Himnos Sagrados de Los Andes

August 17, 2017 | Author: sergio2385 | Category: Hymns, Mass (Liturgy), Mary, Mother Of Jesus, Eucharist, Idolatry
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Himnos Sagrados de los Andes: The contours of Andean piety

Bill Mitchell

Abstract Recent discussion of textuality in Amerindian cultures have recognized the different disciplines within which the concept of 'text' is used. This in turn has led to a move away from its primary linguistic sense to a more metaphorical use of 'text' and the processes through which it emerges. Clifford Geertz's metaphor of 'culture-as-text' has served as a point of departure for these discussions. In the Andes Mountains music and song form an important part of this text. In this study we shall examine a selection of hymns from southern Peru with a view to understanding part of the 'text' which has formed the Bible translator and which informs the work that he or she does.1

1. Introduction In the latter part of the 20th century no parish priest in the south of Peru was so influential in the preservation of the Quechua language and lore as Father Jorge Lira ,2 who died in 1984 after over 40 years in the priesthood, mainly spent in Indian parishes of the archdiocese of Cuzco. In 1960 he published Himnos Sagrados de los Andes in two volumes. The first volume comprises essentially hymns to Jesus (see Appendix 1) and the second, hymns to the Virgin Mary (see Appendix 2). These hymns had been collected during the earlier years of his ministry in a variety of parishes: Calca, Combapata, Marangani, San Pablo, San Pedro, Sicuani, Tinta, and Quiquijana. Many of the hymns continue to be sung, especially at celebrations which do not take place in church buildings, e.g. pilgrimages. Fr. Lira in his lyrical way states that these hymns "have the rare virtue of having lived for centuries in the hearts and voices of Quechua people" (Lira, I, 7). If that be true, they provide us with a unique insight into the popular understanding of the Christian faith in the Andes during the colonial period, and one which is still present today. 2. Music and language in the Andes When the Spanish arrived in South America there was already a long tradition of Andean poetry, music, song and dance (Stevenson, 1-38). The instruments were both wind (flutes, shells and pipes) and percussion (drums of various kinds). Songs were: Haillis (victory hymns or agricultural chants), Haravis (song-cycles, hero-songs, elegies, laments), and Taquis (praise songs, often used for love themes). Singing was often antiphonal and in public ceremonies was usually without musical accompaniment (Garcilaso de la Vega, 120). Dances had both religious an profane settings, and often accompanied haravis and taquis. A music school also existed in the Inca capital where taqui acllas literally "chosen music virgins" were trained to sing, dance and play instruments (Murua, 392f.). The early orders in Peru—Franciscans, Dominicans, Mercedarians and Augustinians—found that 1

Published in UBS Bulletin, 198/199 (2005): 273-295. Among his published works are: Diccionario Kkechuwa-Español (Tucumán, 1944); Farmacopea Tradicional (Lima, 1946); Fundamentos de la Lengua Kkechuwa, (Lima, 1954), Canto de Amor, (Lima, 1956); Medicina Andina: Farmacopea y Rituales, (Cusco, 1985). 2


music made a profound impact on the indigenous people, and as schools developed alongside the extending evangelization, music became an important subject in the curriculum. It was also stressed by secular authorities as a civilizing factor. After dealing with the internecine warfare among the Spanish, Pedro de la Gasca, Carlos V's personal delegate in Peru from 1547 to 1550, instructed these orders to develop their work. As a result, schools were developed which not only taught reading, writing and hygiene, but also music and "how to say so, fah, mi, re" (Gutiérrez, 196). The Jesuit order, which arrived a generation later in 1568, was to excel in the field of music. The second church council in Lima had included the question of music in its deliberations (Vargas, 234), the Third Lima Council took this matter up and underlined the importance of musical instruction for the native people (Vargas, 374). Early dictionaries suggest that the friars and the later priests had headaches attempting to explain their music in Quechua, e.g. "counterpoint" becomes quencu quencucta taquini: "to sing twisting and turning the voice back on itself" (Holguien, 364). Counterpoint, as taught by sixteenth century Spanish theorists, meant more than a written work. Improvising a melody above a given plainsong at sight was the goal. By contrast, the local people appear to have had little difficulty with the music of their conquerors. Garcilaso de la Vega left Peru for Spain in 1560, yet he assured his readers that even then there was a group of native flute-players in Cuzco who could play any piece of polyphony presented to them (Garcilaso, 120). The Franciscan Jerónimo de Oré (1559-1629) was born in Peru of Spanish parents, all his theological and musical training was done in Peru. He worked in the valley of Jauja in the mountains inland from Lima. In 1598 he published his Symbolo Catholico Indiano, a manual of hymns in Quechua to be sung with indigenous as well as European tunes. He states that in Franciscan parishes the choirs had been singing the office of nuestra Señora with great devotion “for forty years” (Oré, 53). At about the same time Juan Pérez Bocanegra had been curate in Our Lady of Bethlehem Church in Cusco, then parish priest in Andahuaylillas, a few miles south of Cuzco. In all he spent some 40 years ministering to the people in and around Cuzco. An authority on both Quechua and Aymara languages, he published a Confesionario in 1612, and in 1631 his 720-page Ritual formulario e institucion de curas. He closes the latter with Hanac pachap cussicuinin—"the first piece of vocal polyphony printed in any New World book", composed to be sung as people processed into the churches on feast days for “nuestra Señora”. It has been seen as "a strophic, dance-like piece for chorus", whose "interest lies in its rhythmic exuberance and in the fact that, although utilizing a totally unfamiliar tongue, it still manages to sound like a sixteenth-century villancico than anything else", even though "its polyphonic qualities seem primitive at best" (Hamlett, 28). The hymn reflects a theme which would become a characteristic of Andean piety —Mary as the source of solace in grief and pain.3 The use of Latin and European music in the liturgy was a feature of church life. The liturgy was expected to be sung not only in Spanish parishes but also in indigenous ones. The Third Lima Council decreed that in all parishes the Salve Regina should always be sung at Saturday vespers, and that in wholly indigenous parishes there should be people trained to sing the Epistle at Mass. 3

For recording see Ex Cathedra Jeffrey Skidmore, Moon, sun & all things, Hyperion Records CDA57624 (2005), Track 1.


