Hindi Lessons

August 24, 2017 | Author: nkirubakarans | Category: Verb, Preposition And Postposition, Subject (Grammar), Grammatical Tense, Plural
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Hindi Verbs Verb list A to - age barhna advance to answer

- jawab dena

to arrive -

ana, pahunchana

to attack - hamla karna to - koshish karna attempt B to bathe

- nahana

to be

- hona

to bear

- sahna

to beat

- marna

to beg

- mangna

to behave


bartav karna

to believe


vishwas karna

to be sleepy

- nind ana

to be tired

- thakna

to bind

- bandhna

to bite

- katna

to break

- torna

to nasta breakfast karna to bring

- lana

to bring

- palna

up jalna, jalana

to burn


to burst

- phutana

to bury

- dafnana

C to call

- bulana

to care


to cast

- dhalna

to catch

- pakarna

to change

- badalna

to clean

- saf karna

to climb

- charhna

to comb to come

parwah karna

kanghi karna

- ana

to - bat karna converse to cook

- pakana

to copy


nakal karna

to cover - dhakna to creep - rengna to cry


chillana, rona

to cruch - kuchalna to cut D to depart

- katna


juda hona, alag hona, jana

to - utarna decend to dig

- khodna

to die

- marna

to dine - khana khana to do

- karna

to dream

- sapna dekhna

to drink - pina to dry

- sukhna, sukhana

to dye

- rangna

E to eat

- khana

to - maf karna excuse to expect

- asha karna

to - samjhana explain to vichar prakat express karna F to fall

- girna

to fear

- darna

to fight

- larna

to fill

- bharna

to fly (in air) - urna to fly (run away)


bhag jana

to forget

- bhulna

to forgive


maf karna

G to get

- pana

to get up


utha na

to give - dena to go

- jana

H to - hona, rakhna have to hate

- nafarat karna

to hear

- sunna

to help


to hide

- chhipana

sahayata dena, madad dena

I to - thik karna improve to irrigate

- pani dena

to irritate


J to jump

chirhana, naraz karna

- kudna

to join - jorna to vichar judge karna K to keep

- rakhna

to kick - thokar marna to kill - marna

to kiss -

chumna, chumma lena

to - janna know L to laugh

- hansna

to lead

- karne dena

to learn

- sikhna

to let


makan kiraye dena

to lie (on bed) - letna to lie (speak)

- jhuth bolna

to lift

- uthana

to like

- chahna

to live (reside) - rahna to live (not to - jina die) to look

- dekhna

to lose

- khona

to love

- pyar karna

M to make -

banan a

to - napna measure to mould -

dhaln a

to move -

sarka na

N to kutar nibble na

O to open

- kholna

to hukum order dena P thapthapa na

to pat


to pay

- dena

to play

- khelna

to play (music)


to pour

- dalna

to promise -

baja bajana

vada karna

to - bolna pronounce to pull

- khinchna

to push


to put

- rakhna

dhakka dena

Q to jhagra quarral karna R to read

- parhna

to receive

- pana

to recollect - yad karna to sifarish recommend karna napasnd karna

to reject


to reply

- jawab dena

to ride

- charhna

to rise

- uthana

S to say - kahna to scold

- dantna

to see to seek

dekhna, talash karna

- dhundhana

to sell - bechna to send

- bhejna

to sew - sina to - hilna shake to - chillana shout to show

- dikhana

to shut

- band karna

to sing - gana to sit

- baithna

to sleep

- sona

to smell

- sunghana

to solve

- hal karna

to sow - bona to - bolna speak to spin - katna to spit - thukna to

- thaharna

stay to steal

- churana

to stop


to swim

- tairna

T to take

thaharna, tharana

- lena

to talk -

batchit karna

to taste

- chakhna

to tear

- pharna

to - tang karna tease to tell to think

kahna, batana

- sochna

U to samajh understand na V to ulti vomit karna W to walk -

chalna, ghumna

to idhar-udhar wander phirna to wash - dhona

to waste

- barbad karna

to weep - rona to weave

- bunna

Hindi verbs are inflected with respect to •

gender of the subject (masculine, feminine)

number of the subject (singular, plural)

tense (present, past, future)

action (perfect, imperfect, continuous)

degree of respect (intimate, familiar, respect)

Verbs are referred to in their infinitive noun form which ends in na. Examples: boln a

to speak

likhn to a write lena

to take


to come

The stem of a verb is the infinitive form minus the na ending. Examples: bol lik h le a

