German A2 Level

August 4, 2018 | Author: varshasdm1987 | Category: Grammatical Gender, Noun, Philology, Semantics, Semiotics
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108

LEVEL TWO LESSONS

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Section 2.01 ~ Salzburg, Austria

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Lesson 2.01 - Einfache Gespräche unter Freunden German/Lesson 1 > |

Grammatik 1-1 ~ Introduction to German grammar Knowing the parts of speech (how words function in a sentence) is important for anyone attempting to learn a second language. English speakers will find many strong parallels between their language and German. However, as noted in the introduction, German grammar signals—how words indicate their function in a sentence—are more complex than English, and identifying the meaning of words in a German sentence is difficult without understanding these clues or signals to word function that come from the grammatical rules. The basic lessons (Level II) of this textbook are set up to first introduce the parts of speech, and then bring in the rules that govern these. Pay particular attention to both word endings and sentence word order as you progress in learning the German language. Following is a short conversation piece (Gespräch). Play the audio file first, then attempt to repeat what you hear, reading the spoken parts Auf der Straße of the conversation. Go back and forth (listening and then speaking) until the German flows easily from your lips. This may take considerable practice. Refer to the vocabulary (Vokabeln) below to understand the meaning of the German sentences you are hearing and speaking.

German/Lesson 1

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Gespräch 1-1 ~ Die Freunde • • • •

Heinrich trifft Karl auf der Straße. Heinrich und Karl sind Freunde. Heinrich:       Guten Tag, Karl. Wie geht es dir? Karl:       Guten Tag. Danke, es geht mir gut. Und dir? Heinrich:       Danke, es geht mir gut. Auf Wiedersehen. Karl:       Auf Wiedersehen!

• Audio: OGG (97KB) In this conversation we learn several simple greetings exchanged between friends meeting very briefly on the street.

Vokabeln 1-1 This first vocabulary (Vokabeln) may seem a bit long considering you have been presented with only the brief conversation piece above, but it also contains all of the German words you have encountered up to this point in the Level II textbook, including words in photo captions and lesson section headers. The layout of the Vokabeln is explained in the Lesson Layout Guide in the German~English textbook introduction, but the four parts of the Vokabeln are labeled in this first lesson to reenforce the concept. Note that column 3 may contain (in parentheses) additional notes about a word in column 1. Also, you can find the greeting phrases that appear in the simple conversations above (and many others) in Appendix 2, a German-English phrase book. NOUNS der die der das die die die das die das

Anhang, die Anhänge Brücke Freund, die Freunde Gespräch, die Gespräche Grammatik Lektion Straße Tor Vokabeln Vorwort

appendix, appendices (singular and plural) bridge friend, friends (singular and plural) conversation, conversations grammar (note irregular stress) lesson (note irregular stress) street gateway word list, vocabulary foreword, preface (introduction to a book)

SHORT PHRASES auf der Straße

on the street

Auf Wiedersehen

Good bye

Es geht mir gut

I am fine

(lit: 'It goes with me good')

Guten Tag!

Good day

(greeting)

Und dir?

And you?

(implied: 'And how are you?')

unter Freunden

between friends

Wie geht es dir?

How are you

(lit: 'How goes it with you?')

Wie geht's?

How are you?

(casual, but more commonly used)

VERBS gehen treffen

go meet, come upon

(geht is "goes") (trifft is "meets")

OTHER "SMALL" WORDS (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc.)

German/Lesson 1 danke dir einfach es gut mir und wie? •

112 thank you; thanks (with or for) you simple it good (with or to) me and how?

>

Gespräch 1-2 ~ Die Studenten

• • • • •

Markus ist Student. Er studiert Biologie. Er begegnet Katrin. Sie studiert Mathematik. Markus und Katrin sind Freunde. Markus:   Hallo, Katrin! Wohin gehst du? Katrin:       Ich gehe einkaufen. Der Kühlschrank ist fast leer. Ich brauche Wurst und Käse. Und du? Wohin gehst du? Markus:   Zur Uni. Ich habe viel zu tun. Katrin:       Gut! Dann bis bald. Tschüss. Markus:   Tschüss, Katrin.

Here again, two friends (college students) meet casually and discuss briefly what each is doing.

Grammatik 1-2 ~ Word Order in Questions Basic or normal word order in simple German sentences is the same as in English—subject then verb then verb object: Ich habe Käse ~ I (subject) have (verb) cheese (verb object = what you "have") Unlike with English sentence structure, a question sentence in German is formed by reversing subject and verb: Hast du Käse? ~ Have (verb) you (subject) cheese? This is called inverted word order. Examples are provided in Gespräch 1-1 and Gespräch 1-2. As another example, consider the statement: Er studiert Biologie ('He studies biology'). A question statement might be: Was studiert er? ('What studies he?'; although in English, we would usually say: "What is he studying?"). The normal word order of subject (er or "he") then verb (studiert or "study") is reversed and, in this case, an interrogative (was or "what") added onto the front replacing the unknown (to the speaker) object (here, "biology"). Additional examples of questions formed from basic statements illustrate inverted word order: Wie geht es dir? from Es geht mir gut. ('It goes well with me.') Wohin geht sie? from Sie geht einkaufen. ('She goes shopping.') Was ist fast leer? from Der Kühlschrank ist fast leer. ('The fridge is almost empty.') Was brauche ich? from Ich brauche Wurst und Käse. ('I need sausage and cheese.') Versteht sie mich? from Sie versteht mich. ('She understands me.')

German/Lesson 1

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Grammatik 1-3 ~ Introduction to pronouns A pronoun (Pronomen) is a short word that takes the place of a noun previously mentioned in the sentence, paragraph, or conversation. A pronoun substitutes for a noun or noun phrase and designates persons or things asked for, previously specified, or understood from context. A specific pronoun in English as well as German has person, number, and case. You will be encountering all of the common German pronouns in the next several lessons, so we will track these as they appear. The following familiar personal pronouns are introduced in this lesson (Lektion 1): ich – I mich – me mir – me

(1st person, singular, nominative case) (1st person, singular, accusative case) (1st person singular, dative case)

du – you dich – you dir – you

(2nd person, singular, nominative case) (2nd person, singular, accusative case) (2nd person singular, dative case)

er – he sie – she es – it

(3rd person singular, nominative case) (3rd person singular, nominative case) (3rd person singular, nominative case)

Pronoun person describes the relationship of the word to the speaker (that is, 1st person is the speaker; 2nd person is spoken to; and 3rd person is spoken about). Pronoun number refers to whether the word represents one (singular) or more than one (plural) person or object. Finally, case indicates how the pronoun is used in a sentence, as will be explained over the next several lessons. For now, note in the examples you have already encountered, the three cases of 1st person singular pronouns in German: ich, mich, and mir. In English these are: 'I', 'me', and (to or with) 'me' — in essence, there are really just two cases in English: subjective ('I') and objective ('me'). You will shortly see that there are similarities, yet distinct differences, in the cases as used by the English and German languages.

Vokabeln 1-2 NOUNS die Antwort, die Antworten

answer(s)

(singular and plural)

die Biologie

biology

(note irregular stress)

die Freundin, die Freunde

(female) friend, friends

(compare der Freund)

der Käse

cheese

der Kühlschrank

refrigerator

die Mathematik

mathematics

(note irregular stress)

das Pronomen

pronoun

(note irregular stress)

der Student, die Studentin

student, (female) student

die Uni

university

(a short form of die Universität)

die Übersetzung

translation

(lit. "over-setting")

die Universität

university

(note irregular stress)

die Wurst

sausage, banger

SHORT PHRASES Dann bis bald! zu tun VERBS

then until (we) soon (meet again) ("until then") to do

German/Lesson 1

114

begegnen brauchen einkaufen gehen haben studieren verstehen

meet need, want, require go shopping have study understand

OTHER "SMALL" WORDS an

to (towards)

bald

soon

bis

until

dann

then

du

you

er

he

fast

almost

hallo

hello

ich

I

leer

empty, vacant

mich

me

schön

beautiful

sehr

very

sie

she

tschüss

so long

viel

much

was?

what?

wohin?

where?



(in this case, 'nice' or 'fine')

(good bye)

>

Übersetzung 1-1 By referring back to lesson examples, you should be able to write out the following sentences in German. On a piece of paper, first number and write each English sentence. Then review the lesson above and produce a German sentence that says the same thing as each English sentence. After all seven lines are translated, follow the Antworten (answers) link to compare your work with the correct ones. Do not be too concerned at this point if your spelling of the German verbs do not match the answers. You will learn all about German verb forms in later lessons. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Good day, Mark! How are you? Thanks, I am well. And you? Good bye, Henry! Catherine needs cheese. She understands the lesson well. So long, Mark! Until we meet again. Where is he going? • Antworten >

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Lesson 2.02 - Fremde und Freunde German/Lesson 2 >

Fremde und Freunde ~ Strangers and Friends

Grammatik 2-1 ~ Introduction to Verbs A verb is that part of speech that describes an action. Verbs come in an almost bewildering array of tenses, aspects, and types. For now, we will limit our discussion to verbs used in the present tense — i.e., describing an action occurring in the present. You should start to recognize that the form a verb takes is related to the subject of that verb: the verb form must match the person of the subject. This requirement is sometimes evident in English, but always so in German. Consider the following English and German sentences (the verb is studieren in every case): I study biology.

Ich studiere Biologie.

She studies mathematics. Sie studiert Mathematik. Today we study German. Heute studieren wir Deutsch. (Note a subject verb reversal) What are you studying?

Was studierst du?

(Notice subject verb reversal in question sentence)

Several things are illustrated by these sentence pairs. First, all verbs in German follow the rule just stated that a verb form must agree with its subject. Starting in Lektion 6 we will learn the verb forms associated with each person in German. Second, this rule in English applies mostly to the verb 'to be' (e.g., I am, you are, he is, etc.). In some English verbs, the 3rd person singular form is unique, often taking an 's' or 'es' ending: "I give at the office", but "He gives at the office" (and "She studies..." above). Finally, some German verbs are best translated with an English 'to be' verb form added. This is called the progressive form in English ('What are you studying?'), but it does not exist in German. Thus, a verb like nennen can best be translated as "to name" or "to call". The following example may make this clearer. In the present tense, the following statements in English: 'They are calling the corporation, "Trans-Global"' 'They name the corporation, "Trans-Global"' 'They call the corporation, "Trans-Global"' 'They do call the corporation, "Trans-Global"' are all expressed in German in only one way: Sie nennen die Firma, "Trans-Global". And the question statement: 'Do they call the corporation, "Trans-Global"?' becomes, in German: Nennen sie die Firma, "Trans-Global"?

Grammatik 2-2 ~ Pronouns in the Nominative Case Most of the personal pronouns introduced in Lektion 1 are used as subjects of their verbs. These represent the nominative case in German (as in English). We will shortly learn three other cases in German: the accusative for direct objects, the dative for indirect objects, and the genitive for expressing possession. For now, remember that the singular personal pronouns in English (nominative case) are "I", "you", and "he/she/it" (1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons) and the nominative case is used as the subject of a verb. In German, these pronouns are rendered as ich, du, and er/sie/es. In these example sentences, the subject of the verb is underlined:

German/Lesson 2

116

Ich gehe einkaufen.

I go shopping.

Er studiert Biologie. He studies biology. Es geht mir gut.

It goes well with me.

( = I am fine).

Wohin gehst du?

Where are you going? (Notice subject verb reversal in question sentence)

There are, of course, plural personal pronouns in the English nominative case: "we", "you", and "they"; and in German, these nominative case pronouns are wir, ihr, and sie. These appear in the following examples (again, subject underlined): Wir gehen einkaufen.

We go shopping.

Ihr versteht die Frage.

You all understand the question.

Ihr habt die Anleitungen. You (all) have the instructions. Sie verstehen die Arbeit.

They understand the work.

In both English and German, the 3rd person singular also has gender. As you will next learn, the 2nd person (person being addressed) in German has both familiar and polite (formal) forms. Further, it is worth repeating here — although introduced in Grammatik 2-1 above and to be covered in detail in future lessons — that the verb form changes when the subject changes. That is, in German the verb form must match the subject of a sentence. Here are some examples; compare with the previous three example sentences above and note how the verb form changed to match the sentence subject (subject and verb underlined): Ich verstehe die Arbeit.

I understand the work.

Du gehst einkaufen.

You go shopping.

Ich habe alle Antworten. I have all the answers. Er hat die Anleitungen.

He has the instructions.

In the last example, the English verb form ('have') also changed based upon the subject of the sentence.

Gespräch 2-1 ~ Die Geschäftsleute

• • • • • • • • •

Herr Schmidt trifft Frau Baumann. Sie sind Geschäftsleute und sie arbeiten an dem Hauptsitz. Herr Schmidt:    Guten Tag, Frau Baumann! Frau Baumann: Guten Tag, Herr Schmidt! Herr Schmidt:    Wie geht es Ihnen? Frau Baumann: Sehr gut, danke. Und Ihnen? Herr Schmidt:    Auch gut. Frau Baumann: Schön. Haben Sie Herrn Standish schon getroffen? Herr Schmidt:    Aus England? Nein. Ist er zu Besuch? Frau Baumann: Ja. Das ist richtig! Auf Wiedersehen, Herr Schmidt! Herr Schmidt:    Auf Wiedersehen, Frau Baumann!

