Group Forum Script Part 1
FORUM SCRIPT Chairperson: (Anita)
Assalamualaikum and a very good day I bid to all of you. Welcome back to our show for this week in “E-Environment”. As well we know, “E-Environment” is a show, which enable you to think about the topics that we had highlighted and we are trying to solve the issues together by producing beneficial and interesting idea, which will be delivered by our guests. Today, we would like to highlight a topic that is quite interesting to be discussed on “greenhouse effect”. I am sure that every one of us is familiar with that term. Before we proceed to our forum, I would like to introduce our panellists today. On my right, Puan Nor Ba’i binti Bakir as an environmental researcher. The person next to her is En Khairul Fahmi bin Maslam, director of environmental protection agency. On my left, Puan Nor Zalianah, lecturer of Environmental Science from University Malaya and also Miss Jothi, lecturer from Universiti Pertanian Malaysia and the person next to her is Puan Norhasikin binti Mat Deros, an environmental officer. Briefly, greenhouse effect can be defined as warming of the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere that tends to intensify with an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. By the way, the greenhouse effect often gets a bad rap because of its association with global warming, but the truth is we couldn’t live without it. Are there serious? As an
environmental researcher, can you tell us what is the definition of greenhouse effect from your own opinion? Nor Ba’i :
Assalamualaikum, thank you to Ms Chairperson, Puan Anita. Yes, I could say it is a bit serious issue. Actually, there are many people out there are not really understand about the concept of “the greenhouse effect”. Some of them keep asking me why the phenomenon of the rising in the earth`s temperature is called “the greenhouse effect”. Actually, the greenhouse effect can be defined into two. First is “natural” greenhouse effect that make and let the earth`s climate warm and habitable. The second one is the “man-made” greenhouse effect that also known as an enhancement of earth`s natural greenhouse effect. The man-made greenhouse effect can happened due to the addition of greenhouse gases through the burning of fossil fuels especially petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Greenhouse effect is a process by which the thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all direction. At that time, some part of this radiation is return back to the surface together with the energy and this cause the atmospheric become warmer. Just now, I had explained about what is the phenomenon that being called as “the greenhouse effect”. Now, why the term of “greenhouse” is being used? Are there are related to the greenhouse effect that we talking about just now? The answer is yes. The term of “greenhouse effect” is the derivation from the concept of greenhouse model.
Greenhouse is built to grow plant especially in winter. So that, this can extends the growing season for the vegetables and flowers by trapping the heat from the sun in a glass or plastics structure. When this situation happened, the greenhouse is being heat up like a car that being parked in sunlight. Commonly, the greenhouse is warmer than the outside air. Thus, it keeps the plants warm enough to live in winter. What the main important things is we need to understand the principle of the greenhouse effect that state, the energy from the sun`s rays which heated the greenhouse move quicker than the heat that escape from some structure to the atmosphere. Chairperson: Thank you Pn Nor Ba’i for her brief explanation about our topic today. How about you, Miss Jothi. What is your opinion ? Do you want to add something from the explanation? Jothi :
Thank you, Puan Anita. Yes, for your information, the greenhouse effect had been discovered by French mathematician and physicist, Joseph Fourier in 1824. He had developed a simple mathematical model to measure the temperature of the atmosphere. Through this simple model he found that the phenomenon that occur to the atmosphere is mostly alike to the experiment took by Horace Benedict de Saussure who used de Saussure`s heliothermometer to measure the intensity of sunlight. He had come with a statement that sunlight can easily passes through a glass but not apply for the things other than glass. As a result the sunlight can penetrate the glass easily compare for the heat from the ground to be in the air. Then in 1877,
Irish and British physicist and chemist, John Tyndall had made some further exploration about the Fourier`s finding. He had designed and built a ‘ratio spectrophotometer’ which is used to determine their ability to absorb heat by a various gases that being used. In his research, he founded that radiant heat was transmitted readily through nitrogen and oxygen. Moreover, the more complex molecules also absorbed heat readily that involve water vapour and carbon dioxide. Tyndall showed that water vapour is relatively transparent to sunlight but it is really effective to trap radiation from the Earth`s surface like a water in a dam. That is some of the history on how the physicists makes their discovery and make some further experiment to understanding this topic better. Thank you. Chairperson: Thank you to Miss Jothi. What can I conclude from you and Puan Nor ba’i just now we should realized that greenhouse effect is also important to prevent our world become cold. Can we imagine what happen to the world if it becomes extreme cold? It is worst right? So, what is the factor that caused greenhouse effect happened? Can you explain to us Puan Nor Zalianah?