The Cuzco diocese was the earliest in Peru. It was founded in 1537 and by 1553 the masses, motets and Magnificats of such a notable Spanish composer as Cristóbal de Morales were in use in the city's cathedral (Stevenson, 65). Not only were native people being introduced to European music, attempts were also being made to reinterpret Andean music along European lines. Garcilaso de la Vega refers to the Cuzco chapelmaster Juan de Fuentes who had, in 1551 or 1552, made a polyphonic arrangement of the Inca haylli sung to the sun at the time when land dedicated to the sun was being prepared for sowing: “The whole choir joined in each refrain...this really pleased the Spanish and utterly delighted the Indians, who saw their own songs and dances used by the Spaniards to celebrate the Festival of Corpus Christi” (Garcilaso, 229). The priests had no problem about the introduction of their music to the faithful, but with the passage of time some had increasing difficulties with the continuing use of indigenous instruments, music and dance in Christian celebrations. The Council of Trent had prohibited the use of instruments other than the organ inside churches, but in the processions and festivals indigenous instruments were used. In 1613 Archbishop Lobo Guerrero ordered that songs accompanied by dances and the ancient songs in Quechua should not be used. In 1614 the Constituciones Synodales del Arzobispado de Los Reyes prohibited indigenous festivals and dances, and songs in Quechua, and ordered that indigenous musical instruments be burned (Bendezú, 397). Jesuit Pablo José de Arriaga (15641622) had travelled throughout Peru in the campaign to eradicate idolatry, and his findings and recommendations were published in Lima in 1621. He was convinced that the very instruments themselves were inseparable from the errors of the indigenous religion, and that when used in Christian festivals such as Corpus Christi they served to perpetuate indigenous belief and practice (Arriaga, 212, 222f.). Arriaga was not opposed to all music. He refers to the use of music in worship by the Franciscans in Jauja as one reason why there was so little idolatry there, it is the specific use of indigenous songs, instruments and dances that he condemns. It was a point of view that influenced church decisions. By 1660 the great campaigns to eradicate idolatry were over and Christianization of the people was thought to have been achieved. The church entered a period of consolidation and institutionalization. Yet where the indigenous population had accepted the catholic religious system, that consolidation had to embrace certain reinterpretations of the Christian elements from within the Andean cultural matrix. Elsewhere, indigenous rites were carried on in a clandestine way, often in the more remote regions. Meanwhile the use of European music had flourished, not only in Cusco but also in centres such as Lima, Potosi and La Plata (modern day Sucre). At the same time another social dynamic had taken effect. The Spanish invaders had put down roots in the Andes, and as colonial life developed, and Spain itself weakened, they now had no cultural centre. Their descendants found themselves without a homeland. They were seen from Europe as aliens. In this vacuum the vitality of the indigenous culture moved slowly to reassert itself. The "Perú mestizo" had been born. A renaissance of Inca ideals contributed to various social movements in the following 150 years,


but in none so clearly as the rebellion of José Gabriel Condorcanqui Túpac Amaru in 1780. Descended from the Inca aristocracy, Túpac Amaru II, as he was called, spoke Quechua and Spanish, read Latin, was well-versed in the Comentarios Reales of Garcilaso de la Vega4, understood the Andean messianic hope, and held to a Christian religious practice [yet] he was not an exception in the eighteenth century. The rebellion was eventually crushed, and the use of the Quechua language proscribed by law. The indigenous population continued to speak their language, but it was not until the second half of the nineteenth century, well after independence was gained in 1824, that there was a re-emergence of Quechua use in the mestizo population. 3. Provenance of Himnos Sagrados de los Andes Fr. Lira collected the hymns in the 1940s and 1950s, but other than his reference to them having been sung for centuries, he does not date them. There is one reference to a hymn to Mary appearing in a collection of hymns in 1920, but he regards this as drawing on a much earlier tradition5. The following factors are important in dating the hymns: Archaic language A major problem for the contemporary translator of the hymns is the archaic language used in many of them. Words like arpay (sacrifice), llump'aq (innocent, chaste, pure), uyllakuy (intercede, implore), willka (sacred), yakill (messenger) are very old, and can only be understood by reference to very early dictionaries (e.g. that of Holguien 1608) or the accounts of the chroniclers. The earliest N.T books translated in the 20 th. century do not use them6. Fr. Lira notes that in some cases they are now sung with Spanish words replacing the archaic Quechua word. For example, yuraq arpay t'anta (white sacrificial bread) becomes yuraq hostia t'anta (white bread of the host). The theological impact of the phrase is significantly changed by the Spanish loanword. Absence of Spanish terms Apart from such variants, the language of the hymns shows a marked absence of Spanish loanwords. Cristo, Dios, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jesucristo, and María, are the only non-Quechua terms which recur. This could mean that the hymns are from an early period, or from a time when Inca ideas and language were enjoying a revival and ‘pure’ or ‘classical’ language was sought. It also suggests that it was the hymns without a Spanish content which were preserved in the popular memory. Reflection of early church usage Some of the terminology is found in early hymns and in early church documents. For example, a religious use of the verb qesachaqey (to damage, offend) is found in the 1583 Catechism (Doctrina, 9). The combination of qollpay and suyuy to indicate sorrow for sin is found in a Perez Bocanegra's Ritual Formulario. This suggests they could be from that period or the use in 4

On Garcilaso de la Vega’s influence see Mitchell (2000), esp. pp. 150-153. Llump'aq María appeared in Msr. José Gregorio Castro's Rosicler Incaico (Lima, 1920), p.89. 6 Apunchis Jesu-Christoc Evangelion San Lucaspa Qquelkascan (Buenos Aires, 1901) translated by the Peruvian novelist Clorinda Matto de Turner, herself a native of Calca, Cusco. 5


a later period of stock religious language coined in the late16th century. Pre-hispanic influence In addition, some of the language, especially that of titles, is drawn from royal nomenclature of the Inca court, which could be meaningfully appropriated in the early colonial period, but not so in the later period. These borrowings are numerous, but the following examples illustrate the point: Juan de Betanzos in his Summa y Narracion de los Incas refers to the names by which the Incas were addressed by subjects. He states that in addition to the customary Señor they added Huaccha ccuyac which means "lover of the poor" (Betanzos, 61). If we assume that the Quechua word used for Señor was Apu, then the title was Huaccha ccuyac Apu. The same title is employed for Jesus in Lira's collection. The title of the Inca's wife was Sapay Qoya (supreme/high queen). In a hymn that appears to have been taken over from the royal court, Mary is addressed as Qosqo llaqtaq Sapay Qoyan (High Queen of the city of Cusco). It is difficult to see how this language could have been brought into use in the church much later than the early 17th. century. The hymns that appear to be direct borrowings from Inca religious or secular use, also point to an early date of composition, e.g.: Puriq wayra, maytan rinki, chika usqhay phawaspayki? Jesusllaywan tinkuspaqa Wawallaykin waqan, ninki. Wind blowing, where are you going, racing along so fast? If you meet my dear Jesus Tell him, “Your little child is crying. Fr. Lira comments “this hymn shows itself to have been an invocation addressed to the Wind, asking that the guardian divinities (or perhaps the Inca) remember the weeping child” (Lira, I,15). Yawraq sumaq intiq lirpun, Qosqo llaqtaq Sapay Qoyan, Mamaykutan reqsiykiku Mamaykupaq Sapay Ahlla. Flaming image of the sun's beauty, High Queen of Cuzco, We acclaim you our Mother Chosen and supreme to be our mother.


