Grupo Colaborativo_201722_16_ Tarea 6. Generalidades de La Cartografía..

June 15, 2019 | Author: Paolita Hdez | Category: Navigation, Geography, Cartography, Ciencias de la vida y de la tierra, Earth Sciences
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FOTOINTERPRETACION Y MAPIFICACION Tarea 6. Generalidades de la cartografía

Estudiantes MARLON ALBERTO MONCADA CONTRERAS Código: 1.093.740.707 JOHN ALBERT RANGEL CARRILLO Código: 91.495.178 DIANA PAOLA HERNANDEZ VARGAS Código: 1.095.822.687

Código del curso: 201722_16

Tutor: Ing. Raúl Vargas

Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia - UNAD Escuela de Ciencias Agrícolas, Pecuarias y del Medio Ambiente  –  ECAPMA  ECAPMA Ingeniería Ambiental 2019

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Aporte: Marlon Alberto Moncada Contreras Consulta del OVA 3. Proyecciones cartográficas 1. ¿Puntos de origen para la cartografía colombiana?

El IGAC utiliza el sistema de proyección p royección cartográfica de Gauss-Krüger para realizar la cartografía oficial del país y define un paralelo de referencia (meridiano central) con cinco orígenes que cubren el territorio nacional, que varían 3° en longitud desde el meridiano central, aumentando hacia el oeste y disminuyendo hacia el este. Tabla. Orígenes de coordenadas Gauss-Krüger para Colombia: Coordenadas GaussKrüger Coordenadas elipsoidales Origen  Norte [m] Este [m] Latitud (N) Longitud (W) Bogotá - MAGNA 1’000.000 1’000.000 4°35’46,3215” 74°04’39,0285” 1’000.000 4°35’46,3215” 71°04’39,0285” Este-Central - MAGNA 1’000.000 Este-Este - MAGNA 1’000.000 1’000.000 4°35’46,3215” 68°04’39,0285” Oeste - MAGNA 1’000.000 1’000.000 4°35’46,3215” 77°04’39,0285” 1’000.000 1’000.000 4°35’46,3215” 80°04’39,0285” Oeste-Oeste - MAGNA Fuente: Sánchez, (2004). Tipos de coordenadas manejados en Colombia. Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi, Subdirección de Geografía y Cartografía. 2. ¿Defina los sistemas de orientación en un mapa y relacione cada uno?

En el sistema de coordenadas locales, para calcular los ángulos horizontales necesitamos conocer la dirección Norte, el conjunto de técnicas que nos permite localizar los puntos cardinales en el terreno es lo que se conoce como orientación. Sistemas de orientación: Magnética: Por medio de la brújula hallamos la dirección del polo Norte magnético, que sabiendo el ángulo de declinación hallamos el Norte geográfico. Los restantes puntos cardinales se hallan sabiendo que el Este tiene un ángulo de acimut de 90º, el Sur 180º y el Oeste 270º. Astronómica: utiliza las como orientación las estrellas, si prolongamos el eje de rotación de la Tierra y suponemos la misma rodeada por una esfera imaginaria en la que están proyectadas las estrellas, la esfera celeste. La intersección del eje con dicha esfera determina el Polo Norte y Sur Celeste. Solar: el sol sale por el Este y se mueve formando un arco hacia el sur y se pone por el Oeste. El momento en que el sol alcanza su punto más elevado sobre el horizonte es cuando pasa por el meridiano del lugar cosa que ocurre al mediodía, es decir a las doce horas solares, que no tienen por qué coincidir con la que marca el reloj. 





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Para el desarrollo de la actividad individual se hace elección del municipio de Pamplona en el departamento Norte de Santander. Planchas a escala 1:500.000

Para el municipio de Pamplona se cuenta con 2 planchas, que se denotan con el número 6 y 7 a escala 1:500.000 que cubre cu bre todo el municipio. Podemos Podemo s visualizar algunos límites departamentales y ríos principales pertenecientes a la red hídrica hídrica colombiana.

