SUMMER TRAINING REPORT SESSION 2011-2012
HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED
COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY &ENGG., UDAIPUR
Submitted By :
Dr. Naveen Jain Asstt.professor Training Incharge
Sourabh Khandelwal B.E. Final Year CTAE, Udaipur
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In an organization, be one man working in isolation can achieve it an industry, a school or society, no outcomes. It’s always a group working and achieving the outcome in totality. It is the outcome of all the guidance and support that we received from this organization. I would like to special thank Mr.Devesh Chandra Jha, DGM-Electrical & instrumentation (Training) for having arrangement of our training in this organization. In my prior list, I would like to express my profound sense of gratitude to the authorities of “HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED”& Mr. Sathish Dhage (Manager) under whose guidance & supervision the present study has been carried out. I am very grateful to Mr. Ajay Pratap singh who always spread their valuable time to steer me through this project work with smiling face & I am also thankful to all the staff members of HR department. I am indebted to all the field operators who took time off from their busy working schedule and explained me even the minutest details, ensuring my queries and showing me the whole periphery of the PLANT. Last but not the least we would like to thanks our teachers without whose feedback and encouragement, this project would not have been possible. There help has gone a long way in successful completion of my project in an organisation, be it an industry, a college or society, no outcomes can be achieved by that we received from this organisation. Debts being various are not easy to remember. Therefore finally, i express my best gratitude to all who have directly or indirectly assisted, guided and supported me in completing this task. My special thanks to my friends for constant support and feedback that has enabled to perform this dissertation Sourabh Khandelwal CTAE, Udaipur
PREFACE The report is hard intends to reflect some technical issues covered under the ‖HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED‖ a first truly ―MNC‖ of India. The total aspects have been formulated and presented on the basis of ideas and information gathered by this investigator during a shorter span of project training i.e. an important portion of the B.E. curriculum leading to an opportunity for the participant to have a practical exposure of the content under the topic beyond what has already been studies during the classroom interaction. This report has been written in response to a comprehensive study conducted on ―AC DRIVES‖ of ―HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED‖. This report mentions and evaluates the various aspects, pertaining to the distribution channel of the company. After a thorough analysis of the various facts stand figure, a set of recommendation has been given at the end of report. Accuracy and precision has been given the prime consideration, while compiling the report, the authoritative and authentic. I am confident that anyone who goes through this report will learn how much I learnt and benefited during this period. Sourabh Khandelwal CTAE, Udaipur
A US $40 billion corporation, the Aditya Birla Group is in the League of Fortune 500. It is anchored by an extraordinary force of over 133,000 employees, belonging to 42 different nationalities. The Group has been ranked Number 4 in the Global 'Top Companies for Leaders’ survey and ranked Number 1 in Asia Pacific for 2011. 'Top Companies for Leaders' is the most comprehensive study of organisational leadership in the world conducted by Aon Hewitt, Fortune Magazine and RBL (a strategic HR and Leadership Advisory firm). Over 53 per cent of its revenues flow from its overseas operations. The Group operates in 36 countries – Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Laos, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, UK, USA and Vietnam. Globally, the Aditya Birla Group is: A metal powerhouse, amongst the world most cost efficient aluminium and copper producer. Hindalco novelis is the largest aluminium rolling company. It is one of the three biggest producers of aluminium in Asia, with the largest single location copper smelter. No. 1 in viscose staple fibre. No. 1 in carbon black. The fourth largest producer of insulators. The fifth largest producer of acrylic fibre. Among the top ten cement producers. Amongst the best efficient fertilizer plants. The largest Indian MNC with manufacturing operation in the USA.
A top fashion (branded apparel) and lifestyle player. The second largest player in viscose filament yarn. The largest producer in chloro - alkali sector. Among the top three mobile telephony company. A leading player in life insurance and asset management. Among the top two supermarket chains in the retail business. Among the top 10 BPO companies.
Rock solid in fundamentals, the Aditya Birla group nurtures a culture where success does not come in the way of the need to keep learning afresh, to keep experimenting. Beyond business the Aditya Birla group:
Works in 3000 villages. Reaches out to seven million people, annually through the aditya Birla centre for community initiative and rural development, spearheaded by Mrs. Rajashree Birla. Focuses on healthcare, education and sustainable livelihood, infrastructure and espousing social reform in India, Egypt and Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, Korea and brazil.
In India: Our group runs 42 schools, which provides quality education to 45000 children’s. of these, over, 18000 children receive free education. Its 18 hospitals tend to more than a million villagers. In line with its commitment to sustainable development, has partnered with Columbia global centre’s earth institute in Mumbai. To embed CSR as a way of life in organisations has set up the FICCI – Aditya Birla CSR Centre for Excellence, in Delhi. Transcending the conventional barriers of business because we believe it is our duty to facilitate inclusive growth.
Global its ranks as A metals powerhouse, among the world's most cost-efficient aluminium and copper producers. Hindalco-Novelis from its fold is a Fortune 500 company. It is the largest aluminium rolling company. It is one of the three biggest producers of primary aluminium in Asia, with the largest single location copper smelter. No. 1 in viscose staple fibre. The 4th largest producer of insulators. The 4th largest producer of carbon black. The 11th largest producer of cement and the largest in a single geography. Asia‘s largest integrated aluminium producer. The world‘s largest single location world-scale Copper smelter. Among the world‘s lowest cost Aluminium producers. Among the world's top 15 BPO companies and among India's top three.
India‘s largest integrated Aluminium producer. Indian‘s premier branded garments player. 2nd largest producer of viscose filament yarn. Among the top five mobile telephony companies. A leading player in life insurance and asset management. Among the top three supermarket chains in the retail business.
Grasim Industries Ltd. Hindalco Industries Ltd. Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd. Shree Digvijay Cement CO. Ltd Ultra Tech Cement
PSI Data Systems TransWorks Essel Mining & Industries Ltd. Shree Digvijay Cement Ltd. Idea Cellular Ltd. Birla NGK Insulators Bihar Caustic and Chemicals Ltd.
Aluminium Copper Cement Carbon Black Textiles Fertilizers Chemical Insulator Gas Software BPO Telecom Retail Finance And Insurance
Vision :To be a premium global conglomerate with a clear focus on each business.
Mission :To deliver superior value to our customers, shareholders, employees and society at large.
OVERVIEW A GLIMPSE OF HISTORY HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED, a flagship company of the ADITYA BIRLA GROUP, is structured into two strategic business- Aluminium & Copper, and is an industry leader in both these segments. A non-ferrous metals powerhouse, close to globe scale, it ranks among India‘s top 10 companies in terms of market capitalization. In Financial year 2006-07, HINDALCO recorded a turnover of Rs18313.00crore. It was set up in collaboration with ―KAISER ALUMINIUM & CHEMICALS CORPORATION USA‖, in a record time of 18 months. The plant started its commercial production in the year 1962 with a capacity of 20,000 tons per annum. The company has grown manifold and is managed by Board of Directors, with Mr. KUMAR MANGALAM BIRLA as the Chairman of Board of Directors. Day to day affairs of the company is managed by Professional Executives headed by Sri D.K KOHLI as the Chief Operations Officer- Aluminium & Power.
Novelis Acquisition Aditya Birla Group‘s Hindalco Industries Limited, NOVELIS Inc have entered into a definitive agreement for HINDALCO to acquire NOVELIS in an all cash transaction which values NOVELIS at approximately US6$ billion, including approximately US2.4$ billion of debt. NOVELIS is the world‘s largest producer of rolled Aluminium, and recycle of Aluminium cans, with 12500 employees in all 11 countries, a market value of $2.9 billion and $3.2 billion of debt. It was spun off from Canadian Aluminium Company Alcan but incorporated in Atlanta, USA.
Carbon black The group entered the carbon black business in 1980 with its first plant in Thailand. Eight years later, it built another plant at Renukoot in Uttar Pradesh. In 1994 the group commenced carbon black production in Alexandria in Egypt. After its new plant at Goomidi poondi near Chennai going on stream, the AV Birla group`s carbon black capacity has expanded to 3.1 lakh tpa.
