Growth and Development of Philippine Public Administration
Growth and Development of Public Administration in the Philippines;...
Growth and Development of Public Administration in the Philippines
Overview of the Philippine Public Administration History of Philippine Public Administration: A Revisit Rehabilitation in the Independence Period and Formal Entry of the Discipline of Public Administration Four Periods of Public Administration as a Discipline in the Philippines Developments in the Bureaucracy
By: Pinky R. Manio MPA-PUP Student
A Subject Requirement in Philosophy and Science in Public Administration 07 August 2012
2 I. Overview of Philippine Public Administration The study and practice of public administration in the Philippines is largely attributed to the emergence of the colonial era. Appearing in the country as a legacy of various colonial regimes, public administration has been customized gradually to the idiosyncrasies of the filipino ethos, and represents today an artful though sometimes confused, blending of Western practices and indigenous culture. Public Administration in the Philippines did not grow out historically because of any Wilsonian vision of politics-administration dichotomy, nor because of a disciplinary fission from Political Science, but it was a result of an agreement between the United States Technical Assistance Program and the Philippine Government through the technical cooperation of the University of Michigan. In it's formative years, it was not concerned with what it is, how it must proceed, what its methods would be, or how it must relate with the rest of the social science community. The main objective was to help “professionalize” government service, a discipline to address administrative weaknesses and inadequacies of the newly founded republic. II. History of Philippine Public Administration: A Revisit A) Pre-Colonial Period (before 1521) Like the other island groups of southeast Asia, the Philippines have very early human inhabitants - perhaps even as long as 60,000 years ago. In more recent history the main outside influences are Chinese, Hindu and - from the 15th century - Muslim. But no external power tries to dominate or unify the scattered islands (more than 7000 in the archipelago) until the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century. 1 It is somewhat difficult today to account for the influences of the pre-colonial period but it cannot however be denied that some of the political, economic, cultural, social or communal organization existed and served to regulate conduct of the people in the l oose sense of the term. The Philippines did not exist as a single entity but rather lived as self-governing groups called Barangays2, each ruled by a datu who assumed the position of a territorial chief, administrator of community life, and was the galvanizing center of various spheres of activities in the community. Barangays in the earlier days were not governed with hard and fast rules but in all friendly relations. Cohesion among barangay members was part and parcel of a common tradition of a settler group. This pattern of familial relationships of personalized loyalties and leadership-centered community activities would persist even 1
Excerpt from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=854&HistoryID=ab49 Barangay- word originated from balanghai---a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesians that sailed and migrated to the Philippine archipelago
3 today and would find itself reflected in administrative organizations in the Philippines.
dynamics of contemporary
B) Spanish Colonial Period (Mid-16th Century -1902) Much of what Philippine bureaucracy is today can be traced to the Spanish colonization which span more than three hundred years beginning 1521 when the Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, in the employ of the Spanish king, Charles I, landed in Homonhon Island, south of province of Samar. Characteristics/ features of the Spanish colonial period: Began the tradition of Centralization - The administrative system introduced by Spain when it colonized the Philippine archipelago began the tradition of centralization for purposes of consolidating its empire. The institutions and rules which had evolved in Spain and other colonized territories were exported to the country. Jurisdictional boundaries between the state and religion were never clearly defined - The colonization of the Philippines under Spain is carried out as much by Roman Catholic friars as by any state administration. Members of the clergy claimed much influence on the civilian and military authorities on secular affairs which perhaps, regarded as one of the outstanding features of the Spanish colonial bureaucracy. Introduced the system of public revenue and public expenditure - It was established to consolidate the islands and strengthen the government against pockets of rebellion of which there had been many. Public offices were regarded as a grant or favor - A special and privileged class of bureaucrats, predominantly Spanish, were maintained to administer the affairs of the colonial population. These public offices were then regarded as grant or favor, called merced from the king who disposed of them as he pleased and based on those who participated in the conquest and pacification of the colonies including their descendants. Belonging to this group were usually those that assumed judicial functions. Practice of filling up positions by appointment or purchase - A remarkable feature of the civil service system designed by the Spanish colonial administration was the practice of filling appointments on the basis of purchase where offices were sold to the highest bidders. The practice was adopted to help augment the repository of the royal treasury.