Ahlla was the title given to the young women selected for the highest tasks in the empire, such as serving the Inca and the Sun. They were set apart and lived a monastic kind of life. The wife of the Inca was head over all these women. This hymn appears to have honoured her. Others hymns which appear to be pre-conquest in origin are "In his glorious light". In a variant which Lira gives, the reference to God is absent, the third line about the sun is paralleled in the fourth line about the "Shining star". It is significant that as collected by Lira, the hymns are mainly one verse long, at most two verses, and at times with a chorus or antiphonal structure. Quechua hymns of the early colonial period could be twenty or more verses long and it is possible that Lira's collection comprises the remains of some of these hymns in the oral tradition of the people. Taken together these various factors support an early date for most, if not all, of these hymns in their original form. It is of note that the late Jesús Lara, the foremost Bolivian authority on Quechua of the 20th. century, cites the opinion of Peruvian ethnologist and novelist José María Arguedas on a collection of Quechua hymns made by Fr. Jorge A. Lira as coming "from the early part of the Colonial period" (Lara, 113). 4. Composition of the hymns A careful study of the hymns, together with information in the writings of the chroniclers and other early publications helps to clarify the process whereby hymns were composed. Adaptation of indigenous songs and hymns Reference has already been made to the adaptation of an Inca hymn to the sun for use in the Corpus Christi festival. Two examples of hymns from the Lira collection which appear to be preconquest in origin have also been quoted. In addition, the hymns "In his glorious light" (I,25), "Shining star" (II,14), "Beautiful princess" (II.19), "Shining star" (II.20), could have been addressed originally to the sun, moon, and stars. Compositions in Quechua by mestizos or native people By the late 16th. century there was an increasing number of Peruvian-born priests, either of Spanish parentage or of mixed Spanish-Andean parentage. In addition to Oré and Bocanegra, two others should be mentioned—the Jesuit Blas Valera (1551-1597) and Cristóbal de Molina, the "cuzqueño". Blas Valera, born in the north-central mountains of Peru, is known to us principally through the writings of others who reworked his materials 7. After commenting on an Inca poetic reflection on the work of God that Blas Valera had collected, Garcilaso says of his other religious compositions: “All that Father Blas Valera had in written form were pearls and precious stones. My native land did not merit the honour of wearing such adornments” (Garcilaso, 123).


His writings were probably lost in the English sack of Cádiz in 1596. He was an expert on quipus, the Inca mnemonic systems of knotted strings, and an authority on the Quechua language. He was one of the team who prepared the Quechua version of the 1583 Catechism at the request of the Third Lima Council.


Cristóbal de Molina, parish priest in Cuzco and a famous preacher of his day, was, to judge from his writings, more at home in Quechua than Spanish. He has preserved many Inca ritual prayers, and yet, conversant as he was with those traditions, in his own Quechua compositions and sermons appears to have been influenced by the more florid rhetorical style of Spanish, as the examples given by Guaman Poma show. (Guaman Poma, 580f.) Speaking of the role of mestizos in poetry, Garcilaso says: “They tell me that at this time [of writing] the mestizos are busy composing such verses in ‘indian’, and of other kinds too, both secular and religious. May God give them grace to serve him in every way” (Garcilaso, 123). Translations of materials from Europe Among the hymns under consideration, there is evidence for the adaptation of themes or ideas, as well as the translation of Spanish originals. This could have been carried out by native people, by mestizos or by priests of Spanish origin. The clumsy grammar in a number of hymns suggests that they might have come from the hand of priests from Spain. An examination of vocabulary shows how ideas were brought into Quechua. A word that occurs in the hymns addressed to Mary is the verb napaykuy. Older dictionaries show meanings of "to converse", "to communicate between friends", "to be talkative", "to greet" (Holguien, 257). In adapting the Salve Regina to Quechua, napaykuy has been used, presumably for that part of its semantic range which means "to greet". However, it does more than that, it brings Mary into a relationship of friendship and intimacy. The term is not used in hymns addressed to Jesus. The example of the versification of the Creed shows how basic Christian doctrine was adapted and memorised by the faithful. Some matters defeat the translators, e.g. Trinity, Holy Spirit, with the result that this was learned by rote rather than understood. Some hymns have clear biblical allusions. Both "Our Lord's complaints" and "Sorrow-laden Virgin" may reflect Jesus' experience in the Garden of Gethsemane. While "Jerusalem, Jerusalem" appears to be a reference to Jesus weeping over Jerusalem. The hymns present a reactualisation by the worshipper of the event, an empathy, an identification with, and even a participation in it. There is at least one example of a Spanish "copla" which has been translated: Hanaq pachata Haku ripusun Diospa kayninwan Saminchakusun

To heaven come let's go, with "Godness" we will be blessed.

The probable original is:


Vámonos al cielo Vámonos allá, A gozar de la esencia de la Trinidad.

Let us go to heaven, Let us go there, To enjoy the essence Of the Trinity.

As noted earlier, the idea of the Trinity proves to be a translation problem, what is significant here is that the Spanish word has been abandoned in favour of "Godness/God's being". A wider knowledge of the music that came to the Andes from Europe might reveal a number of echoes in the hymns, for the moment we may note Jerusalem llaqta runa Diosniykiman kutirikuy...

People of Jerusalem Return to your God...

and ask whether there might be an echo of the work of Cristóbal de Morales whose works are known to have been performed in Cusco, and specifically of his Lamentaciones, one of which centres on: Hierusalem convertere a Dominum. (Angles, 386f.) Hymn development and the shift of meaning In the process of hymn development, then, at least two factors affected the communication of distinctly Christian ideas. In appropriating pre-conquest hymns there was the question of the extent to which the indigenous people decoded the hymns in the new context in terms of the associations of the old. This was further complicated by the fact that the hymn was at times accompanied by visual imagery congruent with that of the old: Ullphuykuspa much'aykusun ancha sumaq k'anchayninpi lliphlliq inti pakasqata kikin Dios pakasqata

Prostrate let us adore the shining sun that is hidden very God who is hidden in his glorious light

This was sung during the elevation of the host in form of a disk, before the congregation. If this hymn had pre-conquest roots in sun worship, it is possible that it reinforced ideas from its original context, even during Mass. With regard to European ideas and materials translated into Quechua, these passed through the matrix of that language and its obligatory categories before being used in worship. Ideas like those of the Trinity and personhood were concretised and humanised, thus providing candidates for absorption into the existing pantheon. Meanwhile the emotive range of the language 8 introduced a gentleness, an intimacy, a warmth, and a humanity, that put a different face on God 8

The use of the particles lla and yku is mentioned in the notes to the hymns.


to that of much of the preaching. 5. The content of the hymns With some exceptions, these hymns focus on Jesus and Mary, and the way in which they are addressed is instructive for our understanding of Andean Christianity. Titles of Jesus The most common titles by which Jesus is addressed are Apu (Lord), Yaya (Father), Tayta (Father), and Dios (God), often in combination one with the other. He is also addressed once as Qespichiq (Saviour), and once as yuraq arpay t'anta (white bread of sacrifice). In association with each of the most common titles he is characterised as being wakcha khuyaq (lover of the poor) or khuyaq sonqo (loving-hearted). The Apus are the tutelar mountain deities. Lira speaks of Jesus as the "incarnation of the Apu" (Lira, 7) in the thinking of the Andean people. The indigenous concept is appropriated by the church, but equally the Christian concept is appropriated by the Andean, to be something both more and less than it was. At least as significant is the fact that Jesus is seen as God and as Father9. Despite (or perhaps because of!) the formulations of the creeds and the attempts to communicate the doctrine of the Trinity, God the Father is understood as one and the same as Jesus. The term yaya embraces the ideas of "ancestor", "lord", and a reciprocal kinship term meaning "father". The role of Jesus The role that Jesus plays is implicit in the titles he is given. The main other role in the hymns is that of a deeply compassionate vicarious sufferer. The centrality of the physical sufferings of Jesus in this reflects Latin Christianity and the Spanish spirituality through which it was mediated, especially the mystical element in that spirituality. This is underlined by the use of ñukñu (sweet) to describe Jesus, and may also account for the sense of identification with and participation in the sufferings of Jesus. Titles of Mary Lira has twice as many hymns to Mary as he does hymns to Jesus, reflecting the predominant role of Mary in Andean Christianity. In over two-thirds of the hymns she is addressed as "mother" (mama), but in only a tenth of those as the "mother of God" (Diospa maman). For the most part the language is drawn from the imagery of the family, and from the Andean cult of the Earth Mother (Pacha Mama). In a quarter of the hymns she is María, respectively sweet (ñukñu), beautiful (sumaq), pure (llump'aq), and excellent or supreme (qollanan). Many of these ideas are amplified in the rich use of nature imagery in other titles. Names of some of the most beautiful and fragrant Andean flowers are used: chiwanway (II.15), maywa (II.17), siklla (II.3), t'ika (II.3), as are descriptive terms indicating fragrance or freshness: ñukñu q'apaq, wiñay llanllaq (II.17). 9

The use of two terms Yaya and Tayta may reflect language change over the years. Yaya is the Quechua term for Father, which, when once appropriated as God-language, fell out of use in everyday discourse to be replaced by Tayta, of Latin origin mediated through Spanish. As Yaya became increasingly archaic, so also Tayta moved into God-language, and Papá became more common in everyday use.


