History of the Higaonon Tribe
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THE FORE ST ST
PROJ EC ECTS
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SUB SC SCRI BE BE
History Histo ry of the Higaonon Higaonon Tribe
The Higaonon 'Luma 'Lumad' d' of Minda Mindanao nao | Coloniz Colonization ation of Minda Mindanao nao | Tribal Oral History Typess of Higaonon | The Customary Laws Type
Mindanao is one of the three main island groups (Luzon, (Luzon, Visa Visayas yas and Mindan Mindanao) ao) and is situated in the southern part of the Philippines. With a size of 94,630 km², it is second in size to Luzon and takes up 20% of the total Philippine Philippine population.
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Most of the mountainous islands used to be covered in tropical rainforests and are volcani volc anicc in or origi igin. n. The country country is als also o situa si tuate ted d al along ong the ty typho phoon on bel beltt of the Western Pacific and is struck by about 19 typhoons per year year.. Th e low es est p oi oin t is th e V al alley of Mindanao, Minda nao, in southsouth-west western ern Minda Mindanao, nao, and the highest point in the whole of the Philippines is Mount Apo, in the southern Mindanao ranges, with a height of 2,954 metres.
In the middle of the 14th centuary, Islam spread spr ead fr from om Malaya Malaya and Bor Borneo neo to the Sul ulu u Ar Arch chip ipel elag ago, o, an and d from the therre to Mindanao. The arrival of the Spanish in the late 16th cent. united the various Muslim groups in a holy war against against the conq conquer ueror orss tha thatt lasted some 300 y ears ears..
It was eventually sold for a relitively small sum by the Spanish to the U.S. in 1898, following the Spanish-American War. SPONSOR A STUDEN STUDENT T
The Mor Moros os likewi likewise se re resis sisted ted Ame Americ rican an dom domination ination;; fight fighting ing betwee between n U.S U.S.. gar garris risons ons and Musl Muslim im Participate by sponsoring a
groups occurred occurred early in th e 20th century.
In 1946, at the end of Wor World ld War II II,, it attained attained total total independence. independence. QUOTES A Collection of quotations, stories and sayings about nature, trees
THE HIGAONON HIGAONON 'LUMAD' OF MINDANAO
Lumad Lum ad mean eanss 'gr grown own to a pla place' ce'. Thi Thiss ter term m gene genera rally lly re reffer erss to the 18 Non-M Non-Moro oro Indi Indigenous genous
and the en vi vironm ronment. ent.
Communities Comm unities in Mindanao which, by force force of colonization , were driven to the deepest hinterlands. The Higaonon Indigenous Nation is among these, with an estimated minimum population today of 200-300,000 and who now reside largely in Agusan del Sur, Agusan del Norte, Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon, Lanao del Norte Norte and Camiguin. Camiguin. On the whole, the Lumad of Mindanao, before being conquered, preserved their own lives. They clung to their communal views of the land, to their co-operative work exchanges, communal ritual, dances, songs and folklore folklores. s. They revered their own God. Their animistic worship, however, could not have persisted had it not been for the peaceful and non-imposing stance of Islam. A classic manifestation of this is the Non Islamization of the Tiruray and the Manobo, who were part of the common borders and in constant trade with the more more socially cohesive Muslim Maguindanao.
COLONIZATIO COLO NIZATION N OF MINDANAO Several hundred years ago, the Spaniards, preoccupied with their desperate, but unsuccessful attempt on sub subduin duing g the fi fier erce ce and re resol solute ute Mor Moro o re resi sist stanc ance, e, did lit little tle alt alter er the deve developi loping ng nonnon-Mor Moro o communi com munities ties.. Except for the dislo dislocation cation of the Lum Lumads ads in the nort north h and nort north-e h-easte astern rn sea seaboar boards ds (Agusan del Norte, Surigao, Misamis Oriental, and Davao Oriental of Mindanao), the majority of Lumads Lum ads were unaffected unaffected by Spa Spanish nish coloniz colonization. ation. The Higaonan wer weree one on thes thesee Indi Indigenous genous Peoples. The Higaonon Indigenous Nation, which is currently currently estimated estimated to total about 35 0,000-500, 0,000-500,000 000 people, includes the Bukidnon and the Banwaon (similarity of lineage and history is proven by the same oral literature called 'Dasang' which can be recited in 8 days and 8 nights by a 'Dumalongdong', meaning sacred assembly). They are distributed in Las Nieves, Sinakungan, San Luis, Talacogon, Agusan del Sur, Buenavista, Carm Ca rmen, en, But Butuan uan Cit City, y, in the Pr Provin ovince ce of Agus Agusan an del Nor Norte, te, Ma Magsa gsaysa ysay, y, Ging Gingoog oog Cit City, y, Sala alay, y, Balingasag, Medina, Claveria, Claveria, Cagayan de Oro, Opol, Manticao, Naawan, Initao, in Misamis Oriental, Oriental, Manolo Manol o For Fortich, tich, Im Impasug pasug-ong, -ong, Baungon, Tal Talakag, akag, Libon Libona, a, Mali Malitbog, tbog, Mala Malaybalay ybalay,, Caban Cabanglas glasan, an, Lantapan, and Valencia in Bukidnon Province, Iligan in Lanao del Norte Norte and Camiguin. Camiguin. Written accounts suggest that the term term HIGAONON is a combination combination of the root words: words: 'HIGA HIGA'' which means means 't 'to o live ' or to reside reside'' or 't 'to o lay in bed'; 'GAON GAON'' which means 'mountain' 'mountain';; and ONON which means 'people'. 'people'. Thus people who live in the Mountains - our Higaonon spiritual leaders and scholars - defined as "People "P eople in the Living Mountains".