Extrusion Hindalco has two extrusion plants in India, one at Renuloot, Uttar Pradesh, and the other at Alupuram, Kerala. Both plants have well-established manufacturing processes and Q. A. systems honed over five decades of experience.
FACTFILE Aluminium World‘s largest aluminium rolling company. One of the biggest producers of primary aluminium in Asia. Market share of 48 percent. One of the lowest-cost producers of aluminium in the world. Over 58 percent of sales in value-added products. Fully integrated aluminium plant at Renukoot, UP. Aluminium wheels plant at Silvassa, in Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Foil plants at Silvassa. Foil unit of Indal at Kollur. Alumina refining capacity of 1,160,000 TPA going up to 1,500,000 TPA. Aluminium metal producing capacity of 445,000 TPA.
Product Line Up Of Hindalco 1) Aluminium Metal 2) Flat Rolled Products 3) Extruded Products 4) Redraw Rods 5) Aluminium Foils 6) Alloy Wheels
7) Copper Cathode 8) Cast Copper Rods
Head Office Head office of HINDALCO is located at Mumbai.
Units of manufacturing Hindalco in India
BELPUR, HOWRAH (WEST BENGAL) MOUDA, NAGPUR (MAHARASHTRA) RENUKOOT, SONEBHADRA (UTTAR PRADESH) TALOZA, NAVI MUMBAI (MAHARASHTRA)
Logistics Market-logistics means ―getting the right goods to the right places, at the right time, for the most effective cost‖. Four major decisions must be made with regard to market logistics; 1. Order processing 2. Warehousing 3. Inventory 4. Transportation Now on the basis of our study we will explain HINDALCO market logistics decisions. Order Processing How should orders be handled? The most important factor is order to payments cycles. This means the elapsed time between the order received, delivery and payments.
Order processing time The HINDALCO orders the vendors and it is processed either same or next day.
Warehousing HINDALCO has there its own warehouses at all manufacturing units. All expenses are beard by the company as all the warehouses are company owned & insured.
Inventory How much stock should be held is the objective of inventory. Sales people would like their companies to carry enough stock to fill all their customers order immediately.
Transportation How the goods are to be shipped is solved by transportation decisions. There are five transportation modes; rail, air, truck, water, way. Criteria such as speed, frequency, dependability, capability, availability and cost help in the choice of transportation.
HINDALCO PRODUCTS PRIMARY ALUMINIUM PRODUCTS Ingots: Is an LME (London Metal Exchange) registered brand. These are also known as virgin metal. These are used as raw material for making aluminium product
Round Billets: These are use for making extrusion.
Cast Slabs: Slabs are used input in Hot Rolling Mill, which is converted into thinner sheets, plates or coils.
Semi Fabricated Products: Hindalco produces 900 different rolled product items of which 40 are standard.
Hot Rolled Products: These are the product which are used after the process of ht rolling according to their specification and requirements, these products are as follows:
Hot Rolled Plates: These plates are supplied in alloys 6351, 5052, 5086. These are supplied flat with sheared milled.
Hot Rolled Plates For Electrical application: These electrical application plates are used as Bus Bar. They are supplied in Alloy 1050, 1060 an 1070. Standard Temper is F (As Fabricated)
Hot Rolled Coils: These are supplied in alloy 5005, 60611, 6351, 5052, and 5086.
Cold Rolled Products (A) Plain sheets (B) Cold rolled coils
Slug stock: Hindalco also produces slug stock needed for punching slugs for the manufactured of collapsible tubes etc. They are manufactured in allow 1050, 1060, 1070, and in temper.
Circles: This product is made as sheet cut to circular cross section before subjecting it to deep drawing or other form of operation.
Milk can circle: They are supplied in allow and temper. They are used to make milk cans. Check red sheets: These check red sheets are also known as flooring sheets because there are use to join floor in buses etc.
Circular corrugated sheets: Corrugated sheets are supplied in allow 3003, 40800 with temper 114. For roofing and siding, corrugated sheets in allow 8011 is ideal.
Foil stock: It is a semi finished coil strip used for further rolling to manufacture foils. Litho stock: It is semi-fabricated coils used for lithography printing. Extremely high required with emphasis on almost complete absence of surface defects.
Alkaloid sheet: It is also known as brazing sheet and extensively used air passenger radiators, automotive air conditioning evaporators air condensers, alkaloid sheets consist of a Bramble Aluminium Allow (AA4045) Clade (10% of total thickness).
HINDALCO PRODUCT RANGE Ingots Hindalco produce high purity ingots through smelting. Alloy ingots of various grades are also produced and mainly used for the production of casting in the auto industries and electrical applications. Both these products are remelted and future proceeds into a large number of products for various downstream applications
Extrusions Aluminium extrusions A leading player in the extrusions industry in India, Hindalco offers a wide range of alloys, including hard alloys and some special alloys for the defence and space sectors. Our extrusions capacity stands at 31,000 TPA. We have two extrusion plants in India, one in Renukoot, Uttar Pradesh, and the other in Alupuram, Kerala. Both plants have wellestablished manufacturing processes and QA systems honed over five decades of experience. Our extrusions are manufactured from high-quality billets made out of virgin inhouse metal and offer the widest range of shapes and alloys. Hindalco Extrusions is a leading brand for a wide spectrum of industries, including architectural, electrical, industrial, transport, defence and consumer durables industries. We export extrusions primarily to the US, Canada, Germany, the UK, France, the Netherlands, South Africa, UAE, Singapore, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
Extrusions product range Section weight range
Standards 0.058 kg/m to 117 kg/ Other profiles 0.08 kg/m to 100 kg
Alloys Alloys 6005, 6060, 6061, 6063, 6066, 6082, 6101, 6351 1050, 1060, 1070, 2014, 2017, 2014 5052, 5083, 5086, 7018, 7039, 7075 3003, 4043, 4047 Plus customized alloys for special applications Length range 94 mm to 13,500 mm Standards: Typical range available Rods
Rolled products Hindalco has become the world's largest aluminium rolling company with its acquisition of Novelis, the global leader in value-added high-end aluminium flat rolled products and aluminium can recycling. The combined volume of sales of flat rolled products in the world market is about 3 million tonnes, and the market share is more than 20 per cent. Superior
quality, delivery and customised service capabilities have helped us in growing market share globally. We are India's largest manufacturer of the entire range of flat rolled products. Our aluminium sheet is produced from our own cast slabs or continuous cast coils, rolled down to customised thickness, gauge and tolerances. In India we enjoy a dominant market share. Our rolled products are widely used in various segments such as packaging, transportation, building and construction, electrical, defence and general engineering applications. Our commitment to quality and service, along with extensive infrastructure, has made us a prime source for best-selling brands. Continuous improvements in manufacturing processes, practices and systems ensure that customers' needs and expectations are fully met. We ensure efficiency and product quality by using state-of-the-art equipment and a strong research and development setup, supported by dedicated and motivated employees and the Oracle ERP system. Wagstaff Air Slip™ slab casting technology is used to guarantee consistent quality and surface finish of stock feed, which in turn ensures quality finished products.
Foil and packaging Delivering 'never-before-tried' solutions to customers in India and across the globe, Hindalco has the distinction of being India's premier supplier of foil and foil laminates — plain, lacquered and printed. Our foil and packaging division operates out of three modern, well-equipped plants located at Kalwa in Maharashtra, Silvassa in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Kollur in Andhra Pradesh, India. These well-equipped foil rolling and converting facilities provide a veritable 'one-stop-shop' for packaging solutions. The plants also employ high-end technology and professional expertise to develop visually appealing and functionally useful packaging. The Kalwa Foil Plant's advanced ERP-based bar code-operated material tracking system is the first of its kind in the packaging industry, ensuring full traceability from input to final product. An impressive range of foil rolling and converting equipment is backed by strong QC systems. Adherence to the company's standard operating practices ensures that the final product conforms to the committed specifications. Our complete backward integration,
right down to the raw material stage from bauxite ore to primary metal, guarantees full control over the quality of the final foil output. With over four decades of experience and expertise, we enjoy a domestic market share of more than 40 per cent in the foil and packaging business. Fostering this incredible growth is the combined effort of our plants, competently operated by a young and energetic workforce and a strong technical team.