In this conversation, although the subject matter is basically casual, a more formal form of German is being used intoning respect between coworkers in an office setting. The polite form is expressed by the pronouns as explained below (Grammatik 2-3).

German/Lesson 2

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Vokabeln 2-1 die Anleitungen

instructions

das Deutsch

German (language)

der Fremde

foreigner, stranger

die Firma

company, firm, business concern

die Frage

question

die Geschäftsleute

business people

(die Leute = people)

der Hauptsitz

head office

(das Haupt = head or chief)

der Tag

day, daytime

(more common is die deutsche Sprache)

aus England Das ist richtig! Frau Baumann Herr Schmidt zu Besuch

from England That is right! Ms. Baumann Mr. Schmidt visiting

arbeiten getroffen nennen

work (have) met name, call

alle an Ihnen heute ihr ja nein richtig sie Sie wir

all at (with or to) you today you (plural), you all yes no correct they you we



(past participle of treffen)

(polite form)

(note: also "she") (polite form)

Pronunciation Guide >>

Grammatik 2-3 ~ Familiar and Polite Pronoun Forms Many pronouns were introduced in Lesson 1. In Grammatik 2-1 and Gespräch 2-1 we have been presented with the following additional pronouns: Ihnen – (to) you ihr – you (2nd sie – they (3rd Sie – you (2nd wir – we (1st

(2nd person singular, dative case) person, plural, nominative case) person, plural, nominative case) person, singular, nominative case) person, plural, nominative case)

In the conversations between friends presented in Gespräche 1-1 and 1-2 (Lektion 1) the familiar form of the personal pronouns (e.g., du, dir) was used. However, German also has a polite or formal form of some of these personal pronouns. The polite form is used in conversations between strangers and more formal situations, as illustrated in the Gespräch 2-1: greetings between business associates.

German/Lesson 2

118

The polite form is always first-letter capitalized in German, which can be helpful in differentiating Sie (you) from sie (she and they); Ihnen (you) from ihnen (them). However, you will soon learn that the form of the verb (see Grammatik 2-3 below) is most telling, as shown by these example pairs using the verb, haben (have): Haben Sie eine Zigarette?

Do you have a cigarette?

(polite form of you)

Sie hat keine Wurst und keinen Käse. She has no sausage and no cheese. Sie haben viel Arbeit.

They have much work (to do).

Haben sie zu viel Arbeit?

Do they have too much work?

Because the first letter in a sentence is always capitalized, we cannot determine (without the verb form) whether the second and third examples begin with sie ('she' or 'they') or with Sie (polite 'you'); a problem that would also exist in conversation. The fourth example, where subject and verb are reversed in a question, demonstrates the pronoun 'they'; compare it with the polite 'you' in the first example. It is relatively easy for an English speaker to appreciate how context, especially in conversation, overcomes confusion considering that English has fewer forms for these pronouns than German. However, this fact does present some difficulty when learning German, since improper use of a pronoun may just create confusion in speaking or writing German.

Gespräch 2-2 ~ Die Geschäftsmänner Herr Schmidt und Herr Standish begegnen sich am Hauptsitz:

Vereinigtes Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland

Bundesrepublik Deutschland

• • • • • • • •

Herr Schmidt: Guten Morgen, Herr Standish! Wie geht es Ihnen? Herr Standish: Danke sehr, es geht mir gut. Und Ihnen? Herr Schmidt: Nicht so gut. Ich bin müde. Herr Standish: Wie bitte? Müde? Warum? Herr Schmidt: Ich habe so viel Arbeit. Herr Standish: Das kann ich verstehen. Zu viel ist zu viel. Herr Schmidt: Das ist richtig. Auf Wiedersehen, Herr Standish! Herr Standish: Auf Wiedersehen, bis morgen.

Vokabeln 2-2 die Bundesrepublik Deutschland Federal Republic of Germany die Geschäftsmänner

businessmen

(die Geschäftsleute is preferred)

Großbritannien

Great Britain

(technically Vereinigtes Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland)

der Morgen

morning

die Übersetzung

translation

German/Lesson 2

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bis morgen Guten Morgen! nicht so gut so viel Wie bitte? zu viel

until tomorrow Good morning not so well so much How is that? too much

bis kein müde nicht sich warum ?

until no tired not each other why ?



(greeting)

(in the sense on "none")

Pronunciation Guide >>

Grammatik 2-4 ~ Personal pronoun gender In both English and German the 3rd person personal pronouns have gender (Grammatik 1-3). However, in English, the pronoun "it" is used for most inanimate or non-living things. There are a few exceptions: a ship might be referred to as "she". However, in German, the 3rd person personal pronoun reflects the gender of the noun (antecedent) referred to by the pronoun. For examples: Der Kühlschrank ist fast leer. Er ist fast leer.

It (masculine) is almost empty.

Ich brauche die Wurst.

Ich brauche sie. I need it (feminine).

Das Gespräch ist schwer.

Es ist schwer.

It (neuter) is difficult.

The following table summarizes these gender relationships: 3rd person pronouns masculine er

he

feminine

sie

she

neuter

es

it

Übersetzung 2-1 You may, at this point, try the flash cards developed for Level I German. This set has a few words and concepts not yet presented in Level II, but for the most part can be very helpful in enhancing your vocabulary. Go to FlashcardExchange.com [1]. Translate the following sentences into German. Pay attention to whether familiar or polite form of the pronoun is requested: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Good day, Ms. Neumann. How are you? [in polite conversational form] I am well, thank you. And you? [in polite form] I am well, thank you. And you? [in familiar form] Katrin is studying math.

5. They meet each other at the head office. 6. I do understand the instructions. 7. Is she visiting from England?

German/Lesson 2 8. How is that? You have too much work? [in polite form] 9. Good bye, Mr. Smith. Until tomorrow morning? • Antworten >

References [1] http:/ / www. flashcardexchange. com/ card_set. php?id=248162

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Lesson 2.03 - Die Zahlen German/Lesson 3 > |

Die Zahlen ~ The Numbers

Lektion 3 ~ Zählen von 1 bis 12 Counting in any language is a valuable skill best learned early on. In German as in English, there are both cardinal (counting) and ordinal (place or order) numbers, and number formation is similar in that the first twelve numbers are unique. Above twelve, numbers are formed by combination. For example, 13 is dreizehn and 14 is vierzehn. Higher numbers will be the subject of later lessons. Note in the table how ordinals are formed from the cardinals in German by adding te. 'Ten' becomes 'tenth' in English; zehn become zehnte in German. As in English, there are several nonconforming variants: erste, dritte, and siebte.

cardinal numbers ordinal numbers one

eins

1st

erste

two

zwei

2nd

zweite

three

drei

3rd

dritte

four

vier

4th

vierte

five

fünf

5th

fünfte

six

sechs

6th

sechste

seven

sieben

7th

siebte

eight

acht

8th

achte

nine

neun

9th

neunte

ten

zehn

10th

zehnte

eleven

elf

11th

elfte

twelve

zwölf

12th

zwölfte

Audio: OGG (385KB)

Aussprache Learning the German words for the numbers provides an excellent opportunity to practice German pronunciations. Following are some helpful hints for English speakers attempting to count in German. A "dental sound" is made by moving the tongue into the back of the upper teeth—almost as if the word started with a 't'. A "gutteral sound" comes from deep in the throat. Also, remember, in words of more than one syllable, the emphasis is on the first syllable. final consonants are cut off quickly in German, not drawn out as in many English words. English speakers might call this being curt or brusque with each word. eins say 'eyen-zah' but drop the 'ah'; 'z' is between an 's' and 'z' zwei sounds like 'zveye'; the 'w' is between a 'v' and a 'w' drei sounds like "dry", but with dental 'd' and roll the 'r' vier sound is between "fear" and 'fee-yahr' fünf say 'foon-fah' without the 'ah'; very slight 'r' after the 'ü' sechs sounds like "sex", but with a more dental leading 's' sieben sounds like "see Ben" (use dental 's') acht sounds like 'ahkt'; the 'ch' is guttural neun sounds like "loin" with an 'n' zehn sounds like the name, "Zane", but the 'z' is more dental elf sounds pretty much like "elf" (the German 'e' is a little higher) zwölf sounds like 'zwolf', but the 'o' is closer to 'u' in 'up'

German/Lesson 3

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Grammatik 3-1 ~ Telling time (hours) Knowing the numbers from 1 to 12, you can now begin asking and telling time in German.

Der Uhrturm von Graz

Gespräch 3-1 • • • • • • •

Zwei Jungen, Heinrich und Karl, sind Freunde. Sie begegnen sich eines Nachmittags. Heinrich:  Karl. Wie geht's? Karl:        Hallo! Heinrich:  Willst du spielen? Ich habe einen Ball. Karl:        Wie spät ist es? Heinrich:  Es ist ein Uhr. Karl:        Dann kann ich bis zwei Uhr spielen. Heinrich:  Das ist gut. Wir spielen eine Stunde lang!

Asking for the time is accomplished by the sentence: Wie spät ist es? ("How late is it?"). The answer places the hour in the line Es ist ____ Uhr ("It is __ o'clock"), substituting the correct cardinal value (except ein is used instead of eins). One could also ask: Wieviel Uhr ist es? (not used very often anymore) or respond Es ist eins or Es ist drei, etc.—which may be imprecise, unless the time is close to the hour. The following sentences also relate to telling time:

German/Lesson 3

123

Er fragt nach der Uhrzeit.

He asks the time.

Sie begegnen sich eines Nachmittags. They meet each other one afternoon. Es ist halb vier.

It is half past three (3:30).

Es ist Viertel nach zwölf.

It is a quarter after twelve (12:15).

Es ist Viertel vor elf.

It is a quarter to eleven (10:45).

Es ist drei Viertel elf.*

It is a quarter to eleven (10:45).

Es ist fünf vor neun.

It is five minutes to (until) nine (08:55).

Es ist fünf Minuten vor neun.

It is five minutes to (until) nine (08:55).

Es ist zehn nach elf.

It is ten minutes after eleven (11:10).

Es ist zehn Minuten nach elf.

It is ten minutes after eleven (11:10).

Es ist acht nach.

It is eight minutes after the last full hour (??:08).

Es ist zehn vor.

It is ten minutes to (until) the next full hour (??:50).

Es ist drei durch.*

It is between three and four (03:??).

Es ist elf Uhr drei

It is three minutes after eleven (11:03).

Es ist elf Uhr und drei minuten

It is three minutes after eleven (11:03).

* this is only regional - many Germans may not understand Knowing how to express the quarter, half, and three quarter hours will allow you to give the time more precisely. We will, of course, revisit this subject. Once you know how to count beyond twelve, the hour's division into 60 minutes can be expressed. Also, Germans (like most Europeans) utilize what is known in America as "military time" or a 24-hour clock.

Vokabeln 3-1 Also included in the vocabulary for Lesson 3 are the ordinal and cardinal numbers 1 through 12 from Lektion 3 above. der der das der die die der die das die

Ball Junge, die Jungen Lernen Nachmittag Stunde Uhr Uhrturm Uhrzeit Viertel Zahl, die Zahlen

bis zwei Uhr das ist gut eines Nachmittags ich kann... spielen es ist willst du ...?

ball boy, boys learning, study afternoon hour watch (timepiece); also "o'clock" clock tower time, time of day quarter number, numbers until two o'clock very well (lit.: "that is good") one (unspecified) afternoon I can play it is do you want ...? (familiar form)

German/Lesson 3

124

fragen spielen zählen

ask (a question) play count

dann halb nach spät vor zu

then half, halfway to about, after late before, until to



Pronunciation Guide >>

Grammatik 3-2 ~ Introduction to Nouns A noun is a fundamental part of speech, occurring in sentences in two different ways: as subjects (performers of action), or objects (recipients of action). As a generality, a noun is the name of a "person, place, or thing". Nouns are classified into proper nouns (e.g. "Janet"), common nouns (e.g. "girl"), and pronouns (e.g. "she" and "which"). A proper noun (also called proper name) is a noun which denotes a unique entity. The meaning of a proper noun, outside of what it references, is frequently arbitrary or irrelevant (for example, someone might be named Tiger Smith despite being neither a tiger nor a smith). Because of this, they are often not translated between languages, although they may be transliterated — for example, the German surname "Knödel" becomes "Knoedel" in English, as opposed to "Dumpling". Proper nouns are capitalized in English and all other languages that use the Latin alphabet; this is one way to recognize them. However, in German both proper and common nouns are capitalized (as are certain formal pronouns; see Grammatik 2-3).

Grammatik 3-3 ~ Gender of Nouns We have seen evidence of word gender in the pronouns we have been enountering; notably 'he', 'she', and 'it' in English and er, sie, and es in German. Just like many other languages (but not English), German has genders for nouns as well. Noun gender is indicated by the definite article, which should always be learned as part of the noun. For this reason, nouns presented in each lesson's Vokabeln include the gender appropriate definite article.