Present Tense Present tense of hona (to be): main hun

I am

tu hai

you are (intimate)

yah hai

this, he, she, it is

vah hai

that, he, she, it is

ham hain

we are

tum ho

you are (familiar)

ap hain

you are (respect)

ye hain

these, they are

ve hain

those, they are

Present Imperfect

The present imperfect is used for habitual actions. It is formed by adding ta, te, or ti to the stem of the verb followed by the present tense of hona. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing bolta and bolte with bolti. main bolta hun

I speak

tu bolta hai

you speak (intimate)

yah bolta hai

this, he, it speaks

vah bolta hai

that, he, it speaks

ham bolte hain

we speak

tum bolte ho

you speak (familiar)

ap bolte hain

you speak (respect)

ye bolte

these, they



ve bolte hain

those, they speak

Present Continuous

The present continuous is used for ongoing actions -- like the "-ing" form in English. It is formed like this: stem + raha/rahe/rahi + present tense of hona Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing raha and rahe with rahi. main bol raha hun

I am speaking

tu bol raha hai

you are speaking (intimate)

yah bol raha hai

this, he, it is speaking

vah bol raha hai

that, he, it is speaking

ham bol rahe hain

we are speaking

tum bol rahe ho

you are speaking (familiar)

ap bol rahe hain

you are speaking (respect)

ye bol rahe hain

these, they are speaking

ve bol rahe hain

those, they are speaking

Past Tense Past tense of hona (to be): main tha / thi

I was

tu tha / thi

you were (intimate)

yah tha / thi

this, he, she, it was

vah tha / thi

that, he, she, it was

ham the / thin

we were

tum the / thin

you were (familiar)

ap the / thin

you were (respect)

ye the / thin

these, they were

ve the / thin

those, they were

(The slash seperates masculine and feminine forms) Past Imperfect

The past imprefect is used for habitual actions in the past. It is formed like the present imperfect but with the past tense of hona instead of the present tense. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing bolta and bolte with bolti, replacing tha with thi, and the with thin. main bolta tha

I used to speak

tu bolta tha

you used to speak (intimate)

yah bolta tha

this, he, it used to speak

vah bolta tha

that, he, it used to speak

ham bolte the

we used to speak

tum bolte the

you used to speak (familiar)

ap bolte the

you used to speak (respect)

ye bolte the

these, they used to speak

ve bolte the

those, they used to speak

Past Continuous

The past continuous is used for ongoing actions in the past -- like the "-ing" form in English. It is formed like this: stem + raha/rahe/rahi + past tense of hona Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing raha and rahe with rahi, replacing tha with thi, and the with thin. main bol raha I was speaking tha tu bol raha tha

you were speaking (intimate)

yah bol raha tha

this, he, it was speaking

vah bol raha tha

that, he, it was speaking

ham bol rahe the

we were speaking

tum bol rahe the

you were speaking (familiar)

ap bol rahe the

you were speaking (respect)

ye bol rahe the

these, they were speaking

ve bol rahe the

those, they were speaking

Future Tense Future Imperfect

The future imprefect is used to refer to the future as well as to make assumptions about the presents (just like in English). It is formed by adding unga/i, ega/i, enge/i, or oge/i to the stem. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing the ending a or e with i. main bolunga

I will speak

tu bolega

you will speak (intimate)

yah bolega

this, he, it will speak

vah bolega

that, he, it will speak

ham bolenge

we will speak

tum bologe

you will speak (familiar)

ap bolenge

you will speak (respect)

ye bolenge

these, they will speak

ve bolenge

those, they will speak

Future Continuous

The future continuous is used to refer to ongoing actions in the future. It is formed as the present imperfect but with the future of raha instead of hona. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing the ending a or e with i in both verbs. main bolta rahunga

I will be speaking

tu bolta rahega

you will be speaking (intimate)

yah bolta rahega

this, he, it will be speaking

vah bolta rahega

that, he, it will be speaking

ham bolte rahenge

we will be speaking

tum bolte rahoge

you will be speaking (familiar)

ap bolte rahenge

you will be speaking (respect)

ye bolte

these, they will be



ve bolte rahenge

those, they will be speaking

Imperative There are three different imperatives in Hindi: tu, tum, and ap imperative. The tu imperative is the stem itself The tum imperative is the stem + o The ap imperative is the stem + ie or iye Examples: pani la

bring water (intimate)

pani lao

bring water (familiar)

pani laie

bring water (respect)

The imperatives are made negative by adding mat, na, or nahin. Use mat with the tu imperative. Use mat or na with the tum imperative. Use na or nahin with the ap imperative. Examples: vahan mat ja

don't go there (intimate)

vahan na jao

don't go there (familiar)

vahan nahin jaie

don't go there (respect)

To Have There is no Hindi verb for "to have". Possession is expressed in other ways. Movable Objects

Possession of movable objects is expressed using ke pas after the (English) subject. Examples: Ram ke pas gari hai