We offer packaging solutions to well-known brands in the pharmaceuticals, healthcare, dairy, confectionery, processed foods, personal products, and tobacco industries and also serve the HVAC (heat, ventilation and air conditioning) segments with radiator and AC fin stock. Some of our clients are — GlaxoSmithKline, Aventis, Merck, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Nestle, Cadbury, Amul, Britannia, Hindustan Lever, Perfetti Van Melle, ITC, Golden Tobacco, Godfrey Philips, LG, Hitachi and Voltas. Our house foil brands include Superwrap, Freshwrapp and Freshpakk semi- rigid containers, which are convenient and popular with consumers.
What is Extrusions? Extrusion is defined as a process in which a metal block is reduced in cross- section by forcing it to flow through a die, in order to give it a desired shape. Extrusions are performed both hot and cold. However, most commercial extrusions are performed hot. Extrusion processes maybe direct or indirect. In Direct extrusion, which is the conventional process, the billet moves relative to the container wall, while in indirect extrusions the die moves. The Extrusion process is the most economical and versatile method of producing aluminium sections of almost any desired shape and form. Hindalco extrusions offer an enormous range of shapes, wide range of alloys for decorative, structural and functional application. The present die catalogue included over one thousand die for various sections and we are fully equipped to design and make new die as per exclusive requirement. Some of the common shapes are as follows:
ROD, BAR-Flat, Square, Hexagonal STRUCTURAL SHAPES-Angles, Channels, Tee, I-beans, H sections etc. TUBES-Round, Oval, Square, Rectangular, Triangular Mouldings Solid and hollow shapes
Foil Cable Rape stock
Light Gauge Foil Bare & Coated Fine stock Collapsible insulation Ducts
Alloy wheels : 12 to 18 inch diameters. OTHERS: The main by products of the process included
Vanadium sludge Gallium The market leader
Hindalco is a leading domestic player in two metals business segments — aluminium and copper. The aluminium division's product range includes alumna chemicals, primary aluminium ingots, billets, and wire rods, product extrusions, foils and alloy wheels. The company has a significant market share in all the segments in which it operates. It enjoys a domestic market share of 42 per cent in primary aluminium, 63 per cent in rolled products, 20 per cent in extrusions, 44 per cent in foils and 31 per cent in wheels. As a step towards expanding the market for value-added products and services, Hindalco has launched several brands in recent years, which include Aura for alloy wheels, Fresh Rapp for kitchen foil and Ever last for roofing sheets. Our exclusive showroom, The Aluminium Gallery, seeks to promote Hindalco products to its customers. It is a platform for the company to showcase quality products to a quality audience in an appropriate ambience. The exhibits include products like windows, doors, furniture, ladder, roofing sheets and ceiling and cladding panels. Hindalco products are well received not only in the domestic market, but also in the international market. The company's metal is accepted for delivery under the high-grade aluminium contract on the London Metal Exchange (LME). The company exports about 17 per cent of its total sales volume of aluminium. The company's alumna chemical business is
a leader in manufacturing and marketing of specialty alumna and alumna hydrate products in the country. It has a market share of 90 per cent in the country. These specialty products find wide usage in diversified industries including water treatment chemicals, refractory, ceramics, cryolite, glass, fillers and plastics, conveyor belts and cables, among others. The company also exports these alumna chemicals to over 30 countries covering North America, Western Europe and the Asian region Birla Copper, Hindalco's copper division at Dahej in Gujarat enjoys a leadership position in India, having built over 40 per cent of the domestic market share within three years of its commissioning. It has also made successful forays into the export markets of the Middle East, Southeast Asia, China, Korea and Taiwan. The copper plant produces world-class copper cathodes, continuous cast copper rods and precious metals. Sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, DI- ammonium phosphate, other phosphate fertilizers and phosphorgypsum are also produced at this plant.
Production capacity Alumina: Capacity 1.15 mtpa
Renukoot Belgaum Muri
685,000tpa 350,000tpa 110,000tpa
Smelter (primary aluminium) : Capacity 424,000mtp
Renukoot 345,000tpa Hirakund 65,000tpa Alpuram 14,000tpa
Rolled products: Capacity 2,00,000tpa
Renukoot Belur Taloja Nagpur
80,000tpa 45,000tpa 45,000tpa 30,000tpa
Foil: Capacity 14,000tpa
Silvasa 5,000tpa Kalwa 6,000tpa Kollar 3,000tpa
Extrusions: Capacity 27,700tpa
Renukoot 19700tpa Alpuram 8000tpa
Alloy wheels: capacity 3, 00,000 nos. Pa
SILVASA 3, 00,000 nos.
Aluminium properties The major advantages of using aluminium are tied directly to its remarkable properties. Some of these properties are outlined in the following sections. Strength to weight ratio: Aluminium has a density around one third that of steel and is used advantageously in applications where high strength and low weight are required. This included vehicles where low mass results in grater lode capacity and reduction fuel consumption. Corrosion resistance: When the surface of aluminium metal is exposed to air, a protective oxide coating forms almost instantaneously. This oxide layer is corrosion, resistant and can be further enhanced with surface treatments such as anodizing. Electrical and thermal conductivity: Aluminium is an excellent conductor of both heat and electricity. The great advantage of aluminium is that by weight, the conductivity of aluminium is around twice that of copper. This means that aluminium is now the most commonly used material in large power transmission lines including domestic wiring. Weight consideration means that a large property of overhead, high voltage power lines now use aluminium rather than copper. Light and heat reflectivity: Aluminium is a good reflector of both visible light and heat marketing it an ideal material for light fittings, thermal rescue blankets and architectural insulation.
Toxicity: Aluminium is not only non-toxic but also does not release any odours or taint products with which it is in contact. This makes aluminium suitable for use in packing for sensitive products such as food or pharmaceutical where aluminium foil is used.
Recyclability: The Recyclability of aluminium is unparalleled. When recycled there is no digression in properties when recycled aluminium is compared to virgin aluminium. Furthermore, recycling of aluminium only require around 5% of the input energy required to produce virgin aluminium metal.
APPLICATION OF ALUMINIUM In construction industry: Aluminium &aluminium alloys have a number of properties, which make them ideal for use in building and construction industry. These properties include light weight combined with high strength, good resistant to corrosion, visual attractiveness without the need for panting, low maintenance and handling cost and in the case of structural, materials, reduces building time and cost as the materials are easier to handle, and involve the use of lighter, cheaper cranes and other materials handling equipment. Aluminium is used in the both the structure and fittings of residential and nonresidential buildings. The main uses are roofing and cladding and in window & doorframes, but there are many other uses, some are as follows:
Solar panels Window door &general application Architectural hardware furniture Grills Ventilation blind Foil insulating Capping strip rain water guttering Shower boxes Casemate window Roller shutter
In packing industries: Aluminium metal can is used in a variety of products packing. Use of Aluminium metal cans, include industrial products and consumer durable products; such as milk &milk products, fresh fishes, soft drink etc. Innovation of Aluminium foil has also a silent future in packing the products. Foil can be used as a household or commercial wrapping, either alone or in commercial wrapping, in the form of laminates with their materials. Foil containers are widely used for the packing of food, especially frozen food. Foil layers are important in paper based packing such as cartons for fruit juice. Wine boxes have
foil containers inside them, which collapse as the contests are drawn off and prevent the ingress of air, which of air which oxidizes and spoil the remaining contents. Foil is used as on oxygen-tight seal in the packing of dry powders like coffee and foil seals are also under development to provide tamper-proof seals for pharmaceuticals. Many pharmaceuticals in tablet from are contained in foil packages, which permit individual tablets to be removed without opening the others up to the air. Major applications in the fields are as follows:
Pharmaceutical packing Tea industries Aluminium cans for milk Dairy products packing Multiply laminates Electrical power applications Collapsible tube Powder & chemicals Colours Aseptic packing Flexible food packing
In transport isdustry: Aluminium alloys are used in the construction of almost all type of transport equipment. The most widely publicized application for aluminium is in aircraft, through this in one of the smelter application in term of the tonnage consumed. The largest end use in the road vehicles, both passengers‘car & commercial vehicles, and it is also used in railway rolling stock and in the construction of naval and merchant ships and small boats. largest outlet for Aluminium amongst road vehicles is in passenger cars, which though smaller than commercial vehicles are build in very large numbers.