Nor Zalianah : Thank you to the chairperson, Puan Anita. Assalamualaikum and a very good morning to all. Actually, we as human already know the answer for chair person’s question
greenhouse effects come from human being although there are also
natural causes. Humankind has progressed a lot over the years to have a better quality of living. However, this progress has come at a cost of the exploitation of nature many a times. One of the causes of the Green House effect that caused by human is deforestation. Deforestation is the activity cutting down the trees for human needs like to build housing area, to build building, and others. Deforestation increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The plants help us to absorb carbon dioxide that release by human. Since there were no trees, carbon dioxide will release to the atmosphere. Apart from that, deforestation causes of the greenhouse effect. We have cut down millions of acres of forest and every tree contains carbon, and as a tree is burned or decomposes, that carbon is released into the atmosphere. Another man-made cause of the increase in the Green house effect due to the emission of such gases in electrical appliances in our house like refrigerator, air- conditioner and others emit gases which contribute to the Greenhouse effect. These electrical appliances make life more comfortable day by day but it gives side effect for the time being. These gases are known as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and are used in refrigerators, aerosol cans, foaming agents in the packaging industry, fire extinguisher chemicals and others. Industries also give major effect to the Greenhouse. Factories pollute our land, seas and air which also contribute to greenhouse effects. Greenhouse gases had been released by factories into the atmosphere
due to the burning of fossil fuels, oil, coal and gas while they produce something for better living, they said. But, like others said, if we want something, we have to lose something. We had lost a better living in this earth. Most factories produce gases which last for a longer time in the atmosphere. These gases are not naturally available in the atmosphere. They are used increasingly and rampantly in industries.
There are natural causes as well as human-made causes of the greenhouse effect. The natural causes of the Greenhouse effect are the emissions of gases like carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and water vapour. They are the four major greenhouse gases that bring to greenhouse effect. Looking for their percentage that contributes to greenhouse effect; water vapour is the most major causes with 36-70% contribute to greenhouse effect followed by carbon dioxide with 9-26%, methane with 4-9% and ozone with 3-7%.
Population growth also is an indirect contributor and one of the causes of the Greenhouse effect. With the increase in population, the needs and wants of the people also increase. Therefore, this increases the manufacturing processes as well as the industry processes to fulfill human’s needs.
From all the causes above, we can see that humans are the main reason for the pollution in nature not only greenhouse effects but also other damage that had happened in this world. What we give, what we
get back. We have to face all the problems regarding to greenhouse effects. That’s all. Thank you. Chairperson: Thank you Puan Nor Zalianah. I can say that we should know our responsibility to conserve our earth and don’t be too selfish and always think about money and profit until neglects the balancing of ecosystem. So, everyone should play their role to ensure that this problem is not becoming more serious. However Puan Norhasikin, what do you think will be happened if those activities that can produce the greenhouse effect not being stopped? Norhasikin:
Thank you to the chairperson. Assalamualaikum and good morning to everyone. I will talk about the greenhouse effect’s impact. The greenhouse effect refers to the trapping of heat by certain gases in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide and methane. Although these gases occur in only trace amounts, they block significant amounts of heat from escaping out into space, thus keeping the Earth warm enough for us to survive. The greenhouse gases is increasing in excessive amount to the atmosphere because of human activities. The increase in greenhouse gases has the potential to cause catastrophic problems for Earth.
The main impact of greenhouse gases is the global warming. Global warming is the continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Global warming is caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting from human activities such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.