Ram has a car ("near Ram a car it is")

`mera pas kitab I have a book ("near me a hai book it is")

Immovable Objects

Possession of immovable objects and of relatives is expressed using the possessive particles ka, ki, ke. Examples: uska makan hai

he has a house ("of him a house it is")

Ram ke do bete hain

Ram has two sons ("of Ram two sons there are")

Adverbs, prepositions, conjuctions...

about (place) about (pertaining to) above across after again again & again against (opposite) against (touching) alas aloof almost also although altogether always among and around as if as far as as soon as at backward backwards & forwards because because (him) before behind below beneath between beyond

- as-pas - bare men - upar - uspar - bad men - phir - bar-bar - khilaf - bhira kar - afsos - dur - karib-karib - ohi - halanki - ekdam - hamesha - unke bich men - aur - as - mano - jahantak - jyonhi - taraf - pichhe - age-pichhe - kyonki - vajah se (uski) - pahle - pichhe - niche - niche - bich men - us par

bravo but by certainly certainly not down downward during early either enough especially even even then ever every moment far for for ever forward from generally gradually hence (place) hence (time) here here and there hither how how much if if not if possible if so immediate in in brief indeed in front of inparticular in general in short inside just now late little by little near never neither no nor not

- shabash - lekin - se - zarur - hargiz nahin - niche - niche ki taraf - us bich men - jaldi - ya to - kafi - khas kar - bhi - tab to - hamesha - hardam - dur - (uske) liye - hamesha ke liye - age - se - am taur par - dhire-dhire - yahan se - ab se - yahan - yahan vahan - yahan - kaise - kitna - agar - agar nahin to - ho sake to - agar aisa hai to - zaruri, turamt andar - andar - thore men - vastav men - samne - khas taur se - am taur se - thore men - andar - abhi-abhi - der se - thora-thora karke - pas - kabhi nahin - na vah - nahin - na vah - nahin

nothing not yet now now or never of of course off oft / often on once only or out out and out over (higher) over (finished) perhaps please quite quietly really scarcely seldom since (time) since (conditional) so some somehow so much so and so so late so soon soon still sorry suddenly surely that (conjunction) than then there therefore thither though through thrice thus till today together tomorrow tonight

- kuchh nahin - abhi tak nanin - ab - abhi ya phir kabhi nahin - ka - albatta - dur - aksar - upar - ek bar - kewal - ya - bahar - bilkul - upar - khatam - shayad - krpaya - bilkul - chupchap - sachmuch - mushkil se - kabhi-kabhi - tab se - chunki - isliya - kuchh - jyon tyon karke - itna - falana - itni der se - itni jaldi - jaldi - phir bhi - afsos - achanak - zarur - ki - se - to, tab - vahan - isliye - yahan se - yadyapi - us mense - tin bar - aise - tab tak - aj - ek sath - kal - rat ko

towards truly truly twice under until up unless very well when whenever whenever it de where wherever whereas while why yes yesterday

- taraf - sach taur par - sahi - do bar - niche - tab tak - upar - jab tak - bahut - achchha - kab - jab kabhi - jab kabhi ho sake - cahan - kahin bhi - chunki - jab tak - kyon - han - kal

Syntax Hindi uses a different word order than English. The main differences are that verbs are placed at the end of the sentence (like in German) and that Hindi (like other Indian languages) uses postpositions instead of prepositions. Postpositions are like prepositions except that they are written after the noun. Normal sentences

English: Subject Verb Object => I learn Hindi Hindi: Subject Object Verb => I Hindi learn English: Subject Verb Preposition Object => I go to the shop Hindi: Subject Object Postposition Verb => I shop to go Imperative sentences

English: Verb Place Adverb => Come here now Hindi: Place Adverb Verb => Here now come English: Verb Negative Verb Adverb => Do not eat quickly Hindi: Adverb Negative Verb => Quickly not eat Interrogate sentences

English: Adverb Aux.Verb Subject Verb => What are you drawing? Hindi: Subject Adverb Verb => You what draw?


