Guevara vs COMELEC

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JOSE L. GUEVARA, petitioner, vs. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, respondent. July 31, 1958 || G.R. No. L-12596 || BAUTISTA ANGELO, J.: FATS: O! "#y $, 195%, O"ELE, #&'() *)o*() !(+o'#'o!, ##)/(/ 'o '0( N#'o!#l S0*y#)/  S'((l o)*o)#'o! NASSO, '0( A4( S'((l "&+. o., I!4. A"E, #!/ '0( A#'4 S'((l "&+. o., I!4. ASIATI, '0( 4o!')#4' 'o #!u'u)( #!/ u**ly '0( oo! 12,, 11, #!/ 11, 7#llo' 7o( #' 1%.6$, 1$., #!/ 1%. (#40, )(*(4'(ly. O! "#y 8, 195%, 7o'0 '0( NASSO #!/ '0( ASIATI +!(/ '0 '0( oo! o! El(4'o! '0( 4o))(*o!/!+ 4o!')#4'. O! "#y 13, 195%, '0( oo! 4#!4(ll(/ '0( ##)/ 'o '0( A"E &o) &#lu)( o& '0( l#''() 'o +! '0( 4o!')#4' '0! '0( /(+!#'(/ '( #!/ ##)/(/ 'o '0( NASSO #!/ '0( ASIATI, ASIATI, o!(-0#l& (#40 o& '0( 11, 7#llo' 7o( o)+!#lly #llo'(/ 'o '0( A"E. T0( 4o))(*o!/!+ 4o!')#4' '0()(o! ()( +!(/ o! "#y 16, 195%. T0(! &ollo(/ # ()( o& *(''o! &l(/ 7y '0( A"E &o) '0( )(4o!/()#'o! o& '0( )(olu'o! o& '0( oo! o& "#y 13, 195%. To *(''o! ()( &l(/ 7y A"E A"E #!/ ()( /(!(/ 7y '0( oo!. A '0)/ '0)/ *(''o! # &l(/ #!/ 7( 4#u( o&  '0( ()ou!( o& '0( #ll(+#'o!, '0( oo! )(ol(/ 'o 4o!/u4' # &o)#l !('+#'o!. A 0(#)!+ 0(#)!+ # 4o!/u4'(/ o! "#y 2$, 195%. O! "#y 28, A"E &l(/ # (o)#!/u o! '0( *o!' #//u4(/ /u)!+ '0( 0(#)!+. O! Ju!( $, O"ELE /(!(/ '0( '0)/ "R B(&o)( '0( O"ELE )(olu'o! o! '0( 4#( # *)oul+#'(/,  *u7l0(/ ! '0( Su!/#y T( u( o& Ju!( 2, 195% #! #)'4l( (!''l(/ ;B#llo' Bo( o!')#4' o!+o I*()#l #!/ "(7() S'o B)ll#!'( ! '0( #/!')#'o! o& #ll '0( l# )(l#'( 'o '0( 4o!/u4' o& (l(4'o!.=  # o)/()(/ 7y '0( oo!() o! El(4'o! 'o 0o 4#u( 0y 0( 0oul/ !o' 7( *u!0(/ &o) 4o!'(*' &o) 0#!+ *u7l0(/ '0( #)'4l( 040 '(!/(/ 'o !'()&()( '0 #!/ !&lu(!4( '0( O"ELE #!/ ' (7() ! '0( #/?u/4#'o! o& # 4o!')o()y '0(! *(!/!+ !('+#'o! #!/ /('()!#'o! 7(&o)( #/ 7o/y.  &l(/ # o'o! 'o @u#0 #ll(+!+ '0#': 1 O"ELE 0# !o ?u)/4'o!*o() 'o *u!0 &o) 4o!'(*' ISSUE: N O"ELE 0# ?u)/4'o! 'o !('+#'( #!/ *u!0 &o) 4o!'(*' C NO, 7(4#u( '0( #[email protected]'o! o& 7#llo' 7o(  # !'()#l /u'y #!/ '0( *o() 'o *u!0 4o!'(*' 4#! o!ly 7( (()4(/ & ' # u!+ ' ?u/4#l *o() RATIO: T0( oo! o! El(4'o!  #! !/(*(!/(!' #/!')#'( 7o/y 040 # ('#7l0(/ 7y ou) o!''u'o! 'o '#D( 40#)+( o& '0( (!&o)4((!' o& #ll l# )(l#'( 'o '0( 4o!/u4' o& (l(4'o! #!/ /(( (#! #!/ ('0o/ '0#' ll !u)( '0( #44o*l0(!' o& &)((, o)/()ly, #!/ 0o!(' (l(4'o!. I' *o() #)( /(&!(/ ! '0( o!''u'o!. o!''u'o!. T0( R((/ El(4'o! o/( u**l((!' 0#' o'0() *o() #y 7( (()4(/ 7y #/ oo!. Ao!+ '0(( *o() #)( '0o( (7o/(/ ! S(4'o! 5 '0()(o&. SEC. 5. Powers of Commission. — The Commission on Elections or any of the members thereof shall have the power to summon the  parties to a controversy controversy pending before before it, issue subpoenas subpoenas and subpoenas duces tecum and otherwise tae testimony testimony in any investigation or hearing pending before it, and delegate such power to any officer. !ny controversy submitted submitted to the Commission on Elections shall be tried, heard and decided by it within fifteen days counted from the time the corresponding petition giving rise to said controversy is filed. The Commission or any of the members thereof shall have the power to punish contempts provided for in rule sixty-four of the Rules of Court, under the same procedure and with the same penalties provided therein.  !ny violation violation of any final and e"ecutory decision, decision, order or ruling of the the Commission shall shall constitute contempt of the Commission.  !ny decision, decision, order or ruling of the Commission Commission on Elections Elections may be be reviewed by the Supreme Supreme Court by writ of certiorari accordance accordance with the #ules of Court or with such rules as may be promulgated by the Supreme Court.

