Librarianship in the Philippines 1. 1604 – Fr. Pedro Chirino, S.J. wrote a book Relacion de las Islas Filipinas described the writing tradition of Philippine writing tradition; in his account, the people knew how to read and write using their own writing, using bamboo and palm leaves to write on and an iron point for a pen 2. 1663 – Fr. Francisco Colin, S.J. in his book Labor evangelica IV. Characteristics of Libraries, Information Centers and Archives A. Academic and Research Libraries th 1. Academic libraries have existed since the 17 century but the collection were too small to merit a separate structure. Normally, it was the teachers who maintained these collection in their respective faculty centers or offices. 2. Contemporary academic research model was seen in the 1960s thereby giving way to a separate structure for the library to house its exponentially increasing collection to support the educational needs of the people 3. Challenges a. Recruitment, education and retention of librarians b. Clarifying the role of the library in the academic enterprise c. Dealing with the impact of information technologies d. Creation, control and preservation of digital resources e. Chaos in scholarly publication f. Support of new users 4. Issues/Concerns/Developments a. Networked information and the WWW has revolutionized the way libraries render services, the nature of the collection, research productivity and publication b. Information commons

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 i.

This change in academic libraries was brought about by changes in pedagogy that focuses now on collaborative learning, active learning and networked resources ii. The Information Commons is a physical space configured to offer a variety of library services, emphasizing digital resources, access to internet, local databases, online catalog and software c. Preservation and conservation – the issue on preservation and conservation of physical and digital objects is increasing due to this challenges: i. Ensuring the accessibility, integrity and permanence of digital materials ii. Preserving circulating print collections iii. Preserving rare book collections iv. Preserving audio-visual collections v. Dealing with the deterioration of library facilities vi. Educating and training preservation and conservation professionals vii. Sustaining and developing the necessary resources to maintain a preservation programs viii. Selecting and evaluating materials for preservation d. Increasing costs of periodicals and other materials e. Accountability f. Information literacy g. Crisis in scholarly publishing i. Continuing increase in the price of academic journals ii. Publisher and vendor control of the content on the electronic databases iii. Huge profits by large journal publishers leaving libraries little choice but to transfer their declining budgets for monographs to serials iv. Reduced competition among major journal publishers due to mergers and acquisitions h. Open Access – is the alternative to the existing system of journal publication where authors prefer to publish or make available their articles freely and fully i. Digital repositories – digital collections capturing and preserving the intellectual output of a single or multi-university community. i. Institutional repositories centralize, preserve and make accessible an institution’s intellectual capital, at the same time, they will form part of a global system of distributed, interoperable repositories that provides the foundation for a new disaggregated model of scholarly publishing. ii. Resulting repositories should increase institutional visibility and prestige as well as access to scholarly knowledge B. School Libraries and Media Centers 1. Roles: a. American Association of School Librarians (AASL) – To ensure that the students and staff are effective users of ideas and information. The school library media specialist (SLMS) empowers students to be critical thinkers, enthusiastic readers, skilful researchers and ethical users of information b. Role of media specialists – School librarians teach meaningful information and technology skills that can be fully integrated with the regular classrooms curriculum. They advocate reading through guiding and promoting it. And they manage information services, technologies, resources and facilities (Eisenberg, 2002) c. 5 ways that SLMCs can accomplish its mission (AASL) i. Collaborating with educators and students to design and teach engaging learning experiences that meet individual needs ii. Instructing students and assisting educators in using, evaluating, and producing information and ideas through active use of a broad range of appropriate tools, resources and information technologies iii. Providing access to materials in all formats, including up-to-date, high quality, varied literature to develop and strengthen a love of reading

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 iv. Providing students and staff with instruction and resources that reflect current information needs and anticipate changes in technology and education v. Providing leadership in the total education program and advocating for strong school library media programs as essential to meeting local, state and national education goals. d. Specific skills needed by students to be effective learners are established by the AASL Standards for the st 21 Century Learner and these standards are based on the following beliefs: i. Reading is a window to the world ii. Inquiry provides a framework for learning iii. Ethical behaviour in the use of information must be taught iv. Technology skills are crucial for future employment needs v. Equitable access is a key component for education vi. The definition of information literacy has become more complex as resources and technologies have changed vii. The continuing expansion of information demands that all individuals acquire the thinking skills that will enable them to learn on their own viii. Learning has a social context ix. School libraries are essential to the development of learning skills. e. School libraries are established to help meet the educational mission of schools f. IT along with AV materials have been the focus of collection for SLMCs g. Information literacy is the topmost service of SLMCs whether as a stand-alone program or incorporated in the school curricula. The following information literacy standards are advanced by the ALA i. The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively ii. The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently iii. The student who is information literate uses information accurately and creatively iv. The student who is an independent learner is information literate and pursues information related to personal interests v. The student who is an independent learner is information literate and appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information vi. The student who is an independent learner is information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation vii. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society viii. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and practices ethical behaviour in regard to information and information technology ix. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information h. Issues i. Declining funds ii. Diminishing workforce iii. Censorship C. Public Libraries and National Libraries 1. Mission and roles a. To meet the educational, recreational, informational and cultural needs of its community b. ALA’s 8 roles for Public Libraries i. Community Center ii. Information Center iii. Educational Support Center iv. Independent Learning Center v. Popular Materials Center