First Person I - main To me

- mujhko




- ham

To us

- hamko



mera (m) , meri (f) , mere (pl)

hamara (m) , hamari (f) , hamare (pl)

Second Person You - tum , ap (r) To you

- tumko , apko (r)



Your (r)

- apka (m) , apki (f) , apke (pl)

tumhara (m) , tumhari (f) , tumhare (pl)

Third Person He, she, it (there)

- vah , ve (r)

He, she, it (here) - yah, ye (r) To him, her, it (there)

- usko, unko (r)

To him, her, it (here)

- isko, inko (r)

His, her, its



- ve

To them

- unko



uska (m) , uski (f) , uske (pl)

unka (m) , unki (f) , unke (pl)

Demonstrative & relative This - yah This very, this same

- yahin


- vah

That very, that same

- vahin


- ye


- ve


- kaun

Whom (s)

- kis ko

Whom (pl or r)

- kin ko



Which (s)

- kaun si

Which (pl)

- kis ko

Of which (s)

- kis ki

Of which (pl)

- kin ki

kis ka (m) , kis ki (f)

Pronouns in the direct and indirect cases Singu Plural lar Direc Indir Indir | Direct t ect ect yah

- is

| ye

- in

yahin - isin

| ye hin

- inhin


| ve

- un

vahin - usin

| ve hin

- unhin


- kis

| kaun

- kin


- kisin



- jis

| jo

- us



- kinhin - jin

Postpositions in Hindi are like prepositions in English but they are placed after the noun. The noun in front of the postposition is always in the indirect case. The use of postpositions makes it possible to express the "missing" cases in Hindi. nominativ larki e

the girl

(direct case)

genitive s, m

larki ka kam

s, f

larki ki bat the word of the girl

pl, m

larki ke kam

the works of the girl

pl, f

larki ki baten

the words of the girl


larki ko

to the girl


a girl

larki ko

the girl





larki se

from / with / of the girl

the work of the girl

accusativ e

agentive larki ne

the girl



larki men

in the girl

larki par

on / upon / after the girl

larki tak

as far as / as long as / up to the girl

(direct case)

(direct case)

An adjective ending with -a changes form according to the gender and number of the noun it qualifies. chota = small Singul Masculine Feminine ar chota kamra

choti narangi

chota ghar

choti mez

Plur Masculine Feminine al chote kamre

choti narangiyan

chote ghar

choti mezen

Other adjectives do not change form. saf = clean Masculi Feminin ne e Singul saf ar kamra Plural

saf kamre

saf mez saf mezen

The comparative and superlative forms are made by adding the words usase (or se) and sabse in front of the positive form. Positive


Comparat usase sundar / se ive sundar Superlativ sabse sundar e

When an adjective is repeated twice it emphasises different kinds of the noun or the intensity or selectivity.

Adjective list


- asan


- mushkil


- mitha


- karwa


- khatta


- achchha


- kharab


- bhaunta


- paina


- light


- khula


- band


- bhara


- khali


- thaka


- taza


- basi


- mota


- dubla


- ganda


- saf


- mota


- patla


- sachcha


- jhutha


- dur


- pas


- garam


- thanda


- imandar


- beiman


- pola


- thos


- taral


- khusk


- ranjida


- maldar


- dhani


- garib


- tandurust


- bimar


- lamba


- chhota


- naya


- purana


- jawan


- buddha

light (color)

- halka

dark (color)

- gahra


- halka


- bhari


- namra


- badtamiz

mannerles - badtamiz s narrow

- sankra, tang


- chaura


- chaura


- phurtila


- sust


- hoshiyar




- naraz


- meharban


- khush

mattha, manda

displeased - naraz proud

- ghamandi


- namra


- sasta


- mahnga


- sukha


- gila


- hoshiyar


- bewakuf


- gahra


- uthla


- shahri


- dehati


- vir


- kayar

handsome - sundar pretty

- sundar


- sundar


- kurup


- kachcha


- paka

smelling good

- khushbudar

smelling bad

- badbudar


- shorgul ka


- shant


- sab


- kuchh

interesting - dilchaspa dull

- ubane wala


- mazbut

not durable

- kamzor


- takatwar


- kamzor


- (usase) bara




- bara


- chhota

high (person)

- bare

low (person)

- chhote

high (things)

- uncha

low (things)

- nicha


- thora


- zyada


- kuchh

(usase) chhota


- bahut


- sahi


- galat


- barhiya


- raddi


- buddhiman


- bewakuf


- mitha


- kara




- videshi

this much

- itna, itni

as many

- jitne, jitna


- kai

deshi ya rashtriya

that much - utna, utni such

- aisa, aisi


- jo kuchh


- sakhta


- mulayam


- dusra


- vahi

Different words Questions who - kaun what

- kya


- kyon


- kab


- kaha

n how

- kaise



how many

- kitne

how much

- kitna

kaun sa

Cardinal numbers 0 - sunya, sifar 1

- ek


- do


- tin


- char


- panch


- chhah


- sat


- ath


- nau


- das


- bis


- tis


- chalis


- pachas


- sath


- sattar


- assi


- nabbe

100 - ek sau 101 - ek sau ek 200 - do sau 1.00 - ek hazar

0 lac


ek lakh (100.000)

cror ek karor e (10.000.000) Other words having to do with numbers 1st - pahla 2n - dusra d 3rd - tisra 4th -

cauth a

5th -

pancv an

6th -

chath a

7th - satvan 8th -

athva n

9th -

nauva n

10t dasva h n 1/2 - adha 1/3 - tihai 1/4 -

cauth ai

3/4 - pauna Colors black - kala blue

- nila

brigh chamk t ila

brow - bhura n color - rang golde sunahr n a gray - bhura gree - hara n indig baingn o i oran - naranji ge red