4 Due to the distance, monitoring and supervision by the central government was almost impossible. Some of the problems that were encountered were: Incompetence and corruption including mismanagement of funds - The opportunities for making money from the “assessment, collection and custody of public funds” were numerous and it was natural for office holders to regard their purchase of their offices as private investments. Naturally, the practice spawned a corrupt and abusive administrative and colonial machinery that was denounced then and now. Political instability and weakness in the governorship and in other high offices Poor economic policies as the state/king controlled economic activities. Monopolies and galleon trades were not balanced by developmental projects. Major reforms under the Spanish Colonial Period: • Creation of three (3) distinct branches of government - In response to the rampant graft and corruption, financial administration was separated from that of the government proper and centralized under one superior office resulting in the official organization where the Governor General exercised political, governmental and military powers, the Audiencia for judicial matters and the Royal officials for the management of resources. Introduced merit and fitness, careerism and principles of accountability in the civilian bureaucracy - In 1866, the need for technical knowledge in the various phases of work such as accounting and auditing led to the promulgation of system of examination and promotion, establishing conditions for the professionalization of the civil service. Although reforms were either not implemented or unsuccessful in the face of engrained traditions, they set the grounds for the acceptance among the learned elites of the need for merit rather than patronage in entering and moving up the bureaucracy. B.1. Short-lived Philippine Republic With the triumph of the revolution against Spain in 1896, the first philippine Republic was proclaimed in 1898 in Kawit, Cavite. A new Constitution was accordingly drafted in a convention in Malolos, Bulacan and promulgated in1899. This Constitution, inspired by the democratic philosophies, represented “the first important document ever produced by the people's representatives.” It created a Filipino state whose government was “popular, representative and responsible” with three distinct branches- the executive, the legislative, and the judicial branches, which perhaps the first expression of Filipino philosophy
5 and governance, an incipient commitment of Filipino leaders to a government that represents the popular will. On June 1898, a separate degree was issued which outline the program of the revolutionary government and made upon the advise of Apolinario Mabini 3, the excesses of Spanish administrative practices were criticized, and a new system was proposed that would demonstrate to the Filipino people that the one objective of the new Republic is to oppose with a strong hand the long standing and accustomed vices of the Spanish administration, which makes business a matter of “routine, weighty and sluggish in its movements” changing it to “ more modest, simple and prompt in the execution of public service.” In these pronouncements, one can see the incipient vision of a professional career service committed to simplicity and accountability, even the aspirations of decentralization and autonomy were recognized, as can be seen from the Malolos Constitution. C) American Colonial Period (1900-1946) The American colonial period shattered the early aspirations of nationhood, and instead introduced a superior and systematic system of colonial administration in the country. It retained the centralized features of the Spanish era, but installed a political system of governance that sought to approximate the republican and democratic character of the American government within the bounds of a colonial set up. Characteristics of the American colonial period: ▪ All high officials of the central government with exception of the Filipino delegates elected to the Philippine assembly was appointed by the Pres. of the US with the consent of the American Senate ▪ The Phil. Assembly and local governments were under close supervision of the Philippine Commission which until 1901 was entirely composed of Americans ▪ Graft and corruption remained a big problem Reforms/ Significant Developments under the American colonial period: ▪ Establishment of the Philippine Civil Service system under the Schurman Commission4 - The administration of the colony was placed under a nonpolitical civil service constituted in 1900 under Act No. 5 of the First Philippine Commission which provided for the establishment and maintenance of an efficient and honest civil 3 4
Apolinario Mabini often referred to as "the Sublime Paralytic" and "the Brains of the Revolution, was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the First Philippine Republic, and served as its first prime minister until May 1899. Schurman Commission also known as the First Philippine Commission was the legislature of the Philippines under the sovereign control of the United States during the Philippine-Amaerican War. It was established by United States President William McKinley on January 20, 1899, and tasked to study the situation in the Philippines and make recommendations on how the U.S should proceed.