TRIBAL ORAL HISTORY The Higaonon oral tradition discloses the Indigenous Population that traces their common roots from the mother of the post-deluge generation, 'Apo Entampil', Apo of all Apo - also known as Gahumon or Pinaiyak.
Original Roots: Apo Entampil survived the deluge that was caused by the Creater to cleanse the Earth. Her husband, Panugatan Pa nugatan,, was drowned drowned in the deluge. Apo settled settled in Kapaya Kapayagan gan (now Mt. Kim Kimangkil) angkil),, situa situated ted in the hinterlands of Claveria, Misam Misamis is Oriental, bordering Manolo Fortich Fortich , Bukidnon. Then pregnant, she vowed to make a husband out of her child if it was going to be a male, as recited in Dasang ...
"Ngani Kang Ko Bahi Sa Lumbay Ko, Panglipaklipak, Ko, Pulo, Ko Kakayo-A ngani Kang Ko Maama Sa Lumbay Lumbay Ko, Pandayaon, Ag-Asawahon Ko". Ko". which means means:: "If it's going to be a female, I'll just throw it to the forest or top of the tree but if it is going to be a male, male, I will make make him my husband" husband".. As she wished, Tagubon (also (also called Tahubon) grew to be man, man, becoming his mother' mother'ss husband.
Direct Descen Descendan dants ts:: They bore six children - making another three couples that later settled in different places in Northern Mindanao. The couple, 'L 'Liyangon-Lungyabon', iyangon-Lungyabon', settled in Agusan Pr Provinces; ovinces; The couple, 'L 'Lugong-Tubag ugong-Tubag Lugong,' settled in Bukidnon Bukidnon Province; The couple, 'Kalitkit'Kalitkit-Kabudakan', Kabudakan', settled in Misamis Misamis Oriental Province. Province.
The Lineage: Below is an example of the Giling Lineage Records, as can be recited recited in Dasang: Apo Entampil Apo Kalitkit-Kabudakan Apo Balayn Apo Mulos Kilat Apo Dumpilakan Apo Dumadasa Dumadasall Apo Magdantal Apo Ayawon **Apo Paboloson Apo Mansalouyan Saldab Apo Tuluyan Apo Libokasan Agaolao Apo Palaganding Tagkalbog Apo Endulum Apo Bangkawalan Apo Kalingga Apo Aliga Apo Manampalo (Mandipensa (Mandipensa of the 18th Century) Apo Mendosa Mandahila (Mandipensa (Mandipensa of the 19th Century) Datu Efren Efren Hospital Mandipensa (Mandipensa on the 20th Century)
Establish Est ablishmen mentt of Cust Customary omary Laws Several Sever al gene genera ratio tions ns lat later er,, the re renown nowned ed **Ap **Apo o Pa Pabolo boloson son (D (Datu atu Pa Pabolo boloson son)) of Apo Kal Kalitki itkittKabudakan's descent, gathered his people in a sacred assembly called 'Dumalongdong', to unite them in the noble virtues taught by Apo Entam Entampil pil and her ancestor ancestors. s. The Customary Laws, "Bungkatol Ha Bulawan Daw Nang Ka Tasa Ha Lana", which simply means "Love & Peace Law", was manifested and instituted in the first Dumalongdong. The social structure was likewise made clear to their understan understanding, ding, and The Datu Sys System tem was established established with job description.. description Datu means Chief or Caretaker of the teachings handed down from generation to generation. The tradition bearer bearer and keeper of the Royal Lineage manif manifested ested according to River Clans.