- lal


- gulabi

white - safed yello - pila w

Adverbs, prepositions, conjuctions...

about (place)

- as-pas

about (pertaining - bare men to) above

- upar


- uspar


- bad men


- phir

again & again

- bar-bar

against (opposite) - khilaf against (touching)

- bhira kar


- afsos


- dur


- karib-karib


- ohi


- halanki


- ekdam


- hamesha


- unke bich men


- aur


- as

as if

- mano

as far as

- jahantak

as soon as

- jyonhi


- taraf


- pichhe

backwards & forwards

- age-pichhe


- kyonki

because (him)

- vajah se (uski)


- pahle


- pichhe


- niche


- niche


- bich men


- us par


- shabash


- lekin


- se


- zarur

certainly not

- hargiz nahin


- niche


- niche ki taraf


- us bich men


- jaldi


- ya to


- kafi


- khas kar


- bhi

even then

- tab to


- hamesha

every moment

- hardam


- dur


- (uske) liye

for ever

- hamesha ke liye


- age


- se


- am taur par


- dhire-dhire

hence (place)

-yahan se

hence (time)

- ab se


- yahan

here and there

- yahan vahan


- yahan


- kaise

how much

- kitna


- agar

if not

- agar nahin to

if possible

- ho sake to

if so

- agar aisa hai to


- zaruri, turamt

andar in

- andar

in brief

- thore men


- vastav men

in front of

- samne


- khas taur se

in general

- am taur se

in short

- thore men


- andar

just now

- abhi-abhi


- der se

little by little

- thora-thora karke


- pas


- kabhi nahin


- na vah


- nahin


- na vah


- nahin


- kuchh nahin

not yet

- abhi tak nanin


- ab

now or never



- ka

of course

- albatta


- dur

oft / often

- aksar


- upar


- ek bar


- kewal


- ya

abhi ya phir kabhi nahin


- bahar

out and out

- bilkul

over (higher)

- upar

over (finished)

- khatam


- shayad


- krpaya


- bilkul


- chupchap


- sachmuch


- mushkil se


- kabhi-kabhi

since (time)

- tab se

since (conditional)

- chunki


- isliya


- kuchh


- jyon tyon karke

so much

- itna

so and so

- falana

so late

- itni der se

so soon

- itni jaldi


- jaldi


- phir bhi


- afsos


- achanak


- zarur

that (conjunction) - ki than

- se


- to, tab


- vahan


- isliye


- yahan se


- yadyapi


- us mense


- tin bar


- aise


- tab tak


- aj


- ek sath


- kal


- rat ko


- taraf


- sach taur par


- sahi


- do bar


- niche


- tab tak


- upar


- jab tak


- bahut


- achchha


- kab


- jab kabhi

whenever it de

- jab kabhi ho sake


- cahan


- kahin bhi


- chunki


- jab tak


- kyon


- han


- kal

Examples of sentences in Hindi Greetings Good morning

- subh prabhat

Good day

- subh din

Good afternoon - subh sandhya Good night

- subh ratri



Good bye (hindus)

- namaste

Good bye (muslims)

- khuda hafiz

How are you (r,m)

- ap kaise hain?

How are you (r,f)

- ap kaisi hain?

I am fine, thanks

- bahut accha, sukriya

I am fine, thanks


namaskar / namaste / subh din

main thik hun, dhanyavad

Hindus greet each other with namaste. The answer is also namaste. Muslims greet each other with salam alekum. The answer is valekum as salam. Questions Who is that?

- yah kaun hai?

What is this?

- yah kya hai?

What is that?

- vah kya hai?

Where is it?

- vah kahan hai?

Where is ...?

- ... kahan hai?

How much is it?

- yah kitne ki hai?

Who are you?

- ap kaun hai?

What is your name?


apka subh nam kya hai?

Where are you from?


ap kahan ke rahne vale hain?

Which country are you - ap kis des ke hain? from? How old are you?

- ap ki umar kya hai?

What is your job?

- ap kya kam karte hain?

What are you studying?

- ap kya padethe hain?

What is wrong?

- Kya bat hai?

Do you speak Hindi?


What time is it?

- kya samay hua?

What time is it?

- kya baja hai?

kya ap hindi bol sakte hain?