Scope of COMELECs po!er  I' oul/ '0()(&o)( #**(#) '0#' '0( oo! o! El(4'o! !o' o!ly 0# '0( /u'y 'o (!&o)4( #!/ #/!'() #ll l# )(l#'( 'o '0( 4o!/u4' o& (l(4'o! 7u' '0( *o() 'o ')y, 0(#) #!/ /(4/( #!y 4o!')o()y '0#' #y 7( u7''(/ 'o ' ! 4o!!(4'o! '0 '0( (l(4'o!. A!/ # #! !4/(!' o& '0 *o(), ' #y #lo *u!0 &o) 4o!'(*' ! '0o( 4#( *)o/(/ &o) ! Rul( 6$ o& '0( Rul( o& ou)' u!/() '0( #( *)o4(/u)( #!/ '0 '0( #( *(!#l'( *)o/(/ '0()(!. I! '0 (!(, '0( oo!, #l'0ou+0 ' 4#!!o' 7( 4l#&(/ # # 4ou)' o& ?u'4( '0! '0( (#!!+ o& '0( o!''u'o!, &o) '  ()(ly #! !/(*(!/(!' #/!')#'( 7o/y, #y 0o(() (()4( @u#-?u/4#l @u#-?u/4#l &u!4'o! ! o &#) # 4o!')o()( '0#' 7y (*)( *)oo! o& '0( l# 4o( u!/() ' ?u)/4'o!. A 'o 0#' @u('o! #y 4o( '0! '0 4#'(+o)y, !('0() !('0() '0( o!''u'o! !o) '0( R((/ El(4'o! o/( *(4&(. T0( &o)() ()(ly *)o/( '0#' ' 0#ll 4o( u!/() ' ?u)/4'o!,

#!+ '0( )+0' 'o o'(, # ll #/!')#'( @u('o! #&&(4'!+ (l(4'o!, !4lu/!+ '0( /('()!#'o! o& '0( !u7() #!/ lo4#'o! o& *oll!+ *l#4(, #!/ '0( #**o!'(!' o& (l(4'o! !*(4'o) #!/ o'0() (l(4'o! o&&4#l, 0l( '0( l#''()  l(!' # 'o 0#' @u('o! #y 7( 7)ou+0' ' &o) /('()!#'o!. Bu' '  4l(#) '0#', 'o 4o( u!/() ' ?u)/4'o!, '0( @u('o! 0oul/ 7( 4o!')o()#l ! !#'u)( #!/ u' )(&() 'o '0( (!&o)4((!' #!/ #/!')#'o! o& #ll l# )(l#'( 'o '0( 4o!/u4' o& (l(4'o!. T0( /&&4ul'y l( ! /)#!+ '0( /(#)4#'o! l!( 7('((! # /u'y 040 !0()(!'ly  "d#inistr"tive  ! 40#)#4'() #!/ # &u!4'o! 040  $%stici"&'e #!/ 040 oul/ '0()(&o)( 4#ll &o) ?u/4#l #4'o! 7y '0( oo!. Bu' '0 u40 /(*(!/ u*o! '0( 'o) '0#' #y !'()(!( 0(! # 4o!')o()y 0oul/ #)(. ()"t co#prises COMELECs #inisteri"'*"d#inistr"tive f%nction I! '0( (!&o)4((!' #!/ #/!')#'o! o& #ll l# )(l#'( 'o '0( 4o!/u4' o& (l(4'o!, '0( &)' /u'y o& '0( oo!  'o (' ! o'o! #ll '0( ul'&#)ou *)(*#)#'o)y *)o4(( )#!+!+ &)o '0( *u)40#( o& (l(4'o! u**l(, *)!'!+ o& (l(4'o! &o) #!/ 7#llo', #**o!'(!' o& (7() o& '0( 7o#)/ o& !*(4'o), ('#7l0(!' o& *)(4!4' #!/ /(+!#'o! o& *oll!+ *l#4( 'o '0( *)(*#)#'o! o& '0( )(+')y l' o& o'(), o # 'o *u' ! )(#/!( o! (l(4'o! /#y '0( (l(4'o! #40!()y ! o)/() '0#' '0( *(o*l( 0o #)( l(+#lly @u#l&(/ 'o (()4( '0( )+0' o& u&&)#+( #y 7( #7l( 'o 4#' '0() o'( 'o (*)( '0() o()(+! ll. All '0(( *)(*#)#'o)y '(* #)( #/!')