6 service in the Philippines. The administrative system that emerged under this enactment provided for a setup “whose philosophy and principles represented a compllete change from that of the Spanish period.” ▪ Filipinization of the civil service became a basic administrative policy - Filipinization was clearly embodied in President McKinley's instructions made as early as 1900, where the Philippine Commission was directed to devote itself to the “establishment of an educational system and an efficient civil service system,” where natives of the islands are to be preferred, and if they can be found competent and willing to perform the duties shall be preferred over others. Table 1. No of Positions Occupied by Americans 3500
No of Positions Linear (No of Positions)
As the graph shows, in 1905, there were about 3,307 Americans occupying government positions and the number decline to 948 in 1918, and in 1930, it was already less than 500. By 1930, it was estimated that only about 456 Americans are still in the government service. This goes to show that the policy seems to have been strictly adhered to in practice. Fortunately, the recruitment of competent Filipinos did not pose any difficulties. ▪ Put primary focus on the creation and operation of an efficient and non-political civil service - The civil service policies had made a remarkable effects in the bureaucracy for they attached a good deal of prestige and respect to government positions. Government functionaries were then respected simply because their positions demanded a strict qualifications and were based on merit and appointment to which was highly competitive. Features of Civil Service System during the American Period 1. Security of tenure 2. Promotion when deserved 3. Attractive hours of work 4. Generous leave provisions 5. Prestigious career
7 Context of the Civil Service System during the American Period: 1. Regime of law and not of men 2. Corruption to be dealt with decisively 3. Exclusion of politics, particularly the spoils system in appointment and removal from office, and in the bureaucratic conduct. D) Commonwealth Period (1935-1945) By the time Philippine Commonwealth was established in 1935, the civil service had been completely Filipinized. The Commonwealth government, conceived under the Tydings-McDuffie Law5 of the American Congress, is a 10-year transitory government which gave Filipinos a chance to prove to the Americans their capability readiness in handling their own government. It adopted a government “ republican in form, Filipino in personnel, and autonomy in domestic affairs.” Infact, the assumption of Filipino political leaders did not disrupt the civil service system built by Americans, instead, the momentum was continued and even to some extent, strengthened or reinforced. With the adoption of the 1935 Constitution, a full blown provision on the civil service (Article XI) was adopted which embraced all branches of the government and emphasized careerism, political neutrality and security of tenure. Under this Constitution, the Civil Service Bureau was also elevated to a Commission status and was given increased powers, full and exclusive authority to conduct formal investigations against civil service personnel. When President Manuel L. Quezon 6 assumed office, he repealed Section 683 of the Administrative Code through Executive Order No. 8 and made all branches and subdivisions of the government covered by the civil service precisely in pursuit of the constitutional provision. He also took steps in fighting nepotism, issuing an executive order prohibiting appointing authorities from making appointments of their relatives. President Quezon's social justice program was also conceived as the chief implementor of economic development and the promotion of the well-being and the economic security of the people. He laid out that “state leadership, as against private dominance in the economy, was to be the keynote of governmental activities.” The Commonwealth Act No. 177 (An Act Amending and Repealing Some of the Provisions of Chapter Twenty-Seven of Act Numbered Twenty-Seven Hundred Eleven Commonly Known as the Administrative Code of Nineteen Hundred and Seventeen, and Providing Funds To Defray the Necessary Expenses Due to the Extension of the Civil Service Law to All Branches and Subdivisions of the Government), passed on 5 6
The Tydings-McDuffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act) approved on March 24, 1934 was a United States federal law which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence after a period of ten years. It was authored by Maryland Senator Millard E. Tydings and Alabama Representative John McDuffie. Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines. Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1897–1901).