Definite Articles The definite article (bestimmter Artikel) is equivalent to an English 'the', and the three basic gender forms of definite articles in German are as follows: der masculine die feminine das neuter

To say 'the book' in German, you would say das Buch, because Buch is a neuter noun. To say 'the man' in German, you would say der Mann, because Mann is a masculine noun. To say 'the woman' in German, you would say die Frau, because Frau is a feminine noun. Noun gender does not always derive from actual gender where gender might be applicable. For example, 'the boy' is der Junge (masculine); but 'the girl' is das Mädchen (neuter). Also, nouns that have no inherent gender are not necessarily neuter. From this lesson: 'the watch or time piece' is die Uhr ('feminine').

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Because German is generally more structured than English, it is important when learning German nouns to always learn them with their gender correct definite article; and in the Vokabeln nouns are always given with their associated definite article. That is, you must memorize the word for 'book' in German as das Buch, not simply Buch. Not just definite articles, but indefinite articles and adjectives have endings that must match the gender of the noun they precede. Using the wrong gender can alter the meaning of a German sentence, so in forming a proper sentence with Buch, you will need to know that it is a neuter noun.

Indefinite Articles in addition to the definite articles—"the" in English and der-words in German—discussed above, both languages have indefinite articles (unbestimmter Artikel). Indefinite articles precede nouns in the same way that definite articles do, but convey a general or indefinite sense. These are "a" or "an" in English. Thus, 'the book' or das Buch refers to a definite or specific book, whereas 'a book' or ein Buch is indefinite about which book is referred to. Indefinite articles also have gender as shown here: ein

der masculine

eine die feminine ein

das neuter

Here are some examples of indefinite articles (underlined) used in German sentences: Ich habe einen Ball.

I have a ball.

Heute lesen wir ein Buch.

Today we read a book.

Markus trifft einen Studenten auf der Straße. Mark meets a student on the street. Die Geschäftsleute haben eine Antwort.

The business people have an answer.

Ein Freund spielt Ball mit ihm.

A friend plays ball with him.

Why, you ask, are there words like einen in some sentences above—a spelling that does not appear in the gender table? The tables for both the definite and indefinite articles above are simplified at this stage, giving only articles in the nominative case (applied to words that are subjects of verbs). In the very next lesson you will start to address all the other cases in German. However, the nominative case is the one used to signify the gender of a noun, as in our Vokabeln.

Vokabeln 3-2 das die der das der

Buch Frau Knödel Mädchen Mann

lesen •

Pronunciation Guide >>

book woman dumpling (young) girl man read

German/Lesson 3

Übersetzung 3-1 Translate the following sentences into German: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

I am reading until ten o'clock. It is nine thirty. It is a quarter to ten. Cathy is a student at the university. She meets Mark on the street. Henry has a ball. The girl is a friend. Mr. Smith has a question. • Antworten >

126

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Lesson 2.04 - Eine Geschichte über Zürich German/Lesson 4 >

Lesestück 4-1 ~ Eine Geschichte über Zürich Zürich ist die größte Stadt der Schweiz. Sie liegt am Ausfluss des Zürichsees und ist die Hauptstadt des gleichnamigen Kantons, des Kantons Zürich. Zürich ist ausgesprochen schön gelegen, am nördlichen Ende des Zürichsees—bei klarem Wetter hat man eine gute Sicht auf die Glarner Alpen. Zürich ist das Zentrum der schweizer Zürich: am Ausfluss des Zürichsees Bankenwirtschaft. Neben den beiden Grossbanken ('Credit Suisse' und 'UBS') haben auch etliche kleinere Bankinstitute ihren Sitz in der Stadt. Although this short story contains quite a number of impressive German nouns and adjectives, with the aid of Vokabeln 4-1 following you should have no trouble reading and understanding it. The passage makes considerable use of the German genitive case (English possessive case), which you have not yet learned. However, a clue applicable here: translate des as "of the" or "of" and note there are other der-words that also mean "of the".

Vokabeln 4-1 die Alpen

Alps

der Ausfluss

outlet, effluence

die Bankinstitute

banking institutes

die Bankenwirtschaft

banking business

das Ende

end

die Grossbanken

major banks

die Hauptstadt

capital city

das Haus

house

der Kanton

canton

das Lesestück

reading passage

(of a lake)

(Swiss state)

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128

die Schweiz

Switzerland

die Sicht

view

der Sitz

office

das Wetter

weather

das Zentrum

center (centre)

das Zürich

Zurich

der Zürichsee

Lake Zurich

d.h. (das heißt)

i.e. ("that is" in Latin)

Glarner Alpen

Glarner Alps

man hat...

one has...

nach Hause

(toward) home

(city and canton in Switzerland)

(compare: zu Hause = "at home")

anrufen geben (gab, gegeben) kommen (kam, gekommen) liegen (lag, gelegen)

call, telephone give come lie (lay, lain)

am (an dem) ausgesprochen bei beiden etliche gleichnamig größte klar klein neben nördlich schweizer

at the markedly in two a number of, quite a few, several same named largest clear small besides northern of or pertaining to Swiss

Pronunciation Guide >>

Grammatik 4-1 ~ Introduction to adjectives An adjective is a part of speech which can be thought of as a "describing word"—typically, an adjective modifies a noun. In both English and German, adjectives come before the noun they describe or modify. In many other languages (such as French) they usually come after the noun. Here are some examples of adjectives (underlined) you have already encountered:

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129

Ich habe viel Arbeit.

I have much work.

Wir haben keinen Käse.

We have no cheese.

Bei klarem Wetter hat man eine gute Sicht. In clear weather, one has a good view Zürich ist die größte Stadt.

Zurich is the largest city.

Because nouns are capitalized in German, it is fairly obvious in these sentences where the adjectives occur: just before the nouns they modify. Note how the endings on German adjectives can change, depending upon the noun (keinen Käse; klarem Wetter; gute Sicht)—specifically, the gender and case of the noun they are modifying. Before explaining the basic rules governing adjective endings, you need to have a better understanding of person, gender, and case in German nouns—concepts that will be explored in the next few lessons. Finally, realize that the ordinal numbers you learned in Lektion 3 are, in fact, adjectives—subject to the same rules governing word endings for adjectives. Wer ist das dritte Mädchen?

Who is the third girl?

Wir verstehen nur die erste Lektion. We understand only the first lesson.

Gespräch 4-1 ~ Das neue Mädchen • • • • • •

Markus und Helena sind Freunde. Markus: Lena, wer ist das neue Mädchen? Die Brünette dort drüben. Helena: Ich glaube, sie heißt 'Karoline'. Markus: Sie ist sehr schön. Helena: Sie ist hübsch, wenn man kleine Mädchen mit langen dunklen Haaren mag. Markus: Ja. Ihre Haare gefallen mir sehr. Helena: Markus, du bist ein Ferkel!

This short conversational passage contains more examples of adjectives.

Vokabeln 4-2 die die das das

Brünette Haare Mädchen Ferkel

gefallen glauben heißen mag dort (dort) drüben dunkel ihr hübsch klein lang neue

brunette hair(s) girl piglet appeal to believe name, call like, desire, wish there over there dark her cute short long new

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130

wenn wer?

if who?

Pronunciation Guide >>

Grammatik 4-2 ~ Nouns and pronouns in the accusative and dative As was noted previously when the concept of case was introduced for pronouns (Grammatik 2-2), there are four cases used in German. Recall that the nominative case in German corresponds to the subjective case in English and applies to nouns and pronouns used in a sentence as the subject of a verb. Nouns (and pronouns) that are used as objects of transitive (action) verbs are in the English objective case. If these are direct objects (recipients of the action of a verb), then these nouns are in the accusative case in German. If indirect objects, then these nouns are in the dative case in German. Essentially, the English objective case is divided, in German, into an accusative case used for direct objects and a dative case used for indirect objects.

Pronouns For comparison with English, recall that the singular personal pronouns (nominative case) are "I", "you", and "he/she/it" (1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons). The objective case, personal pronouns in English are "me", "you", and "him/her/it"—and are used for both direct and indirect objects of verbs. For example: He gives it [the Direct Object] to me [the Indirect Object]. The German accusative case, personal pronouns (singular) are: mich, dich, ihn/sie/es. The German dative case, personal pronouns (singular) are: mir, dir, ihm/ihr/ihm. Thus, the above English example sentence becomes, in German: Er gibt es [the Direct Object] mir [the Indirect Object]. Because mir is a dative pronoun, there is no need in German to use a modifier as in English, where "to" is used as a signal of an indirect object. The following table summarizes the German pronouns in three cases for both singular and plural number: Singular

1st person

Plural

NOM.

ACC.

DAT.

NOM.

ACC.

DAT.

ich

mich

mir

wir

uns

uns

2nd person du (Sie*) dich (Sie*) dir (Ihnen*)

ihr (Sie*) euch (Sie*) euch (Ihnen*)

3rd person er, sie, es ihn, sie, es ihm, ihr, ihm sie

sie

ihnen

* Polite form Recall from Gespräch 2-1 the "incomplete" sentence Und Ihnen? ('And you?'). Note that the pronoun agrees in case (here, dative) with the implied sentence — Und wie geht es Ihnen? The same rule is evident in Gespräch 1-1 (Und dir?). Such agreement is important to convey the correct meaning. Tables giving the German personal pronouns in all cases can be found in an appendix: Pronoun Tables.

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131

Nouns Nouns do not change their form (spelling) relative to case in German; instead, a preceding article indicates case. You have learned the nominative case definite and indefinite articles (Grammatik 3-3: der, die, das and ein, eine. ein) for each of the three noun genders. Now we will learn the accusative (used to signal a direct object) and dative (used to signal an indirect object) articles. First, the definite articles: Singular

Plural

NOM. ACC. DAT. NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine der

den

dem

die

die

den

Feminine

die

die

der

die

die

den

Neuter

das

das

dem

die

die

den

This table might seem a bit overwhelming (and there is yet one more case in German: the genitive!), but some points to note can make memorizing much easier. First, as you can see from the table, gender does not really exist for plural nouns. No matter what the noun gender in its singular number, its plural always has the same set of definite articles: die, die, den for nominative, accusative, and dative cases. The plural der-words are similar to the feminine singular der-words, differing only in the dative case. Another point: the dative for both masculine and neuter nouns is the same: dem. Finally, for feminine, neuter, and plural nouns, there is no change between nominative and accusative cases. Thus, only for masculine nouns is there a definite article change in the accusative compared with the nominative. The following examples demonstrate the use of the definite article in various parts of speech: Du hast die Wurst und den Käse.

You have the sausage and the cheese.

(accusative case)

Die Geschäftsleute verstehen die Arbeit The business associates understand the work. (nominative and accusative cases) Zürich ist die größte Stadt.

Zurich is the largest city.

(nominative case)

In the last example, you need to know that in both English and German, the noun (or pronoun) that follows the verb 'to be' is a predicate noun, for which the correct case is the nominative. That is why, in English, 'It is I' is grammatically correct and 'It is me' is simply incorrect. The indefinite articles are as follows: Singular NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine ein

einen einem

Feminine

eine

eine

einer

Neuter

ein

ein

einem

Of course, there are no plural indefinite articles in German or English (ein means "a". "an", or "one"). It is important to see that there is a pattern in the case endings added to ein related to the der-words in the definite articles table above. For example, the dative definite article for masculine nouns is dem—the indefinite article is formed by adding -em onto ein to get einem. The dative definite article for feminine nouns is der—the indefinite is ein plus -er or einer. These ending changes will be covered in greater detail in a future lesson. You will see that there are a number of words (adjectives, for example) whose form relative changes by addition of these endings to signal the case of the noun they modify. Finally, we can see a pattern relationship between these "endings" and the 3rd person pronouns as well:

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132

NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine indef. article

Feminine

Neuter

ein

einen einem

3rd pers. pronoun er

ihn

ihm

indef. article

eine

einer

3rd pers. pronoun sie

sie

ihr

indef. article

ein

einem

es

ihm

eine

ein

3rd pers. pronoun es

We could construct a similar table to compare the definite articles to the 3rd person pronouns. And in that case, we would also see how the plural definite articles (die, die, den) compare with the third person plural pronouns (sie, sie, ihnen).

Grammatik 4-3 ~ Interrogatives You have encountered nearly all of the interrogatives commonly used in German (review Grammatik 1-2): wann warum was wer wie wieviel wo wohin

when why what who how how much where where (to)

Warum sind Sie müde? Was ist das? Wer ist das Mädchen? Wie geht es dir? Wieviel Uhr ist es? Wo ist das Buch? Wohin gehst du?

In a question, interrogatives replace the unknown object and establish the class of answer expected. Was haben Sie?

What do you have?

(Expected is a 'thing')

Wieviel Arbeit ist zu viel?

How much work is too much? (Expected is a 'quantity')

Wann gehst du nach Hause? When do you go home?

(Expected is a sense of 'time')

Wo ist der Zürichsee?

(Expected is a 'place')

Where is Lake Zurich?

Note that the English construction for some of the questions differs from the German in that the former uses the progressive form of "do".

Übersetzung 4-1 Translate the following sentences into German: 1. 2.

They have a good view of the Alps. Lake Zurich is very beautiful. • Antworten >

133

Review 2.01 German/Lesson 5 >

Wiederholung Lesson 5 is a review (Wiederholung) lesson to summarize the German language lessons presented in Lessons 1 through 4. You should, then, return to Lektion 1 and review (that is, reread) each of the four lessons back up to this point. For a more advanced course, you might now incorporate each of the advanced lessons into this "review" process. That is: review Lesson 1, then do Lesson 1A, review Lesson 2, then do Lesson 2A, etc.