Aero plane Commercial aircraft Passenger cars Bus and bus shelter Railways Bicycles &bikes Ship &ship building Trucks Light motor vehicles
In automotive industry: The use of aluminium in construction of passenger cars is far from new. In the UK the ROVER Company has made extensive of aluminium in body work
for over 40 years, starting with him LAND ROVER 1948 than notably in the ROVE 75 and ROVER90 series (1949-1964) and ROVER 2000. All the models of vehicles concerned, where by the standards of the times during which they were build, low volume models. Aluminium is still more widely used in low volume, high performance, highly priced models of automobiles then in the high volume production models, which account for most of the passenger car produce. The consumption of aluminium and light weight materials in the manufactures of passenger car is governed by consideration of safety of fuel efficiency, in emission control and cost Today, the per capita consumption of aluminium in automotive sectors accounts for 22% of total per capita consumption of aluminium in India. Globally, the sector holds 25% of the total consumption. Examples of parts being converted from other traditional materials to aluminium include, but are not limited to the following:
Wheels Bumper beams Break drum & other break components Radiators Cylinder heads & blocks Stearing housings Chryher designee engines Doorframes, sills, steps, roof bows, ride pots. Extrusions are used for flat truck beds, tanks, van bodies, dumpier bodies and other application.
In aviation industry: Major applications are follows:
Military & civil aircraft Airframe construction Aircraft gas turbines Spacecraft & satellites Missile & rocket components Light aircraft Micro light aircraft Hang gliders, etc.
IN RAILWAYS: Major applications are as follows:
Wagons Doors Window Decorative frames, etc
As example: METRO TRAIN in India.
In electrical industry: Major applications are also in following electrical fields:
Electrical components Cabinet frame Motor body Light fixture Cable core Electronic components Telephone parts Transmission tower Transmission line.
In consumer durables: Major applications are also in following fields:
Cookers Refrigerators Freezers Vacuum cleaners Washing machines Dishwashers Ice tray & grid Stove top pots Steam jacketed kettles Gas fired kettles A.C Filter grill Water filter Furniture Hangers
CONTROL PANEL Control panel is a cabinet which contains electrical components to control the motors and equipments. Control panels are used in virtually all manufacturing environments and are an integral part of any automation or process control system. With the use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and network communications, components such as variable frequency drives and other input/output (I/O) devices can be distributed instead of being centrally located in a single control panel. Network cabling and distributed controls help simplify panel design and can result in reduced panel space and operational costs. Because
of the demand for interoperability, and the need to share data and monitor systems more thoroughly, industrial Ethernet is becoming more common in industrial automation and process controls. The ability to control, monitor, and troubleshoot the process directly through a terminal or an Internet browser, from any location, can provide significant cost savings and improved manageability.
CABLES: Cables are used for the interconnection. Two types of cables are used: Power cables (which is used to connect the motor to panel component and panel to main supply) Control cables (which is used to connect the control circuits)
BUS BAR : Incoming supply is connected to bus bar and distributed from bus bar. It is normally made by Aluminium.
MCB (Miniature Circuit Breakers): MCB is a protecting device. It is used before the feeder. This should be selected according to the capacity of the feeder
MCCB (Mould Case Circuit Breaker): In most of the cases the MCCB used as an incomer for higher capacity feeders for better protection
ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker): The ELCB is also known as RCCB. The device used for the protection against the earth leakage current and residual current. It should be fixed before the incomer
INCOMER: The basic supply will connected to this incomer. It also called as SFU(Switch Fuse Unit). It contains one handle with fuse unit. Once it is turned ON the supply will pass to the next stage through fuse if any major fault occurs in side panel board, it will trip and it isolate supply.
SELECTOR SWITCH: Selector is switch is used for ON/OFF purpose and for selecting the mode of operation like auto/manual.
STARTERS: Starters are used for starting the motors safely. Mainly two types of starters are there. DOL starters and Start to delta. Dol starter is enough for the motors with power less than 10 hp.
OVER LOAD RELAY: Over load relay is for the protection of motor from the over load. It senses the load current and trips if it exceeds the limit. Current limit has to be set manually. It should be 80% of the full load current.
TIMER: Operation of timer is similar to relay. But a delay is there for actuation. We can set the time delay manually according to our requirement. It is very much essential for start to delta conversion.
CONTACTOR: Contactor is an essential component in the control panel. It actuates when the signal from the controller (PLC, Relay logic) comes. It is similar to relay. It is costlier than relay. It is used for a higher load.
AC MOTORS Controlling of ac motors: There are several ways to control an AC motor and each approach has distinct purposes and advantages. A direct starter, also known as a full-voltage starter, switches a constant speed motor on and off. Because the full line voltage is supplied when the motor is being started, a high inrush current is applied to the motor and both the motor and the controlled equipment experience significant mechanical shock and wear. A reversing starter switches a constant speed, bi-directional motor on and off. Because this is a full-voltage starting method, in-rush current and mechanical shock are also high when this starting method is used. A soft starter is a type of reduced-voltage starter that ramps the motor up to a full speed smoothly, reducing the in-rush current and mechanical shock. Soft starters, however, cannot control the speed of the motor after it has reached full voltage. An AC drive is also known as a variable frequency drive because it converts the fixed supply frequency to a variable frequency, variable voltage output to control the speed of an AC motor. AC drives save energy, reduce mechanical shock, and allow the user to continually control the speed of the motor.
Advantages of ac drives: AC Drives are increasing being used by manufacturing organizations because they can improve manufacturing processes and product quality. AC drives provide these improvements in quality through improvements in the following items:
Speed control Flow control Pressure control Temperature control Acceleration control
Tension control Torque control Monitoring
However, all organizations that use AC motors can benefit from the use of AC drives because they can reduce operating cost. AC drive reduce operating cost in the following ways:
By Increasing system reliability By reduced equipment downtime By reducing energy costs
The net of these improvements is increased profit.
Totally integrated automation: Totally Integrated Automation (TIA) is more than a concept. TIA is a strategy developed by Siemens that emphasizes the seamless integration of automation, networking, drive, and control products. The TIA strategy is the cornerstone of development for a wide variety of Siemens products. Siemens drive products described in this course are important elements of TIA. TIA is important not just because it simplifies the engineering, startup, and maintenance of systems that utilize Siemens products, but also because it lowers the life-cycle costs for these systems. Additionally, by reducing the time needed for the engineering and startup of systems, TIA helps Siemens customers reduce time to market and improve overall financial performance.
NEMA B MOTOR: Motors are designed with speed-torque characteristics to match the requirements of common applications. The four standard NEMA motor designs (A, B, C, and D) have different characteristics. This section provides descriptions for each of these motor designs with emphasis on NEMA design B, the most common three-phase AC induction motor design. Because motor torque varies with speed, the relationship between speed and torque is often shown in a graph, called a speed-torque curve. This curve shows the motor's torque, as a percentage of full-load torque, over the motor's full speed range, shown as a percentage of its synchronous speed. The accompanying speed-torque curve is for a NEMA B motor. NEMA B motors are general purpose, single speed motors suited for purpose, single speed motors suited for applications that require normal starting and running torque, such as fans, pumps, lightly-loaded conveyors, and machine tools. The accompanying graphic shows the full-load torque calculation for a typical 30 HP NEMA B motor with a speed at full load of 1765 RPM. Starting torque, also referred to as locked rotor torque, is the torque that the motor develops each time it is started at rated voltage and frequency. When voltage is initially applied to the motor's stator, there is an instant before the rotor turns. At this instant, a NEMA B motor develops a torque approximately equal to 150%
of full-load torque. For the 30 HP, 1765 RPM motor used in this example, that's equal to 134.0 lb-ft of torque. As the motor picks up speed, torque decreases slightly until point B on the graph is reached. The torque available at this point is called pull-up torque. For a NEMA B motor, this is slightly lower than starting torque, but greater than full-load torque. As speed continues to increase from point B to point C, torque increases up to a maximum value at approximately 200% of full-load torque. This maximum value of torque is referred to as breakdown torque. The 30 HP motor in this example has a breakdown torque of approximately 178.6 lb-ft. Torque decreases rapidly as speed increases beyond breakdown torque until it reaches fullload torque at a speed slightly less than 100% of synchronous speed. Full-load torque is developed with the motor operating at rated voltage, frequency, and load. The motor in this example has a synchronous speed of 1800 RPM and a full-load speed of 1765 RPM. Therefore, its slip is 1.9%.