Planchas a escala 1:100.000

Para el municipio de Pamplona se identifican 2 planchas, que se denotan con el número 110 y 111 a escala 1:100.000 que cubre todo el municipio. Podemos visualizar algunos límites departamentales y ríos ríos principales pertenecientes a la red hídrica hídrica colombiana y paramos.

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Planchas a escala 1:25.000

Para la escala 1:25.000 hay ha y 10 planchas que se denotan denota n con los números: 110 IB, 110 IIA, 110 IIB, 110 ID, 110 IIC, 110 IID, 110 IVA, 111 IIIB, 110 IVB, 111 ID. Se pueden divisar o identificar algunas zonas en términos generales, se logra divisar reservas boscosas, zonas boscosas importantes, montañas y límites departamentales.

Planchas a escala 1:10.000

Para la escala 1:10000 hay 21 planchas que se denotan con los números: 110 IB2, 110 IIA1, 110 IB3, 110 IB4, 110 IIA3, 110 IIA4, 110 IIB3, 111 IB3, 110 ID1, 110 ID2, 110 IIC1, 110 IID1, 111 ID1, 110 IIC3, 110 IIC4, 110 IID3, 111 ID3, 110 IVA1, 110 IVA2, 110 IVB1, 111 IIIB1.

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Podemos observar una toponimia específica sobre nombres de páramos y altos, se logran ver drenajes primarios y secundarios, se pueden divisar o identificar algunas zonas en términos generales, se pueden lograr divisar reservas boscosas, zonas boscosas importantes, montañas y límites departamentales, al igual que algunas vías principales.

Generar manualmente o si gusta apoyarse de alguna herramienta dispuesta en web la escala gráfica por cada caso de consulta

Escala del mapa 1:10000 Lo que indica que cada unidad medida en el mapa son 10.000 unidades, por lo cual en terreno se tiene: Mapa Terreno 1cm 0,1km= 10.000cm

Escala del mapa 1:25000 Lo que indica que cada unidad medida en el mapa son 25.000 unidades, por lo cual en terreno se tiene: Mapa Terreno 1cm 0,25km= 25.000cm

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En escala 1:500.00 tomamos dos puntos de referencia, la plancha 6 y 7 el cual tiene una distancia de 335230,8 metros.

En escala 1:100.00 tomamos dos puntos de referencia, la plancha 110 y 111 el cual tiene una distancia de 43678,4 metros.

En escala 1:25.000 tomamos como referencia la plancha con denotación 110IIA y 110IIC, el cual tiene una distancia de 9840 metros.

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En escala 1:10.000 tomamos como referencia la plancha con d enotación 110IIC1 y 110IIC2, el cual tiene una distancia de 7827,4 metros.

Manualmente para la escala 1:25.000 tomamos 2 puntos A y B el cua l tiene un recorrido de 2.5 cm en el mapa

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¿Cuántas planchas a escala 1:25.000 tiene una plancha a escala 1:100.000? Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica

Para la grilla 110 a escala 1:100000 hay 12 planchas a escala 1:25000 y se sobreponen sobre 4  planchas y se denotan con los números: 110 IA, 110 1B, 110 1C, 110 ID; 110 IIA que se sobrepone sobre la plancha 110 IIB, 110 IIC que se sobrepone sobre la plancha 110 IID; 110 IIIA, 110 IIIB, 110 IIIC, 110 IIID; 110 IVA que se sobrepone sobre la plancha 111 IIIB Y 110 IVC que se sobrepone sobre la plancha 111 IIID. ¿Cuántas planchas a escala 1:10.000 tiene una plancha a escala 1:100.000? Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica

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110 IVA3, 110 IVA4; 110 IVB1, 110 IVB3; 110 IIIC1, 110 IIIC2, 110 IIIC3, 110 IIIC4; 110 IIID1, 110 IIID2, 110 IIID3, 110 IIID4; 110 IVC1, 110 IVC2, 110 IVC3, 110 IVC4; 110 IVD1, 110 IVD3. Aporte: JOHN ALBERT RANGEL Municipio de Toledo norte de Santander