Parts of Speech and Word Order Sentences are composed of parts that perform specific functions. You have been introduced to most (but not all) the major parts of speech: pronouns/nouns, verbs, and adjectives; and how these are expressed in German compared with English. Consider the following: Ich brauche Wurst und Käse I (pronoun as subject) need (verb) sausage and cheese (nouns as direct objects) Haben sie zu viel Arbeit? Have (verb) they (pronoun subject) too much (adjectives) work (noun direct object)? Word order in a simple sentence follows that used in English. Subject and verb are reversed to form a question. In English, but not in German, the question sentence could also be stated (and, in fact, occurs more often in the US) as 'Do they have too much work?'

Nouns Nouns are words that typically occur in sentences as either subjects (performers of some action) or objects (recipients of some action). Most nouns are the name of either a "person, place, or thing" and, in German, are always capitalized. Every noun in German has an "assigned" gender (masculine, feminine, neuter), and we learn each noun with its nominative case, definite article (der, die, das, respectively) in order to also learn that gender. Thus, a Vokabeln section for nouns is presented thusly: der die der das die die die

Anhang, die Anhänge Brücke Freund, die Freunde Gespräch, die Gespräche Grammatik Lektion Straße

appendix, appendices (singular and plural) bridge friend, friends (singular and plural) conversation, conversations grammar (note irregular stress) lesson (note irregular stress) street

134

Section 2.02 ~ Zürich, Switzerland

135

Lesson 2.05 - Die Wohnung German/Lesson 6 >

Die Wohnung ~ The Apartment

Gespräch 6-1 ~ Ein Bruder besucht Markus Markus studiert Biologie an der Universität. Er besucht die Vorlesungen und dann geht er nach Hause. Er wohnt nicht bei seinen Eltern; er mietet sich eine kleine Wohnung. Sie hat nur drei Zimmer. Gegen Abend zeigt er sie seinem Bruder. • Markus: Karl. Herein! • Karl:     Tag, Markus! Mutti grüßt dich. Karl sieht sich um. • Karl:     Mir gefällt deine Wohnung. • Markus: Danke. Sie hat drei Zimmer. Es gibt eine Küche, ein Wohnzimmer, und ein Schlafzimmer. • Karl:     Ich habe sie gern! • Markus: This incomplete story and conversation introduces terms for items around the house (or apartment). Vokabeln 6-1 der Bruder die Eltern die Küche das Schlafzimmer die Vorlesung university) die Wohnung das Wohnzimmer das Zimmer, die Zimmer

brother parents kitchen bedroom class, instruction

es gibt gegen Abend gern haben gladly have") Herein! sich umsehen

there is towards evening like

zeigen besuchen

show visit, attend

(at a

apartment, flat living room room(s)

(i.e., "to

Come in! look around

(classes)

German/Lesson 6

136

grüßen mieten

greet rent

sein adjective)

his

(a possessive

Grammatik 6.1 ~ Introduction to verb conjugations In German, every grammatical person has, or potentially has, its own unique verb form. Describing the various verb forms is called verb conjugation. This variation in verb form is certainly one of the things that makes German grammar somewhat difficult for English speakers to learn. In English, only the 3rd person singular might differ from the verb form used with all of the other persons (see Grammatik 1-3) and that difference is made by adding an ending of 's' or 'es'. For example: I/you/we/they 'go', but he/she/it 'goes'. Let us have a closer look at German verbs. Usually, the infinitive form of a verb in German ends with -en—for examples, consider these verbs you have already learned: gehen ('go'), haben ('have'), and studieren ('study'). In order to "build" the different verb forms (that is, conjugate a verb), first cut off the '-en' ending from the infinitive. Then append a new ending according to the grammatical person. For regular verbs it works essentially as follows: pronoun

verb

in English:

ich

gehe

I

go

du

gehst

you

go

er/sie/es

geht

he/she/it goes

wir

gehen we

ihr

geht

sie

gehen they

go

you (pl.) go go

As you see in this example using the verb gehen, the singular 1st person ends with -e, the 2nd person with -st and 3rd person (no matter what gender) ends with -t. As for the plural forms, note that 1st and 3rd person in plural number (see Grammatik 1-3) are built the same way as the infinitive. Again note that, in English, only the verb form for the 3rd person singular is "unique". An easy way to remember the regular verb endings is the following mnemonic "Elephants standing together enjoy trumpeting endlessly". Seems simple enough. However, realize we are discussing here only the regular verb forms in the present tense (Präsens). You will learn quite soon that, unfortunately, there are many exceptions from these simple rules. An important one is the irregular verb sein ('to be') which is irregular in English as well (I am, you are, he is...).

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137

pronoun verb in English: ich

bin

I

am

du

bist

you

are

er/sie/es

ist

he/she/it

is

wir

sind we

ihr

seid

sie

sind they

are

you (plural) are are

At least 1st and 3rd person plural are the same. Another important verb is haben ('to have'): pronoun

verb

in English:

ich

habe

I

have

du

hast

you

have

er/sie/es

hat

he/she/it

has

wir

haben we

ihr

habt

sie

haben they

have

you (plural) have have

You see, it's not too irregular—only the 2nd and 3rd person singular constitute a small exception since the 'b' has vanished. English is somewhat curious in this respect as well: 'I have', but 'he has'. Future lessons will introduce you to the many irregular verbs in German. But you should now recognize what is happening to the verbs in German sentences. They are reflecting the person and number of their nominative case subjects. Recall these sentences from past lessons (verbs underlined here): Danke, es geht mir gut (verb is gehen) Ich habe viel Arbeit haben) Ist er zu Besuch? Du bist ein Schwein! Wie heißen Sie? heißen, and pronoun is formal) Wir spielen eine Stunde lang! spielen) Sie liegt am Ausfluss des Zürichsees. Zurich (verb is liegen)

Thanks, it goes well with me I have much work (verb is Is he visiting? (verb is sein) You are a pig! (verb is sein) What are you called? (verb is We play for one hour! (verb is It lies at the outlet of Lake

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Grammatik 6.2 ~ Case in German nouns Through our discussions on the personal pronouns, you have learned how pronouns have case. Nouns also have case—and in German, noun case can be expressed by the definite article (der). Recall this table from Lektion 3: der masculine die feminine das neuter

These der-words reflect noun gender in the nominative case—appropriate whenever a noun is used as the subject of a sentence. For other cases, the der words change. Expanding the table to present nominative (NOM.), accusative (ACC.), dative (DAT.), and genitive (GEN.) cases: NOM. ACC. DAT. GEN. der

den

dem

des

masculine

die

die

der

der

feminine

das

das

dem

des

neuter

die

die

den

der

 plural

Note, there are also der-word forms to be used for plural nouns. Fortunately, these are the same, no matter what the gender of the singular noun. For future reference, you can find the der-words summarized in Anhänge Drei. The following examples demonstrate the use of the definitive article in various parts of speech: Du hast die Wurst und den Käse. cheese. Die Geschäftsleute verstehen die Arbeit understand the work.

You have the sausage and the (accusative case) The business associates (nominative and accusative

cases) Sie liegt am Ausfluss des Zürichsees. (the) Lake Zurich.

It lies at the outlet of

(genitive case) Zürich ist die größte Stadt der Schweiz. Zurich is the largest city in (of the) Switzerland. (nominative and genitive cases) In the last example, remember that in both English and German, the noun (or pronoun) that follows the verb 'to be' is a predicate noun, for which the correct case is the nominative. That is why, in English, 'It is I' is grammatically correct and 'It is me' is incorrect. So consider the following (and note that case of each definite article is the same as in the last example above): Zürich ist der Kanton der gleichnamigen Stadt. of the same named city.

Zurich is the canton

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139

Grammatik 6.3 ~ Commands Ruf sie an, bitte! or Ruf sie bitte an! Gehen Sie nach Hause! Kommt mit! Gib es mir!

Call her, please. Go home (formal). Come with (plural)! Give me it!

Notice that in these sentences there are no subjects (except for #2). In German, as in English, there is a commandative form, a way to demand something using an understood you. In English, there is only one you-form and one command form. In German, since there are three you's, there are three ways to command. If the subject is singular (du), then the verb has no ending. If it is irregular, it takes the du-form, such as in essen (Iss!) or lesen (Lies!). If there is a plural subject (ihr), then the verb takes the ihr-form. Nothing else is changed. Most of the time, ihr-commands are used with children, but that is not always the case. In both of these sentences, the du or ihr is omitted. Formal is normal. The Sie stays (after the verb) and the verb is in its formal form. Although it is worded like a question, in written or spoken form, it is easy to tell the difference.

140

Lesson 2.06 - Mathematik German/Lesson 7 >

Einfache Mathematik ~ Simple Mathematics

Lernen 7 ~ Zählen von 13 bis 100 Once you have memorized the numbers from 1 to 12 (see Lernen 3), counting higher in German becomes very much like counting in English. From 13 to 19, add -zehn (10; "-teen" in English) after the cardinal number root: 13 – dreizehn (irregular in English: 'thirteen') 14 – vierzehn 15 – fünfzehn 16 – sechzehn (note that the 's' in sechs is dropped and the 'ch' is pronounced like the 'ch' in ich) 17 – siebzehn (note that the 'en' in sieben is dropped) 18 – achtzehn 19 – neunzehn Above 19 the counting system is constant: add -zig ("-ty" in English) to the cardinal root. Thus, we get: 20 – zwanzig 21 – einundzwanzig (note: 'one-and-twenty') 22 – zweiundzwanzig (note: 'two-and-twenty') And the same for 30, 40, 50....etc. 30 – dreißig (this is an exception to the -zig Rule) 40 – vierzig 50 – fünfzig 60 – sechzig 70 – siebzig 80 – achtzig 90 – neunzig 100 – hundert So, combining these, we get: 34  – vierunddreißig (note: 'four-and-thirty') 143 – hundertdreiundvierzig (note: 'hundred-three-and-forty') 170 – hundertsiebzig 199 – hundertneunundneunzig It would be excellent practice towards learning these numbers by counting (in German, of course) from 1 to 199—or counting along any continuous sequence that comes to mind. For example, start with your age and count to 50 (count down if appropriate).

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Grammatik 7-1 ~ Math Calculations The following table presents the symbols used for basic mathematics.

+ × ÷ = > < 3²

plus minus mal geteilt/dividiert durch ist gleich ist größer als ist kleiner als drei hoch zwei

We can use these symbols to ask and answer simple problems in mathematics. Some of the examples that follow include first a question (Frage) and then the answer (Antwort): Wieviel ist sechs und sieben? How much is 6 and 7? Sechs und sieben ist dreizehn 6 and 7 is 13 Wieviel ist fünfzig plus achtzehn? How much is 50 + 18? Fünfzig plus achtzehn ist gleich achtundsechzig 50 + 18 = 68 Wieviel ist siebzig minus zehn? How much is 70 - 10? Siebzig minus zehn ist gleich sechzig 70 - 10 = 60 Wieviel ist neun durch drei? How much is 9 divided by 3? Neun durch drei ist gleich drei 9 ÷ 3 = 3 Funf ist größer als zwei 5 > 2 Acht ist kleiner als siebzehn 8 < 17

Vokabeln 7-1 Counting to 199 is also included in the vocabulary for Lektion 7. die Antwort die Frage

answer question

geteilt/dividiert durch over [math] größer als greater than kleiner als smaller than geteilt/dividiert gleich hoch mal minus plus wieviel?

divided, forked, split equal, same, even tall, to the power of [math] times [math] minus plus how much?

142

Lesson 2.07 - Mein, Dein, und Sein German/Lesson 8 >

Grammatik 8-1 ~ Colors yellow: gelb blue: blau red: rot black: schwarz white: weiß orange: orange pink: pink violet: lila cyan: türkis brown: braun grey: grau light-grey: hellgrau dark-grey: dunkelgrau

Grammatik 8-2 ~ Possessive Adjectives, Pronouns, and the Genitive Case Recall the following from Gespräch 3-1: Karl: Ja. Und danach bringst du mich auf deinem Motorrad zu meiner Wohnung. Which translates: Carl: 'Yes. And after that take me on your motorcycle to my apartment'. The sentence demonstrates two of the possessive adjectives. These are (singular) 'my', 'your', and 'his/her/its' in English and mein, dein, and sein/ihr/sein in German. Note that because these are adjectives, the word ending must reflect the case and gender of the noun being modified (see Grammatik 4-1 above). In German, the genitive case correspond to the English possessive case or to the objective case proceeded by of to denote possession. If the possessive is not followed by a noun, it becomes a possessive pronoun. In general, possessive pronouns are rather rarely used in German (see Pronoun Tables).