MATCHING A MOTOR TO A LOAD One way to evaluate whether the torque capabilities of a motor meet the torque requirements of the load is to compare the motor's speed-torque curve with the speedtorque requirements of the load. A table, like one shown in yellow, can be used to find the load torque characteristics. NEMA publication MG 1 is one source of typical torque characteristics.
MOTOR PERFORMANCE UNDER LOAD Speed-torque curves are useful for understanding motor performance under load. The accompanying speed-torque curve shows four load examples. This motor is appropriately sized for constant torque load 1 and variable torque load 1. In each case, the motor will accelerate to its rated speed. With constant torque load 2, the motor does not have sufficient starting torque to turn the rotor. With variable torque load 2, the motor cannot reach rated speed. In these last two examples, the motor will most likely overheat if it does not have overload protection.
Starting current Starting current, also referred to as locked rotor current, is the current supplied to the motor when the rated voltage is initially applied with the rotor at rest. Full-load current is the current supplied to the motor with the rated voltage, frequency, and load applied and the rotor up to speed. For a standard efficiency NEMA B motor, starting current is typically 600 to 650% of full-load current. Premium efficiency NEMA B motors typically have a higher starting current than standard efficiency NEMA B motors. Knowledge of the current requirements for a motor is critical for proper application.
NEMA A MOTORS NEMA A motors are the least common design. NEMA A motors have a speed-torque curve similar to that of a NEMA B motor, but typically have higher starting current. As a result, over current protection devices must be sized to handle the increased current. NEMA A motors are typically used in the same types of applications as NEMA B motors.
NEMA C MOTORS NEMA C motors are designed for applications that require a high starting torque for hard to start loads, such as heavily-loaded conveyors, crushers and mixers. Despite the high starting torque, these motors have relatively low starting current. Slip and full-load torque are about the same as for a NEMA B motor. NEMA C motors are typically single speed motors which range in size from approximately 5 to 200 HP. The accompanying speed-torque curve is for a 30 HP NEMA C motor with a full-load speed of 1765 RPM and a full-load torque of 89.3 lb-ft. In this example, the motor has a starting torque of 214.3 lb-ft, 240% of full-load torque and a breakdown torque of 174 lb-ft.
NEMA D MOTORS The starting torque of a NEMA design D motor is approximately 280% of the motor's fullload torque. This makes it appropriate for very hard to start applications such as punch presses and oil well pumps. NEMA D motors have no true breakdown torque. After starting, torque decreases until full-load torque is reached. Slip for NEMA D motors ranges from 5 to 13%. The accompanying speed torque curve is for a 30 HP NEMA D motor with a full-load speed of 1656 RPM and a full load torque of 95.1 lb-ft. This motor develops approximately 266.3 lb-ft of starting torque.
Volts per hertz ratio Many applications require the speed of an AC motor to vary. The easiest way to vary the speed of an AC induction motor is to use an AC drive to vary the applied frequency. Operating a motor at other than the rated frequency and voltage affect both motor current and torque. The volts per hertz (V/Hz) ratio are the ratio of applied voltage to applied frequency for a motor. 460 VAC is a common voltage rating for an industrial AC motor manufactured for use in the United States. These motors typically have a frequency rating of 60Hz. This provides a V/Hz ratio of 7.67. Not every motor has a 7.67 V/Hz ratio. A 230 Volt, 60 Hz motor, for example, has a 3.8 V/Hz ratio. The accompanying graphs illustrate the constant volts per hertz ratio of a 460 volt, 60 Hz motor and a 230 volt, 60 Hz motor operated over the constant torque range. The V/Hz ratio affects motor flux, magnetizing current, and torque. If the frequency is increased without a corresponding increase in voltage, motor speed increases, but flux, magnetizing current, and torque decrease.
Constant torque and horse power ranges AC motors running on an AC line operate with a constant flux because voltage and frequency are constant. Motors operated with constant flux are said to have constant torque. Actual torque produced, however, is dependent upon the load. An AC drive is capable of operating a motor with constant flux from approximately 0 Hz to the motor's rated nameplate frequency (typically 60 Hz). This is the constant torque range. At the top end of this range, the motor is operating at base speed. As long as a constant volt per hertz ratio is maintained the motor will have constant torque characteristics. Some applications require the motor to be operated above base speed, but the applied voltage cannot be increased above the rated value for an extended time. Therefore, as frequency is increased, stator inductive reactance increases and stator current and torque decrease. The region above base speed is referred to as the constant horsepower range because any change in torque is compensated by the opposite change in speed.
If the motor operates in both the constant torque and constant horsepower ranges, constant volts per hertz and torque are maintained up to 60 Hz. Above 60 Hz, the volts per hertz ratio and torque decrease as speed increases.
Continuos and intermmitent torque ranges AC motors operating within rated values can continuously apply load torque. For example, the accompanying graph shows the continuous torque range (in green) for a typical AC motor. The sample motor can be operated continuously at 100% torque up to 60 Hz. above 60 Hz the V/Hz ratio decreases and the motor cannot develop 100% torque, but can still be operated continuously at 25% torque at 120 Hz. This sample motor is also capable of operating above rated torque intermittently. The motor can develop as much as 150%
torque for starting, accelerating, or load transients, assuming that the associated drive can supply the current. As with the continuous torque range, the amount of torque that can be provided intermittently decreases above base speed. A field weakening factor (FFW) can be used to calculate the amount of torque reduction necessary for a given extended frequency. For example, a 60 Hz motor can only develop 44% rated torque at 90 Hz and 25% rated torque at 120 Hz.
Variable speed torque curves Recall that when a NEMA B motor is started at full voltage, it develops approximately 150% starting torque and 600% starting current. When the motor is controlled by an AC drive, the motor will be started at reduced voltage and frequency. For example, the motor may start with approximately 150% torque, but only 150% of full load current. As the motor is brought up to speed, voltage and frequency are increased, and this has the effect of shifting the motor's speed-torque curve to the right. The dotted lines on the accompanying speed-torque curve represent the portion of the curve not used by the drive. The drive starts and accelerates the motor smoothly as frequency and voltage are gradually increased to the desired speed. This is possible because an AC drive is capable of maintaining a constant volt per hertz ratio from approximately zero speed to base speed, thereby keeping flux constant. (Torque is proportional to the square of flux developed in the motor. Some applications require higher than 150% starting torque. A conveyor, for example, may require 200% of rated torque for starting. This is possible if the drive and motor are appropriately sized. If a motor is capable of 200% torque at 200% current, and the drive is capable of 200% current, then 200% motor torque is possible. Typically drives are capable of producing over 100% of drive nameplate rated current for one minute. The drive must be sized to take into account the higher current requirement. It is appropriate to supply a drive with a higher continuous horsepower rating than the motor when high peak torque is required.
