Hidraulica 1 Henrique Bocais

April 17, 2019 | Author: Bruno Martins Silva | Category: Fluid Mechanics, Laminar Flow, Chemical Equilibrium, Pressure, Reynolds Number
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Hidraulica 1 - Bocais...

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UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE GOIÁS UNIDADE UNIVERSITÁRIA DE CIÊNCIAS EXATAS E TECNOLÓGICAS ENGENHARIA CIVIL HIDRÁULICA I

ESTUDO SOBRE BOCAIS

4

ANÁPOLIS FEVEREIRO/2015

UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE GOIÁS UNIDADE UNIVERSITÁRIA DE CIÊNCIAS EXATAS E TECNOLÓGICAS ENGENHARIA CIVIL HIDRAÚLICA

ESTUDO SOBRE BOCAIS

Acadêmicos

T'a&a$+o '#a$i,ado -a'a co!s%i%(i' !o%a !a disci-$i!a d# Hid'.($ica/ do c('so d#

A!"#$i%a Ri&#i'o Ramos B'(!o )a'%i!s Si$*a

E!"#!+a'ia Ci*i$012 3#'odo/ mi!is%'ada -#$o -'o5#sso' H#!'i6(# S%#c7#$&#'"8

1

ANÁPOLIS FEVEREIRO/2015

SUMÁRIO

98: ; INTRODU8: 0 RE?ERENCIAL TEÓRICO88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888881 >89 ; ESTUDO DOS BOCAIS8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 1 >89890 CLASSI?ICA898> ; [email protected]=O NOS BOCAIS88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888881 >898 ; BOCAIS CILNDRICOS8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 >8984 ; BOCAIS CNICOS888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 >8981 ; BOCAIS E AGULHETAS88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 >898 ; EX3ERIÊNCIA DE VENTURI888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 >898 ; SUBDIVIS=O DE CARGA E) U) BOCAL8 3ERDA DE CARGA888888888888888888888F >898F ; CO)3ARA8> 0 TUBOS CURTOS SUEITOS  DESCARGA LIVRE88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888889: >8>890 [email protected] DO 3ROBLE)A8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888889: >8>8>0 TUBOS )UITO CURTOS88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888889: >8>8 ; 3ERDA DE CARGA NOS ORI?CIOS E BOCAIS8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888899 >8>840 3ERDAS NAS TUBULA >8>81 ; CONDI >8>8 ; ESCOA)ENTO E) REGI)E LA)INAR8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888889> >8>8 ; ESCOA)ENTO E) REGI)E TURBULENTO88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888889 >8>8F ; 3ROCESSO EX3EDITO DE CÁLCULO DA [email protected]=O88888888888888888888888888888888888888888894 >8>8J ; DESCARGA DE BUEIROS88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888891 8: 0 CONCLUS=O88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888889 48: 0 RE?ERÊNCIAS BIBLIÓGRA?IAS8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888889



1.0 – INTRODUÇÃO Es%# %'a&a$+o %#m como o&K#%i*o o #s%(do d# &ocais8 Es%# -o' s(a *#, co!sis%# #m (m %(&o c('%o 6(# s# ada-%a a (m o'i5cio/ %#!do 6(as# s#m-'# (ma s#Mo %'a!s*#'sa$ ci'c($a'/ s#!do co$ocado !o'ma$m#!%# . -a'#d# do '#s#'*a%'io #  (%i$i,ado -a'a '#"($a' # di'i"i' o Ka%o8 No co'-o do %'a&a$+o  i!5o'mado so&'# a c$assi5icaMo dos %(&os a&#'%os o( %(&os adicio!ais como %am&m -od# s#' c+amado os &ocais/ #P-#'iê!cia/ #6(aQ#s 6(# -#'mi%#m o #s%(do da -#'da d# ca'"a # da *a,Mo # %am&m o %i-o d# #scoam#!%o # d# '#"im# 6(# -'#domi!a !os m#smos8