German/Lesson 8

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NOM. ACC. DAT. POSS. ADJ. I, me

ich

mich

mir

mein

you

du

dich

dir

dein

he, him

er

ihn

ihm

sein

she, her

sie

sie

ihr

ihr

it

es

es

ihm

sein

we, us

wir

uns

uns

unser

you (all)

ihr

euch

euch

eurer

they, them

sie

sie

ihnen ihr

you (formal) Sie

Sie

Ihnen Ihr

The pattern in the case endings of the possessive adjectives is that seen in Lektion 4 for the word ein. We can generalize these endings as in the following table, where we can express plural endings because other so-called ein-words do have plurals: Ein-group Endings NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine --

--en

--em

Feminine

--e

--e

--er

Plural

--e

--e

--en

Neuter -- -- --em

The small group of words that take these endings (in addition to ein) includes the possessive adjectives and kein ("not any" or "no" in the sense of none).

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Lesson 2.08 - Einkaufen gehen German/Lesson 9 >

Einkaufen gehen ~ Going shopping

Lernen 9 ~ Die Kleidungsstücke (articles of clothing) German die Bluse der Gürtel das Hemd das Kleid die Hose der Hut die Kleidung die Jeans die Mütze/Haube der Pullover der Rock der Schuh die Shorts die Socke der Stiefel das T-Shirt

English blouse belt shirt dress pants (US)/trousers hat clothes (casual) jeans cap pullover skirt shoe shorts sock boot T-shirt

German plural die Blusen die Gürtel die Hemden die Kleider die Hosen die Hüte die Kleidungsstücke die Jeans die Mützen die Pullis, die Pullover die Röcke die Schuhe die Shorts die Socken die Stiefel die T-Shirts

Gespräche 9-1 ~ Katrin macht Besorgungen Katrin macht Besorgungen—besonders sucht sie neue Schuhe. Sie geht in das Einkaufszentrum. • • • •

Katrin:      Entschuldigen Sie. Ich brauche Schuhe. Wo sind sie? Verkäufer: Wir haben viele Schuhe. Welche Farbe möchten Sie? Katrin:       Ein Paar Schuhe in Weiß, bitte. Verkäufer: Da drüben.

Katrin probiert ein Paar Schuhe an. • • • •

Verkäufer: Passen sie? Katrin:       Nein, sie sind zu klein. Verkäufer: Möchten Sie diese Schuhe? Diese hier sind größer. Katrin:       Ja, danke. Katrin probiert die Schuhe an. Sie passen prima. • Verkäufer: Sie kosten neununddreißig Euro neunzehn. • Katrin:       Die Schuhe sind billig. Dann kaufe ich sie.

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Vokabeln 9-1 Included in this vocabulary lesson are the German nouns for various articles of clothing (Lernen 9 above). die das der die die das der der

Besorgungen Einkaufszentrum Euro Farbe Klamotten Paar Preis Verkäufer

errands shopping mall €uro color gear, stuff (things) pair, couple price sales clerk, sales assistant

neununddreißig Euro neunzehn

€ 39.19

anprobieren brauchen kaufen kosten mögen passen suchen

try on need buy cost would like fit [clothing] seek, look for

besonders billig prima welche

especially cheap topnotch, super which

2-2 Shopping-related Verbs There are a lot of verbs that have to do with shopping for clothes. The most prominent are listed below. anziehen - to put on (clothes) aussehen - to appear nehmen - to take wollen - to want (somewhat impolite) These verbs are used often, so it is necessary to learn them. Among them are separable verbs, irregular verbs, and modals.

Separable Verbs Anprobieren, aussehen and anziehen are separable verbs. It is easy to see this, as they each have a prefix of 'aus' or 'an'. When using the verb as the main verb of a sentence, separate the prefix and put it at the end of the sentence. When the verb is in infinitive form, leave it just as you see it.

Irregular Verbs Ausehen and nehmen are the two irregular verbs on this list. Both experience a change in the first 'e' in the du-form and er/sie/es-form. Du siehst ... aus und er/sie/es sieht ... aus. Du nimmst und er/sie/es nimmt.

Modals Möchten and wollen are the two modals introduced here. Modals are similar to the helping verbs in English and cause the other verb to go to the end in the infinitive form. They also have a strange conjugation. Möchten changes in er/sie/es form to möchte (the same as the ich-form). In fact all modals have the same er/sie/es-form and ich-form.

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Wollen is like most other modals: it has a different vowel in singular and plural, except when using formal you. Ich will (not to be confused with future tense), du willst, er/sie/es will, wir wollen, ihr wollt, und sie/Sie wollen. All of this verb conjugation and more can be found in Reference Table II.

3 Accusative Case You have already learned the pronouns and articles in the nominative case. Now it is time for the accusative case.

3-1 Example Story 2 You now need more clothes. You drive to a mall and go to the clothing department store. Du suchst zwei Jeans, drei Hemden und einen Gürtel. Du siehst die Jeans und nimmst zwei. Du kaufst jetzt nur die Hemden und den Gürtel. VERKÄUFERIN: Die Gürtel sind da. DU: Haben Sie auch Gürtel in Braun? VERKÄUFERIN: Ja, da hinten. Du nimmst den Gürtel in Braun, aber er ist billig. Du kaufst zwei. VERKÄUFERIN: Noch etwas? DU: Ja, ich brauche drei Hemden. VERKÄUFERIN: Hemden haben wir. Sie sind hier. Du nimmst ein Hemd in Blau, und zwei in Rot. Du probierst die Hemden, die Jeans, und die Gürtel an. Alles passt. DU: Was kosten diese Klamotten? VERKÄUFERIN: Zwei Jeans, drei Hemden, und zwei Gürtel kosten fünfundsechzig Euro. You give the clerk the money and take the clothing home.

3-2 Accusative Case Articles Remember that in the nominitive case, the articles are der, die, das, and die, listed in MFNP (masculine, feminine, neuter, and plural) order. Well, in the accusative case, only the masculine form changes to den. An easy memory hook is "Der goes to den and the rest stay the same." The ein-forms undergo the same change. Masculine "ein" goes to "einen" and the rest stay the same. Nom. Acc. Nom.

Acc.

Masc. der

den

ein

einen

Fem.

die

die

eine

eine

Neut. das

das

ein

ein

Plur.

die

does not exist does not exist

die

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3-3 Prices Two easy words describe prices. billig - cheap teuer - expensive These adjectives are applied to the products you buy, never to the word "Preis". Anyway, you rather say "Das ist billig/teuer." (meaning the product you buy) than "Der Preis ist niedrig/hoch."

3-4 A DDR Joke In einem Kaufhaus in der DDR fragt ein Kunde: "Haben sie keine Unterhosen?". Die Verkäuferin antwortet: "Nein, wir haben keine Badehosen. Im zweiten Stock haben wir keine Unterhosen!" fragen

to ask

DDR

Deutsche Demokratische Republik (German Democratic Republic, long since reunited with the BRD)

Kaufhaus

very big shop

Kunde

client

Unterhosen

underpants

Badehosen

swimming trunks

Im zweiten Stock

on the second floor

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Review 2.02 German/Lesson 10 >

Wiederholung Lesson 10 is a review (Wiederholung) lesson to summarize the German language lessons presented in Lessons 6 through 9. You should, as well, return to Lektion 6 and review (that is, completely reread) each of the four lessons back up to this point. For a more advanced course, you should now incorporate each of the advanced lessons into this "review" process. That is: review Lesson 6, then do Lesson 6A, review Lesson 7, then do Lesson 7A, etc. If the advanced lessons have already been completed, then now review lessons in the order 6 -> 6A -> 7 -> 7A -> 8, etc.

Verb Conjugation You have learned that there is a relationship between the subject of a verb and the form that verb takes in German. Some verbs follow a predictable regular pattern, while others are less predictable (irregular verbs). verb: pronoun Basicform ich du er/sie/es wir ihr sie Sie (formal)

können (can) gehen (go) verb I (irreg.) verb II können gehen kann gehe kannst gehst kann geht können gehen könnt geht können gehen können gehen

sein (to be) verb III (irregular) sein bin bist ist sind seid sind sind

As you can see, any verb uses the same declination for wir, sie and Sie. Also, er/sie/es uses the same declination for all three genders.

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Section 2.03 ~ Hannover, Germany

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Lesson 2.09 - Verbtempus und Wortstellung German/Lesson 11 > |

Ein Treffen in Hannover (WIP) (Don't be too afraid, it's a lot of text but simple grammar!) Katja hat sich mit einem Freund, Markus, verabredet, den sie im Chat kennengelernt hat. Sie hat ein Foto von ihm gesehen, und vielleicht gefällt er ihr ja. Am "Kröpcke", der größten U-Bahnstation in Hannover, steigt sie aus der U-Bahn. Täglich betreten Hunderte von Menschen diese Station, Schüler, Studenten, Angestellte und Rentner. Sie ist 22, studiert seit 2 Jahren Tiermedizin in Hannover, und ist im Moment ledig. Sie geht auf die Rolltreppe, betritt die Stufen, und fährt zwei Stockwerke nach oben. Währenddessen schaut sie nach unten. Ihre U-Bahn hat die Station verlassen. Eine andere U-Bahn hat bereits gehalten, und die Fahrgäste sind aufgestanden und ausgestiegen. Sie kommt auf der zweiten Ebene an und geht weiter, Richtung Sonnenlicht, in die Pasarelle. Die Pasarelle führt Richtung Hauptbahnhof, und links und rechts locken die Schaufenster der Geschäfte. Nach einer Weile hat sie die Rolltreppe erreicht, die zum Hauptbahnhof führt. Nun sieht sie in voller Breite den Hauptbahnhof von Hannover, und davor einen Sockel mit einer Statue von einem Pferd mit Reiter. Dort hat Markus schon fünf Minuten gewartet und begrüßt sie, bevor sie sich ins Eiscafe nebenan setzen.

Vokabeln Katja

Female first name

Markus

Male first name

sich verabreden

to make a date

Chat

Internet Chat

kennenlernen

to get to know someone

kennengelernt

Partizip Perfekt von kennenlernen

das Foto

Photographic Picture

sehen

to see

gesehen

Partizip Perfekt von "sehen"

vielleicht

perhaps

gefallen

to please someone (with dative)

er gefällt ihr

She likes him (he pleases her, literally)

Kröpcke

The name of Hanover's biggest subway station

U-Bahn

subway

die größte

greatest (feminine here)

die Station

the station

aussteigen

getting off (a train, investment etc.)

täglich

daily

betreten

to enter

Hunderte

hundreds

diese

female form of "this"

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151

der Schüler, die Schüler(pl) "pupil" (British engl.) der Student

student

der Angestellte

Clerk

der Rentner, die Rentner(pl) pensioner studieren

to study

im Moment

currently

ledig

a person not having a partner

gehen

to go

Rolltreppe

escalator

die Stufe

stair

fahren

to drive (often specializing from engl. to travel towards)

währenddessen

"during this"

schauen

look

ihre

her (form for female possessions of a female person)

verlassen

to leave

verlassen

Partizip Perfekt von "verlassen"

eine andere

another (feminine object)

bereits

already

der Fahrgast

passenger

die Fahrgäste

passengers (pl)

aufstehen

to stand up

aufgestanden

Partizip Perfekt von "aufstehen"

ausgestiegen

Partizip Perfekt von "aussteigen"

die Ebene

level/plateau

weitergehen

to go on

sie geht weiter

she goes on

das Sonnenlicht

sunlight

die Richtung

direction

Richtung Sonnenlicht

towards sunlight

die Passarelle

passage way

führen

lead

Hauptbahnhof

central station (in most German cities this is in the city centre)

Richtung Hauptbahnhof

in direction of the central station

links

left

rechts

right

locken

tempt (not to confuse with "die Locken" = locks, curls!!)

das Schaufenster

display window

die Schaufenster

plural of "das Schaufenster"

das Geschäft

the shop

die Geschäfte

the shops

der Geschäfte

of the shops

nach einer Weile

After a while

erreichen

reach

erreicht

Partizip Perfekt von erreichen

die zum Hauptbahnhof führt

that leads to the central station

German/Lesson 11

Word Order Inverted word order occurs under several circumstances, among which are: • Interrogatives • Time Expressions • Subordinating Conjunctions For interrogatives, a simple statement, "Du hast das Buch." becomes "Hast du das Buch?" when converting it to a question. The method is simply switching the verb and subject of the sentence. Time expressions, such as "Nach der Schule" prefacing a sentence cause inverted word order. The formula is "Time Expression", "Verb", "Subject" and "Rest of sentence." Practically applied, "Every day, I go to school" becomes "Jeden Tag gehe ich zur Schule." Subordinating conjunctions connect a dependent clause to an independent clause. Some subordinating conjunctions are: dass (that), obwohl (although), seit (since), weil (because), and wenn (if, when). The formula for a dependent clause is "subordinating conjunction" "subject" "rest of clause" "verb" and is offset from the independent clause by a comma. Here are some examples (the dependent clause is underlined): Ich kann das Buch nicht kaufen, weil ich kein Geld habe. Ich kaufe das Buch für dich, da du kein Geld hast. Wenn unsere Eltern uns besuchen, schenken sie uns Geschenke. I can't buy the book because I have no money. I am buying the book for you, as you have no money. When our parents visit us, they give us presents.