Escala 1/10: significa que una unidad de distancia medida sobre el mapa, representa 10 unidades de distancia sobre el terreno, por ejemplo, 1 cm en el mapa corresponde a 10 cm en el terreno Escala 1/500: Significa que una unidad de distancia sobre el mapa (1 cm) equivale a 500 unidades de distancia en el terreno (500 cm)

Grilla 111IID

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Encontramos 5 planchas que inicias desde 99, 110, 111, 122, hasta la plancha 123. Escala 1:50000 Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica

Dos

 planchas el número 6 y 7 A escala 1:25000

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A escala 1:10000

Grilla 111IVA4 ¿Cuántas planchas cubren Colombia a escala 1:100000? La cantidad de planchas que cubren a Colombia son 569 aproximadamente. ¿Cuántas planchas a escala 1:50000 tiene una plancha a escala 1 :100000? Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica Acá no se le puede dar solución a el interrogante planteado debido a que la escala 1:50000 del Geoportal sólo maneja las escalas 1:500.000, 1:100.000, 1:25.000 y 1:10.000. ¿Cuántas planchas a escala 1:25000 tiene una plancha a escala 1:100000? Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica

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¿Cuántas planchas a escala 1:10000 tiene una plancha a escala 1:100000? Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica

Grilla 111IVA4 Sin datos de planchas, pero podemos observar una distancia de 0,02 Millas cuadrada

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Aporte: DIANA PAOLA HERNANDEZ VARGAS Para el desarrollo de la actividad individual se hace elección del municipio de Cúcuta en el departamento  Norte de Santander. Planchas a escala 1:500.000

Para el municipio de Pamplona se cuenta con 2 planchas, que se denotan con el número 6 y 7 a escala 1:500.000 que cubre todo el municipio. Podemos visualizar algunos límites departamentales y ríos  principales pertenecientes pertenecientes a la red hídrica colombiana.

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Planchas a escala 1:25.000

Para la escala 1:25.000 hay 22 planchas que se denotan con los números: 77IID, 78IIC, 77IVA, 78IIIB, 78IVA, 77IVC, 78IIID, 78IVC, 87IIB, 88IIA, 87IIC, 88ID, 88IIC, 87IVA, 88IIB, 88IVA, 87IVC, 87IVD, 98IIA, 99IB, 98IIC, 9811D Se pueden divisar o identificar algunas zonas en términos generales, se logra divisar reservas boscosas, zonas boscosas importantes, montañas y límites departamentales.

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Planchas a escala 1:10.000

Para la escala 1:10.000 hay 50 planchas

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Podemos observar una toponimia específica sobre nombres de páramos y altos, se logran ver drenajes  primarios y secundarios, se pueden divisar o identificar algunas zonas en términos generales, se pueden lograr divisar reservas boscosas, zonas boscosas importantes, montañas y límites departamentales, al igual que algunas vías principales.

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En escala 1:500.00 tomamos dos puntos de referencia, la plancha 6 y 7 el cual tiene una distancia de 321.100,7 metros.

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En escala 1:25.000 tomamos como referencia la plancha con denotación 78IIIB al 87IIB, el cual tiene una distancia de 20.978 metros.

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¿Cuántas planchas a escala 1:50000 tiene una plancha a escala 1:100000? Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica  No pude realizar el ejercicio a escala 1:50000 ya que el Geoportal sólo maneja las escalas 1:500.000, 1:100.000, 1:25.000 y 1:10.000.

¿Cuántas planchas a escala 1:25.000 tiene una plancha a escala 1:100.000? Como se denota en la plancha cartográfica

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Referencia bibliográfica

Franco P. Carlos. IGAC. 2014. Desarrollo de una base de datos multiescala para la visualización de información geográfica. Recuperado de http://observatoriogeograficoamericalatina.org.mx/egal15/Nuevastecnologias/Cartografiaauto matizada/02.pdf García, R. (2016). Concepto de escala en cartografía. https://repository.unad.edu.co/handle/10596/9416

UNAD.

Recuperado

de

Garzón M. G. 2018. Objeto Virtual de Aprendizaje OVA. Proyecciones cartográficas. UNAD. Recuperado de https://repository.unad.edu.co/handle/10596/22699

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