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 vi. Early Learning Center vii. Reference Center viii. Research Center c. There is a variety of users for the public libraries, funding comes either from local governments or communities as such support for its collection development also vary d. Issues confronting public libraries i. Politics ii. Financial stresses iii. Information Technology, Connectivity iv. Perception of the public v. Quality of services and facilities vi. Censorship issues vii. Demand problem viii. Service to diverse populations, to rural communities, to individuals with special needs ix. Children’s services, adult services, and geriatric services x. Cooperation between school libraries and public libraries D. Special Libraries and Information Centers 1. No single definition can aptly accommodate the variety of special libraries and information centers. They may be sponsored by various organizations, with specific goals and specific collection. 2. Characteristics of special libraries a. They tend to emphasize the provision of information for practical purposes rather than instruction on how to find information or a physical document b. They generally involve the librarian researching and finding the answer for a client, rather than the client expecting to locate the answer with the librarian’s assistance c. They tend to give librarians a great deal of autonomy because those requesting the information are unfamiliar with the function of information centers d. They tend to have a relatively small number of users and restricted access to relatively small, but highly specialized collections e. They are directly and narrowly related to the mission of the organization in which they are located, and must regularly demonstrate their usefulness to survive f. They involve management oriented to the goals of the larger organization rather than the library, and the library staff itself represent only a small fraction of the total organizational workforcef 3. Issues a. Scarce resources b. Establishing worth c. copyright V. LIS Related Laws and Legislations A. RA 9246 – An Act Modernizing the Practice of Librarianship in the Philippines thereby repealing RA 6966, entitled “An Act Regulating the Practice of Librarianship and Prescribing the Qualifications of Librarians” appropriating funds therefor and for other purposes (Approved February 19, 2004) 1. Philippine Librarianship Act of 2003 2. Governs the following: a. National examination for licensure, registration, issuance of Certificate of Registration and Professional Identification Card b. Supervision, control and regulation of the practice of librarianship c. Integration of librarians under one national organization d. Development of professional competence of librarians 3. Scope of the practice of librarianship a. Selection and acquisition

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 b. c. d. e.

Cataloguing and classification Development of computer assisted/computer backed information systems Establishment of library system and procedures Teaching, lecturing and reviewing of library, archives and information science subjects, including the subjects given in the licensure examinations f. Rendering of services involving technical knowledge and expertise g. Preparation, evaluation or appraisal of plans, program, and/or policies for libraries, library buildings, spaces and related structures h. Provision of professional and consultancy services or advice on any aspect of librarianship i. Organization, conservation, preservation and restoration of historical and cultural documents and other intellectual properties 4. Qualification of the Board for Librarians a. Natural born citizen of the Philippines b. Good reputation and moral character c. A librarian d. Active in the practice of librarianship for at least 10 years, 5 of which in a managerial position e. Must not be a faculty member of any LIS school f. Not an incumbent officer of the accredited, integrated national professional organization 5. Powers of the Board a. Promulgate and administer rules to carry out the provisions of this act b. Administer oaths c. Adopt an official seal d. Issue, suspend or revoke certificate of registration and Professional Identification Card e. Look into the conditions affecting the practice of librarianship f. Adopt policies and set standards for libraries g. Ensure coordination with CHED that all LIS schools comply with standards h. Adopt and prescribe code of ethics i. Hear and decide administrative cases j. Prescribe guideline pertaining to Continuing Professional Education (CPE) k. Prepare, adopt, issue or amend syllabi or terms of reference of the subjects for the Librarian Licensure Exam l. To discharge powers and duties as deemed necessary 6. Qualification of Applicants for the exam a. Citizen of the Philippines, foreign citizen with reciprocity with the Philippines b. Good health and good moral character c. Graduate of BLIS, MLIS d. BSE, BEED, BA major in LIS no longer allowed 5 years after effectivity of the act 7. Scope of examination a. Selection and acquisition of multi-media sources of information b. Cataloguing and classification c. Indexing and abstracting d. Reference, bibliography and information services e. Organization, management and development and maintenance of multi-media based library or information service, laws, trends and practices affecting the profession f. Information technology 8. To qualify – a candidate must obtain a weighted average of 75% with no grade lower than 50% in any subject 9. Results are released within 10 day after the examination 10. Registration may be done without examination for:

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 Practicing librarians who have completed at least a bachelor’s degree and a librarian or supervising librarian eligible b. A practicing librarian who completed at least a bachelor’s degree, 18 units in Library Science, 5 years experience in librarianship, and a first grade eligible or its equivalent c. Practicing librarian who has completed a masteral degree in Library Science or Library and Information Science, and a first grade eligible or its equivalent d. A practicing librarian who has completed at least a bachelor’s degree, 18 units in Library Science and 7 years experience in librarianship Those who qualify are given 3 years within the effectivity of this Act to register 11. The certificate of registration bears the signature of the Chairperson of the Commission and the Chairperson and members of the Board. The professional identification card bears the name, signature of the registrant, registration number, date of issuance, expiry date, duly signed by the Chairperson of the Commission. 12. All successful examinees and other qualified applicants for registration are required to take an oath of profession 13. The Board may refuse certification and registration to people who have been convicted or have criminal offense involving moral turpitude, found guilty of immoral or dishonourable acts or declared as having unsound mind 14. Certificate of registration and professional identification card may be revoked by the Board for reasons under section 22 and for unprofessional or dishonourable act, fraud, deceit, falsification etc. 15. Revoked certificates of registration may be reissued 2 years from the date of revocation with proper application 16. Roster of librarians – a list of librarians registered since RA 6966 maintained by the Board 17. Illegal practice of librarianship – person assuming the position or functions of a librarian without having a valid certificate of registration 18. Foreign reciprocity – a librarian from another country, that allows Filipino librarians to practice in their respective territories and having similar privilages as ours, may be allowed to take the exam 19. All practicing librarians (registered under RA6966) shall automatically be registered 20. All registered librarians shall be integrated under a single organization and accredited by the Board and approved by the commission – the Philippine Librarians Association Inc. (PLAI) B. RA 6966 – An Act Regulating the Practice of Librarianship and Prescribing the Qualifications of Librarians Philippine Librarianship Act (Approved September 19, 1990) 1. Differences a. Qualification: citizenship, age, courses (BLS, BLIS, BSE maj in LS, BA LIS, MLIS, MALS) b. Report of results – 90 days th c. Repeaters – failing for 3 successive exams shall be disqualified from taking 4 without having taken a refresher course C. RA 7356 – Law Creating the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Establishing a National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts and for Other Purposes (Approved April 3, 1992) 1. Composition of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts a. Undersecretary of the Department of Education Culture and Sports b. Undersecretary of the Department of Tourism c. Chairman of the House Committee on Culture d. Chairman of the Senate Committee on Culture e. President of the Cultural Center of the Philippines f. Executive Director if the National Historical Institute g. Director of the National Museum h. Director of the National Library i. Director if the Institute of Philippine Languages a.

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 j. k. l. m.

Director of the Records Management and Archives Office Executive Director if the Commission Head of the Sub-commission on Cultural Communities and Traditional Arts 3 reps from the private sector who shall be elected heads of the sub-commissions i. Cultural Heritage – libraries and information services, archives, museums, galleries, monuments and sites, historical research ii. Cultural Arts – literary arts, visual arts, architecture, dramatic arts, broadcast arts, musical arts, dance and film iii. Cultural Dissemination – language and translation, cultural events, cultural education and information iv. Cultural Communities and Traditional Arts – Agta culture and arts, cultures and arts of Northern Cultural Communities, Southern Cultural Communities, Muslim Cultural Communities and lowland cultural communities 2. Mandate a. Encourage the continuing and balanced development of a pluralistic culture by the people b. Conserve and promote the nation’s historical and cultural heritage c. Ensure the wi[l]dest dissemination of artistic and cultural products among the greatest number across the country and overseas for their appreciation and enjoyment d. Preserve and integrate traditional culture and its various creative expressions as a dynamic part of the national cultural mainstream e. Ensure that standards of excellence are pursued in programs and activities and implementing policies, encourage and support discussion and debate on norms available in the matrix of Philippine culture D. RA 7743 – An Act Providing for the Establishment of Congressional, City and Municipla Libraries and Barangay Reading Centers Throughout the Philippines, Appropriating the Necessary Funds therfor and for other purposes (Approved June 17, 1994) 1. The National Library in coordination with the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) shall establish additional public libraries 2. Role of national library – provide standard sets of reference books and other materials, continue to supply the public libraries with materials 3. Functions of Public Libraries and Barangay Reading Centers a. Make available to members of the community reading materials b. Be used as venue for AV presentations and other kinds of exhibitions and activities aimed at increasing the literacy rate c. Offer such other related services E. RA 8047 – An Act Providing for the Development of the Book Publishing Industry Through the Formulation and Implementation of a National Book Policy and a National Book Development Plan(Approved June 7, 1995) 1. National Book Policy a. to create condition conducive to development, production and distribution of books, especially the acquisition and adoption of state-of-the-art technology, equipment and machineries on book publishing; b. to obtain priority status for the book publishing industry; c. to ensure an adequate, affordable and accessible supply of books for all segments of the population; d. to promote book readership especially among the young and neo-literates, through programs promoting literary and good reading habits, book fairs and exhibits; and an efficient nationwide system of libraries and reading centers especially in the rural areas; e. to promote the development of indigenous authorship and of translations among various language groups in the country; f. to promote the translation and publication of scientific and technical books and classic works in literature and the arts; g. to promote the effective distribution of books in the domestic as well as in the international markets through an efficient and reliable postal and transport delivery system;