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153

Lesson 2.10 - Undeveloped German/Lesson 12

165

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Lesson 3.03 - Mach dir keine Sorgen! German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen! Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lektion Drei für Fortgeschrittene

Gespräch 3-3 ~ Mach dir keine Sorgen! Beim Ballspielen macht Karl sich Sorgen um die Uhrzeit. • Karl:        Wie spät ist es jetzt? • Heinrich: Es ist erst halb eins. • Karl:        Kannst du mir bitte sagen, wenn es Viertel vor zwei ist? • Heinrich: Warum? • Karl:        Dann muss ich nach Hause gehen. • Heinrich: Und jetzt ist es schon ein Uhr einunddreißig. • Karl:        Du bist komisch! Hier, ich kicke dir den Ball zu. • Heinrich: Ja. Dann kann ich ihn dir zurückkicken. • Karl:        Ja. Und danach bringst du mich auf deinem Motorrad zu meiner Wohnung.

Vokabeln 3-3 das die das die das die die

Ballspiel Minute Motorrad Sorge, die Sorgen Viertel Woche Wohnung

ball game minute motorcycle problem(s), worry(-ies) quarter, one-fourth week apartment

mach dir keine Sorgen! nach Hause gehen

do not worry! go home

kicken zurückkicken

kick kick back, return kick

beim danach dein erst halb jetzt komisch mein schon

when, while after that your only half now comical, funny my already

(usually, "at the")

German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen! zurück warum

167

back why

(interrogative)

Grammatik 3-5 ~ Numbers Gender of Ordinals Ordinal numbers are adjectives, and therefore have forms for each of the three genders in German. The forms are derived from the feminine form (as introduced in the beginning of Lesson 3) by adding an 'r' (masculine) or an 's' (neuter). Thus: erste (feminine), erster (masculine), and erstes (neuter). Examples: ~ erster Mann ('first man'); letzter Mann ('last man'); siebter Himmel (7th heaven) ~ zehnte Frau ('tenth woman'); zweite Woche ('second week') ~ drittes Mädchen ('third girl')

Grammatik 3-6 ~ Expressions of Time Idioms used in Telling Time As in English, there are a number of idiomatic phrases associated with giving or telling time. For example, note that the half hour is given as approaching the next hour. The German preposition, um, is used to mean "at" a given time. Es ist halb elf.

It is half past ten (10:30).

Er kommt um sieben Uhr.

He is coming at seven o'clock.

Sie kommt immer ungefähr um acht Uhr. She always comes around eight o'clock. Wir essen gegen sieben Uhr.

We eat about seven o'clock.

Sie gehen nach Hause auf eine Stunde.

They go home for an hour.

Es ist viertel zehn1

It is a quarter past nine

1

This idiom (Es ist viertel zehn) is used especially in the southern parts of Germany, but is becoming popular among young Germans throughout the Country.

Periods of the Day There are a number of adverbial phrases used in German to denote time periods during the day. Common ones are listed here: am Morgen

in the morning; also as morgens2 or des Morgens

am Mittag

at noon, midday; also as mittags or des Mittags2

am Nachmittag in the afternoon; also as nachmittags or des Nachmittags2 am Abend

in the evening; also as abends or des Abends2

am Tage

in the daytime

in der Nacht

at night

gegen Abend

towards evening

gegen Morgen

towards morning

German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen! 2

Forms like morgens and des Nachmittags would tend to be used to indicate customary or habitual actions, as in this sense: Morgens spiele ich. = In the morning I (usually) play. However, these forms aren't used much anymore.

Additional Notes The first sentence in Gespräch 3-3 uses Beim Ballspielen in the sense of "during the ball game" or "while playing ball". Beim is a contraction of bei dem or "at the". However, das Ballspiel is a noun that represents an action ("playing with a ball"), so it is correct to use beim in the sense intended here. It is not the most beautiful way of saying this—but is correct. With the infinitive of a verb you can use beim too: Beim Spielen means "while playing". This form is more common in modern German language.

Vokabeln 3-4 der der der der der die der

Abend Himmel Mittag Morgen, die Morgen Nachmittag Nacht Tag, die Tage

evening heaven noon, noontime morning(s) afternoon night day(s)

abreisen

depart (from a trip)

auf gegen letzt(er) ungefähr

for (duration), after towards, about, approximately last (at) about, approximately

Note that morgen does not change in plural; thus, Die Morgen = "the mornings". It is uncommon to use it in plural, unless as a measure of land Vier Morgen Land = "four 'morgens of land". For a plural use of "mornings", it is better to substitute die Vormittage.

Andere Wörter 3A Using these additional vocabulary words, you may be able to restate Gespräch 3-3 above, altering the meaning (or time of day) of the conversation. die Hälfte die Viertelstunde •

Pronunciation Guide >>

half quarter of an hour

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German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen!

Übersetzung 3-2 Translate the following sentences into German: 1.

I am always at home in the morning. • Antworten >

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Section 3.02 ~ Innsbruck, Austria

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Lesson 3.04 - Die Geschäftsleute German/Level III/Die Geschäftsleute Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lektion Vier für Fortgeschrittene

Gespräch 4-2 ~ Die Geschäftsleute Herr Schmidt und Herr Standish, als sie sich am Hauptsitz endlich begegnen. Frau Baumann ist auch da. • Herr Schmidt:   Guten Morgen, Herr Standish! Darf ich mich vorstellen: mein Name ist Schmidt, Johann Schmidt. • Herr Standish:   Es freut mich sehr, Sie kennen zu lernen. Ich heiße Miles Standish. • Herr Schmidt:   Ich glaube, dass Sie Frau Baumann schon kennen. • Herr Standish:   Ja, gewiss. Wie geht es Ihnen, Frau Baumann? • Frau Baumann: Danke, es geht mir gut. • Herr Schmidt:   Verstehe ich es richtig, dass Sie gestern ankamen und morgen ins Wiener Büro reisen müssen? • Herr Standish:   Ja, am Montag fuhr ich mit dem Schnellzug durch den Ärmelkanaltunnel. Wenn ich meine Arbeit abgeschlossen habe, werde ich am Donnerstag nach Zürich und Wien reisen. • Herr Schmidt:   Sehr gut. Bitte sprechen Sie vor Ende der Woche noch mit Frau Kaufmann. • Frau Baumann: Sie arbeitet in der Geschäftsbibliothek. • Herr Schmidt:   Das ist richtig. Die Bibliothek. • Herr Standish:   Ich werde es sofort tun. • Herr Schmidt:   Alles klar. • Frau Baumann: Später werden wir eine Versammlung in der Buchhaltung abhalten. • Herr Standish:   Sehr gut. Auf Wiedersehen Frau Baumann. Auf Wiedersehen Herr Schmidt. • Herr Schmidt:   Auf Wiedersehen.

Vokabeln 4-3 der die die die das der die der der der das die das

Ärmelkanaltunnel Arbeit Bibliothek Buchhaltung Büro Donnerstag Geschäftsbibliothek Montag Name Schnellzug Sehen Versammlung Wien

Chunnel (England-France channel tunnel) work library accounting office office Thursday company (business) library Monday name express train vision meeting Vienna (Austria)

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das Wiedersehen die Woche das Zürich

reunion week Zurich

alles klar am Montag dann wenn Darf ich... ? Es freut mich sehr Guten Morgen! Ja, gewiss vor Ende der Woche Wiener Büro

all right, everything clear on Monday at such time when May I... ? It gives me pleasure Good morning! certainly, of course before the end of the week Vienna branch office

abhalten abschließen ankommen (kam an, angekommen) fahren geben kennen lernen müssen reisen sehen tun sich vorstellen werden würde

hold complete

bitte da durch endlich gestern nach natürlich mich mit schnell sofort wieder

please there through, by means of finally yesterday to, towards of course myself (reflexive) with fast, quick, rapid directly, forthwith again, once again



Pronunciation Guide >>

arrive ride give meet, make acquaintance must travel see, look do, accomplish introduce will would

(greeting)

(aux.)

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Grammatik 4-4 ~ Personal Pronouns: Accusative Case Here are the personal pronouns in the accusative case: Singular 1st person

mich

2nd person dich (Sie*)

Plural

me

uns

us

you

euch (Sie*)

you

3rd person ihn, sie, es    him, her, it sie (all genders)    them

*Polite form. The accusative case is that of the object of a verb. Only transitive verbs take direct objects. The pronoun (and noun in two cases) object in each of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English: Können Sie mich verstehen? Ich kann Sie verstehen. Ich kann sie verstehen Ich kann ihn dir zurück kicken!

Can you understand me? I can understand you. I can understand (her or them). I can kick it back to you!

Note the order of the pronouns in this last sentence. If the direct object (here: ihn) is a personal pronoun, it precedes the dative (dir); if it were a noun, the dative would precede it, as in these sentences: Hier, ich kicke dir den Ball zu. Here, I kick the ball to you. Darf ich Ihnen meine Freundin vorstellen? May I introduce my friend to you? Other uses of the accusative case in German will be explored in future lessons. Tables of the personal pronouns in all cases are summarized in Pronoun Tables.

Grammatik 4-5 ~ Personal Pronouns in the Dative Case Here are the personal pronouns in the dative case: Singular 1st person

mir

2nd person dir (Ihnen*)

Plural

me

uns

us

you

euch (Ihnen*)

you

3rd person ihm, ihr, ihm him, her, it ihnen (all genders) them

*Polite form. The dative case is that of the indirect object of a verb. The pronoun indirect object of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English: Es geht mir gut Wie geht es dir? Und können Sie mir sagen...? Karl gibt ihm den Ball Wie geht es Ihnen?

It goes (for) me well How goes it (for or with) you And can you tell me...? Karl gave him the ball. How goes it (with) you? (How are you?)

This last sentence is an example from Gespräch 1-2 using the polite form of 'you'. Whether singular or plural must be established by context. This next sentence translates with ihnen as 'them': Wie geht es ihnen?

How goes it with them? (How are they?)

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The meaning of ihnen (or Ihnen) would have to come from context in a conversation. Another use of the dative case in German is after these prepositions: aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu. You will be introduced to the meanings of these prepositions over many future lessons rather than all at once, because some have many meanings in English. Indeed, because each language associates specific prepositions with many common sayings (and these often do not correspond in German and English), these "little" words can be troublesome for students. Nonetheless, you should memorize now the list of prepositions above to always remember their association with the dative case. Tables of the pronouns in all cases are summarized in Appendix 2. Word order in a German sentence with an indirect object depends upon whether that direct object is a pronoun or a noun. If the direct object is a noun, the dative precedes the accusative; if the direct object is a personal pronoun, the accusative precedes the dative: Ich gebe dem Jungen den Ball. I give the boy the ball. Ich gebe ihm den Ball.

I give him the ball.

Ich gebe ihn ihm.

I give it to him.

Ich gebe ihn dem Jungen.

I give it to the boy.

English sentence structure is similar.

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Lesson 3.05 - Der Engländer in Österreich German/Level III/Der Engländer in Österreich Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lektion Fünf

Rathaus von St. Pölten

Gespräch 5-2 ~ Der Engländer in Österreich

Republik Österreich

Wenn er auf den Kontinent fährt, wandert Herr Standish gern. Heute früh fährt er in die Stadt St. Pölten in Niederösterreich. Er spricht mit einer fremden Frau: • Herr Standish: Entschuldigen Sie bitte. Wo ist hier ein Hotel? • Die Frau: Gleich dort drüben. Das ist das Hotel "Zur Post". • Herr Standish: Gibt es ein Restaurant darin? • Die Frau: Ja gewiss! Ein Restaurant mit einfacher Küche, besonders zum Abendessen. Aber ich könnte Ihnen ein anderes Restaurant empfehlen. Es heißt 'Alt-Wien', und es gibt dort das beste Frühstück. Das Restaurant ist links neben dem Hotel, um die Ecke. • Herr Standish: Danke sehr. Und können Sie mir sagen, wo das Rathaus von St. Pölten ist?

German/Level III/Der Engländer in Österreich • • • • • •

Die Frau: Wie bitte? Herr Standish: Wie komme ich zum Rathaus? Die Frau: Rechts um die Ecke und dann immer geradeaus – ungefähr ein Kilometer. Herr Standish: Danke sehr. Die Frau: Bitte sehr. Wiedersehen. Herr Standish: Auf Wiedersehen.

Vokabeln 5A das Abendessen [das] Österreich die Ecke das Frühstück das Hotel der Kilometer die Küche der Kontinent [das] Niederösterreich das Rathaus das Restaurant die Stadt

supper (evening meal) Austria corner breakfast hotel kilometer cooking, cuisine continent (Europe) (federal state of) Lower Austria city hall restaurant city

Bitte sehr Entschuldigen Sie Es gibt dort... Gibt es...? Guten Tag immer geradeaus können Sie Wie bitte?