The most dangerous aspect of global warming is probably sea level rise. In fact, the world’s oceans have already risen 4-8 inches. That may not sound like much, but it has been enough to cause the erosion of some islands. Further sea level rise could cause great suffering because many people live near the sea. People have had to relocate to higher ground on low-lying islands in the South Pacific and off the coast of India. In Bangladesh alone, there are 15 million people living within 1 meter of sea level and another 8 million in a similar circumstance in India.Global warming increase the temperature about 0.8° Celsius or 1.4° Fahrenheit. As a result of this increase, the vast arctic tundra is melting, releasing enormous volumes of both carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. This creates the possibility of climate change because more carbon dioxide and methane are released from the arctic tundra; the greenhouse effect will be further enhanced. The world’s oceans are losing their ability to absorb carbon because of rising water temperatures, according to accumulating evidence. This is significant because the world’s oceans hold 50 times more carbon than do the world’s forests and grasslands. The decreasing capacity of the Earth’s carbon sinks to absorb carbon could further increase the likelihood of runaway climate change.
Besides that, the changes in the climate due to excess greenhouse gases are causing both increased drought and increased flooding. Violent storm activity will increase as temperatures rise and more
water evaporates from the oceans. This includes more powerful hurricanes, pacific typhoons, and an increased frequency of storms and tornadoes. Storms and tornadoes cause flooding and property damage to human. Drought also causes by greenhouse gases. Warming also causes faster evaporation on land. Many dry areas, including the American West, Southern Africa, and Australia are experiencing more severe droughts. The amount of land on the Earth suffering from drought conditions has doubled since 1970.
The greenhouse gases also cause the rapid climate change. Climate change happens suddenly and violently because of the change of pressure and atmosphere gas. Climate change happens suddenly and violently. Research indicates that the Earth’s climate exists in a stable state for many thousands of years. Then, pressure for change builds from increases or decreases in carbon levels as well as changes in solar radiation. Nowadays, the Earth’s climate goes through a period of dramatic disequilibrium.
In conclusion, greenhouse effect brings a lot of negative impact to the Earth such as global warming, flooding, drought, storms, rapid climate change and many more. So, we must avoid the activities that will cause the greenhouse effect such as deforestation, burning, industries and others.
: Now I realized that the greenhouse effect is very serious problem that is very dangerous to our generation as it can affect their future. So, it is everyone’s role to overcome this problem. How about the ways to overcome bully? I think our director of environmental protection agency, Encik Khairul Fahmi can answer this questions. What can you say about this?
Thank you to the chairperson. Okay, actually, there are plenty ways to overcome this matter. It is a matter of the ways our life style. Can you tell me what do you do with all your trashes? What happen to the heat when the sun is glowing up in our head? And more importantly, how is it our environment? Is it greening or browning? All this matter is the fact that makes up what we are talking about today that is greenhouse effect. Here are some ways to overcome this problem. The first and foremost is to so the 3R’s which are Recycle, Reduce and Reuse. Every person in the world has their own part in the prevention method. Everyone must do their part in this 3R’s to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. Buying products with minimal packaging (including the economy size when that makes sense for you) will help to reduce waste. And whenever you can, recycle paper, plastic, newspaper, glass and aluminium cans. If there isn't a recycling program at your workplace, school, or in your community, ask about starting one. By recycling half
of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually. All of us must remember that we cannot stop this greenhouse effect at once but we can reduce it by correcting our daily life habits. One of the habits is not using the “off” button when leave a room or house. We can save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when leave a room, or using only as lighter as we need. And remember to turn off your television, video player, stereo and computer when you're not using them. It is also a good idea to turn off the water when you're not using it. While brushing your teeth, shampooing the dog or washing your car, turn off the water until you actually need it for rinsing. You will reduce your water bill and help to conserve a vital resource. The next easy way is by planting a tree. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime. That is why; if you have the means to plant a tree, start the digging. During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities. Last but not least, the one which is quite really important is all of us must share the information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends, neighbours and co-workers, and take opportunities
to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment. All these steps will take you a long way toward reducing your energy use and your monthly budget. And less energy use means less dependence on the fossil fuels that create greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming. Chairperson: Thank you to all our panellists for the sharing of their thought about our topic today. Hopefully, today’s discussion can be acknowledge by all of us and we should stay united and work together so that the greenhouse effect can be overcome.