Language of the royal court an the official cult is used, she is the supreme "chosen one". The term ahlla has a root meaning of "to choose", but because of its use as the title for the young women selected for the service of the Inca and the Sun, it also embraced the idea of virginity, "princess" (ñust’a – II.2,5,19,30,35), "queen" (qoya – II.13,17,41), "sacred one" (willka – II.41). The imagery of the celestial bodies, also worshipped at the time of the Conquest, is drawn upon "flaming image of the sun's beauty", "star that lightens the night", etc. (II.1,13,14,19,20). This is an understandable application to one who was regarded as Regina coelorum, and although it is stressed that she is purer and greater than the sun, these titles contribute to an Andean reinterpretation of Mary. Just as the flowers mentioned earlier are characteristic of Andean lyric poetry, so the terms "my dove", "my dear heart", "my little flower" are characteristic of Quechua love poetry (II.8). This stresses again the personal and intimate relationship thought to exist with Mary, a combination of Spanish and Andean strains. In short, the whole range of Quechua expression is pressed into service, Mary is even the "dear shepherd" (II.35). They combine to produce an image of splendour, purity, fragrance, beauty and supremacy: from immaculate conception to assumption to heaven, a quite unique figure. Yet, at the same time, she is the archetypal Andean mother, the "true mother". The role of Mary She loves, she cares, she has mercy, she guides, she shepherds, she listens, she sympathises, she guards, she keeps, she speaks gently, she holds, she suffers, she shelters, she receives the wayward child, she intercedes, and she saves. She is revered by angels, and sought, found and loved by sinners. She is present, though a hint of her absence at times creeps in. Jesus and Mary seen against a broader background of Andean thought where a male/female diarchy with complementarity obtained in pre-conquest structures, it would seem that the Father/Son distinction coalesce in the male figure Jesus. The female element was supplied by Mary. The concepts of tutelar mountain deity and of the Earth Mother have informed this process. The Holy Spirit appears to have been reduced to another level in the pantheon, either that of the saints or that of the winds (I.7). Then as now the concepts of spirit, saint, disembodied being, and wind belonged to same level of reality. 6. The context in which hymns have been used. A number of hymns have annotations regarding their use, they indicate the following contexts for the hymns: Use in the Mass "You are God" (I.23) and "In his shining light" (I.25) were used in masses. Not only were these hymns used in the past, many continue in use today, the former as an official eucharistic hymn which was sung spontaneously by the congregation when the host was lifted up by the priest. The latter was sung at a similar point in certain special masses. Lent and Holy Week Although church councils decreed a number of festivals that had to be observed each year, in


practice the celebration of Holy Week was the one time in the year when indigenous people from the more rural areas confessed and were present at Mass. In preparation for Holy Week, missions were held in Lent. The hymn "Crucified" (I.3) was sung as the mission team came in procession to the native community, bearing the cross of Jesus aloft. "The world below" (I.20) was another mission hymn, warning the sinner. During the general communion on Thursday of Holy Week, the point at which the Lenten missions ended, "Come, my dear Jesus" (I.24) was sung. "Great Father, Jesus Christ" (I.1) was sung on Good Friday, accompanied by the harp. "Jesus, my dear Father" (I.2) which speaks of Jesus beginning his journey to death's hill, was sung at the beginning of the "sermon of the three hours". While "Sweet Jesus" (I.5) was sung spontaneously at different times during that sermon on the "seven words". "Jerusalem, Jerusalem" (I.14) was also sung in relation to the passion of Jesus. In the procession recalling the Via Crucis of Jesus on Good Friday, "My dear Jesus, I am following you on this bloody road you walked" (I.15) was sung repeatedly as a prayer. Festivals an Pilgrimages Church festivals included those which were part of the traditional church calendar, and those developed around pre-Christian shrines, apparitions and visions. Pilgrimages, a characteristic of pre-Christian times in the Andes have continued to the present day as a manifestation of Andean religion. After Holy Week, the most important date in the church year for the Andean people is All Souls' Day (Nov.2). The solemn "death" is entoned then. One of the most important pilgrimage sites near Cusco is the shrine to the "Lord of the Pillar" (El Señor de Wank'a). Wank'a in Quechua means "rock", or "protuberance" at a point where a strangely shaped rock protrudes from the mountainside. "Our Lord's complaints" (I.13) was (and is) sung with great fervour and emotion at that festival, held in September. Most Andean festivals end with the Kacharpari (farewell), during which the image is returned to the shrine or church. The hymns "Farewell", "Goobye to our mother", "Farewell to the Virgin", and "Now with God" (II.38-41) were traditionally sung at this point (a practice still found today). These hymns that close the festival also mark the end of a certain intensification of sacred space and sacred time which has obtained throughout the festival. This is similar to the sense of solidarity with the sufferings of Jesus commented on earlier with regard to Holy Week. It points to the relatedness of festival/celebration with everyday life in Andean reality. The use of "festival" in English implies a happy occasion, it should be pointed out that Andean festivals are not necessarily so. Holy Week is marked by intensity and even of struggle. Sermons A final context for these hymns is as accompaniment to sermons on specific themes. "Sheep that gets lost" (I.8) accompanied a sermon on the parable of the lost sheep, "Remaining in sin" (I.16) reinforced a sermon on sin, “Judgment day" (I.19) went with a similar sermon, while a hymn like "Death" (I.18) stressed the urgency of things (and was also sung at requiem masses). "Wallowing in sin" (I.4) and "Please listen to me" (II.28) were both hymns of penitence addressed to Mary.


The settings of these hymns shed light on the practice of the church at different moments in the Andean church year in the colonial period and more recent times. It is significant how many of them have been preserved in settings outside that of the church buildings, i.e. in festivals and pilgrimages, and are sung spontaneously by the congregation rather than under the direction of the leader of worship. 7. Conclusions Fr. Lira has bequeathed a fascinating legacy of Andean spirituality. The hymns give an insight into the understanding and expression of the Christian faith in the southern Andes of Peru in the colonial period—an understanding that shaped the present-day expression of the faith. The linguistic constraints of the Quechua language and thought forms moulded the Andean appropriation of the Christian message. At the same time, the use of pre-Conquest poetry and imagery took into the new context associations from the past, giving them a continuing validity. Over against the church’s reluctance to express key theological terms in Quechua is set an amazing readiness to inculturate Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary through the appropriation of ‘royal’ terminology, the Andean understanding of the ‘ultimates of existence’, and the intensely relational Quechua language. The contours of colonial piety were shaped around a powerful lord/ancestor/father whose sufferings resonated deeply with the people’s suffering, and around Mary, the compassionate caring mother, queen of heaven and earth. Such developments were strengthened and fostered by the growth in pilgrimages to the increasing number of Marian and Christ shrines, the devotion to the Santíssimo Sacramento and the importance of the feast of Corpus Christi.