8 November 13, 1936, further strengthened the civil service and was hailed by one scholar as the “civil service reformer's dream come true.” This law restated the basic principles of merit, open competitive examinations as the basis of appointment and security of tenure, among others. A major landmark in the concept of civil service was the institutionalization of a position classification (a salary schedule of 10 grades each defined in terms of duties and responsibilities, required qualifications and experience) but was not implemented due to the outbreak of war. E) Japanese Occupation (1941-1945) Just about the time when policies of the Commonwealth government were to be put to test, the Pacific War started with Japanese bombing of American Military installations in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. On December 8, 1941, ten hours after the attach in Hawaii, Japanese invaded the Philippines. As such, preparatory period towards independence was abruptly shorten. Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the Second Philippine Republic, which was headed by President Jose P. Laurel7. It attempted to secure Filipino cooperation by setting up a facade of a Filipino civil administration but this government ended up being very unpopular.8 The Philippines suffered destruction, dislocation and demoralization. While it is true that the Japanese administration did not entirely change the existing civil service structure, it also created a trauma to the extent that behaviorally, it eroded the very foundations of merit and fitness built during the American and Commonwealth Period. III. Rehabilitation in the Independence Period and Formal Entry of the Discipline of Public Administration By the time the liberation of the Philippines was completed in 1945, the most immediate and pressing problem was largely economic. Manila, next to Warsaw, Poland, was the “most completely devastated capital city anywhere in the world.” Buildings, schools, roads, bridges, utilities and other facillities, including banking institutions were destroyed. Agriculture production and incomes of people were very low. Poverty was endemic and the widespread destruction of property served to exacerbate the situation. The tasks facing the newly-independent republic were not only more numerous but were qualitatively different from those of the pre-war years. While the old civil service system had worked satisfactorily in upholding its fundamental principles, the new 7 8
José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanesesponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been recognized as a legitimate president of the Philippines. Excerpt from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_the_Philippines
9 demands were greater and required professional and technical skills which colonial administration unfortunately did not develop. In this situation, the Philippine Rehabilitation Act of 1946 or the Tydings Act was passed along with the Philippine Trade Act or Bell Trade Relations Act two months before the scheduled date of granting of independence. In exchange of the United States aid amounting to US$620 million to rehabilitate the Philippines, the United States gave one condition: that the Philippines grant parity rights to Americans- equal rights with Filipino citizen to develop and exploit natural resources of the Philippines and to operate public utilities in the country. The Filipinos had no choice but to amend the constitution to grant parity rights to American citizens in exchange for U.S. economic aid. The parity rights amendment was ratified on March 11,1947. The rehabilitation agenda had economic, military and political interests and were cleverly concealed in altruistic pronouncements. Senator Tydings, who sponsored the Philippine Rehabilitation law in the US Congress acknowledged that the Philippines is a great staging area for trade. Moreover, it can also serve the purpose of strengthening a political ally in Asia which was necessary to serve American interests. However, rehabilitation proved slow and sluggish because the Filipinization of American democracy produced a precarious and unstable government that did not match the efficiency of its model. In 1946, President Manuel Roxas9 assumed the political leadership after having been elected on the first Philippine presidential elections after the war. During his term, mass poverty and continuing agrarian unrest further escalated the insurgency problem, worsened peace and order, including political and economic instability. When President Roxas died in office in 1948, his Vice-President Elpidio Quirino 10 succeeded him and took a mailed-fist policy against the insurgents, while neglecting to institute reforms in the government. His government was perceived to be corrupt and dominated by the interests of the privileged and landlords. In 1949, he was retained as president however, his re-election was viewed by the observers as “a landmark of dishonesty.” In 1947, a joint United States-Philippine Commission was set up to study and improve the financial position of the Philippine government through a package of administrative and structural measures such as tax reforms, establishment of Central Bank and imposition of import controls. These initiatives were to be followed by a string of aid and technical assistance programs for the rehabilitation of the Philippines. 9 Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948. His term as president of the Philippines was also the third shortest, lasting 1 year 10 months and 18 days. 10 Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines. A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931. In 1934, he became a member of the Philippine independence commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of Tydings-McDuffie Act to American Congress.
10 In 1950, an Economic Survey Mission was sent to the Philippines upon the request of President Quirino. known as the Bell Mission, named after its chairman, former Undersecretary of the Treasury, Daniel W. Bell, it rendered a comprehensive report on the economic problems of the Philippines-inefficiency in production, the gross inequalities in wealth, the imbalance between prices and wages, between government expenditures and taxes, between production and need- and suggested financial and social reforms- including the enactment of the minimum wage law and certain tax measures. The mission recommended that the United States make loans and grants of US$250 million, on the condition that the Philippine Government take steps to carryout the recommendations of the report. the United States made its point: that financial help can be used as leverage to correct what has been described as "the results of 50 years of neglect in the Philippines." The mission then made specific recommendations such as the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
That public administration be improved and reorganized to ensure honesty an efficiency in the government; That the civil service be placed on a merit status; That civil service salaries be raised to provide a decent standard of living; That supervisory training courses be offered; That in-service training programs, job rotation plans, encouragement of employee suggestions for the improvement of government operations be inaugurated; and That qualified and competent staff assistants in the field of administrative management be made available to heads of departments and agencies inorder to provide a continuing review of organization, procedures and methods of administration.