You're welcome Pardon me, excuse me There is there... Is there..? good day (parting) straight on ahead could you (polite form) Pardon me? (polite "come again?")

empfehlen fahren kommen wandern sagen sprechen

recommend travel come, go, get wander say, tell speak

anderer, andere, anderes besonders bitte das dann darin ein eins fremd gern gleich

other especially please that then therein a (indefinite article) one (cardinal number) unknown gladly just, right (correct), right here, same

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German/Level III/Der Engländer in Österreich heute früh hier ich links neben rechts ungefähr von wie wo zu

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this morning here (in this place) I (personal pronoun) left (direction) next to right (direction) approximately of (Rathaus von St. Pölten = St. Polten City Hall) how (interrogative) where (interrogative) to (zum = contraction of zu dem)

Andere Wörter 4A der der die die

Bahnhof Flughafen Polizeiwache Post

genau heute

train station airport police station post office exact(ly) today

Lesestück 5-1 ~ Eine Geschichte über St. Pölten

Karte: St. Pölten in Österreich

Niederösterreich ist sowohl flächenmäßig als auch nach Einwohnern das größte der neun österreichischen Bundesländer. Sankt Pölten ist die Landeshauptstadt von Niederösterreich. Der Name St. Pölten geht auf den heiligen Hippolytos zurück, nach dem die Stadt benannt wurde. Die Altstadt befindet sich dort, wo vom 2. bis zum 4. Jahrhundert die Römerstadt Aelium Cetium stand. 799 wurde der Ort als "Treisma" erwähnt. Das Marktrecht erhielt St. Pölten um 1050, zur Stadt erhoben wurde es 1159. Bis 1494 stand St. Pölten im Besitz des Bistums Passau, dann wurde es landesfürstliches Eigentum. Bereits 771 findet sich ein Benediktinerkloster, ab 1081 gab es Augustiner-Chorherren, 1784 wurde deren Kollegiatsstift aufgehoben, das Gebäude dient seit 1785 als Bischofssitz. Zur Landeshauptstadt von Niederösterreich wurde St. Pölten mit Landtagsbeschluss vom 10. Juli 1986, seit 1997 ist es Sitz der Niederösterreichischen Landesregierung.

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Luftbild von St. Pölten

Vokabeln 5B Die Der Der Das Der Die Die Das Die Das Die Das Das Das Die Die Der Das Der Der Die Der

Altstadt Augustiner Besitz Bistum Bischofssitz Bundesländer Chorherren Eigentum Einwohner Gebäude Geschichte Jahrhundert Kloster Kollegiatsstift Landeshauptstadt Landesregierung Landtagsbeschluss Marktrecht Name Ort Römerstadt Sitz

Bistum Passau sowohl... als auch zurück auf

old town Augustinian possession, holding diocese bishop's see (a seat of a bishop's authority) federal states men's choir proprietorship inhabitants premises history century monastery, friary monastery college regional or state capital city provincial (state) government day of jurisdictional reorganization right to hold markets name place, spot, city Roman town official place a dioecian region in Bavaria both... and goes back to

aufheben (hob auf, aufgehoben) merged in (or turned into?) befinden sich situated, located (befand sich, haben sich befunden) finden sich* found (located) benennen (benannte, benannt) call (as to label) erhalten (erhielt, erhalten) receive erheben (erhob, erhoben) arise, raise erwähnen (erwähnte, erwähnt) mention stehen (stand, gestanden) stand (stood, stood) werden (wurde, [ist]geworden) become

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ab

from

auf

up

bereits

already

bis

until, by, up to

flächenmäßig

(no direct translation) ~ when measured in surface

heilig

holy

landesfürstlich

baronial or princely (holdings)

nach

in terms of

um

around

(* one short form of anfinden: findet sich (an); in colloquial language you can cut the "an"; but in THIS special case it is the short form of "(be)findet sich (dort)") Pronunciation Guide >>

• Read more about St. Pölten [1] at the German Wikipedia (source of article above).

References [1] http:/ / de. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ St. _Pölten

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Lesson 3.06 - Tour de France German/Level III/Tour de France Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lernen 7-2 ~ Tour de France (aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie) Die Tour de France ist eines der berühmtesten und wichtigsten sportlichen Großereignisse überhaupt. Seit 1903 wird die Tour alljährlich - mit Ausnahme der Zeit des Ersten und Zweiten Weltkriegs - drei Wochen lang im Juli ausgetragen und führt dabei in wechselnder Streckenführung quer durch Frankreich und das nahe Ausland. Eine Tour de France der Frauen (grande boucle féminine) mit deutlich kürzeren Etappen wird seit 1984 gefahren. Sie steht medial völlig im Schatten ihres männlichen Pendants.

Vokabeln 7A die die der das der das die die die der

Ausnahme Enzyklopädie Erste Weltkrieg Großereignis Juli Radrennen Welt Woche, die Wochen Zeit Zweite Weltkrieg

exception encyclopedia WW I major event July bicycle race world week, weeks time, period WW II

(bei weitem) berühmteste

among the most widely renowned, the most popular

alljährlich bei berühmteste frei, freien (Akkusativ) seit sportlich überhaupt während drei Wochen lang weit wichtig

every year among (one of) most celebrated, most renowned free since athletic altogether, generally during three weeks lasting broad, wide important

Pronunciation Guide >>

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Section 3.03 ~ Bavaria, Germany

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Lesson 3.07 - Undeveloped

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Lesson 3.08 - Undeveloped

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Lesson 3.09 - Undeveloped

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LEVEL FOUR LESSONS

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Section 01 ~ Kiel, Germany

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Section 02 ~ Schaan, Liechtenstein

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Section 03 ~ Schaffhausen, Switzerland

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GRAMMAR

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Adjectives and Adverbs German/Grammar/Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives Adjectives are words that describe nouns. Most adjectives are stand-alone words; however, present and past participles can also be used as adjectives. Numbers are also adjectives, though they do not decline. Adjectives may be either predicate or attributive. Predicate adjectives are adjectives connected to a noun through a verb known as a copula. Those verbs in German are sein (to be), werden (to become), and bleiben (to remain). Other verbs, such as machen and lassen impart a predicate adjective onto an accusative object. Predicate adjectives are never inflected. Ich bin noch ledig.

(I am still single.)

Trotz des Streites bleiben wir verheiratet. Ich werde böse.

(Despite the argument we remain married.)

(I am getting angry.)

Die alte Milch wird dich krank machen.

(The old milk will make you sick.)

Attributive adjectives precede the noun that they are describing, and are always declined. Learning the adjective endings is a central part to the study of German. The adjective endings are frequently one of the hardest topics for new students to learn. It is best to commit the declension tables to memory, while attempting to speak independently. Proper use of adjective endings, especially in speaking, will come with repeated use. They are described in the next part of this chapter.

Adjective Endings Forms This section will make use of the mnemonic Oklahoma, which denotes the fields of nominative masculine; nominative neuter; accusative neuter; nominative feminine; and accusative feminine, which resemble the state of Oklahoma in the tables used below. The concept is used to describe endings in two declension tables: the weak adjective declension, and the indefinite-article/ein-word declension. The endings of attributive adjectives can be divided into two groups: strong endings and weak endings.

Strong Adjective Declension Case

Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural

Nominative -er

-es

-e

-e

Accusative

-en

-es

-e

-e

Dative

-em

-em

-er

-en

Genitive

-en

-en

-er

-er

The strong adjective endings are nearly the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter adjectives in the genitive case (marked in bold).

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191

Note the shape of the state Oklahoma

Weak Adjective Declension Case

Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural

Nominative -e

-e

-e

-en

Accusative

-en

-e

-e

-en

Dative

-en

-en

-en

-en

Genitive

-en

-en

-en

-en

Make note of the region, Oklahoma, in the nominative and accusitive cases, for weak endings. The use of a weak or a strong adjective ending depends on what precedes it:

Choice of Adjective Ending Preceding Article Definite Article, der-words

Choice of Ending Weak Ending

Indefinite Article, ein-words Within Oklahoma, Strong Ending Outside Oklahoma, Weak Ending No article

Strong Ending

The principle guiding adjective endings is that a noun, when possible, should have a primary case ending. Definite articles and der-words always provide a primary case ending. Indefinite articles and ein-words provide primary case endings outside of Oklahoma. Sometimes nouns have no article, in which case adjectives provide the primary case ending.

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Forms in Context of Articles This terminology - strong and weak endings - is confusing for many students. As the student develops, he or she will develop an ear for case endings, and will recognize when a noun has and has not received a case ending. Nonetheless, it is worth providing the three declension tables that result from this principle.

Adjective Declension following a Definite Article or der-word Case

Masculine the large man

Nominative der große Mann

Neuter

Feminine

Plural

the small book

the quiet cat

the red apples

das kleine Buch

die ruhige Katze

die roten Äpfel

dem kleinen Buch

der ruhigen Katze den roten Äpfeln

Accusative

den großen Mann

Dative

dem großen Mann

Genitive

des großen Mannes des kleinen Buches

der roten Äpfel

Adjectives following a definite article or der-word always have a weak ending. Within Oklahoma, that is "-e", and outside of Oklahoma, that is "-en". Also dies.., jed.., manch.., welch.., solch.. and all.. get the same ending as in the table above.

Adjective Declension following an Indefinite Article or ein-word Case

Masculine a large man

Nominative ein großer Mann

Neuter

Feminine

Plural

a small book

a quiet cat

no red apples

ein kleines Buch

eine ruhige Katze

keine roten Äpfel

einem kleinen Buch

einer ruhigen Katze keinen roten Äpfeln

Accusative

einen großen Mann

Dative

einem großen Mann

Genitive

eines großen Mannes eines kleinen Buches

keiner roten Äpfel

Note how, within Oklahoma, adjectives take strong endings, and outside Oklahoma, they take weak endings. This is because indefinite articles provide primary endings only outside of Oklahoma. Also mein.., dein.., sein.., ihr.., unser.., euer.. and Ihr.. get the same ending as in the table above.

Adjective Declension with no preceding article Case

Masculine

Nominative großer Mann

Neuter

Feminine

Plural

kleines Buch

ruhige Katze

kleinem Buch

ruhiger Katze roten Äpfeln

Accusative

großen Mann

Dative

großem Mann

Genitive

großen Mannes kleinen Buches

rote Äpfel

roter Äpfel

Forms of nouns without articles are rare compared to those with definite and indefinite articles; however, one must still know the strong declension. Note that the strong adjective declension is almost the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter in the genitive case (in bold).

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Adverbs Adverbs based on adjectives are one of the simplest parts of German grammar. Any adjective can be used as an adverb simply by placing its uninflected form within the sentence, usually towards the end. Das Ehepaar ging gestern fröhlich spazieren. (The married couple went for a walk joyfully yesterday.) Other adverbs have no adjectival equivalent. Many of these express time. Damals (at that time) Ich bin gestern dort gewesen.

(I was there yesterday)

Morgens bin ich normalerweise im Büro.

(I am normally in the office in the morning.)

Adverbs can also be based on participles (past and present). These are less common. Er betrachtete mich bedrohlich.

(He looked at me threateningly.)

Some adverbs are formed by adding -weise to adjectives and nouns in the plural form, and mean "regarding", "with respect to", or "-wise" in English. Construction of new adverbs of this sort is usually frowned upon.

Adverbs based on prepositions Much of the material in this section will be explained in greater detail in the chapter on prepositions. German has a complex system of adverbs based on prepositions, which are used to indicate direction of motion, location, time, and other concepts. English also possesses such a system, though it is used less. Consider the following sentences in English: 1) Could you take the garbage out? 2) Come over this evening if you get the chance. 3) You should just give up. 4) I will look you up in the phone book. 5) The contract, and the conditions contained therein, is hereby declared null and void. (Legalese)

In both English and German, prepositions and particles derived from prepositions are treated as adverbs. In many cases, these prepositional adverbs are associated with specific verbs. In the first two examples, the italicized prepositions are used as adverbs of motion; in the first example, the word "out" indicates the direction "out of the apartment"; in the second case, "over" not only means means the direction "towards", but also implies visitation of a residence. The third and fourth examples correspond to separable-prefix verbs in German. The word "up" is integral to the verb, which would have a different meaning without the adverb. "To give up", whose infinitive in German would be "to up-give", means "to quit", in sharp contrast to "to give". In the fourth example, it is not even possible to "look someone", whereas it is possible to "look someone up," or "look a candidate's resume over". (English even has inseparable prepositional prefix verbs; compare "to look s.o. over" to "to overlook s.o." Many of these verbs have been replaced by verbs based on Latin and Greek.) The adverbs in the fifth example correspond to da-, wo-, hin- and her- compounds in German. Such compounds are often used in legal texts in English. In such compounds, the object of the preposition is replaced with the words "there" or "here", compounded with the preposition. "Therein" simply means "in it". The German system of adverbs based on prepositions is considerably more rigorous, and forms the basis of a large part of the language's morphology. "To catch on" means "to begin" in English; In German, the primary word for "to begin" is literally "to catch on" (anfangen), from which the equivalent noun, der Anfang (the beginning) is derived.