Bibliography Angles, Higinio. “Latin Church Music on the Continent – 3. Spain and Portugal” in The New Oxford History of Music Vol. IV: The Age of Humanism. Ed. Abraham, G. (London, 1968). de Arriaga, Pablo José. "Extirpación de la Idolatría el Perú", in F. Esteve Barba, Crónicas Peruanas de Interés Indígena, (Madrid, 1968). de Betanzos, Juan. [1551]. “Summa y Narracion de los Incas” in F. Esteve Barba, Crónicas Peruanas de Interés Indígena, (Madrid, 1968). Doctrina Christiana y Catecismo para Instruccion de los Indios, (Lima, 1584). Esteve Barba, F. Cultura Virreinal, (Barcelona, 1965). ---------------. Crónicas Peruanas de Interés Indígena, (Madrid, 1968) Bendezú Aybar, E. Literatura Quechua, (Caracas, 1980). Garcilaso de la Vega. [1617] Comentarios Reales de los Incas, Vol. 1. ed. A. Rosenblat, (Buenos Aires, 1943) Guaman Poma de Ayala, Felipe. [1609]. Nueva Coronica y Buen Gobierno. (Paris, 1936). Gutiérrez de Santa Clara, Pedro. "Historia de las Guerras Civiles del Perú", in Crónicas del Perú, Vol. IV, ed. Juan Pérez de Tudela Bueso, (Madrid, 1963), p.196. Hamlett, Robert Curtis. "An Investigation of Selected Colonial Latin American Vocal/Choral Works, including practical performance editions", Ph.D diss., (Hattiesburg: University of Southern Mississippi, 1986). Holguien, G. [1608] Vocabulario de la Lengua General de Todo el Peru Llamada Lengua Qquichua o del Inca, (Lima, 1952). Lara, Jesús. La Poesía Quechua, (México, 1947). Lira, Jorge. Himnos Sagrados de los Andes (Cusco, 1960). Martin de Murua. [1611] Historia general el Perú, ed. E. M. Ballesteros, (Madrid, 1987). de Molina, Cristóbal. [1574] Fabulas y Ritos de los Incas, (Lima, 1943). Mitchell, William. 2000. “Redeeeming the Past and Facing the Future: the Andean ‘Writing Prophets’” in R.O. Omanson (ed.), I Must Speak to You Plainly, Carlisle: Paternoster Press), pp. 137-154. Omanson, Roger O., ed. 2000. I Must Speak to You Plainly. (Carlisle: Paternoster Press.) de Oré, Jerónimo. [1598] Symbolo Catholico Indiano. (Lima, 1992). Silverblatt, Irene. Moon, Sun and Witches, (Princeton,1986). Stevenson, R. The Music of Peru: Aboriginal and Viceroyal Epochs, (Washington, 1960). Vargas Ugarte, Rubén. Concilios Limenses, Vol.1, (Lima, 1951).


Appendix 1

Himnos Sagrados de los Andes - I 1. Apu Yaya Jesucristo

Great Father Jesus Christ

Apu Yaya Jesucristo, Qespichiqniy Diosnilláy11, Rikraykita mast'arispan: Hampuy, waway, niwashanki. Rikraykita mast'arispan Hampuy12, waway, niwashanki.

Great Father10 Jesus Christ, my Saviour and my dear God, with outstretched arms: Come back my child, you are saying to me. With outstretched arms: Come back my child, you are saying to me.

2. Jesús Yayalláy

Jesus my dear Father

Ñukñu Jesús Yayallaymi Wañuy orqoman puririnña Wañuyllanwan kunaykukuq A!...Qanchis simi rimayllanwan

Sweet Jesus my dear Father has begun his journey to death's hill, he who gently warns me with his death, oh!...by simply speaking his seven words.

3. Chakatasqa


Chakatasqa k'irinchasqa Apu Jesus hamusunki Huchasapa churillanta Tapupayakamusunki13.

Crucified, wounded the Lord Jesus comes to you his sinful little son, he asks for you over and over again

4. Huchapi qhospaq

Wallowing in sin

Huchapi qhospaq14 millay kuruqa, Ima nispataq napaykusqayki Kharullamanta mañakusqayki Mañakusqayta uyarillaway

A horrible worm wallowing in sin how will I greet/worship you? Only from a distance will I pray to you, Please hear my prayer,


Apu Yaya: Lira suggests that this can also be translated "Powerful Lord", but "Yaya" is most naturally translated "father". In contemporary Quechua it is used only with reference to the deity, the Lord's Prayer is the "Yayayku" (literally "father + 1st. person plural exclusive suffix). 11

The particle -lla- which occurs frequently in Quechua gives a note of intimacy and identification to the word.


Hampuy: gives the idea of returning to the place from where one left.


Tapupayakamusunki: implies the absence of the one asked after and also real concern and interest for the absentee.


Qhospay: is used typically of a pig wallowing in mud or dirt. This is a specifically Christian metaphor for sin.



Please listen to me.

5. Ñukñu Jesús

Sweet Jesus

Ñukñu Jesus Yayay, Wakcha khuyaq Apu, Khuyapayallaway, Huchasapaykita15.

Sweet Jesus my Father Lord who loves the poor, Have compassion on me a sinner who is yours16.

6. Apu Jesucristo

Lord Jesus Christ

Apu Jesucristo Khuyaq sonqo Tayta Khuyapayallaway Wakcha wawaykita

Lord Jesus Christ loving-hearted Father, have mercy on me, your poor child.

7. Puriq Wayra

Wind blowing

Puriq wayra, maytan rinki, chika usqhay phawaspayki? Jesusllaywan tinkuspaqa Wawallaykin waqan, ninki.

Wind blowing, where are you going, racing along so fast? If you meet my dear Jesus Tell him, "Your little child is crying".

8. Chinkaq uwissa

Sheep that gets lost

Pisi sonqo uwissa Kunanmi qanwan rimasaq Munaqllaykita cheqnispa Cheqniqllaykita waylluspa.

Faint-hearted sheep Now I will talk with you You hate the one who does nothing but love you, You love the one who does nothing but hate you.

9. Criston rantinchista17

Christ instead of us

Criston rantinchista muchun Wañuyninwan kawsarinchis

Christ suffers in our place, With his death we live,


There is an essential Quechua simplicity to this hymn and to the one that follows, four lines of six syllables each.


Literally "your sin-full-of-one". The one word says both "I am a sinner" and "I am yours".


This has a high Christian theological content, but the Quechua does not have a natural ring to it, especially the third line where the ideas of "chaskiy" and "manu-" do not easily fit together. The Quechua suggests that the composer is not a mother-tongue speaker.


Paymi chaskin manunchista Paymi pichan huchanchista.

He receives18 our debt, He sweeps away our sin.

10. Taytay kaypiñan kani

I am here now, my Father

Taytay kaypiñan kani, Awqa churiyki karqani, Waqakuspaykin kunanqa ña kutikampuykiña.

I am here now, my Father I was your rebellious child But now, weeping bitterly I return to you (never to go).