On November 1950, a memorandum of agreement was concluded between Pres. Elpidio Quirino and William C. Foster The latter headed then US extension of US aid to the Philippines . The agreement later to be known as Quirino foster agreement, e provided for the creation of the PhilCUSA (Philippine Council of United States Aid) and spearheaded the establishment of of a series of missions in the Philippines in the different sectoral dimensions. This agreement was drawn in accordance with the United States' Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, as amended. It became the ultimate and primary basis for the extension of economic aid to participating countries all over the world. The economic assistance project was administered by the Economic Cooperation Administration which was abolished in April 1951 and reinstituted into the Mutual Security Agency when the United States passed the Mutual Security Act of 1951. Following up on the recommendations of the Bell Mission, a counterpart Philippine commission, headed by Jose Yulo 11, requested U.S. Technical assistance to strengthen 11 Jose Yulo (September 24, 1894 - October 27, 1976) was the Chief Justice of the Philippines (1942–1945) during the Japanese
11 the public service and to stabilize the Philippine economy. An American civil service specialist subsequently recommended the setting up of the Institute of Public Administration to provide in-service training and academic programs. He envisioned the former as providing for the immediate needs and the latter to stimulate interest in public administration as an important field of study and Philippines' center of such educational endeavor. In January 1952, a team from the University of Michigan composed of James K. Pollock, Chairman of the Political Science Department, and John W. Lederle, Director of the Institute of Public Administration, visited the Philippines to find out the feasibility of establishing a school of public Administration. Its recommendation was that an Institute of Public Administration be established in the State university as a “center for research, academic and in-service training and consultation services in the field of public administration. Accordingly, an agreement was signed between the two universities which stipulated a two and half (2.5) year period and was later extended to June 15, 1956. When Ramon Magsaysay became the president replacing Quirino in 1953, with the continuing support from the Americans, he was able to institute substantial and farreaching reforms in the government. He addressed the basic and immediate problems. He restored some order in the socio-political life of the country, and by 1955, he initiated a reorganization of the bureaucracy. More than these, the Magsaysay administration endeared itself to the masses, introducing such remedies as the Presidential Complaints and Action Center (PCAC) to help restore the faith and confidence of the people in their government. IV.
Four Periods of Public Administration as a Discipline in the Philippines 1. The Beginnings: 1952-1956 On June 15, 1952, the University of the Philippines and the University of Michigan entered into contract for the establishment of the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) “as a major field of activity within the University and as a regional training center for public administration. Per agreement, the first two years of operation was under the leadership of the Americans. In 1954, Dean Jose Velmonte of the U.P. College of Business Administration was appointed as IPA Director. During this period, funds were generated under a bilateral aid agreement with the U.S. and Philippine counterpart funds. This financed the building of the U.P. Rizal Hall, which was the site of the IPA, including the purchase of library books, the operation of the Inter-Departmental Reference Service, the Filipino staff's studies abroad and the compensation and living expenses of the
Occupation and was the Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1939 until the World War II started in 1941. Yulo served in all of the branches of government: Legislative, as House Speaker and Representative; Executive, as Secretary of Justice and member of the Cabinet; and the Judiciary as the Chief Magistrate.
12 contract personnel. When the contract period ended, the IPA budget was integrated in the regular UP budget, which proved to be a complex administrative problem. Three areas of concern in the development of IPA: Building up of a public administration library
- Lederly and Heady identified this concern as “an indispensable foundation of a sound training and research program.” On October 1952, the University of Michigan undertook a special library contract, wherein a library procurement program was instituted and space was designated to house the collection. The development of library facilities was a priority and new books were procured directly from the University of Michigan, which also provided a library consultant. An Inter-departmental Reference Service (IDRS) was also instituted which a cooperative effort of fifteen (15) member libraries in the Philippines. This was launched for the purpose of building up “a collection of Philippine books, government documents and those short-lived file materials and to help members organize and catalog their collections and develop a Union Catalogue and a Union list of Serials. Introduction of an in-service training program and an academic program
In-service training program - was devoted to the training of government workers; - the President and the cabinet created a Government Advisory Board on In-Service Training (GABIT) to provide testimonial support and policy guidance to the program; - It 1953-54, three kinds of courses were conducted: (1) one week courses for over 1,600 first-line supervisors; (2) four-week executive development courses for five groups of ranking officials; and (3) oneweek courses and training conferences for records personnel and budget management personnel; - shifted from direct training to trainer’s training and after ten years, it has already trained more than 120,000 participants; - the Institute never intended to run training courses indefinitely, and in 1960, upon its recommendation, the program was transferred to the Civil Service Commission.