Misc. sentences (Masculine forms used)

My name is Poul

- mera nam poul hai

I live in Denmark


I am a student

- main vidyarthi hun

I go to school in Lyngby


lyngby men main skul jata hun

I speak a little Hindi


main hindi kuch-kuch bol sakta hun

I would like some tea

- mujhe cay cahiye

I am tired

- main thak gaya hai

I am thirsty

- mujhe pyas lagi hai

I am hungry

- mujhe bhukh lagi hai

I am not hungry

- mujhe bhukh nahin hai

I have to go

- mujhe jana hai

main denmark men rahta hun

mujhe samajh men yah nahin a raha

I don't understand it


I understand (now)

- (ab) main samajha

It is important

- yah zaruri hai

I would like to buy a ... -

main ... karidhna chahtha hun

I would like a ...

- mujhe ... chahiya

I would like some ...

- mujhe kuch ... chahein

Poul speaking (on the phone)

- yah poul bol raha hai

Who is it? (on the phone)

- kaun bol raha hai?

Hindi Verbs Hindi is one of the main languages of India and is spoken by a large number of people worldwide. If you are learning this language, knowledge of Hindi grammar can come in handy. Let's take a look at Hindi verbs.

Verbs, for those who don't know, most frequently denote action. Hindi verbs usually have the following characteristics:

•They have two elements, one is the verb stem and the other is the infinitive suffix. •It is essential for Hindi verbs to agree with their subjects in both number of the subject and gender of the subject. •When Hindi verbs describe the action of a pronoun, the verbs take on the gender of the noun that the pronoun indicates. •Hindi verbs distinguish past tense, present tense, and future tense. They also distinguish different kinds of actions. For example, actions that have been completed, actions that regularly occur, and actions that are going on. •Hindi verbs are also influenced by the degree of respect accorded to the subject. For example, intimate, familiar, or formal.

Some common Hindi verbs are irregular, like the following:

•Hona - to be •Karna - to do •Jana - to go •Lena - to take •Dena - to give •Khana - to eat •Pina - to drink •Sona - to sleep Different Forms of Hindi Verbs By adding the infinitive suffix to the verb stem, you get the infinitive form of the verb. The infinitive suffix is 'na'. For example, 'likh' means 'write' and if you add 'na' to 'likh', we have 'likhna', which is 'to write'.

•Mujha likhna hai - I have to write •Tujhe likhna hai - You have to write •Use likhna hai - He/she has to write •Unhe likhna hai - They have to write

The present participle suffix is 'ta' or 'ti'. If you add that to 'likh', you have 'likhta' (m.) or 'likhti' (f.), which is 'is writing'.

•Main likhta hoon - I am writing •Wo likhta hai - He is writing •Wo likhti hai - She is writing

The past participle suffix is 'a'. If you add that to 'likh', you have 'likha', which is 'had written' or 'was written'.

•Maine likha - I have written •Usne likha - He/she has written •Wahan likha tha - It was written there

The present continuous (progressive) tense is formed by adding 'raha', 'rahi', or 'rahe' to the verb stem along with the present tense of 'hona', that is 'to be'.

•Main likh raha hoon - I am writing (m.) •Main likh rahi hoon - I am writing (f.) •Tum likh rahe ho - You are writing •Hum likh rahe hain - We are writing Although, raha, rahi, and rahe are written separate, they are pronounced as one with the verb stem.

For past tense, you add 'a' (for masculine singular), 'e' (for masculine plural) or 'i' (for feminine singular and plural) to the verb stem. along with 'tha', 'thi', or 'the'.

•Maine likha tha - I had written •Maine likhe the - I had written •Usne likha tha - He had written •Usne likhi thi - She had written •Unhone likhe the - They had written Past imperfect tense is achieved by adding 'ta', 'te', or 'ti' along with 'tha', 'thi', or 'the' to the verb stem.

•Main deta tha - I used to give (m.) •Main deti thi - I used to give (f.) •Tum dete the - You used to give

•Hum dete the - We used to give •Wo deta tha - He used to give •Wo deti thi - She used to give •Woh dete the - They used to give

For future tense, verb stems are appended with 'unga' (for I), 'ega' and 'oge' for 'tu', and 'tum' (you), 'ega' and 'egi' for 'wo' (he and she), and 'enge' for 'woh', 'hum' or 'aap' (us, you formal/plural, or they).

•Main khaunga - I will eat •Tu khayega - You will eat •Tum khaoge - You will eat •Wo khayega - He will eat •Wo khayegi - She will eat •Woh khayenge - They will eat •Hum khayenge - We will eat •Aap khayenge - You will eat (formal, singular/plural)

For future continuous (progressive) tense, verb stems are appended with 'ta', 'te', or 'ti' and 'rahunga', 'rahega', 'rahegi', 'rahenge', or 'rahoge'.