Riv er Clans
Datu for Agriculture Imbabasok Datu fo r H un un t i n g Datu fo r D ef efen ce Datu Da tu for Wa Wate terr Re Resp spec ectt Datu fo r F in in an ce Datu fo r H ea ealth Datu Da tu forLi orLive vessto tocck Datu fo r Ri R i t u al Datu fo r Pr Pray er Datu Dat u fo forr Dum Dumalo alongdo ngdong ng Datu fo r R ec eco rds
Pan uman od Alimaon g Bula Bu lala laka kaw w Pamahand i Man an amb al Pamum umuh uhii Saliko t Palay ag Bayla Ba ylan n Gilin g
The 8 rivers which symbolize the Home of the Higaonon Higaonon - the House House of the Higaonon Higaonon Tribal Tr ibal Nation : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Tagoloan River Tagoloan River Pulangi Pul angi River River Agusan Agusa n River River Gingoog River Linugos River Balatukan Bala tukan River River Odiongan River Cagayan de Oro River
From the Tagoloan River area, two of Apo Paboloson's sons left for a journey (nangalasan ku bugta). Seeking the heart of the heartland (taliwada ku bugta) it took a few generations more before they reached Sinakungan, Sinakungan, the land of their quest, now a barangay in the Municipality of Esper Esperanza, anza, Agusan del Sur. It was her heree wher wheree the second bigges biggestt Dum Dumalongdong alongdong was held in hist history. ory. The other children children sta stayed yed behind (nababalay ku bugta). Inter-marriages through generations nevertheless made this tribe reach the Provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte. Datu Pa Paboloso boloson's n's daughter, daughter, Apo Agunya, was married married to a Spa Spanish nish Merchant, Merchant, Apo Lor Lorenzo, enzo, in Cagayan de Oro. This was the first marriage between the Higaonon tribal people and Spain. This indicates the early early assimilation assimilation pattern of the ethnic Higaonon to the lowlanders.
TYPES OF HI HIGAO GAONON NON At present the Higaono n can b e classified classified into three categories: categories: 1. Those on the semi-prim semi-primitive itive communal communal stage - still residing residing in the forest; forest; 2. Those who have been assimilated assimilated into the ranks of the Non-Higaonon majority-res majority-residing iding in the edge of the forest forest;; and 3. Those in between Categories 1 & 2 and who are undergoing the choice of being assimilated to eitherr Cate eithe Category gory 1 and/or 2. The Higaonon who belong to the Category 1 are those who strictly adhere to the Customary Laws Bungkatol Ha Bulawan daw Nang Ka Tasa Ha Lana's teachings and discipline (Code of Conduct). They live in the thick forests in the semi-settled communities, subsisting on wild game, fishing, root crops, rice and trading (barter trade), of forest products and handicrafts. The social organization is still that social sys system tem instituted instituted duri during ng the ear earlies liestt Duma Dumalongdong, longdong, with mod modifi ificatio cation n ma made de to suit contemporary times. In spite of the fact of the semi-feudal system prevailing in the bigger Philippine Society, its influence cannot affect the distinct lifestyle which these Indigenous People are striving hard to develop and preserve. preserve. Those Higaonon who fall into the Category 2 are slowly moving toward assimilation. Although-they still live by Bungkatol ha Bulawan teachings, the laws, tradition, culture and social system of the Majority Filipinos Filipinos have exerted strong influence on their lives. Category Categor y 3 ar aree thos thosee who hav havee as assi simi milat lated ed int into o the Fi Filipi lipino no majo ajori rity. ty. Some Some have bec becom omeeprofessionals and hold positions in the government. But these people still identify themselves as Higaonon and in solida solidarit rity y with their people in their str struggle uggle for self -de -deter termin mination. ation. Like all other Indigenous Indigenous Pe Peoples oples considered considered an ethnic minority, minority, the Higaonon are victims of land-
grabbing o f their ancestr ancestral al lands, Christian chauvinism, Government Government n eglect, militarization, militarization, and other formss of exploitation and oppression. form
THE CUSTOMARY LAWS Bungkatol Ha Bulawan Daw Nang Ka Tasa Ha Lana literally means 'Treasured Unity'and 'Code of Conduct'. This is the sacred bond that unites the entire Higaonon People who share the common root, language, history and culture and a code to guide the conduct of man for a good and just society. Sacred Sacr ed Teachings were taught in the form of 'S 'Sacred acred Order', Order', enumer enumerated ated as follows:
Bungkatol Ha Bulawan ( Sacr Sacred ed Order)
