gramatika norveskog jezika

September 12, 2017 | Author: oliclu | Category: Grammatical Gender, English Language, Onomastics, Vocabulary, Morphology
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Norwegian Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar Note: Before heading to the tutorial I would Strictly recommend to download any online dictionary which could easily translate the difficult Norwegian words provided below so that you can understand them easily and learn quickly, if you have one so that’s good if not then I’ll personally prefer BabelFish dictionary which is free so you don’t need to buy it. The download link is provided below:

Download BabelFish Translator There are two types of written Norwegian, Bokmål and Nynorsk. This tutorial includes Bokmål only. Thanks to Dan for helping with this tutorial!

1. Basic Phrases God morgen Good Morning

Hallo / God dag Hello / Good Day

God kveld Good Evening

God natt Good Night

Ha det bra Goodbye

Hei / Ha det Hi / Bye

Vær så snill Please

(Tusen) Takk Thank you (very much)

Ingen årsak / Vær så god Don't mention it / You're welcome

Ja / Nei Yes / No

Herr / Fru / Frøken Mister / Misses

Velkommen! Welcome!

Hvordan har du det? How are you?

Hvordan går det? How it's going?

Bra / Dårlig Good / Bad

Hva heter du? What's your name?

Jeg heter... My name is... (I am called...)

Hyggelig å treffe deg! Pleased to meet you!

Hvor kommer du fra? Where are you from?

Jeg er fra... I'm from...

Unnskyld Excuse me / Sorry

Hvor bor du? Where do you live?

Jeg bor i... I live in...

Jeg vil gjerne ha... / Jeg skulle gjerne hatt...

I would like... Hvor gammel er du? How old are you?

Jeg er ____ år (gammel). I am ____ years (old).

Jeg vet [ikke.] I [don't] know.

Snakker du norsk? Do you speak Norwegian?

Jeg snakker engelsk. I speak English.

Snakk langsomt Speak slowly

svensk, dansk, fransk, italiensk, spansk, tysk, holländsk, rysk, japansk Swedish, Danish, French, Italian, Spanish, German, Dutch, Russian, Japanese

Hva heter ... på norsk? How do you say ... in Norwegian?

Forstår du? Do you understand?

Jeg forstår [ikke.] I [don't] understand.

Vær så snill å gjenta / Vennligst gjenta Please repeat

Hva er dette? What is this?

Hvor er ... ? Where is ... ?

Hvor mye koster dette? How much does this cost?

Jeg er sulten I'm hungry

Jeg er tørst I'm thirsty

Jeg er trett I'm tired

Jeg er syk I'm sick

Jeg tror [ikke] det I [don't] think so

Kom inn / hit Come in / here

Ta plass Have a seat.

Stans! / Stopp! Stop!

Straks! Immediately! / Soon!

Jeg har gått meg bort I'm lost

Hjelp! Help!

Fare! Danger!

Pass på! Watch out!

Vent litt! Wait a minute!

Hvor langt er det? How far is it?

Det var synd. That's too bad!

Velbekomme! Have a good meal!

Skål! Cheers! (toast)

Lykke til! Good luck!

Jeg elsker deg. I love you.

Jeg savner deg. I miss you.

2. Pronunciation Norwegian letter(s) d ig

English sound silent at end of word; and in -ld, -nd, -rd ee

eg h j, gj, hj kj, tj sj, skj sl ki, ky, kei, køy ski, sky, skei, skøy gi, gy, gei, gøy g + other vowels sk + other vowels -egn, -egl, -øgn ng æ ø å

ay silent before consonants, such as in hvyuh, as in yes sh, but softer and more palatalized (as in German) sh shl sh, but softer and more palatalized (as in German) sh yuh guh sk g is silent nasalized, as in singer and not finger ah as in cat ay, but with lips rounded aw as in saw

3. Alphabet a





























ew (lips rounded)












ah (as in cat)






ay (lips rounded)











4. Nouns & Cases Nouns in Norwegian (Bokmål) have two genders, masculine and neuter, which adjectives must agree with when modifying nouns. Technically there is a third gender, feminine (which Nynorsk retains), but since feminine nouns can be written as masculine nouns, I'm including feminine nouns in the masculine category. There are two indefinite articles that correspond with these genders: en for masculine nouns and et for neuter nouns. In the

vocabulary lists, a noun followed by (n) means that it is a neuter noun and it takes the indefinite article et. The majority of nouns in Norwegian are masculine, so they take the indefinite article en. The only case of nouns that is used in Norwegian is the genitive (showing possession), and it is easily formed by adding an -s to the noun. This is comparable to adding -'s in English to show possession. However, if the noun already ends in -s, then you add nothing (unlike English where we add -' or -'s). Olavs hus = Olav's house