11. Jesuspa yawarnin

The blood of Jesus

Choir Jesuspa yawarnin Ima sumaq yawar Diosniypa yawarnin Huchaykunaq hampin.

The blood of Jesus such beautiful blood! The blood of my God, The cure for my sins.

Congregation Ch'uyanchay sonqoyta tukuy huchamanta. Ch'uyanchay sonqoyta tukuy huchamanta.

Purify my heart from all sin. Purify my heart from all sin.

12. Herusalem


Herusalem llaqta runa Diosniykiman kutirikuy Sipiwaspa sipiwaypas Manan anchuriykimanchu.

People of Jerusalem, Return to your God, Kill me, if you must, even so I will not abandon you.

13. Apunchispa willakuyninkuna19

Our Lord's complaints

Choir Millay qaqaq qayllallanpi Uyllakuspa mañarqani.

Close beside that awful rock I pleaded and prayed.

Congregation 18

Perhaps in the sense of accepting responsibility for, or of receiving to himself.


This refers to Jesus’ prayer in Gethsemane. It is sung regularly in the sanctuary of the Señor de Wanka–a preColomban sanctuary characterised by a sacred rock.


Millay qaqaq qayllallanpi Uyllakuspa mañarqani.

Close beside that awful rock I pleaded and prayed.

14. Jerusalem Jerusalempis

Jerusalem, Jerusalem

Jerusalem Jerusalempis runa khuyaq Yayallanchis unuy parata waqaspa qollpay-qollpayta suyuspa.

Jerusalem, Jerusalem, our dear Father who pities humanity weeping uncontrollably20, sobbing so bitterly21.

15. Yawar ñan

Bloodstained road

Verse Kay yawar ñan purisqaykipin Jesuslláy, qatikamushayki, qanwan kuskalla wañuspayqa misk'i wañuyta wañusaqpas.

My dear Jesus, I am following you on this bloodstained road you walked22, even if I die together with you death will be sweet for me23.

Refrain Khuyapayallaway, Taytalláy, Pampachawaytaq, Dios Yayalláy, Anchan huchallikusqaykuna, Anchatan, A!...phiñachirqayki.

Have mercy on me, my dear Father, Forgive24 me, God my dear Father, My sins are great, Oh..! I have made you very angry.

16. Huchallaypi kallaspaymi

Remaining in my sin

Huchallaypi kallaspaymi kawsayniypa nukñu kawsay qan Diosniyta phiñachiyki mana chanin kawsayniywan.

Remaining in my sin my life's sweet centre, I anger you my God with my unjust life/behaviour.

17. Hayk'aqkama

How long?


Literally "weeping heavy rainfall".


Literally "sobbing nothing but salt".


Or, "as you walk this bloody road".


Literally "I will die a sweet death".


Literally "make me flat".


Hayk'aqkama, waway, niway, chinkarisqa purikunki? Ama, ari, chhayna kaychu purun awqa qesachaqey.

Tell me, my child, how long will you wander getting more and more lost? Don't, then, be like that stop being a savage enemy.

18. Wañuy pacha


Wañuy pacha chayamunqa, Qonqay qonqay tarisunki, Qantapuni maskhasunki, Kawsayniykin tukukunqa.

Death25 is coming, It will overtake you very suddenly, It's you26 it will seek, Your life will end.

19. Taripay pacha

Judgment day

Kunan p'unchay kawsaq runa, imapitaq yuyayniyki? Mana taripana hina huchaykipi purishanki.

[O] Man who is alive today, what are you thinking about? You go on in your sin as if there were no judgment27.

20. Ukhu pacha

The world inside/below

Huchasapa runapaqchus Wiñay muchuy mana kanman, Diospa simin p'akiqpaqchus, Kusikuylla wiñay kanman, Kusikuylla wiñay kanman28.

If only there were no endless suffering for sinful man, If only there were only endless joy for the one who breaks God's word if there were only endless joy.

21. Hanaq pacha

The world above/heaven

Hanaq pachata Haku ripusun

To heaven come let's go,


Wañuy pacha: literally "death sphere/time/place/world" and this indicates the wide range of meaning of "pacha" place, time, earth, land. In the accompanying verb there is the idea of something that comes from there to here, it is behind and catches up with the person. In spatial terms, the future is behind and the past is in front. 26

Qantapuni: 2nd. person singular + direct object marker + suffix indicating strong focus and emphasis.


Or "as if you'd never be found out".


A series of rhetorical conditionals which to affirm the opposite, i.e. there is endless suffering for the sinner.


Diospa kayninwan Saminchakusun

with "Godness" we will be blessed.

22. Kawsarimpuy pacha

The world of life again

Haku yakill puririsun Dios Yayanchisman Chaninchasqa kananchispaq kawsasqanchismanta Hatariy, ari! Sayariy, ari, qanpas asnaq aycha! 23. Qanmi Dios kanki

Come, let's be quickly on our way, To God our Father to be justified/purified from the way we have lived. Get up then! Arise then you too, stinking flesh/body. You are God

Qanmi Dios kanki, yuraq arpay t'anta, qonqor sayaspan chunka much'aykuyki: Uyarillaway, Apu Jesucristo, Dios wakchay khuyaq.

You are God, white bread of sacrifice, motionless on knees I adore you reverently, Please hear me, Lord Jesus Christ, God who loves the poor.

24. Hamuy Jesuslláy

Come, my dear Jesus

Hamuy Jesuslláy Sonqoy ukhuman, Qan munakuypi rawrarinanpaq.

Come, my dear Jesus, to my innermost being in order that it may flame with love for you.

25. Ancha sumaq k'anchayninpi

In his glorious light

Ullphuykuspa much'aykusun ancha sumaq k'anchayninpi lliphlliq inti pakasqata kikin Dios pakasqata.

Prostrate let us adore the shining sun that is hidden very God who is hidden in his glorious light.


Appendix 2

Himnos Sagrados de los Andes - II 1. Qollanan María

Mary, most excellent

Qollanan María, Tuta k'anchaq qoyllur Ñanta chinkachispa A!..A!..qhawapayanayku. Ñanta chinkarispa A!..A!..qhawapayanayku.

Most excellent Mary Star that lightens the night, When we lose the way Oh..oh..we should always look to you When we lose the way Oh..oh..we should always look to you.

2. Sumaq nust'a

Beautiful princess

Hanaq pacha sumaq nust'a, Yakillkunaq1 ullphuykunan, Qanmi Diospa maman kanki, A!...Huchasapaq wayllukunan.

Beautiful heavenly princess, the one angels revere, you are the Mother of God, Oh!...the one sinners love.

3. Sumaq siklla

Beautiful siklla

Puruntasqa sumaq siklla2, Misk'i q'apaq yuraq t'ika, Ñan kunanqa hampuniña Pantasqayta reqsikuspay, Chaskillaway wawaykita.

Uniquely beautiful delicate flower, Fragrant-scented white flower, Now (at last) I have returned, realising that I have gone astray, please receive me, your child.

4. Sonqollaypa kusin

My heart's joy

A! Ñukñu María, Sonqollaypa kusin, Qanpin suyakuni Qespikunallayta.

Ah..sweetest Mary, My heart's joy, I hope in you For my salvation.

5. Ñust'allaytan

My dear princess


Yakill: This archaic word appears to mean "messenger", with the implcation that a heavenly messenger is an angel. Lira quotes the following parallelism from an old text: Ima allin yakill, O good messenger, kusi teqsi kacha. the one sent from the land of delight/heaven. 2 siklla - an edible plant with a delicately shaped blue flower; in figurative language it means "lovely, graceful".