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 h.

to foster the development of the skills of personnel engaged in book publishing through in-service training programs and formal degree and non-degree book publishing courses in schools; i. to respect and inculcate the concept of intellectual property ownership and to protect the rights of authors and publishers by strictly enforcing copyright laws and providing legal assistance to authors and publishers in suits related thereto; j. to reaffirm and ensure the country's commitment to the UNESCO principle of free flow of information and other related provisions as embodied in the Florence Agreement and in other similar international agreements; and k. to promote whenever appropriate the use of recycled/waste paper and other inexpensive local materials in the manufacture of books to reduce the cost of such locally produced books 2. Governing Board a. Five members chosen from: i. DECS ii. DTI iii. DOST iv. NCCA v. Nominees from CHED and TESDA from the academe and training institutions b. Six representatives from nominees of organizations of private book publishers and printers, writers, book industry, related activities, students etc preferably representatives from the three main islands of the country F. RA 9521 – An Act Creating a National Book Development Trust Fund to Support Filipino Authorship (Approved March 9, 2009). National Book Development Trust Fund Act 1. 50 M pesos shall be allotted in the annual GAA for the next 5 years (from 2010-2014) 2. 50 M pesos from PAGCOR at 5M per month for 10 months 3. 50 M pesos from PCSO at 5M per month for 10 months G. RA 10066 – An Act Providing for the Protection and Conservation of the National Cultural Heritage, Strengthening the National Commission for Culture and the Arts and its Affiliated Cultural Agencies and for other purposes (Approved March 26, 2010) 1. Archives – shall refer to public and private records in any format which have been selected for permanent preservation because of their evidential, historical information value; otherwise known as archival materials collections or archival holdings; the place (building/room/storage area) where archival materials are kept and preserved; and an organization or agency or part thereof whose main responsibility is to appraise, arrange, describe, conserve, promote and make archival materials available for reference and research, also known as archival agency 2. "Intangible cultural heritage" shall refer to the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge and skills, as well as the instruments, objects and artifacts associated therewith, that communities, groups and individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage, such as: (1) oral traditions, languages and expressions; (2) performing arts; (3) social practices, rituals and festive events; (4) knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe; and (5) traditional craftsmanship. 3. "Intangible cultural property" shall refer to the peoples' learned processes along with the knowledge, skills and creativity that inform and are developed by them, the products they create and the resources, spaces and other aspects of social and natural context necessary for their sustainability 4. "Library" shall refer to an institution where the collection of books, manuscripts, computerized information and other materials are organized to provide physical, bibliographic and/or intellectual access to the public with a librarian that is trained to provide services and programs related to the information needs of its clientele H. Proclamation No 109 s1936 – Designating the period November 24 to 30 of Each Year as National Book Week (Signed by Manuel L. Quezon in November 19, 1936)

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LIS Refresher Program 2016 Proclamation No 120 s1999 – Declaring the Month of June 1999 and Every Year Thereafter as Philippine Book Development Month (Approved 25 June 1999 By Joseph Ejercito Estrada) J. Proclamation No 837 s1999 – Declaring the Month of November 1991 and Every Year Thereafter as “Library and Information Services Month”: (Approved November 19, 1999 by Corazon C. Aquino) K. Proclamation No 1014 s1997 – Declaring the Month of June 1997 as Philippine Book Development Month (Approved June 2, 1997 Fidel V. Ramos) L. Proclamation No 1222 s1998 – Declaring the Month of June as Philippine Book Development Month (Approved May 20 1998 Fidel V. Ramos) I.

References: Ackoff, R. (1989). From Data to Wisdom. Journal of Applied System Analysis, 16: 3-9. Case, D. O. (2002). Looking for Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs and Behavior. San Diego: Academic Press. Gardner, H. and Shulman, L.S. (2005). “The Profession in America Today” Daedalus 134 (13-18). Harter, S. (1986). Online Information Retrieval. Orlando, Fl.: Academic Press rd Rubin, R. (2000). Foundations of Library and Information Science, 3 ed. NY: Neal-Schuman. The outline is largely based from the book Foundations of Library and Information Science by Rubin (2010)

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