5. Articles & Demonstratives There are two indefinite articles (corresponding to a and an): en and et. En is used with most of the nouns (words denoting people almost always use en), but you will just have to learn which article goes with which noun. The definite article (the) is not a separate word like in most other languages. It is simply a form of the indefinite article attached to the end of the noun. Note that en words ending in a vowel retain that vowel and add an -n instead of adding -en. And et words ending in -e just add -t. Furthermore, the t of et as an indefinite article is pronounced; however, the t is silent in the definite article -et attached to the noun. (For feminine nouns, the indefinite article is ei and the definite article that is attached to the noun is -a. In theory, this gender does still exist in Bokmål, but in practice, it is rarely used and the feminine nouns are inflected like masculine nouns, i.e. add -en instead of -a for the definite form.) Articles En words (masculine) Indefinite Definite

Et words (neuter) Indefinite Definite et a en fisk a fish fisken the fish vinduet the window vindu window en baker a baker bakeren the baker et barn a child barnet the child en hage a garden hagen the garden et hus a house huset the house Demonstrative Adjectives masculine neuter plural

denne dressen dette skjerfet disse skoene

den that suit dressen det this scarf that scarf skjerfet these those de skoene shoes shoes this suit

Notice that the noun that follows a demonstrative adjective must have the definite article attached to it. (The feminine form of demonstratives is identical to the masculine; denne and den.)

6. Subject & Object Pronouns Subject & Object Pronouns jeg





you (singular)












it (masc.)




it (neut.)












you (plural)







7. To Be & to Have The present and past tenses of verbs in Norwegian are very simple to conjugate. All the forms are the same for each personal pronoun. The infinitive of the verb to be in Norwegian is være, and the conjugated present tense form is er and the past tense is var. The infinitive of the verb to have is ha, and the conjugated present tense form is har and the past tense is hadde. være - to be I am jeg er I was you are du er you were he is han er he was she is hun er she was it is den er it was it is det er it was

jeg var du var han var hun var den var det var man one is man er one was var we are vi er we were vi var dere you are dere er you were var they are de er

they were de var

ha - to have I have jeg har I had jeg hadde you have du har you had du hadde he has han har he had han hadde she has hun har she had hun hadde it has den har it had den hadde it has det har it had det hadde man man one has one had har hadde we have vi har we had vi hadde dere dere you have you had har hadde they they have de har de hadde had

To form the future tense of verbs, just add skal before the infinitive. Jeg skal være = I will be; hun skal ha = she will have; etc.

8. Useful Words

always never often usually now and but or

noen granger / av og til alltid aldri ofte vanligvis nå og men eller


veldig / svært

here there with each other

her der med hverandre




perhaps kanskje both begge some noe(n) again igjen between mellom a lot, many mye / mange of course selvfølgelig / såklart a little litt ikke i det hele tatt / slettes ikke / not at all overhodet ikke almost nesten really? virkelig? it is det er there is/are det finnes

9. Question Words Who






How much

hvor mye



How many

hvor mange



How long

hvor lenge



Where from



hvilken, hvilket, hvilke

What kind of

hva slags

Hvilken is used with masculine nouns, hvilket is used with neuter nouns, and hvilke is used with plural nouns.

10. Cardinal & Ordinal Numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5

null en, ett to tre fire fem

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

første annen, andre tredje fjerde femte

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1,000 million billion trillion

seks sju åtte ni ti elleve tolv tretten fjorten femten seksten sytten atten nitten tjue tjueen, tjueett tjueto tretti førti femti seksti sytti åtti nitti hundre tusen million milliard billion

6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1,000th

sjette sjuende åttende niende tiende ellevte tolvte trettende fjortende femtende sekstende syttende attende nittende tjuende tjueførste tjueandre trettiende førtiende femtiende sekstiende syttiende åttiende nittiende hundrede tusende

"Sju" can also be written "syv" (slightly more formal), and "sjuende" as "syvende" Similarly "tjue" can be "tyve", but this does seem less common and more formal.

11. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday

mandag tirsdag onsdag

this morning tomorrow morning tomorrow afternoon

i dag morges i morgen tidlig i morgen formiddag

Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday day morning afternoon evening night today tomorrow

torsdag fredag lørdag søndag dag morgen ettermiddag kveld natt i dag i morgen

tomorrow night day after tomorrow tonight last night yesterday day before yesterday week next week weekend daily weekly

i morgen kveld i overmorgen i kveld i går kveld i går i forgårs uke nest uke helg daglig ukentlig

12. Months of the Year January February March April May June July August September October November December month last month monthly year this year last year yearly

januar februar mars april mai juni juli august september oktober november desember måned forrige måned månedlig år (n) i år i fjor årlig

13. Seasons Winter Spring Summer

vinter vår sommer

in (the) winter in (the) spring in (the) summer

om vinteren om våren om sommeren



in (the) fall

om høsten

14. Directions North South East West

nord syd øst vest

Northeast Northwest Southeast Southwest

to the right to the left straight ahead

nordøst nordvest sydøst sydvest

til høyre til venstre rett fram / frem

Frem is slightly more formal than fram.

15. Colors orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green

oransje rosa lilla blå, blått, blå gul, gult, gule rød, rødt, røde svart, svart, svarte brun, brunt, brune grå, grått, grå hvit, hvitt, hvite grønn, grønt, grønne

The first three colors do not change according to gender or number to agree with the noun they modify. The rest of the colors must agree, however, and they are listed in masculine, neuter and plural forms: en grønn kjole - a green dress; et blått hus - a blue house; svarte sokker - black socks

16. Time What time is it?

Hva er klokken?


It is 2. 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly... About/around 8.

Klokken er to. tjue over seks halv fire kvart over fire kvart på fem ti over elleve tjue på sju middag midnatt om morgenen om kvelden Den er nøyaktig... omtrent åtte

early earlier soon late later in 10 minutes in 15 minutes in a half hour in an hour right now at once immediately At 8.

tidlig tidligere snart sent senere om ti minutter om et kvarter om en halvtime om en time akkurat nå med en gang straks klokken åtte

17. Weather How's the weather? It's cold It's warm It's beautiful It's bad It's clearing It's icy It's windy It's cloudy It's humid/muggy

Hvordan er været? Det er kaldt Det er varmt Det er pent Det er dårlig Det lysner Det er isete Det blåser Det er overskyet Det er fuktig

What temperature is it? It's foggy The fog is lifting It's snowing It's raining It's going to storm There's thunder There's lightning It's freezing (cold as ice) It's hailing

Hvor mange grader er det? Det er tåke Tåken letner Det snør Det regner Det bli storm Det tordner Det lyner Det er iskaldt Det hagler

18. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson

foreldre mor far sønn datter bror søster bestefar bestemor barnebarn

Niece Nephew Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Child / Baby Adult Man Woman

niese nevø onkel tante gutt jente, pike barn voksen mann kvinne

Granddaughter barnebarn Cousin (male) fetter Cousin (female) kusine

Friend (male) Friend female)

venn venninne

Some family words have irregular indefinite plurals: mødre (mothers), fedre (fathers), sønner (sons), døtre (daughters), brødre (brothers), and søstre (sisters)

19. To Know People & Facts kjenne - to know vite - to know people facts present kjenner vet past kjente visste future skal kjenne skal vite 20. Formation of Plural Nouns Masculine nouns generally add -er or -r to the indefinite singular noun to form the indefinite plural, and -ene or -ne to form the definite plural. The names of jobs ending in -er only add -e and -ne in these cases. Neuter nouns that are more than one syllable form plural nouns the same way as masculine nouns. Neuter nouns that are only one syllable, however, add nothing to form the indefinite plural and either -ene or -a to form the definite plural. Singular Indefinite Plural en fisk fisker some fish some en hage hager gardens some en baker bakere bakers some et vindu vinduer windows some et hus hus houses some et barn barn children

Definite Plural fiskene the fishes the hagene gardens bakerne the bakers vinduene

the windows


the houses


the children

Irregular plural nouns in Norwegian: Singular Irregular Indefinite Plural Singular = Indefinite Plural and ender duck(s) angrep (n) attack(s) bok bøker book(s) besok (n) visit(s)

bonde fot hånd

bønder føtter hender



kne (n) kraft ku natt mann rand rot sted (n) stang strand tang tann tre tå øye

knær krefter kyr netter menn render røtter steder stenger strender tenger tenner trær tær øyne

peasant(s) foot(feet) hand(s) hand towel(s) knee(s) strength cow(s) night(s) man(men) edge(s) root(s) place(s) bar(s) beach(es) pincher(s) tooth(teeth) tree(s) toe(s) eye(s)

eventyr (n) tale(s), story(ies) feil error(s), mistake(s) forhold circumstance(s) høve (n)


kreps mus mygg sild sko spiker ting våpen

crawfish(es) mouse(s) mosquito(es) herring(s) shoe(s) nail(s) thing(s) weapon(s)

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