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KOLEJ SAINS KESIHATAN BERSEKUTU KOTA KINABALU KURSUS DIPLOMA PEMBANTU PERUBATAN
CASE STUDY EYE CLINIC
IDENTITY CARD NO.
YEAR 3 SEMESTER
INTRODUCTION Glaucoma is not just one eye disease, but a group of eye conditions resulting in optic nerve damage, !ic! may cause loss of vision" Abnormally !ig! pressure inside your eye #$no as intraocular pressure% usually, but not alays, causes t!is damage" &esides, glaucoma is one of t!e leading causes of blindness in t!e orld as researc! by 'orld (rgani)ation *ealt! #'*(%" Glaucoma can damage your vision so gradually you may not notice any loss of vision until t!e disease is at an advanced stage" T!e most common type of glaucoma, primary open+angle glaucoma, !as no noticeable signs or symptoms ecept gradual vision loss" Glaucoma prognosis is !en a patient !as a glaucoma and get early diagnosis and treatment, a patient can minimi)e or prevent t!eir optic nerve damage and limit glaucoma+related vision loss" -t.s very important to get your eyes eamined regularly every a mont! or a year, and ma$e sure your eye doctor measures your intraocular pressure" &esides, it is usually asymptomatic until advanced and many people ill be unaare t!ere is a problem it! t!eir eyes until severe visual damage !as occurred" (cular !ypertension #(*T% is a major ris$ factor for developing C(AG, alt!oug! C(AG can occur it! or it!out raised eye pressure"
PROBLEMS STATEMENTS Glaucoma is a /o" 0 disease in t!e orld, especially in 1alaysia t!at can cause of disability in vision or blindness" According researc! by 1alaysia *ealt! 1inistry s!oed t!at 23+43 5 of adults !o !ave !ypertension and diabetes mellitus !as a !ig! ris$ of getting glaucoma" /oadays people do not care about t!eir eyes, especially for patients !o suffering of !ypertension t!at t!ey need to control t!eir blood pressure by getting proper treatment it! doctor" &esides, !o !as diabetes mellitus also need to practice !ealt!y daily diet to prevent complications suc! as glaucoma6
LITERATURE REVIE" 7Glaucoma refers to a group of eye conditions t!at lead to damage to t!e optic nerve, t!e nerve t!at carries visual information from t!e eye to t!e brain" -n many cases, damage to t!e optic nerve is due to increased pressure in t!e eye, also $non as intraocular pressure #-(8%9" #N$%&'() J*$%(+, A%'/,& 010
7Glaucoma is a group of diseases t!at damage t!e eye:s optic nerve and can result in vision loss and blindness" *oever, it! early detection and treatment, you can often protect your eyes against serious vision loss"9 ~
T2 N+'*(+, E I(&'$
7T!e increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage t!e optic nerve, !ic! transmits images to t!e brain" -f damage to t!e optic nerve from !ig! eye pressure continues, glaucoma ill cause permanent loss of vision" 'it!out treatment, glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness it!in a fe years"9 # U('4 K'()4* E H+,2 C+%.
7Glaucoma is not just one eye disease, but a group of eye conditions resulting in optic nerve damage, !ic! may cause loss of vision" Abnormally !ig! pressure inside your eye #intraocular pressure% usually, but not alays, causes t!is damage"9 # 6*$(4+'*( 7*% M4'/+, E4$/+'*( +(4 R&+%/2 01
PATIENTS 6INDING CASE BACKGROUND
;egistered /umber #;?
Date (f &irt!
3? 1ei 0>@
@4 years old
Taman Semara$, Taau, Saba!
- P+'(& H'&*% -
1r" &asani, come to Eye Clinic because complaint of B+
Sudden onset of visual disturbance, often in lo lig!t"
*alos around lig!ts
/ausea and vomiting #accompanying t!e severe eye pain%
;eddening of t!e eye"
DISCUSSION TYPES O6 GLAUCOMA
T!ere are four major types of glaucoma B a% (pen+angle #C!ronic% Glaucoma b% Angle+closure #Acute% Glaucoma c% Congenital Glaucoma d% Secondary Glaucoma T!e front part of t!e eye is filled it! a clear fluid called aueous !umor" T!is fluid is alays being made in t!e bac$ of t!e eye" -t leaves t!e eye t!roug! c!annels in t!e front of t!e eye in an area called t!e anterior c!amber angle, or simply t!e angle" Anyt!ing t!at slos or bloc$s t!e flo of t!is fluid out of t!e eye ill cause pressure to build up in t!e eye" T!is pressure is called intraocular pressure #-(8%" -n most cases of glaucoma, t!is pressure is !ig! and causes damage to t!e major nerve in t!e eye, called t!e optic nerve" a% (pen+angle #C!ronic% Glaucoma" •
T!e cause is un$non" An increase in eye pressure occurs sloly over time" T!e pressure pus!es on t!e optic nerve and t!e retina at t!e bac$ of t!e eye (pen+angle glaucoma tends to run in families" Your ris$ is !ig!er if you !ave a parent or grandparent it! open+angle glaucoma" 8eople of African descent are at particularly !ig! ris$ for t!is disease
b% Angle+closure #Acute% Glaucoma (ccur !en t!e eit of t!e aueous !umour fluid is suddenly bloc$ed" T!is causes a uic$, severe, and painful rise in t!e pressure it!in t!e eye #intraocular pressure%" •
Angle+closure glaucoma is an emergency" T!is is very different from open+angle glaucoma, !ic! painlessly and sloly damages vision" -f you !ave !ad acute glaucoma in one eye, you are at ris$ for an attac$ in t!e second eye, and your doctor is li$ely to recommend preventive treatment" Dilating eye drops and certain medications may trigger an acute glaucoma attac$"
c% Congenital Glaucoma" •
-t is present at birt!
-t results from t!e abnormal development of t!e fluid outflo c!annels in t!e eye
d% Secondary Glaucoma is caused byB •
Drugs suc! as corticosteroids
Eye diseases suc! as uveitis
T!ere are clinical sign of Glaucoma B + O( A(), ;C2%*('/ G,+$/*+ •
1ost people !ave no symptoms until t!ey begin to lose vision
Gradual loss of perip!eral #side% vision #also called tunnel vision%