Ac Motors And Drive Application AC drives often have more capability than the motor. Drives can run at higher frequencies than may be suitable for an application. In addition, drives can run at speeds too low for self-cooled motors to develop sufficient air flow. Each motor must be evaluated according to its own capability before selecting it for use with an AC drive. Harmonics, voltage spikes, and voltage rise times of AC drives are not identical. Some AC drives have more sophisticated filters and other components designed to minimize undesirable heating and insulation damage to the motor. This must be considered when selecting an AC drive/motor combination. Distance from the drive to the motor must also be taken into consideration. All motor cables have line-to-line and line-to-ground capacitance. The longer the cable, the greater the capacitance. Some types of cables, such as shielded cable or cables in metal conduit, have greater capacitance. Spikes occur on the output of AC drives because of the charging current in the cable capacitance. Higher voltage (460 VAC) and higher capacitance (long cables) result in higher current spikes. Voltage spikes caused by long cable lengths can potentially shorten the life of the AC drive and motor. A high efficiency motor with a 1.15 service factor is recommended when used with an AC drive. However, due to the heat associated with the harmonics produced by an AC drive, the 1.15 service factor is reduced to 1.0.
What Is An Ac Drive For the purpose of this course, an AC drive is a device used to control the speed of an AC motor. An AC drive may control other aspects of an application as well, but that depends on the capabilities of the drive and how it is applied. AC drives function by converting a constant AC frequency and voltage into a variable frequency and voltage. There are many types of AC drives, but this course focuses on low voltage (less than 1000 VAC) AC drives used with three-phase AC induction motors, the most common pairing used in industrial applications. An AC drive controls the speed of an AC motor in order to control the speed of the equipment mechanically connected to the motor. AC drives are most commonly used to control the speed of pumps and fans, but many other types of systems also use AC drives. The accompanying graphic shows examples of some of the applications for AC drives.
The importance of controlling speed varies with the application, but, for may applications, speed control is critical. Ultimately, what is being controlled may be, for example, the rate at which items or bulk quantities move on a conveyor or the rate at which gas or liquid flow in a pipe. In these examples, an AC drive controls the speed of an AC motor to control the speed of part of a process. Many processes require multiple AC drives functioning independently or in coordination. AC drives are also used in non-manufacturing applications, but the basic principles of operation are the same.
Basic of Ac Drive Circuit AC drive, inverter, and variable frequency drive are all terms that refer to equipment designed to control the speed of an AC motor. However, the term inverter also refers to a part of an AC drive circuit. The power section of a basic AC drive circuit is composed of a rectifier, often called a converter, a DC link, and an inverter. In addition to the power section, a basic AC drive circuit includes a CPU (central processing unit) or control logic which is required to control the output of the inverter and perform a variety of other functions. There are a number of ways to symbolize basic drive components. The accompanying illustration provides one example. In addition to these circuits, an AC drive typically has a number of other components such as interfaces to other devices. Referring to the accompanying graphic, the converter input is AC. Sometimes this is singlephase AC, but, more often, it is three-phase AC. The output of the converter is DC. Note that for the inverter section, these symbols are reversed, and three-phase AC power is provided to the motor. The component designated C1 is the DC link capacitor that smoothes the DC and stores energy. Some drives also use an inductor in the DC link for additional filtering. The converter section of the drive may use silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) or insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) in a bridge arrangement with the firing of these devices phased to control the voltage on the DC link. Often, however, the converter is a diode bridge. The inverter section is composed of electronic switching devices controlled by the control logic (referred to here as the CPU or central processing unit). Various types of switching devices may be used, but, most commonly, the switching devices are IGBTs.
Converter And Dc Link As the accompanying graphic shows, a converter section is designed to convert an AC input to a DC output. In this example, as is often the case, the input is three-phase AC. Without the DC link capacitor, the resultant DC has undesirable variations, referred to as ripple. With a DC link capacitor, most of this ripple is removed. In essence, the DC link capacitor functions like a battery providing power to the inverter section. Unlike a battery, however, the DC link capacitor is continually supplied with energy by the converter.
Ac Drive Power Transistor As previously indicated, AC drive inverter circuits often include insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). IGBTs provide the high switching speed necessary for modern inverter operation. IGBTs are capable of switching on and off several thousand times a second. An IGBT can turn on in less than 400 nanoseconds and off in approximately 500 nanoseconds. An IGBT has three leads: a gate, a collector, and an emitter. When a positive voltage (typically +15 VDC) is applied to the gate, the IGBT turns on. This is similar to closing a switch. When the IGBT is turned on, current flows between the collector and emitter. An IGBT is turned off by removing the positive voltage from the gate. During the off state, the IGBT gate voltage is normally held at a small negative voltage (-15 VDC) to prevent the device from turning on. Typically, each switch element is made up of an IBGT and a diode, called a free-wheeling diode. The free-wheeling diode protects the IGBT by conducting current when the IGBT turns off and the motor's collapsing magnetic field causes a current surge. This is also the path that is used when the motor is connected to an overhauling load. When a motor is connected to a load which is going faster than the speed set point, the
drive will attempt to slow down the motor to regulate it to the set point level. When the motor is being used to slow down the load (example: decline conveyor) or is being constantly driven by the load (engine generator test stand) it becomes a generator and regenerates power back from the motor. In order to keep circuit descriptions simple, the some of the following illustrations omit the use of free-wheeling diodes.
Control Logic And Inverter The control logic and inverter sections function to control the voltage and frequency applied to the AC motor. The accompanying graphic shows a basic AC drive with six IGBTs in the inverter section. The switching of each IGBT is controlled by the control logic. For the purpose of simplicity, the free-wheeling diodes are not shown. There are a variety of ways to control the voltage and frequency applied to the motor. The most common approach is to switch the IGBTs in such as manner as to control the frequency and width of pulses applied to each motor phase. This is an approach referred to as pulse width modulation (PWM).
Additional Circuit In addition to basic drive circuits, AC drives typically have additional circuits for connection to other devices through digital inputs and outputs, analog inputs and outputs, and other common drive signals. Digital inputs can be used to control the logic functions of the drive. Digital inputs can include signals for start/stop, forward/reverse, fixed speed selection, stopping methods, interlocking, and enabling other functions. Digital outputs are used to provide signals to other equipment to indicate drive status or operational conditions. Analog inputs can be used to control references for speed, tension, or other conditions, or to provide feedback representative of application conditions. Analog outputs can be used to send signals representing actual conditions such as drive current or motor speed to display devices or other equipment. In addition to analog and digital inputs and outputs, there are other common drive signal connections. For example a PTC/KTY input is often provided for connection to a motor temperature sensor. Other typical signal connections include encoder interfaces for speed or position feedback and communication interfaces for interconnection to other devices or networks.
Stopping The Motor And Its Load In order to understand the various methods used to stop an AC motor and its associated load in a system controlled by an AC drive, it is helpful to know some basic laws of science. One of these laws, often referred to as the first law of thermodynamics, is that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one type to another. Other important laws that relate to this subject involve the conservation of momentum, which is the product of mass and velocity. What all this means is that, in order to stop a motor and its connected load, all of the energy of motion must be transformed to another type of energy. In addition, the greater the momentum of the motor and its load, the more energy there is to transform.Because application requirements vary, a variety of braking methods have been developed. The accompanying table summarizes some of the more common methods of braking used with AC drives. There are additional braking methods, and one of these methods, dynamic braking, is explained later in this course.
Single Quadrant Operation In the accompanying speed-torque chart there are four quadrants defined by thedirections of motor rotation and torque.A single-quadrant drive operates only in quadrants I or III, where the speed and torque arrows have the same direction. Quadrant I is forward motoring or driving clockwise (CW). Motor torque is developed in the positive direction to drive the connected load at a desired speed (N). This is similar to driving a car forward on a flat surface from standstill to a desired speed. It takes more
forward or motoring torque to accelerate the car from zero to the desired speed. Once the car has reached the desired speed your foot can be let off the accelerator a little. When the car comes to an incline a little more gas, controlled by the accelerator, maintains speed. Quadrant III is reverse motoring or driving counter-clockwise (CCW), Reverse motoring is achieved by reversing the direction of the rotating magnetic field. This applies torque in the opposite direction than in quadrant I, so the motor turns in the reverse direction.
Four Quadrant Operation The dynamics of certain loads may require four-quadrant operation, where torque can be applied in either direction regardless of the direction of motor rotation. In quadrants II and IV, as shown in the accompanying speed-torque chart, the direction of torque is opposite to the direction of motion, so these are braking quadrants.Torque will always act to cause the rotor to run towards synchronous speed. If the synchronous speed is suddenly reduced, negative torque is developed in the motor. The motor acts like a generator by converting mechanical energy from the shaft into electrical energy which is returned to the AC drive. This is similar to driving a car downhill. The car's engine will act as a brake.