4

2.0 - REFERENCIAL TEÓRICO

2.1 – ESTUDO DOS BOCAIS 2.1.1- CLASSIFICAÇÃO DOS BOCAIS Os &ocais o( %(&os adicio!ais sMo co!s%i%(dos -o' -#as %(&($a'#s ada-%adas aos o'i5cios8 S#'*#m -a'a di'i"i' o Ka%o8 O s#( com-'im#!%o d#*# #s%a' com-'##!dido #!%'# *#, # m#ia 9/1/ # %'ês  m *#,#s o s#( dim#%'o8 D# (m modo "#'a$/ # -a'a com-'im#!%os maio'#s/ co!sid#'am0s# com-'im#!%os d# 9/1 a  D como &ocais d#  a 1:: D como %(&os m(i%os c('%os d# 1:: a 4::: D a-'oPimadam#!%# como %(&($aQ#s c('%as # acima d# 4::: D como %(&($aQ#s $o!"as8 O #s%(do d# o'i5cios #m -a'#d# #s-#ssa  5#i%o do m#smo modo 6(# o #s%(do dos &ocais8

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Os &ocais cos%(mam s#' c$assi5icados #m • •

Cil!"#i$%&' I!()#i%#)& %* #))!(#+!()&, E()#i%#)&. C!i$%&' C%!)#)!()&, Di)#)!()&.

D#!omi!a0s#/ ai!da/ &oca$0-ad'Mo ao &oca$ c(Ko com-'im#!%o i"(a$a0s# a >/1 *#,#s o s#( dim#%'o # &oca$ d# Bo'da ao &oca$ '##!%'a!%# d# com-'im#!%o -ad'Mo8

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2.1.2 – VAÃO NOS BOCAIS P+#+ % $l$*l% "+& +34)& !%& %$+i& +6li$+-&) + 7)&7+ 8%#7*l+9:% *(ili3+"+ 6+#+ %#i8$i%& 6);*)!%&. Q=Cd . A. √ >8 g . H 

O!")' C" < % $%)8i$i)!() ") ")&$+#+ ) +#i+ $%!8%#7) + )%7)(#i+ "% %$+l= A < + #)+ "% %$+l ) > + +l(*#+ ") *+ "+ &*6)#8$i) +% $)!(#% "% %$+l. 2.1.? – BOCAIS [email protected] A $%!(#+9:% "+ )i+ %$%##) !% i!()#i%# "%& %$+i& $il!"#i$%&.  N%& %$+i&- 6+"#:%= + )i+ 6%") $%l+#-&) %* !:% & 6+#)")&. F)$>+!"%-&) % (*% ") 7%"% + )!$>-l%= 8+3)!"% $%7 ;*) + )i+ 8i;*) $%l+"+= #)&*l(+!"% *7 +(% (%(+l %$*6+!"% i!()i#+7)!() + &)9:% ") &+"+. H i!()#)&&+!() %&)#+# ;*) % %$+l #))!(#+!() ") B%#"+ $%##)&6%!")  7)!%# +3:%' $%)8i$i)!() ") ")&$+#+ 0=51 ()%#i$+7)!() )!$%!(#+-&) C"0=5 6+#+ )i+ li#). O %$+l $il!"#i$% )()#!%= $%7 )i+ +")#)!()= )l)+ + +3:%' C"0=J2.

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2.1.K – BOCAIS CNICOS Com os &ocais cY!icos a(m#!%a0s# a *a,Mo8 EP-#'im#!%a$m#!%# *#'i5ica0s# 6(#/ !os &ocais co!*#'"#!%#s/ a d#sca'"a  m.Pima -a'a Z[9\::] Cd[:/J48 Os %(&os di*#'"#!%#s com a -#6(#!a s#Mo i!icia$ co!*#'"#!%# d#!omi!am0s# V#!%('i/ -o' %#'#m sido #s%(dados -#$o i!*#s%i"ado' i%a$ia!o8 As #P-#'iê!cias d# V#!%('i d#mo!s%'am 6(# o !"($o d# di*#'"ê!cia d# 1\/ com&i!ado com o com-'im#!%o do %(&o 

i"(a$ ^ c#'ca d# !o*# *#,#s o dim#%'o da s#Mo #s%'a!"($ada/ -#'mi%# os mais a$%os co#5ici#!%#s d# d#sca'"a8

2.1.5 – BOCAIS E AGULMETAS  N+ 6#(i$+= %& %$+i& &:% $%!&(#*"%& 6+#+ #i+& 8i!+li"+")&' $%7+() + i!$!"i%&= %6)#+94)& ") li76)3+= &)#i9%& ") $%!&(#*9:%= +6li$+94)& +$%l+&= (#+(+7)!(% ") *+= 7;*i!+& >i"#*li$+&= )($. *+(#% (i6%& &:% *&*+i&= ) +$>+7 7%&(#+"%& !+ Fi*#+ ?. O $%)8i$i)!() ") ")&$+#+ C"= )#+l7)!()= )&( $%76#))!"i"% )!(#) 0=5 ) 0=J. O& %$+i& ") i!$!"i%= !%#7+l7)!()= (7 "i7)(#% ") &+"+ ") 25 + ?Q=5 77.