Ñust'allaytan napaykusaq Llakillaytan willaykusaq Mamayman hina. Mamay hinan yanapawaspa Ai...llakiyniyta thasnukuspa kusichiwanqa.

I will greet my dear princess I will tell her all my sorrow as I would to my mother. Helping me like my mother Oh...gently calming my sorrow she will make me happy.

6. Allinnillaypaq

For my own wellbeing

Sumay-sumaqllan kanki ñoqapaq Ñukñu María, allinnillaypaq. Rikch'ayniykita qhawarispallan Llaklla sonqoypas kallpanchaykukun

You are so beautiful to me, Sweet Mary, all for my good, Just looking at your image My trembling heart warms with strength.

7. Mamáy, khuyapayawaspa

Mother mine, have mercy on me

Mamáy, khuyapayawaspa Jesusta mañaykapuway; Huchaymi qaparisparaq: Chinkariwaqtaq, niwashan.

Mother mine, have mercy on me, pray to Jesus for me; My sin calls out saying to me: You may be lost.

8. Unuy parata waqaspa

Weeping copiously

Unuy parata waqaspa Chakiykiman ullphuykuni, Urpilláy, sonqochalláy, t'ikaycháy3. Khuyapayallaway, Mamáy, A!...Pisi sonqo wawaykita, T'ikalláy, sonqochalláy, urpilláy.

Weeping copiously I bow low at your feet, My dove, my little heart, my little flower. Have mercy on me, mother mine Oh! Your faint-hearted child, My little flower, my dear heart, my dove.

9. Mamayku Karmen

Our mother Carmen

Mamayku Karmen Kasqaykimanta Wawaykimanta Mañapuwayku.

Our mother Carmen, because of who you are pray on our behalf to your child.

10. Ch'uyay ch'uyayllan

Wholly pure


The language here is that of love poetry.


Ch'uyay ch'uyayllan paqarirqanki4, Napaykusqayki Diospa maman. Ch'uyay ch'uyayllan paqarirqanki, Napaykusqayki Diospa maman.

Cristaline pure you were born, I greet you, Mother of God. Cristaline pure you arose, I salute you, Mother of God.

11. Kusi sami

Happy blessing

A, María, ñoqaq mamay, Llapa runaq kusi samin, Yanapaway, pusapuway Hanaq pacha wasinchista.

O Mary, my mother, Delight and joy of all, Help me and lead me to our heavenly home.

12. Napaykusqayki qollanan María

I greet you, excellent Mary

Napaykusqayki, qollanan María, Kay weqe pachapi5 huchasapaq Maman, Llakiq intusqanmi wawaykikunaqa Chakiykimanña ullphuykakamuyku Mamaykiman hina.

I greet you, excellent Mary, the sinner's mother in this sad earth, your children are surrounded by sorrow, (and) we bow down imploringly at your feet as to our very own mother.

13. Sumaq intiq lirpun

Mirror of the beautiful sun

Yawraq sumaq intiq lirpun, Qosqo llaqtaq Sapay Qoyan6, Mamaykutan reqsiykiku Mamaykupaq Sapay Ahlla7.

Flaming image of the sun's beauty, High Queen of Cuzco, We acclaim you our Mother Unique virgin chosen to be our mother.

Huchasapa wawallaykin Chakiykiman k'umuykamun, Qhawarillaway, Mama... Ch'aska qoyllur ñawiykiwan.

Your sinful child bows at your feet, Please look on me, Mother... with your Venus of an eye.

14. Achikyay qoyllur

Shining star


There is a resonance here with original myths and the official ideology of the Incas. The first Inca and his wife, Mama Ocllo, emerged from the paqariq tampu (place of origin/birth/dawn), in the midst of struggle and intrigue. The Mama introduced by the church has a quite different origin/birth. 5 Weqe pachapi: literally "tear land-in", appears as the translation of "valley of tears" in the 1583 Catechism. A figure drawn from Ps. 84.6. 6 Sapay Qoya: the title of the Inca's wife. 7 Sapay Aclla: Title of the head over the Inca's "vestal virgins".


Achikyay qoyllur qanpunin K'anchaykamuwayku wawaykikunata Achikyay qoyllur qanpunin Achikyay ch'aska qanpunin

You alone are the star of dawn Lighten us, your children. You alone are the star of dawn You alone dawn on the dark.

15. Qori chiwanway

Golden chiwanway

Hanaq pachapi qori chiwanway8 Dios Yayaq munaspa mallkikusqan Ch'uya phoqcheq kayniykimanta9 Llapaykumanyari rakirimuy.

Bright golden flower of heaven, Planted by God the Father who wanted to do so, Give to each one of us (Some) of your overflowing purity.

16. Qayllaykamuykin

Gently I approach you

Qayllaykamuykin10 qayllaykamuykin Sumaq urpilláy, ima niwankis, Ima niwankis qhawaykuwaspa? Sonqoy ukhuman imallatapas Imallatapas, niykuway, ari.

Gently, reverently I approach you, My beautiful dove, what will you say to me, What will you say when you look intently at me? Say something to my innermost being, Please, just something.

17. Ñukñu q'apaq

Sweet fragrant one

Ñukñu q'apaq, napaykusqayki, Qoyakunaq qoyanmi kanki, Mañakusqayta uyariway, Wiñay llanllaq sumaq maywa.

Sweet fragrant one, I greet you, You are the Queen of queens, Hear my request/prayer, Beautiful lily, forever fresh.

18. Sonqollaychus

If my heart...

Sonqollaychus llanllariwan, Nunallaychus kawsarinpas; Mamallaychá munakuwan Paywan kuska kawsanaypaq. 19. Pillas chhaqay sumaq nust'a

If my heart would revive11, If my spirit would begin to live, Perhaps my dear mother would love me, so that I would live together with her. Who is that beautiful princess?


The chiwanway is a Andean flower like the lily; another version has qori azucena (golden lily). Another version has gracia phoqcheq kayniykimanta - "of your overflowing grace". 10 The letters in bold are mine. The tone of this verse hangs on the repeated use of -yku/yka-, it adds a dimension of gentleness on the one hand and interest, care and endearment on the other. Coupled with urpi (dove) and sonqo (heart) we move into the realm of a close, intimate relationship. 11 Or: Could my heart revive Could my spirit begin to live again, Perhaps... 9


Pillas chhaqay sumaq nust'a, Qoyllurkama llaqollayoq, Sayayninri warmipunis Inti killa sarunayoq.

Just who do they say that beautiful princess is, with the cloak made of stars, Such size, a woman, no doubt about it, they say, her footstool the sun and moon?

20. Ch'aska qoyllur Sami maskhaq, ch'aska qoyllur Samiykiwan ari saminchaway. Khuyakuyniykiwan ¡hay! niway Hinantinpa millayninta.

Shining star Seeker of good, shining star, Bless me with your good fortune. In your love ask me, "What's the matter?" Through the pervading awfulness.

21. Llump'aq María

Holy Mary

Llump'aq María12 Diosniypa Maman Khuyakuyllawan Qhawarimuway.

Holy Mary, Mother of God, In your mercy Look upon me13.

22. Reqsikuniñan

I realise now...

Reqsikuniñan kunanqa Diosnillay phiñachisqayta Huchaymanta waqanaypaq; Qantaq Mamay kallpanchaway Musphaq sonqo wawaykita.