Dynamic Braking Dynamic braking is also referred to as pulsed-resistor braking. The accompanying simplified schematic shows an AC drive with a dynamic braking circuit composed of R1 and a switching transistor that is controlled by the control logic. The converting rectifier diodes supply current in only one direction. When the load attempts to go faster than the set motor speed, a condition referred to as an overhauling load (Quadrants II or IV), the motor generates electrical energy back to the DC link. This is called regeneration. Regeneration also occurs if the load is stopped quicker than the inertia of the load would normally stop in a non-powered state. As the voltage on the DC link capacitor increases during regeneration, the braking transistor switches on to dissipate the energy across the resistor and decrease the DC link voltage. During normal operation (motoring quadrants I and III) the dynamic braking circuit is turned off.
Other Converter Design As described previously, many AC drives have a converter section that uses diodes to rectify the incoming alternating current. These designs are simple and inexpensive, but, as the accompanying graphic indicates, they are not designed to return energy to the source when the motor is operating as a generator. This graphic shows a single cycle of input current to the converter. Note that the current waveforms for both the single-phase and three-phase rectifiers are not sinusoidal because these circuits introduce harmonic distortion. There are a variety of additional converter designs and some of these designs regenerate current to the supply when the motor is operating as a generator. For example, a fundamental frequency front end (F3E) converter incorporates both IGBTs and diodes. When the drive is providing power to the motor (motor operation), the diodes provide DC current to the DC link. However, as the accompany graphic shows, when the motor is operating as a generator, the IGBTs in the converter return energy is to the supply. Therefore, F3E converters are used in industrial applications where regeneration is needed, and the need for clean power is not critical. Another converter design uses an active front end, sometimes called an active in feed. This design also returns power to the supply during generation operation and uses both diodes and IGBTs in the active line module that includes the DC link. However, the active front end design also has an active filter, called an active interface module, on the supply side of the active line module. The active interface module significantly reduces harmonic distortion during both motor and generation operation. For this reason, active front end converters are used for regenerative applications where it is necessary to meet clean power specifications such as IEEE standard 519 requirements for low harmonic distortion.
Volts/Hertz Control Linear voltage/frequency control is the simplest type of control. Using a 460 VAC, 60 Hz motor as an example, motor speed is controlled by varying the amplitude and frequency of voltage applied to the motor while maintaining a constant voltage/frequency ratio from 0 and 60 Hz. While this type of control is suitable for a wide range of applications, it is not the best choice for applications requiring good torque control at low speeds or where more precise speed regulation or high dynamic performance are required. Another mode of operation is referred to as quadratic, or parabolic, voltage/frequency control. This mode provides a voltage/frequency characteristic that matches the torque requirements of simple fan and pump applications. For such applications, the starting torque is low and a relatively low voltage can be applied at low frequencies, but the load increases in a non-linear fashion requiring a corresponding increase in the voltage/frequency ratio. When even more customization of the voltage/frequency characteristic is required, some drives provide the capability for multi-point voltage/frequency control. Multi-point, or
programmable, voltage/frequency control allows for multiple programmable variations from the linear V/Hz characteristic to compensate for specific motor and machine torque characteristic variations.
Flux Current Control Motor stator current is the vector sum of active and reactive current. The reactive current component of stator current produces the rotating magnetic field. The active current produces work. With flux current control, the drive estimates motor magnetic flux based on nameplate data that has been entered and reactive stator current sensed by the drive. With this type of control, internal computer algorithms attempt to keep the estimated magnetic flux constant. If the motor nameplate information has been correctly entered and the drive properly set up, the flux current control mode provides better dynamic performance than simple V/Hz control. Flux current control automatically adapts the drive output to the load keeping speed constant even under varying load conditions.
Vector Control When an application demands highly accurate speed control, maximum dynamic response, or speed regulation that is load-independent, vector control is used. There are two types of vector control: closed-loop vector control, often referred to simply as vector control (VC), and sensor less vector control (SLVC). Closed-loop vector control is a control method that requires a speed sensor, typically a pulse encoder, to provide speed feedback and produces the best speed regulation at all speeds. This method can provide full torque control even at zero speed. Sensor less vector control uses internal computer algorithms based upon a mathematical motor model to provide excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance. As the name implies, sensor less vector control achieves this performance without motor speed feedback from an encoder or other speed sensor. When motor speed is calculated at very low speeds, based on a small CEMF and known corrections for stator resistance, slight variations in stator resistance and other parameters will have an effect on the speed calculation. This makes vector control without speed feedback slightly less effective below a few hertz than closed-loop vector control.
Ac/Ac And Dc/Ac Configuration The drive configurations shown thus far have been AC/AC drives which convert an AC input to DC and then back again to AC.In contrast, a DC/AC drive does not have a converter section. The inverter section performs as previously described to convert DC to AC. Any control approach can be used. DC/AC drives are typically used when multiple drives are connected to a common DC bus.
Common Dc Bus System Example A common DC bus system has one or more common converter sections which provide power to a common DC bus. Multiple inverter sections are connected to the DC bus. The converter section can be regenerative or non-regenerative and may be a parallel combination of regenerative and non-regenerative converter sections. The inverter sections can be paralleled.
The accompanying illustration shows one converter supplying four inverters, each powering its own motor. In this example, the converter and inverters are capable of regenerative operation. When any motor is functioning as a generator, it returns energy to the DC bus through its inverter. This reduces the energy needed from the AC supply. If the energy provided from one or more motors during regeneration is more than sufficient to power the remaining motors, the unused energy is returned through the converter to the AC supply. For those applications where a common DC bus can be employed, there are multiple advantages as described below. Because energy from regeneration is either used by other drives in a coordinated system or returned to the source, the cost required to power the system is reduced. Because one large converter typically has a smaller footprint as compared to multiple smaller AC/AC drives, factory floor space is reduced. Because fewer parts are required, initial cost and installation and maintenance costs are reduced. Because this approach simplifies close coordination of multiple motors as is required for many applications, system performance is improved.
Additional Components In addition to the components discussed thus far, other components are also required in a typical drive application. Some examples are shown below and in the accompanying illustrated example. Circuit Breaker and/or Fuses - needed to meet NEC code requirements for protection from overloads, short circuits, and ground faults Input Contactor - used to remove power from the drive EMC Filter - used to reduce RFI noise and required to meet European standards Input Line Reactor - smoothes power line disturbances, inrush current, and harmonics Line Harmonic Filter - reduces line-side harmonics to help meet requirements of IEEE 519
Braking Chopper - switching device that controls the power applied to the dynamic braking resistor Braking Resistor - resistor grid that absorbs and dissipates energy from the load during dynamic braking
Output Reactor - smoothes output power disturbances and reduces peak voltages and fast rise times (dv/dt) for increased motor protection Sine wave filter (dv/dt filter) - reduces voltage peaks at the motor by filtering the drive PWM waveform to approximate a sine wave
Overload Rating Many applications require an AC drive to handle short-time overloads that occur when the load torque required is greater than the continuous torque rating for the drive. Examples of the situations in which a short-time overload can occur include:
to overcome breakaway torque during starting to accelerate the load to handle shock loads and other rapid changes in a process to ramp speed down rapidly in emergency stop situations
For AC drives to have the ability to handle short-time overloads, they must not reach the limit of their thermal capacity during normal operation. Overloads are typically specified for constant torque and other high performance applications.
Overload ratings for AC drives typically specify the overload percentage and duration. The duration may be specified as a duty cycle, such as 1 minute out of every five minutes.