#'( ! !#'u)( #!/ #ll @u('o! #)!+ '0()(&)o #)( '0! '0( (4lu( *o() o& '0( oo! 'o )(ol(. All ))(+ul#)'(, #!o#l( #!/ 4o!/u4' 4o''(/ 7y #!y o&&4#l ! '0(( *)(*#)#'o)y '(* #)( '0! '0( (4lu( *o() o& '0( oo! 'o 4o))(4'. A!y ())!+ o&&4#l u' )(*o!/ 'o '0( oo! &o) !('+#'o!. o!/()!+ '0#' '0( *#)#ou!' #/!')#'( /u'y o& '0( oo!  'o (' ! o'o! #ll '0( ul'&#)ou *)(*#)#'o)y *)o4((, ' #y #lo 7( )(#o!#7ly #/ '0#' '0( )(@u'o!!+ #!/ *)(*#)#'o! o& '0( !(4(#)y &"''ot &o+es 'o 7( u(/ ! '0( (l(4'o!  7y '0( #( 'oD(! #! *()#'( !'()#l /u'y 040 '0( oo!  7ou!/ 'o *()&o) & '0( (l(4'o! #)( 'o 7( 0(l/. Su40  '0( !4/(!' 040 +#( )( 'o '0( 4o!'(*' 4#( 7(&o)( u. I' '( &)o '0( #inisteri"' #4' o& '0( oo! ! )(@u'o!!+ &o) '0( !(4(#)y 7#llo' 7o( ! 4o!!(4'o! '0 '0( l#' (l(4'o! #!/ ! o *)o4((/!+ ' *)ooD(/ # /*u'( 7('((! (()#l /(#l() 0o o&&()(/ 'o /o '0( ?o7. E+ercise of #inisteri"' po!er does not ive !"- to e+ercise of $%dici"' po!er i.e. po!er to p%nis) for conte#pt/  Al'0ou+0 '0( !(+o'#'o! 4o!/u4'(/ 7y '0( oo! 0# )(ul'(/ ! 4o!')o()y 7('((! (()#l /(#l(), '0#' 0o(() ()(ly )(&() 'o # #inisteri"' /u'y 040 '0( oo! 0# *()&o)(/ ! ' #/!')#'( 4#*#4'y ! )(l#'o! 'o '0( 4o!/u4' o& (l(4'o! o)/#!(/ 7y ou) o!''u'o!. I! *)o4((/!+ o! '0 #''(), ' o!ly /40#)+(/ # !'()#l /u'y ' // !o' (()4( #!y ?u/4#l &u!4'o!. Su40 7(!+ '0( 4#(, ' 4oul/ !o' (()4( '0( *o() 'o *u!0 &o) 4o!'(*' # *o'ul#'(/ ! '0( l#, &o) u40 *o()  !0()(!'ly ?u/4#l ! ! #'u)(. A '0 ou)' 0# #*'ly #/: T0( *o() 'o *u!0 &o) 4o!'(*'  !0()(!' ! #ll 4ou)' ' ('(!4(  ((!'#l 'o '0( *)(()#'o! o& o )/() ! ?u/4#l *)o4((/!+, #!/ 'o '0( (!&o)4((!' o& ?u/+(!', o)/() #!/ #!/#'( o& 4ou)', #!/, 4o!(@u(!'ly, ! '0( #/!')#'o! o& ?u'4(. T0( (()4( o& '0 *o() 0# #l#y 7((! )(+#)/(/ # # !(4(#)y !4/(!' #!/ #'')7u'( o& 4ou)'. ( #)( '0()(&o)( *()u#/(/ 'o 4o!4lu/( '0#' '0( oo! o! El(4'o! 0# !o *o() !o) #u'0o)'y 'o u7' *(''o!() 'o 4o!'(*' *)o4((/!+ & ' *u)*o(  'o /4*l!( 0 7(4#u( o& '0( *u7l4#'o! o& '0( #)'4l( (!'o!(/ ! '0( 40#)+( u!/() 4o!/()#'o!. T0( *)(l!#)y !?u!4'o! u(/ 7y '0 ou)'  #/( *()#!(!'.

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