Now I recognise that I have angered my God so that I weep for my sin; But you, mother mine, give strength to me, your bewildered child.

23. Mamáy, wakcha wawaykita

Mother, your poor child...

Mamáy, wakcha wawaykita Kunanqa khuyapayaway, Qanpin, Mamáy, suyakuni Huchaymanta qespinaypaq.

Mother mine, have mercy now on this poor child of yours, Mother mine, I hope in you to save me from my sin.

24. Much'aykusqayki

I will adore you


Llump'aq: pure, chaste, innocent, honest, unblemished. It is now only used in the phrase llump'aq María, and has become a standard phrase for "virgin Mary". 13 The content here suggests a Latin prayer to Mary such as the Salve Regina.


Much'aykusqayki, llump'aq María, Evaq huchanqa manan qanpichu, Ch'uyay ch'uyayllan paqarirqanki Inti killata p'enqachisparaq.

I will adore you, Virgin Mary, Eve's sin is not in you, Cristaline pure you were born, Putting even the sun and moon to shame.

25. Alaw, niway!

Feel for me!

Ay! Mamalláy, Alaw! niykuway14, kay wakchaykita. Makiykipitaq hap'iykuway Yanapaspa amachaspa.

Oh dear mother mine, Feel for me, your little orphan. Enfold me in your hand, help and protect.

26. Much'aykusqayki mama

I will adore you, mother

Ñoqa yanapaqniy Urpi, Much'aykusqayki, Mama, Alllinta waqaychawanki Diosniyman ripunaykama.

Dove who helps me, I will adore you, Mother, You will keep me15 completely safe Until I finally go to my God.

27. Pitaq pay hina?

Who is like her?

Ima nispataq rikhurisaq Diospa Ahllan cheqaq Mamaq qayllanpin? Pitaq pay hina paqarirqan mana huchaq ch'ankasqan intiman yalliq?

What shall I say when I appear before God's chosen virgin, the true Mother? Who was born like her unspoiled by sin, purer than the sun?

Ima simiwantaq rimarisaq kay kurullari pisi sami taytaq wawan, huchapi qhospaq huchapi qhospaq?

What words shall I speak, this poor worm, unfortunate father's child, who wallows in sin, who wallows in sin?

28. Uyarillaway

Please listen to me


As in hymn 16, the presence of the particle -yku- in the verbs indicates gentleness and care, appropriate especially for the feminine and maternal. 15 This could also be an imperative – ‘keep me completely safe’.


Ima nispataq ullphuykamusaq Huchapi kawsaq millay kuruqa? Kharullamanta napaykusqayki Uyarillaway, María, Mamay.

How shall I prostrate myself before you, miserable worm that I am, living in sin? I can only hail you from afar: Please hear me, Mary, my mother.

29. Rikukuy t'ika

Flower that appears

Hanaq pachapi rikukuy t'ika, t'ikarishaq, Ima sumaqchá llanllaykashan, Dios Yayapaqqa ima kusichá, Rikch'ayllantachá qhawapayashan.

Flower that is seen ever blooming in the sky, How beautifully it remains fresh, What joy for God the Father, looking again and again at its appearance.

30. Ñust'allayku

Our dear princess

Ullphuykamuni chakiykiman, Ullphuykamuni chakiykiman, A!...Ñust'allayku, Waqaspachá ripusaqku, Saminchaykamuwayku Llapaykuman Llapaykuman Llapaykuman.

I prostrate myself at your feet, I prostrate myself at your feet, Oh...our dear princess, We will leave in tears16 Please bless us, All of us, All of us, All of us.

31. A! María!

Oh, Mary!

A! María, ñoqaq Mamay, Llapa runaq kusi samin, Yanapaway, pusapuway Hanaq pacha wasinchista.

Oh Mary my Mother, Joy of all people, Help me, guide me to our heavenly home.

32. Llump'aq Ahlla

Purest Virgin

Llump'aq Ahlla, Diospa Maman Uyarillawayku, Teqsimuyuntin huchasapan Waqyakuykiku, Ullphuykamuyku chakillaykiman Qan mamaytaq llanthuykiwan pakaykuwayku. 33. Ima nispataq?

Purest Virgin, Mother of God, Please hear us, We sinners of the whole world call to you, We are prostrate at your feet, and you my mother hide us secretly in your shadow. How?


I.e. because they have not received the desired blessing.


Ima nispataq napaykusqayki Kay huchasapata uyarillaway. Ima nispataq napaykusqayki Uyarillaway, sumaq María. Hayk'aqkamataq Jesús wawayki Huchaykunawan phiñasqa kanqa?

How will I greet you? Please hear this sinner. How will I greet you? Please hear me, lovely Mary. How long will your child Jesus be angry because of my sins?

34. Munay munay

Truly lovely

Munay munay purun thaski Sumay sumaq Urpillayku, Waqaqkunaq kusikuynin, Sonqollayta kusiykachiy.

Graceful innocent child, Our most beautiful Dove, Joy of those who weep, Make even my heart happy.

35. Chunkan much'aykuyki

Reverently I adore you

Chunkan much'aykuyki, Michiqllay, michikullawayku. Sumaq kayniykiwan, Ñust'allay Llanthuykullawayku.

Reverently I adore you, My Shepherd, please shepherd us. With your beauty, my dear Princess please shelter us.

36. Haku mamáy

Come, Mother

Haku Mamáy! Puririsun Wawaykita maskhamusun. Awqakunaq makinpiñas, Wawaykiqa ñak'arishan.

Come, Mother, let us go, Let us go to look for your child. He's now in enemy hands, they say, (There) your child is suffering.

37. Llakiymanasqa ahlla

Sorrow-laden Virgin

Willkay Ahlla, Diospa Maman, Huchasapaq maskhanayku, Maypis, Mama, yawar weqe, Qanwan kuska waqanaypaq.

Sacred Virgin, Mother of God, The one we sinners seek, Tell me where the tears of blood are, Mother, that I may weep together with you.

38. Kacharpari



A! Mamalláy, Diosllawanña kutimunaykikamaña kawsaypipas wañuypipas Ama má qonqawankichu.

Oh my dear Mother, Now with God alone until you return, Whether I live or die, Whatever you do, please don't forget me.

39. Mamanchisman kacharpari

Goodbye to our mother

Isqonkama p'unchayllaykin Llump'aq Mamalláy, Kunan p'unchay tukukapun, Llump'aq Mamalláy.

Until the ninth is your day, Purest Mother dear, Now today is finally over, Purest Mother dear.

40. Mamachaq kacharparin

Farewell to the Virgin

Ñachu Mamáy niwankiña: Ripullayña, waway, nispa? Maytan risaq, sumaq umiña, Qan Mamayta saqerispa?

Mother mine, did you really say, "My child, off you go now"? Precious jewel, where will I go when I leave you, my own Mother?

41. Diosllawanña

Now with God

Diosllawanña Sapay Qoya, Mamalláy Diosllawanña, Hanaq pachaq kusi samin, Sonqollaypa khuyakunan, K'anchaq rikch'ayniykitari Imaynataq saqerisaq? Hukllatawan much'aykusaq Tukuy sonqo chakiykita.

You are now with God, High Queen, My dear Mother, now with God alone. Heaven's great joy, Love of my own heart, How can I leave Your shining image? With all my heart I will gently kiss your feet one more time.


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