1. Pigtugonan Na Hadi Ag Lidason Kay Pam Pamalihe alihe - 'Makagaba'... ... Don't go against the law - It was a handed down law - - very sacred - you can be cursed to misfor misfortune tune or death. 2. Di Yo Ag Lidason Ang Pigtugonan... Don't disobey the sacred orders - Don't interpret it in your own mind but just go straight to the handed law. Don't shift the sacred teachings to the other road. It is very straight and not crooked one. 3. Di Kaw Ag Labawa... Labawa... Don'tt be an egot Don' egotist istic ic or sel selff-cen cente tered red pe person rson - or be on top of your pride. pride. Your pride will kill you. 4. Di Kaw Ag Indiga... Don't comp compare are yourself yourself to others others,, for ther theree is always always better better than you and lesser lesser than you. But everyone is a creation loved by the Supreme Creator. Have dignity and honor of its own spirit. Comparing yourself to others, you will becomee bitter in the end. becom 5. Di Kaw Ag Sinaha... Don't be envious of others - if someone someone has good for fortune, tune, it is beca because use he or she is bles blessed. sed. Jealousy Jealousy breaks the orde orders rs of goodwill. It is destruction destruction to the destiny dest iny of huma humanity, nity, to the Great Creatio Creation n of the world. world. 6. Magnayo-Nayo Kaw.. Kaw.... Asking and Giving is the greatest gift of Creation - Someone needs food, give him or her fo food od - if you don't have food, food, if you ask, ask, som someone eone will will give give you. 7. Magpahidang-Gaay Kaw.. Kaw.... Love one another - for this is the right way to live. No man is an island. Ever Ev eryone yone nee needs ds eve every ryone one,, eve every ryone one nee needs ds eve every rybody, body, eve every rybody body nee needs ds everyone, and everybody needs everybody. 8. Maglandang Kaw.. Kaw.... Live in Peace, Peace , Walk in Peace. For in Peace there is Love. When there is Love there is Peace Peace in your heart. 9. Magtutopong Kaw.. Kaw.... Equality among Men. Men. Remember Remember children are little men as the elders are older men - both deserve respect and honor of their Creation. Women are Men too. The Respect of the Elders and or children can be double to women for they are the makers makers of those Men. 10. Ma -U onon-U U on Kaw Kaw.. ....
... Listen to everyone Listen everyone. Don't be loud or aggressive in your opinions and views for 'wisdom' is a gift. Blessed are the elders, for the Counsel of Years of their lives makes the edifice of teachings. We will listen to them as we listen to prophets of time. They might be a child who had wisdom of the old, or the old whose playing spirits is a child that cools the heart of a warrior, and most often are women, for women are the gift of Creation. Listen to them in their counsel of time.
Under the Bungkatol Ha Bulawan teachings, land is a loving gift of Magbabaya (Supreme Creator) for all Men. Because Because land produces life's nourishments nourishments,, land is life in itself. It It cannot b e sold and or taken away by anyone. It has been kept under the stewardship of the great, great-great Ancestors whose spirits continue to keep watch so the land could be used for generation to generation. The Bungkatol Ha Bulawan also teaches brotherhood, equality and respect to the Higaon on Social System. System. Since these are Customary Laws in a society where there is absence of contradicting interests of social classes, economic, political, cultural and military spheres of life are taken separately but rather come integrated in a traditional framework. So, Higaonon society is run not as a social organization per se but rather as a 'Big Family'. Family'. The Datu leads not as ruler but as an administrator, with community as children assuming individual tasks based on one's capacity, experience and also maternal and paternal sanguinary lineage approved by the community. It is traditionally plain division of labor in a village. And for the entire Higaonon population, they do the allocation of tasks and responsibilities in a Dumalongdong - every task is defined and everyone is installed into a task in front of the assembly if she or he would be willing to accept and continue with the obligations and responsibilities inherent. It is also in Dumalongdong wheree garbs, tubao, (headdress wher (headdress), ), bronze bracelets bracelets and china pieces ar aree given out as sym symbols bols of responsibility and capacity to serve the people. Every common undertaking comes through ethnic ritual - dispensing of justice, launching military actions, hunting, building a hut, and cleaning a field. All gets done after a prayer ritual offered to deities over a sacrifice of blood - usually pig or chicken. It is always a man physically doing the work with the help of the blessings of the Ancestor's spirits. spirits. Men committing misdeeds transgress the Bungkatol Ha Bulawan and the Community are always helped to rectify themselves by making an offering sacrifice to the deities in the presence of the community, comm unity, sharing his sincerity to correct correct his mistakes for the entire community community to witness.
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