Academic program - address to develop a comprehensive undergraduate and graduate academic program leading to a degree; - the academic program started in the second semester of 1952-1953 offering degrees in master's and the bachelor's level; - first semester of 1953-54, there were at least 35 bachelor's and 33 master degree's candidates in public administration; - enrollment increased from 68 students in 1953-54 to over 200 by 1955;
13 - by 1956, the M.P.A program was revised with the adoption of a thesis program to conform with rules of U.P. On graduate studies; - from 1952-62, new courses were introduced in line with the Institute's policy “of making its course offerings responsive to the needs of the students and the public service; - by late 1960's, major curricular changes took place, from the abolition of the undergraduate program and the introduction of the doctoral program, to the introduction of academic Plan A (thesis) and Plan B (non-thesis) curriculum in the master's program. This curriculum was revised intermittently in terms of degree and course offerings in the years to come and adapted to accommodate new demands and challenges. 3.
Conduct of research and the publication of literature on public administration – Consultancy and research were undertaken and the findings of these studies were later documented in the form of monographs or papers. The initiatives in research emphasized studies on the administrative system of the government with IPA staff members engaged in consultative services to government agencies and professional bodies. They served to document and articulate the problems as well as provide advice on how these problems should be resolved. They reflected the Institute's commitment to the profession, serving not just perspective of the profession, but of the discipline e and its contribution to improving the work of government. – A major consulting service was the assistance rendered by the Institute to the Government Survey and Reorganization Commission (GSRC) of 1955 which was established by the Congress to undertake a government wide reorganization study and make recommendations to Congress and the President. The GSRC was another initiative taken by the Philippine government in response to the recommendations of the Bell Mission.
By 1954, Filipinos began to take over key posts in the IPA. The Filipino staff gradually took over and assumed full responsibility for the IPA when the University of Michigan contract ended in June 1956. 2. Foundations and Growth: 1957-1972 In 1957, the first publication of the Philippine Journal of Public Administration 12 was published under the editorship of Jose V. Abueva 13. PJPA has since become a major forum for the publication of articles, papers and research reports in the discipline. 12 Philippine Journal of Public Administration contains articles on all aspects of public administration and governance, with authors mainly from the Philippines and some coming from other countries, from different institutions. This journal is published by the National College of Public Administration and Governance in UP Diliman. 13 Dr. José Veloso Abueva is a Filipino educator, author, professor and civil servant. He is a former president of the University of the Philippines, and currently president of Kalayaan College.
14 Carlos P. Ramos was appointed as director of the Institute succeeding Jose Velmonte and later served as Dean when the Institute was renamed as the Graduate School of Public Administration (GSPA) in 1963, as the School of Public Administration (SPA) in 1966 and later as the College of Public Administration (CPA) in 1967. He served as Dean until 1973. It was also during this period that the Institute's expansion from a single unit to three specialized sub-units was undertaken: (1) Philippine Executive Academy, established in 1962 for executive development; (2) The Local Government Center set up as a research program in 1963; and (3) The Administrative Development Center, organized in 1968 later known as the Center for Policy and Administrative Development (CPAD) Three major research areas have also emerged: (1) concern for local government, largely because of establishment of the Local Government Center in the College in 1963; (2) concern for public accountability, including studies in graft and corruption in the bureaucracy; (3) concern for comparative studies which was strengthened by the setting up of the Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration (EROPA) in 1960. Director Ramos was elected as the first EROPA secretary general and was reelected to this post until 1982. In a sense, EROPA merely capped the regional and international role that the IPA played. In 1972 the IPA, now CPA, marked its twentieth year. It was also in this year martial law was declared in the Philippines 3. Transition Years: Social Consciousness and Search for the Development Model: 1973-1981 During martial law, the college was critical and collaborative. It displeased the dictatorship with its studies of graft and corruption, its analyses of the personalistic and closed decision-making process, the tokenism and elite orientation on several government programs. However, it continued to be a source of ideas for decentralization and other government projects like the ministry of local government, civil service commission and commission on audit and many line departments and government units. The stature and personality of Raul de Guzman 14, its dean from 1973 to 1982, helped a lot during this period. His recognized expertise opened many doors for the faculty and staff, and his amiable personality gave him and them room to criticize government programs without alienating their officials.