•Main jata rahunga - I will keep going •Tu jata rahega - You will keep going (m.) •Tu jati rahegi - You will keep going (f.) •Woh jate rahenge - They will keep going •Tum jate rahoge - You will keep going

Hindi, a language belonging to the Indo-Iranian sub-group of the Indo-European family of languages, is one of the official languages of India. It is mainly spoken in Northern India, but is also spoken and understood in other parts of the country. Hindi grammar is called “Vyakaran”.

Pronouns in Hindi:

Pronouns in Hindi are called “Sarvanam”. Like pronouns in English and other languages, Hindi pronouns perform the task of making the language easier to use.

Here are some characteristics of Hindi Pronouns:

•In Hindi, the first person, second person and third person pronouns all have a single gender. There is no “he” and “she” difference as in the English language. It is the verb that, upon conjugation, usually indicates the difference in gender. •The first person pronouns and second person pronouns are indicated by personal pronouns. •The third person pronouns are indicated by demonstrative pronouns. •Hindi pronouns have accusative and genitive cases. •Hindi pronouns do not have vocative cases. There are five main types of pronouns in Hindi:

1. Personal Pronouns, known as Purush Vachak Sarvanam

2. Demonstrative Pronoun, known as Nischay Vachak Sarvanam

3. Indefinite Pronoun, known as Anischay Vachak Sarvanam

4. Relative Pronoun, known as Sambandh Vachak Sarvanam

5. Interrogative Pronoun, known as Prashna Vachak Sarvanam

Personal Pronouns:

There are three types of personal pronouns – First Person, Second Person and Third Person.

First Person Pronouns, also known as Uttam Purush, are -

•Mai (I) •Mai Ne (I) •Mera (My/Mine) •Hum (Us/We) •Humara (Ours) “Hum” and “Humara” are sometimes used as “I” and “Mine”. It was common in the days of the royalty – a royal person always referred to himself/herself as “Hum”. It is still common in some areas nowadays, particularly in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. For example - “Hum nahi karange” (I won't do it/We won't do it).

Examples -

•"Mai ga raha hoon" (I am singing) •"Mai ne kavita likhi" (I wrote a poem)

•"Mera kutta kala hai" (My dog is black) •"Hum banaras jane wale hain" (We are going to Banaras) •"Humara ghar Lucknow main hain" (Our house is in Lucknow) Second Person Pronouns, also known as Madhyam Purush, are -

•Tum (You) •Tu Ne (You) •Tumhara (Yours) •Tera (Yours) •Aap (You, formal, singular and plural) •Aap Ne (You, formal, singular and plural) “Tum”, “Tu ne”, “Tumhara” and “Tera” are informal second person pronouns and may be used for friends, family, children and pets. “Aap” and “Aap ke” are formal second person pronouns and are used on formal occasions, to address strangers, seniors and authority figures. They are also quite often used between family members. This is mostly seen in Northern India, where parents may use “Aap” when addressing their children. For example - “Beta, aap khaoge?” (Son/daughter, will you eat?)

Examples -

•"Tum mere sath aaoge?" (Will you come with me?) •"Tu ne khana khaya?" (Have you eaten?) •"Tumhara nam kya hai?" (What is your name?) •"Tera ghar kahan hai?" (Where is your house?) •"Aap ka nam kya hai?" (What is your name?) •"Aap ke kyun taklif ki?" (Why did you trouble yourself? Actually, a polite form of 'Oh, it really wasn't necessary, you shouldn't have bothered'. Taklif is an urdu word for trouble or bother) Third Person Pronouns, also known as Anya Purush, are -

•Woh (He/She/They) •Uska/Uski (His/Her) Examples -

•"Woh bazaar gaye hain" (They have gone to the market) •"Woh pathshala ko gaya/gayi hain" (He/She has gone to school) •"Uski aaj exam hai" (Today is his/her exam)

Demonstrative Pronouns:

Demonstrative pronouns indicate a particular person or persons or a particular thing or things.

•Yeh (This/He/She/It) •Woh (That/He/She/It) •Ye (These) Ve (Those) Examples -

•"Yeh mera ghar hai" (This is my house) •"Woh uska ghar hai" (That is his/her house) •"Ye log wahan rahate hai" (These people stay there) •"Ve log kal jayenge" (Those people will leave tomorrow) Indefinite Pronouns:

Indefinite pronouns indicate general rather than particular people and things.