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2.1. – EPERINCIA DE VENTURI 3a'#c# -a'adoPa$ 5a%o d# a *a,Mo s# #$#*a' com a adiMo d# (m &oca$ com o &oca$/ !o*os -o!%os -a'a -#'da d# #!#'"ia sMo c'iados8 A #P-$icaMo 5oi dada -o' V#!%('i !(ma c$#&'# #P-#'iê!cia8 

A -'#ssMo mdia #Pis%#!%# !a co'oa d# d#-'#ssMo/ 6(# #!*o$*# a *#ia $6(ida d#!%'o do &oca$/  m#!o' 6(# a -'#ssMo a%mos5'ica8 Isso 5oi *#'i5icado -o' V#!%('i/ 6(# i!%'od(,i( !a6(#$a -a'%# (m %(&o d# *id'o/ co!5o'm# mos%'a a 5i"('a8 O&s#'*a0s# 6(# o *a$o' :/1+ %#m0$imi%# %#'ico d# 9 a%m 9: mca8 N#ssas co!diQ#s/ a d#sca'"a/ 6(# !(m o'i5cio oco''#'ia co!%'a a -'#ssMo a%mos5'ica/ com a adiMo d# (m &oca$ -assa a s#' 5#i%a co!%'a (ma -'#ssMo m#!o'/ #$#*a!do0s# a *a,Mo8 A #Pis%ê!cia do &oca$ -#'mi%# a 5o'maMo # ma!(%#!Mo da co'oa d# d#-'#ssMo8

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2.1.Q – SUBDIVISÃO DE CARGA E U BOCAL. PERDA DE CARGA D+ $+#+ (%(+l M= ;*) +(*+ &%#) *7 %$+l $il!"#i$%= $)#$+ ") 2/? &) $%!)#() )7 )l%$i"+")= $%##)&6%!")!"% % ()#9% #)&(+!()  )!)#i+ ")&6)!"i"+ !+ )!(#+"+ "% %$+l. E&&+ 6)#"+ 1/?M < );*i+l)!()  7)(+") ") > >2/?M= &)!"%= 6%#(+!(% i*+l +' 0=5/2. D)&i!+!"%-&) 6%# >8 + 6)#"+ ") $+#+= >8M->= l%%' +5 [

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2.2.2- TUBOS UITO CURTOS D# 6(a$6(#' ma!#i'a/ *#'i5ica0s# a #Pis%ê!cia d# (ma c#'%a "ama d# *a$o'#s/ com-'##!dida #!%'#   D # !D/ 6(# #Pc#d# os &ocais # c(Kas co!diQ#s !Mo ca'ac%#'i,am as %(&($aQ#s !o'mais8 G#'a$m#!%# s# co!sid#'a %(&os m(i%o c('%os a6(#$#s c(Ko com-'im#!%o s(-#'a o dos &ocais   D # !Mo #Pc#d# o das %(&($aQ#s c('%as 1::  D8 As 5'm($as "#'ais -a'a os #!ca!am#!%os sMo a-$ic.*#is aos %(&os o( %(&($aQ#s d# com-'im#!%o s(-#'io' a 9::  D/ d#*#!do0s# co!sid#'a' as -#'das d# #!%'ada # d# *#$ocidad# -a'a as %(&($aQ#s c(Ko com-'im#!%o s#Ka i!5#'io' a c#'ca d# 4::: P D8 3a'a #ssa ,o!a -od#m s#' d#5i!idas as %(&($aQ#s c('%as8 E''os "'oss#i'os -od#m '#s($%a' da a-$icaMo d#sc(idada d# 5'm($as o&%idas -a'a ca!a$i,aQ#s d# "'a!d# com-'im#!%o aos %(&os m(i%o c('%os8 E!6(a!%o 6(# !a6(#$as -'#domi!am os a%'i%os ao $o!"o das $i!+as/ !#ss#s -'#*a$#c#m a #!#'"ia co!*#'%ida #m *#$ocidad# # as -#'das $oca$i,adas/ #!%'# as 6(ais a d# #!%'ada8 A i!5$(ê!cia das di*#'sas -#'das !as %(&($aQ#s #m 5(!Mo da '#$aMo com-'im#!%oWdim#%'o LWD -od# s#' #*id#!ciada -#$a Ta&#$a/ d# *a$o'#s mdios ca$c($ados -a'a %(&os d# :/: m d# dim#%'o/ com (ma ca'"a i!icia$ d# : m8 Ta&#$a > 0 %(&os m(i%o c('%os