14Dr. Raul P. De Guzman, regarded as the father of Philippine Public Administration, was a professor emeritus of public administration at the University of the Philippines. He served as vice president for planning and finance of the University and as chancellor of U.P. Los Banos. The late Professor De Guzman was also dean of the former U.P. College of Public Administration (UP-CPA) and member of the U.P. Board of Regents, the highest policy-making body of the University.
15 4. The Activist Public Administration: Reform and Reflection: 1982-Present On November 26, 1998 the UP Board of Regents approved the transformation of the college to National College of Public Administration and Governance under the second term of Prof. Ledivina V. Carino, Ph.D. and became the first National College within the University of the Philippines System. This reflects the widening focus from governmental management to a broader concern of governance for public interest. Innovations and changes in the functions and structure of the college were made. Centers and Offices of UP NCPAG: •
The academic program remains as the core of the college and this is managed by the Center for Public Administration and Governance Education (CPAGE). The Center for Policy and Executive Development (CPED) is the research and extension unit for national agencies, public enterprises and international organizations. The Center for Local and Regional Governance (CLRG) established in 1965 remains in the forefront of research, consultancy services and facilitation of learning in government for local and regional levels. The Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy (CLCD) focuses on issues on civil society and democracy. NCPAG library that has the widest collection of books on public administration and governance supports these centers.
List of IPA-NCPAG Deans: 1952-Present • • • • • • • • • • • • •
John W. Lederle : Ferrel W. Heady : Jose E. Velmonte: Carlos P. Ramos: Raul P. de Guzman: Gabriel U. Iglesias: Romeo B. Ocampo: Proserpina D. Tapales: Jose N. Endriga : Ledivina V. Carino : Ma. Concepcion P. Alfiler: Alex B. Brillantes, Jr. : Edna E. A. Co :
1952-1953 1953 1954 1955-1963 1973-1982 1986-1989 1989-1992 1992-1995 1995-1998 1982-1984;1998-2001 2001-2004 2004-2010 Present
Conscious of maintaining both “quality and relevance”, responding to the changing demands of its clientele, and reflecting developments in the field of public administration, the program has instituted the following changes: • an emphasis on technique and technique-cum-practicum courses;
16 • •
the introduction of new specialization in the MPA curriculum, namely, Public Policy and Program Administration the merging of organization and management and personnel management into the single field of organizational studies, thus, reducing the areas of specialization in the MPA curriculum from five to four: fiscal administration, public policy and program administration, local government and regional administration, and organization studies; offering of the mid-career program designed for people holding mid-career or supervisory positions; offering of a new Diploma in public Management to give administrators an opportunity to pursue training in public administration without having to pursue a longer master's degree program.
In 1990, the DPA program underwent a major changes with the institution of three areas of concentration which were designed to provide students with more specialized training than the old curriculum. Up to now, the attention and focus on the study of the internal bureaucratic structures of management functions and processes remain a dominant and recurring theme. In time, however, with the internal and external influences and the maturation of its own horizons, this perception/orientation will be broadened and redefined to accommodate the demands of the larger environment. Schools Offering Public Administration Program From the 1970's, the offering of a combined public cum business administration such as the Master in Business and Government Administration program was pioneered by the Ateneo de Manila University Professional School. Later, Ateneo opened its School of Government, and so did Dela Salle University and the Asian Institute of Management who initiated programs in public management or government. The staterun Development Academy of the Philippines also came up with a Master of Public Management program. This trend may have influenced other institutions to offer similar graduate curricula, but all these are being said to document the phenomenon of the 1990's and the new millennium in relation to the advocacy for state-market community collaboration in “governance' to address the complex issues and problems in the changing environment. V. Developments in the Bureaucracy 5.1.
Ferdinand Marcos Administration (December 30, 1965 -February 25, 1986 ) •
Enacted the Integrated Reorganizational Plan (IRP) which promised the most extensive and wrenching effort at administrative reform in the
17 history of the country through decentralization and reducing the bureaucracy, and standardizing departmental organization. It also sought to introduce structural changes and reforms to strengthen the merit system as well as professionalize the civil service system. 5.2.