•Koi (Someone) •Kuch (Something) •Kuch bhi (Anything)

•Sab kuch (Everything) •Sab log (Everyone) Examples -

•"Koi ja raha hai" (Someone is passing/going) •"Kuch karna hoga" (Something must be done) •"Kuch bhi chalega" (Anything will do) •"Sab kuch karke dekho" (Try everything) •“Sab log aayenge” (Everyone will come) Relative Pronouns:

Relative pronouns give the relation between words, people and things.

•Jo (Who) •Jiski (Whose) •Jaisa (Like) Examples -

•“Jo kal aayega, usko dena" (the one who comes tomorrow, give it to him) •"Jiski chal hathi jaisi" (Whose walk is like that of an elephant) •"Uske jaisa koi nahin" (There is no one like him) Interrogative Pronouns:

Interrogative pronouns ask questions about people and things.

•Kaun (Who) •Kya (What) •Kisko (Whom)

Examples -

•"Kaun banega crorepati?" (Who will be a millionaire?) •"Kya baat hai?" (What is the matter?) •"Kisko phal diye?" (Whom did you give the fruit to?)

C'mon, dinner's ready - Chalo, khana tayar hain.

Sit down - Baith jao.

I'm hungry - Mujhe bhook lagi hai.

What will you eat? - Tum kya khaoge? (informal) / Aap kya khaoge? (formal)

What's for dinner? - Khane may kya hai?

Today we have made Hyderabadi biryani - Aaj humne Hyderabadi biryani banayi hain.

And there is also rice, roti, sambhar, paratha, vegetables, salad, pakoda, papad, pickle, curd, buttermilk and lassi - Aur chawal, roti, sambhar, paratha, sabzi, raita, pakoda, papad, aachar, chutney, dahi, tak, lassi bhi hain.

Do you like sweet dishes? - Tumko mithai pasand hai? (informal) / Aapko mithai pasand hai? (formal)

There is also mango juice, jalebi, rasgulla, gulab jamun, shrikhand, barfi and laddoos - Aam-ras, jalebi, rasgulla, gulab jamun, shrikhand, barfi aur laddoo bhi hain.

I was also going to make Momos, but I didn't have the time - Main Momos bhi banana wali thi, lekin mujhe wakt nahi mila.

Tomorrow I'm going to make South Indian food - dosa-sambhar and wadasambhar - I particularly like Iddiyappam - Kal main Dakshin Bharatiya khana banana wali hoon -dosa-sambhar aur wada-sambhar - mujhe Idiyappam khas pasand hai.

What will you have? - Tum kya logay? (informal) / Aap kya logay? (formal)

What else will you have? - Tum aur kya logay? (informal) / Aap aur kya logay? (formal)

Would you like some more? - Tumko aur chahiye? / Tumhe aur chahiye? (informal) / Aapko aur chahiye? (formal)

Do you want water? - Tumko pani chahiye? (informal) / Aapko pani chahiye? (formal)

Move your glass here - Glass yahan karo

Do you want a spoon, knife and fork? - Tumko chamach, suri aur kata chahiye?

No, I'll eat by hand - Nahi, main haat say khaoongi. (feminine) / Nahi, main haat say khaoonga. (masculine)

I would like some more rice - Mujhe aur chawal chahiye.

I will have sambhar with it - Uske saath main sambhar loongi. (feminine) / Uske saath main sambhar loonga. (masculine)

Does it need more salt? - Usme aur namak chahiye kya?

Does it need more sugar? - Usme aur shakkar chahiye kya?

Do you find it hot (as in chillie hot)? - Tumko tikha lag raha hai kya? (informal) / Aapko tikha lag raha hai kya? (formal)

You don't find it hot (chillie hot), do you? - Tumko tikha to nahi lag raha hai na? (informal) /Aapko tikha to nahi lag raha hai na? (formal)

Is it hot (as in scalding hot)? - Garam hai kya?

The food hasn't become cold, has it? - Khana thanda toh nahi huwa hai na?

There's more in the pot - Katore may aur hain.

Do you like the dinner? - Khana aachha lag raha hai na?

Yes, it's good, thank you - Ha, acchha hai, shukriya.

Eat some fruit - Kuch phal kha lo.

Will you have some more? - Tum aur logay? (informal) / Aap aur logay? (formal)

Your plate looks/is looking empty - Tumhari thali khali deekh rahi hai (informal) / Aapki thali khali deekh rahi hai (formal)

No, enough, I'm done, my stomach is full - Nahi, bas, mera ho gaya, mera pet bhar gaya.

Thank you, the food was very tasty/good, your cooking is amazing Shukriya/Dhanyawad, khana bahut swadishta/acchha tha, tum kamal ka khana pakati ho (informal)/ aap kamal ka khana pakatay ho (formal).

Come again - Phir aao/aajao


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