Enclosure Ratings Enclosure ratings identify an enclosure's ability to resist external environmental influences. In North America, ratings found in the following publications are most commonly used.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA Standard 250) Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL50 and UL 508) Canadian Standards Association (CSA Standard C22.2 No. 94)
The rating numbers described in these publications are used to identify the degree of protection provided by each enclosure type number. UL and CSA require enclosure testing, but NEMA does not. The accompanying chart shows a summary of the degree of protection provided by selected enclosure types. Enclosure ingress protection (IP) rating numbers are also provided by the International Electro technical Commission (IEC publication 60529). These rating numbers are commonly used in Europe and other parts of the world. Each rating number has two digits. The first digit is the degree of protection against access to hazardous parts and the degree of protection from foreign objects. The second digit is the degree of protection from water. Point your mouse on the red rectangle to see a summary of these IP rating numbers.
Introduction To Programming Parameters Most AC drives can have their settings customized to optimize the drive for the specific application. These settings are typically referred to as parameters. All AC drive manufacturers have slightly different terms for their specific parameters, but the types of functions performed are similar.
The accompanying graphic shows Siemens Advanced Operator Panel (AOP30). The AOP30 and a program called Starter are tools to help support the user during: parameterization, commissioning, diagnosis, and service of Siemens SINAMICS and MICROMASTER 4 drives. Depending on the drive, other operator panels are also available.
The AOP30 communicates with the drive via a serial interface. LEDs on the operator panel indicate the status of the drive. The panel includes a 26-key touch-sensitive keypad and 240 x 64 pixel back-lit display.
Starters: Starter is used with Siemens SINAMICS and MICROMASTER 4 AC drives for commissioning, optimization, and diagnostics.Starter can be used by itself or as part of the Siemens Totally Integrated Automation engineering tool, Drive ES. In addition, Starter can be integrated in another Siemens program called SIMOTION Scout that is used for motion control applications. Initial drive commissioning is done through wizards which allow the user to get the drive up and running with only a few parameter settings.Self-optimization functions, such as selftuning, simplify the effort of optimizing the drive. Depending upon the drive, a built-in trace function can provide additional support during commissioning, optimization, and troubleshooting.
Parameters And Function Block: Parameters are used to provide instructions to a drive. For a Siemens drive, each parameter is designated by a lower case r or p and an assigned number. For most Siemens drives, there are three types of parameters: display parameters, adjustable parameters, and BICO parameters. Display parameters, sometimes called visualization parameters, are used to display internal quantities. Display parameters are read-only and cannot be changed by the operator.
Display parameters begin with an r. Parameter r0025, for example, displays the voltage output to the motor. A function block consists of several parameters grouped together to perform a specific task. The response of a function block is determined by adjustable parameters, sometimes called function parameters. Adjustable parameters have an associated variable that can be set within a designated range. Acceleration/deceleration times are examples of variable parameters. Other examples of variable parameters are proportional gain and integral time. These parameters determine the response of a PI-controller. Each parameter has a name, identifying number, value range, and a factory setting. BICO is a term used to describe a method of connecting function blocks. BICO is a contraction of two terms, binector and connector. With BICO parameters, you can determine the source of the input signal to a function block. This allows the user to soft-wire function blocks to meet application requirements.
Indexing And Data Sheet: In many applications, it is desirable to configure the drive for variations in operation. For example, there may be a situation in an application where it is desirable to have different acceleration times. This can be done using indexed parameters. Indexed parameters can have multiple values stored with them. Each value stored is part of a data set. For example, parameter p1120, acceleration time, is an indexed parameter that can have four different acceleration times stored. For example, p1120 could have the following values:
p1120.0 = 0.50 p1120.1 = 1.00 p1120.2 = 3.00 p1120.3 = 8.00
PI Controller: PI (proportional-integral) controllers are commonly used function blocks. A PI controller provides a response to an error signal that is the sum of two values, one is
proportional to the error signal and the other is representative of the amount of error over time. Combining these two responses in one function block improves the dynamic response of the system. In the accompanying example, the difference between the desired speed and the actual speed is the input to the PI controller. When the difference is zero, no change in speed is required. One factor that could cause a speed error is a change in load. For example, a sudden increase in load causes a motor to slow down and a sudden decrease in load causes a motor to speed up. A speed error also occurs whenever the desired speed is changed. Until the motor reaches the new desired speed, there will be a deviation.
The PI controller's job is to make speed corrections quickly and with a minimal amount of overshoot and oscillation. Proportional gain and integral time are used to tune the PI controller's performance. The end result should be a fast response time with about a 43% initial overshoot. The motor should then settle in to the new desired speed.
Free Function Block And Bico Parameters: Most Siemens drives offer an extensive library of freely configurable function blocks including logic blocks, arithmetic function blocks, and control-loop blocks. These free function blocks are interconnected using BICO parameters. BICO parameters are also used to assign a digital input or output to a free block. This allows the user to soft-wire function blocks to meet specific application requirements. Free function blocks and BICO parameters provide most Siemens drives with the ability to perform basic PLC functions within the drive, reducing the need for additional hardware and software.
Drive Control Chart: For even greater functionality Drive Control Charts (DCC) can be enabled (license required). Drive control charts provide a high degree of flexibility and can be easily implemented using pre-configured blocks for logic, arithmetic, and control functions. This also allows customized macros to be created for commonly used functionality. In addition to PLC functionality, drive control charts incorporate freely configurable, modular drive-related functions including open-loop and closed loop control from a simple control unit up to an axial centre winder. Drive control charts also facilitate graphic configuring and online diagnostics. Key Customer Benefits:
Increased capability for innovation Improved plant and system productivity Reduced engineering cost Higher return on investment
APPLICATION Constant Torque Application The term constant torque implies that the torque required to keep the load running is the same throughout the speed range; however, this is not exactly correct. In this context, constant torque actually refers to the motor's ability to maintain constant flux. The actual torque produced does vary with the load and peak torques in excess of the rated continuous torque can occur at any speed. One example of a constant torque load is a conveyor. Conveyors are found in all sorts of applications and environments and vary widely in terms of their capabilities.
Conveyors Many conveyors are made up of belts which support the load; drums or pulleys, which support the belts and maintain tension; and idlers, which support the belts and loads. Keep in mind that many conveyors have multiple sections and some sections may need to run at different speeds than others. For these applications, multiple AC drive-motor combinations are used with the drives networked for coordination.
Constant Horsepower Application Constant horsepower applications require a constant force as the radius changes. One example is a winder application. For such an application, the radius increases as material is added to a roll. Similarly, in an unwinding application, the radius decreases as material is removed. In either case, the tension on the material must be controlled. Another constant horsepower application is a lathe spindle. The rotating motion of the work piece being machined on a lathe is controlled by a spindle drive. The spindle drive must maintain a constant surface speed as material is removed from the work piece. This requires the motor speed to increase as the radius of the work piece is reduced. In addition, as the radius of the work piece decreases, because torque is the product of the force applied times the radius, the torque required by the load also decreases. As a result of this inverse relationship between the load torque required and the motor speed, the motor can be operated above
base speed. Because horsepower is proportional to the product of torque time’s speed, the range above base speed is referred to as the constant horsepower range.
Complex Application In addition to the basic applications discussed in this course, there are many complex applications. Most of these complex applications incorporate multiple motors and drives. In many cases, these applications require a coordination of control to ensure that the proper speed and tension is maintained in all phases of the application. For example, the accompanying graphic shows a portion of a spinning machine for producing synthetic fibres. In such an application, various motors run the extruder, spinning pumps, preparation rolls, godets, traversing devices, and winders. In order for this operation to function properly the operation of multiple drives must be coordinated. There are many other examples of applications that offer similar or even greater complexity. In order to determine the appropriate drives for use in such an application a number of factors must be considered. In addition to the basic application engineering issues, factors such as commonality of design, reliability, technical support, and employee training must be considered.
Instrumentation Plant is R&D and maintenance Department of Hindalco.
Function of Instrument Department is to maintain the Electronic equipment which is
used in fabrication Plant and also find the easiest method to do it
The are various types of shop comes under the Remelt shop like Properzi, Cooling Tower R&D.
Extrusion Press is system that reduces the Diameter of various types of Billet (Solid Aluminium Rod).
Rolling mill is the System which reduces the thickness of the materials and produces thin sheets from slabs.
Chemical Laboratory Finds the various types of alloy combinations and the property of the aluminium after mixing the alloy.
Hindalco Product Range
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