September 12, 2017 | Author: api-238359106 | Category: Perfect (Grammar), Linguistic Typology, Linguistic Morphology, Rules, Syntax
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GRAMMAR REQUIREMENTS FOR ISE II SECOND CONDITIONAL: To talk about hypothetical situations (present or future ones) or to give advices.

If + past simple / would (not) + infinitive

If I won the lottery I would buy a big car.

If I had a broom I would sweep away all the money of the world

We wouldn’t starve if we didn’t have a car

If I were you I would study a lot to pass the trinity exam

If I were she I would tell the problem to my parents

Would you live in a city if you didn’t have children?

THIRD CONDITIONAL: To talk about imaginary past events and their result

If + had (not) + past participle / would (not) + have + past participle might

If the ship hadn’t crashed, the oil wouldn’t have spilled into the ocean

If I had studied more I would have passed the exam.

If I had known that an endangered species lived there, I might have saved it.

We wouldn’t have used so many trees if we had started recycling paper sooner

If we hadn’t moved into their habitat, they could have survived.

If she had known it before, she would have done something different.

SIMPLE PASSIVE: The object becomes the subject and the subject becomes the object When we don’t know who did something or it is not important who did it.

Spanish is spoken in many countries around the world

Recycling glass was first introduced to our neighborhood in 1998

Describing how things are done

First, the paper is collected from recycling bins. Then it is transported to…

To show who did something you can do this with the word by


The rubbish is emptied by the cleaner


I used to play guitar when a was a child

I didn’t use to visit my grandparents every weekend

Where did you use to play when you were a boy?

We never/often/always/usually used to do that when we were young

RELATIVE CLAUSES: Defining relative clauses (to give essential extra information. Without this information the sentence would not make sense)

• • • •

That or Which (things) ……I had classes that started at 7 a.m.! That or Who (people)…He is the man who stole the picture. When (times periods)…These years were the times when I started to dance. Where (places)…It’s the festival in December where people give presents.

Non-defining relative clauses (to give non-essential extra information. The sentence would still make sense without it)

• • • •

Which (things)…This ball, which is the biggest one, is not mine. Who (people)…He’s marrying a woman called Maria, who is his sister When (times periods)…In 1975, when I were born, Franco died Where (places)…In Spain, where people have lunch very late, everybody is happy.


I’m not sure I’m not completely sure I’ve got no idea I don’t have a clue

• • • •

Could/may/might + infinitive: It could be Canada It may be USA They might be

• • •

Maybe/Perhaps Perhaps it’s Italy Maybe, but I’m not certain.

SPECULATING: • • • • • •


Apparently, there are aliens landing on Earth all the time People say the circles are made by alien space ships I’ve heard that she can see into the future She possibly use things that she can see to tell your fortune Maybe there are ghosts in the house Perhaps farmers are making the circles themselves

PAST PERFECT TENSE To talk about a past event that happened before another past event Subject + had (not) + past participle

She had already left when I got there

Before the football match, he had lost his wallet

When did you realise you had won the lottery?

After she had eaten all she could, she went out into the cold snow

By the time I married, I had already had one daughter.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE To talk about actions or situations that started in the past and continue into the present Has/have (not) + been + verb + ing

They have been living here for six month

I have been working here since last year

She has been studying Biology for a week

What have they been doing since they left university two years ago?

Javier has been waiting for an hour

For: to talk about the length or period of time, Since: to talk about the point in time when something started



You Should ask the teacher…/You shouldn’t study all night…

You really ought to be sure… (strong recommendation)

• • • •

If I were you I would… It’s a good idea to…. You could ask them if they have… You’d better ask somebody for the notes…

• • •

What/How about sending a letter to…? Why don’t you send a letter to…? Have you tried keeping safe…?

LINKING EXPRESSIONS • For instance = for example: por ejemplo • Although: aunque (I see her all the time, although I never speak to her) • Even though: aunque (Even though it was raining I decided to go out for a walk) • In spite of: a pesar de (In spite of his behavior, I still love him) • In other words: en otras palabras • Furthermore = moreover = in addition: es más, además

DISCOURSE CONNECTORS & COHESIVE DEVICES • Because of = due to: debido a (Due to the lottery, today I am a rich man) • Therefore: por lo tanto (I think, therefore I am) • Nevertheless: Sin embargo (He didn’t like the price. Nevertheless, he bought it anyway) • However: Sin embargo, no obstante (the television is very expensive, however it is worth it) • Regarding = relative to: en relación a • In order to: para (In order to travel abroad you must have a passport) • Finally: por último • Afterward: Después, más tarde (afterward we all helped with the washing up) • Otherwise: si no, de otra manera (we should go to the cinema, otherwise we will be at home all night)



• •

The survey said…it is no surprise that the most desirable destinations are those… The survey said that…it was no surprise that the most desirable destinations were those

• •

What are living standards like in your country, Karen? She asked Karen what living standards were like in her country.

• •

Do you think healthcare or education is more important? He asked me wether/if I thought healthcare or education are more important.

• •

“Don’t spend all your money on sweets” Mum told me not to spend all my money on sweets.

• •

“Please give me your portfolio work next week” The teacher asked us to give her our Portfolio work next week.

• •

The teacher told us that we had doe well. The teacher said that we had done well

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