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2.2.K- PERDAS NAS TUBULAÇ^ES [email protected] T'a%a!do0s#/ -o'#m/ d# (m %(&o o( d# (ma sim-$#s %(&($aMo '#%i$!#a/ a$#m da -#'da $oca$i,ada !a #!%'ada :/1*_W>" # da ca'"a co''#s-o!d#!%# ^ *#$ocidad# *_W>" #Pis%# ai!da a -#'da -o' a%'i%o ao $o!"o das -#as +5 Os *a$o'#s do co#5ici#!%# d# a%'i%o 5 *a'iam com a *#$ocidad# mdia do $6(ido # com o dim#%'o da ca!a$i,aMo/ -a'a as m#smas co!diQ#s d# %#m-#'a%('a # d# '("osidad# das -a'#d#s8 O a(m#!%o d# *#$ocidad# co''#s-o!d# a (m d#c'scimo !o *a$o' d# 5 8 No caso d# %(&os m(i%o c('%os/ com d#sca'"a $i*'#/ a di5ic($dad# '#sid# !a 5iPaMo do *a$o' ad#6(ado d# 5/ !Mo som#!%# -o'6(#/ ao s# -'oc('a' d#%#'mi!a' a *a,Mo/ a *#$ocidad#  d#sco!+#cida/ como %am&m d#*ido ao 5a%o d# !Mo s# co!%a' com *a$o'#s #P-#'im#!%ais co''#s-o!d#!%#s ^s "'a!d#s ca'"as # *#$ocidad#s #$#*adas8 9>

2.2.5 – CONDIÇ^ES DE ENTRADA NOS TUBOS E+7i!+!"%-&) +& $%!"i94)& ") )!(#+"+ !%& (*%& &% % 6%!(% ") i&(+ ()Z#i$%= )#i8i$+-&) ;*) % #)i7) !%#7+l ") )&$%+7)!(% &%7)!() < +(i!i"% +6Z& *7 $)#(% 6)#$*#&% i!i$i+l. A% 8i7 ")&&) (#)$>% ") (#+!&i9:% < ;*) &) 6%") )!$%!(#+# *7+ "i&(#i*i9:% ") )l%$i"+") $+6+3 ") $+#+$()#i3+# *7 #)i7) ") )&$%+7)!(%. D+ + !)$)&&i"+") ") &) $%!&i")#+# %& "%i& $+&%& ;*) %$%##)7 !+ 6#(i$+' % )&$%+7)!(% )7 #)i7) l+7i!+# ) % )&$%+7)!(% )7 #)i7) (*#*l)!(%.  N)!>*7+ "+& 8Z#7*l+& 6#(i$+& )&(+)l)$i"+& 6+#+ )!$+!+7)!(%&= + #i%#= 6%")#i+ &)#  +6li$+"+ 6+#+ +& $%!"i94)& ;*) 6#)+l)$)7 !)&&) (#)$>% i!i$i+l. 2.2. – ESCOAENTO E REGIE LAINAR  N#ss# caso/ s# a s#Mo d# #!%'ada !o %(&o 5o' &#m a''#do!dada/ d# modo a #*i%a' co!%'aQ#s/ %odas as -a'%c($as do $6(ido #!%'a'Mo !o %(&o # com#a'Mo a #scoa' -o' #$# com a m#sma *#$ocidad#/ #Pc#Mo 5#i%a -a'a (ma camada m(i%o -#6(#!a K(!%o ^s -a'#d#s do %(&o/ 6(# so5'#'. a s(a i!5$(ê!cia8 D# i!icio/ -o'%a!%o/ as -a'%c($as *Mo #scoa' -'a%icam#!%# com a m#sma *#$ocidad# */ s#!do V_W>" a #!#'"ia ci!%ica da massa8  m#dida 6(# as -a'%c($as 5o'#m #scoa!do ao $o!"o do %(&o/ os 5i$#%#s 6(# oc(-am a -a'%# c#!%'a$ *Mo %#!do o s#( mo*im#!%o ac#$#'ado/ ao -asso 6(# as -a'%c($as mais -'Pimas das -a'#d#s 5icam '#%a'dadas8 Como s# %'a%a d# '#"im# $ami!a'/ o -#'5i$ !o'ma$ d# *#$ocidad#s  -a'a&$ico # as co!diQ#s d# #6(i$&'io/ %#o'icam#!%#/ som#!%# s#'iam a%i!"idas a-s (ma dis%!cia i!5i!i%a8 3'a%icam#!%#/ 3'a!d%$ # Ti#%K#!s i!dicam 6(# o -#'5i$ d# #6(i$&'io  o&%ido a-s0 -#'c('so/ L[:/9 R#D 3a'a R8[9F::/ -o' #P#m-$o/ !bm#'o d# R#!o$ds/ L[>4D8