Corazon Aquino Administration (February 25, 1986 - June 30, 1992) • • •
Fidel Ramos Administration (June 30, 1992 - June 30, 1998) • •
Focused on applying the new public management with the end goal of reengineering the bureaucracy. His flagship program was the “Philippines 2000”, envisioned to make the country globally competitive by pursuing the thrusts of deregulation, market liberalization, and priavatization Focused on setting the guiding principles in reorganizing and improving government operations, divesting government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs), promoting decentralization and governance, and on the attrition law.15
Joseph Estrada Administration (June 30, 1998- January 20, 2001) • •
Created the Presidential Commission on Public Ethics and Accountability and the Presidential Commission on Good Governance (PCGG) Civil society organizations became more active in participating in decision-making and program implementation of the government. Number of civil servants and political appointees in the government increased, thus, blurring the principles of merit and fitness in the civil service.
Introduced the Rationalization Program of 2001 through Presidential Committee on Effective Governance Executive Order No. 165 or “Directing the Formulation of an Institutional Strengthening and Streamlining Program for the Executive Branch,” laid down the “Re-engineering the Bureaucracy for Better Governance Program.” The programs aims to strengthen and streamline the bureaucracy particularly the executive branch, the GOCCs and the state universities and colleges (SUCs)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Administration (January 20, 2001 - June 30, 2010) •
Continued the program to streamline the bureaucracy, but yet has no overall agenda to reformulation
15 Republic Act No. 7430 “An Act Providing For Optimum Utilization Of Personnel In Government Service Through A System Of Attrition, Providing Penalties For Violation Thereof, And For Other Purposes.”
In October 04, 2004, The Department of Budget and Management (DBM) and the Civil Service Commission (CSC) pursued the rationalization Program as mandated in Executive Order 366, which directs all departments/agencies of the executive branch to conduct a strategic review of their operations and organizations for the purposes of focusing government vital functions and channeling government resources to public core functions, and improving the efficiency of government services, within affordable levels and in the most accountable manner.
Benigno Aquino III Administration (June 30, 2010 – present) •
On July 30, 2010, Aquino signed Executive Order No. 1, creating the Truth Commission16. The commission is tasked to investigate various anomalies and issues including graft and corruption allegations against the past administration, government officials and their accomplices in the private sector during the last nine years. The commission has until December 31, 2012 to complete its mission. Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. was appointed as head the commission. On August 4, 2010, Aquino implemented Executive Order No. 2, signed on July 30, 2010, ordering the immediate removal of all midnight appointments made by the previous administration for violating the 60-day constitutional ban on presidential appointments before a national election.
16 Truth Commission - On July 30, 2010, a month after being sworn-in as the 15th President of the Philippines, Aquino signed Executive Order No. 1, creating the Philippine Truth Commission of 2010. However, the Supreme Court of the Philippine invalidated the executive order because of its apparent transgression of the equal protection clause for singling out the Arroyo administration. In his ponencia in Biraogo vs. Truth Commission, Justice Jose C. Mendoza blatantly tagged Aquino's Truth Commission "as a vehicle for vindictiveness and selective retribution."
SELECTED REFERENCES Brilliantes, Alex Jr. and Fernandez, Maricel. “Is there a Philippine Public Administration?Or Better Still, For Whom is the Philippine Public Administration?”, A paper presented in the public colloquium on: Is there a Philippine Public Administration: A Timeless Issue, June 26-27, 2008, UP National College of Public Administration and Governance (UP NCPAG). p.13-14 Endriga, Jose N. “The Historical Background of the Discipline of Public Administration”, p. 123 Pilar, Nestor N., “Philippine Public Administration: From Classical to New Public Administration to New Public Management', Philippine Journal of Public Administration, Vol. LII Nos. 2-4: p.309-311, April-October 2008 Reyes, Danilo N. (1995). “Public Administration in the Philippines: History, Heritage and Hubris”, p. 39-59 Reyes, Danilo N. “ The Identity Crisis in Public Administration Revisited: Some Definitional Issues in the Philippine Setting”, Philippine Journal of Public Administration: p. 28, January 1979