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?i"('a  Escoam#!%o #m '#"im# $ami!a' ?o!%# [email protected] NETT/ 9JJ8-8F>8

Com o #scoam#!%o $ami!a'/ is%o / com a dis%'i&(iMo -a'a&$ica d# *#$ocidad#s/ a #!#'"ia ci!%ica s#'. i"(a$ a >8V_W>"8 No -#'c('so m#!cio!ado/ a #!#'"ia ci!%ica -assa'./ -o'%a!%o/ d# V_W>" a >V_W>"8

2.2.Q – ESCOAENTO E REGIE TURBULENTO T)%#i$+7)!()= +"7i()-&) ;*)= + 6+#(i# "+ +#)&(+ ") )!(#+"+ O= $%!&(i(*i-&) *7+ $+7+"+ )7 ;*) % )&$%+7)!(% < l+7i!+#= $+7+"+ )&&+ ;*) +i &) (%#!+!"% 7+i& )&6)&&+ +(< *7 +l%# $#i(i$% 3= + 6+#(i# "% ;*+l + )&6)&&*#+ &) #)"*3 #)6)!(i!+7)!() + *7 +l%#  #)l+(i+7)!() 6);*)!% ]= ;*) &) 7+!(8 g . H 

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91

2.2. – DESCARGA DE BUEIROS A -#'da d# ca'"a !(m &(#i'o  i"(a$ ^ soma das -#'das da #!%'ada # sada/ mais a -#'da d#*ida ao s#( com-'im#!%o8 3od#m s#' ca$c($ados como &ocais/ # os &(#i'os s(&m#'sos como %(&os a5o"ados/ i!c$(i!do o #5#i%o das -#'das !o co#5ici#!%# d# d#sca'"a Cd8 3a'a os &(#i'os d# co!c'#%o -od#m s#' (sados os s#"(i!%#s co#5ici#!%#s d# d#sca'"a Ta&#$a 4 Co#5ici#!%#s d# d#sca'"a -a'a &(#i'os

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3.0 - CONCLUSÃO Co!c$(mos 6(# o #s%(do d# &ocais  d# s(ma im-o'%!cia -a'a a Co!s%'(Mo Ci*i$/ -ois o m#smo s#'*# -a'a i!bm#'as a-$icaQ#s8 g #s%(dado mais -'o5(!dam#!%# !a ?o'o!omia/ 6(#  s#( #s%(do do #scoam#!%o dos 5$(idos K(!%am#!%# com os o'i5cios8  3a'a a -a'%# -'.%ica !a #!"#!+a'ia ci*i$ o m#smo  #s%(dado s(-#'5icia$m#!%# !a disci-$i!a Hid'.($ica/ *isa!do #!%#!d#' como 5(!cio!a o 5$(Po da ."(a -'i!ci-a$m#!%# !a  K(sa!%# d# Usi!as Hid'#$%'icas d# Es%'#i%o UHE8

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4.0 - REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIÓGRAFIAS +%%-WWc('sos8(!isa!%a8&'Wm#ca!icaW-o$a'iW5o'o!omia0&ocais8-d5/   ac#ssado !o dia : d# 5#*#'#i'o d# >:94/ .s >9448 +%%-WWfff8(5-i8&'Ws(&si%#?i$#sWc%Wa'6(i*osW5i$#sW-as%aWCA38-d5/ ac#ssado !o dia : d# 5#*#'#i'o d# >:94/ .s >91F8 +%%-WWa'6(i*os8(!ama8&'W!#adW"'ad(acaoWcc#%W#!"#!+a'iah-'od(caoWs#m#s%'#W5#!om#!osh  %'a!s-o'%#W+%m$W(!idad#>Wa($a9Wa($a98-d5/ ac#ssado !o dia : d# 5#*#'#i'o d# >:94/ .s :J:48

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