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A remnant of this in English can be found when describe a child's upbringing. As in English, prepositional adverbs in German to varying degrees alter the meaning of their associated verb. Separable-prefix verbs. This topic is better explored in the chapter on verbs. Separable prefixes are themselves adverbs. As in English, many of them are integral to the meaning of the verb. Fangen means "to catch," whereas anfangen means "to begin". Most prepositional adverbs are treated as part of the root word in the infinitive, and are used as such in the construction of participles. However, not all possible separable-prefix verbs are lexical; "vorbeikommen" (to come over), "vorbeibringen" (to bring over), and so on, may not all be listed in a dictionary. It is better to learn "vorbei" as an adverb implying visitation. The German prefix in is of note. It has two adverbial forms. As in it describes location; when describing movement, it becomes ein. Thus, for example, darin means "in there", whereas darein means "in(to) there". Another example is the word, einleiten, to introduce. Hin- and her-. Prepositional adverbs of motion are usually based on hin-, implying motion or direction away from the speaker, and her-, implying motion or direction towards the speaker. Hin and her are themselves stand-alone adverbs meaning the same thing, and describe less-specific motion or direction. (One example in which hin is an integral separable prefix is the verb hinrichten, which means "to execute.) Not all verbs formed from hin- and hercompounds are lexical. Some examples of hin- and her- compounds are: herab (down, down from) hinein (in, inside) hinaus (out, out of, onto) darüber hinaus (furthermore, above all) dahin (in the direction/towards of known location) Mastery of hin- and her- requires considerable effort from the student. Da- compounds are also adverbs, corresponding to "there-" compounds in English. They replace specific prepositional objects. Although are used principally in legal texts and therefore sound formal in English, they are often employed in written and spoken German and are convenient replacements for long and complicated prepositional phrases. Their comprehension and active use are essential in German. Da- compounds are formed by adding da- before the preposition, with an "r" inserted before prepositions starting with a vowel. There are exceptions to this, and da- compounds are given a fuller treatment in the chapter on prepositions. Hier- and dort- compounds also exist in German, though they are used less frequently. As in English, they are considered formal, and are used primarily in academic and legal texts. They are best memorized as vocabulary. hierhin und dorthin - hither and thither () (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs •

Alphabet •

() German – Lessons:

Cases •

Level I •

Nouns •

Level II •

Prepositions and Postpositions •

Level III •

Level IV •

Pronouns •

Sentences •

Level V (discussion)

Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

Verbs

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Articles

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Nouns German/Grammar/Nouns What Is a Noun? A word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or idea; part of speech. It can serve as the subject or object of a verb. For example a table or a computer. Nouns start with a capital letter in written language.

Plurals German, unlike English, has more than one way to make nouns plural, and plural form, like gender, must be memorized with every noun. There are twelve different ways to form plurals in German. They are formed by affixes at the end of the word, and the umlaut of the vowel of the stem. They are - (changing nothing); -¨; -e; -¨e; -n; -¨n; -en; -¨en; -er; -¨er; -nen (to feminine suffix -in); -s (mainly with English loan-words); adding "foreign" endings (mainly Latin words); and changing suffixes (mainly Latin words). When German nouns are used in the plural, their gender becomes irrelevant. The plural can almost be thought of as a gender on its own. In the plural, the definite article is always "die" when using the nominative and accusative cases. When using the dative case, "den" is the definite article of all plurals. All plurals not ending in -n or -s affix an -n. The definite article of the plural in the genitive case is "der". Examples Nominative: Die alten Männer spielen Schach. The old men are playing chess. Accusative: Ich sah die alten Männer beim Schachspielen. I saw the old men as they played chess. Dative: Ich spielte mit den alten Männern Schach. I played chess with the old men. Genitive: Das Schachspiel der alten Männer war nicht sehr spannend. The old men's chess game was not very exciting.

Suffixes Although gender and plural form are often arbitrary, there exist certain suffixes whose gender and plural form are regular. They are mainly feminine. -ung, -heit, -keit, -schaft, -ion, and -tät These are all feminine endings, which are pluralized by -en. • Diskussion(en) Discussion(s) • Universtät(en) University(ies) -unft This endings is feminine and is pluralized by changing the stem vowel and adding -e • Unterkunft Lodging

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• Unterkünfte Lodgings -ik This ending often doesn't have a plural. When it does however, you add '-en • Technik(en) Technique(s) Other When verb infinitives transform into nouns, they do not have a plural form. • das Sprechen Language Many masculine nouns are formed by verbal stems without a suffix. Many of these receive an umlaut in their plural form.

Gender German, like many other languages, gives each noun a gender: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Plural nouns also act differently not only with the verb of the sentence, but the article preceding it. The way any particular word is classified may not be logical. Examples: das Mädchen die Person

the girl (neuter) the person (feminine - even when talking about a man)

However, not all German Nouns are randomly allocated a gender. The following notes will apply to most nouns but not all. A note on Mädchen: This is derived from the diminutive form of Maid (old, rarely used) - Maidchen. Grammatically it is neuter, but when referenced, nowadays the logical feminine gender takes over: Das Mädchen und ihr Hund. (Das Mädchen und sein Hund would be used in German slang but is rare and shouldn't be used.)

Masculine There are far more masculine nouns than of either of the other genders. The masculine nominative definite article is der.

Semantic Groups Which Are Masculine days times of the day months seasons male persons* male animals alcohol** car***

z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B.

der der der der der der der der

Montag Morgen August Sommer Mann, der König Löwe, der Hahn, der Ochse Wein, der Likör, der Alkohol, der Champagner Wagen, der Opel, der Mercedes, der BMW

* With, of course, the exception of die Person which remains feminine even when talking about a man. ** However, it is das Bier, die Spirituose(because of the ending "-ose"), das Pils(because it is a beer), das

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Methanol(because it is a scientific term of a substance) *** Excepting "das Auto". Words with Certain Endings These rules apply always -ismus: der Kommunismus, der Anglizismus, der Terrorismus -ling: der Lehrling (apprentice), der Liebling (darling), der Schmetterling (butterfly) -or: der Motor -ant: der Elefant

The following groups of nouns are usually (but not always) masculine Nouns ending in -el:

der Vogel

Nouns ending in -er:

der Hamster

Nouns ending in -en:

der Kuchen (but not infinitives used as nouns. They are neuter: das Rauchen, das Lachen)

Nouns ending in -aum: Examples: Baum, Traum, Schaum, Raum, Saum, Flaum Nouns ending in -ang: Examples: Drang, Fang, Gang, Hang, Klang, Rang, Anfang, Empfang, Gesang, Tang Nouns ending in -und: Examples: Bund, Grund, Schund, Hund, Fund, Schwund, Schlund, Mund Exceptions: neuter: Pfund Nouns ending in -all: Examples: Ball, Fall, Krawall, Drall, Hall, Wall, Aufprall, Kristall, Knall, Schall, Zufall, Abfall, Vorfall, Schwall Exceptions: neuter: All, Metall, Intervall feminine: Nachtigall

Feminine The feminine Gender article is die. It is used in the nominative and accusative singular case. It is also used to indicate nominative and accusative plural for nouns of any gender. e.g. die Katze — Feminine —or— die Katzen — feminine plural die Männer - masculine plural die Mädchen - neuter plural

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Semantic Groups Female persons and animals are usually feminine (very few exceptions). Examples: die Frau (woman) die Schwester (sister) die Mutter (mother) To change a male designation to feminine, you often use the ending -in. der der der der der

Lehrer - die Lehrerin (teacher) Kaiser - die Kaiserin (emperor and empress) König - die Königin (king and queen) Arzt - die Ärztin (doctor) Löwe - die Löwin

Exceptions das Mädchen (girl) das Kind (child) das Fräulein (old fashioned for Miss) A lot of plants and trees are also feminine Examples: die die die die die

Buche (beech) Eiche (oak) Rose (rose) Tulpe (tulip) Nelke (carnation)

Exceptions: das Veilchen (violet), der Farn (fern) ... Words With Certain Endings The following rules always apply. German words: -heit: die Gesundheit (health), die Wahrheit (truth) -keit: die Möglichkeit (possibility) -schaft: die Wirtschaft, die Freundschaft -ei: die Türkei, die Mongolei, die Bäckerei* Words derived from verbs with the ending -ung: die Beobachtung (observation; v: beobachen), die Verfolgung (persecution; v: verfolgen)

Words derived from verbs (mostly irregular verbs), ending in -t: die Handschrift (hand writing (n), derived from "schreiben), die Fahrt (journey, trip or ride, derived from fahren) Exceptions

German/Grammar/Nouns * das Ei (egg) has nothing to do with the ending -ei. Das Ei is neuter, including all words derived from: z.B. das Spiegelei, das Rührei, das Vogelei (different types of eggs) Foreign words: Words with the endings given below are always stressed on the last syllable. -enz: die Intelligenz (intelligence), die Konsequenz (consequence) -i.e.: die Philosophie (philosophy), die Melodie (melody) -ik: die Musik (music), die Politik (politics) -ion: die Nation, die Qualifikation (qualification) -ur: die Kultur (culture) -tät: Examples:

Universität, Majestät, Lokalität, Pietät, Integrität, Qualität, Aktivität, Priorität, Nationalität, Kapazität

-age: Examples: Garage, Montage, Etage, Spionage, Persiflage, Blamage The following rule applies often. -e: die Lampe (lamp), die Karte (card, map) Exceptions: semantic reasons: der Junge (boy), der Franzose (French man), der Löwe (Lion) others: der Käse (cheese)

Neuter The neutral Gender article is das for the nominative and accusative case. Semantic Groups names of colors: das Blau, das Rot, das Gelb, das Hellgrün, das Dunkelbraun Words With Certain Endings This rule applies always: diminutive endings -lein and -chen: das Mädchen (girl), das Häuschen (little house), das Büchlein (little book) This rules apply often: ending -um if the word has Latin origin: : das Zentrum, das Museum ending -ment: das Parlament (parliament), das Fundament (base, basis), das Element (element)

Words that end with -em and are stressed on the last syllable: Examples: Problem, Theorem, System, Extrem

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German/Grammar/Nouns Foreign words that end with -ett and are stressed on the last syllable: Examples: Tablett, Etikett, Korsett, Parkett, Kabarett, Ballett Words that end with -ma: Examples: Thema, Trauma, Drama, Dilemma, Prisma, Schema, Koma, Klima, Komma, Karma, Lama, Dogma, Paradigma Exceptions: feminine: Firma Words that end with -o: Examples: Auto, Radio, Video, Kino, Kilo, Büro, Sakko, Solo, Storno, Bistro, Manko, Banjo, Tempo, Motto, Fresko, Embargo, Esperanto, Studio, Ghetto, Foto, Echo, Piano, Cello, Kasino Exceptions: masculine: Tango, Fango, Espresso, Embryo Foreign words that end with -om: Examples: Syndrom, Palindrom, Phantom, Polynom, Binom, Monom, Atom, Axiom, Genom, Symptom, Diplom, Kondom, Chromosom Words With Certain Beginnings Nouns that begin with Ge- are often neuter. Examples: Gedicht, Gericht, Gesicht, Gewicht, Geheimnis, Gebirge, Geschirr, Gedächtnis, Gebiet, Gespenst, Gewissen, Gesetz, Getränk, Gewand, Gewitter, Geschenk, Gespräch, Gebäude, Gehäuse, Gemüse, Geschäft, Getreide, Gerücht, Gewerbe Exceptions: masculine: Gedanke, Genuss, Geschmack, Gewinn, Geruch feminine: Gewalt, Gestalt, Geschichte, Gemeinde, Gefahr Nouns Derived From Certain Verbclasses Verbs used as noun (roughly corresponding to the gerund) das Rauchen (Smoking), das Lesen (Reading)

Tips For Learning As most German articles can not be attributed to certain rule, it is best to always learn the article when learning the noun. You may think of the article as necessary information belonging to every noun. You avoid a lot of looking-up-time that way.

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Looking Up Gender in Dictionaries Most dictionaries do not give the article. Instead, you find different sets of abbreviations which tell you to which class the noun in question belongs. The most common sets of abbreviations are: r, e, and s. r: der, masculine; e: die, feminine; s: das, neuter. The abbreviations of this type are usually given before the noun. m, f, and n. m: masculine; f: feminine; n: neuter. The abbreviations of this type are usually given after the noun. m, w, and s. m: männlich, masculine; w: weiblich, feminine; s: sächlich, neuter. The abbreviations of this type are usually given after the noun.

Contents • Adjectival Nouns • Weak Nouns • Mixed Nouns () (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs •

Alphabet •

() German – Lessons:

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Nouns •

Level II •

Prepositions and Postpositions •

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Verbs

203

Gender

204

Plurals

205

Adjectival Nouns

206

Weak Nouns

207

Mixed Nouns

208

Pronouns German/Grammar/Pronouns German Pronouns Declined Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive

Possessive Pronoun

Singular I

ich

mich

mir

meiner

mein-

You (informal singular)

du

dich

dir

deiner

dein-

He

er

ihn

ihm

seiner

sein-

It

es

es

ihm

seiner

sein-

She

sie

sie

ihr

ihrer

ihr-

Plural We (us)

wir

uns

uns

unser

unser-

You (informal plural)

ihr

euch

euch

euer

euer- (shortened to eur- for "eure")

They

sie

sie

ihnen

ihrer

ihr-

You (formal - singular or plural) Sie

Sie

Ihnen

Ihrer

Ihr-

Note: The possessive is not a case of the personal pronoun, rather it's a pronoun itself. This table shows the possessive pronoun's stem, which is declined as an ein-word (like the indefinite article). The genitive case indicates possession or association, and is equivalent to, and replaces, the English word "of". "Des" and "der" (do not confuse with masculine singular nominative) mean "of the"; "eines" and "einer" mean "of a/an"; and, "der Sohn guten Weins" means "the son of good wine" (no article, M, Gen strong adj). Strict replacement of the genitive case with the word "of" maintains the word-order of the German nominal phrase: possessed - possessor (in genitive). The genitive case also replaces "'s" in English, though reversing the word-order (in English: possessor's possessed). German itself also uses an "s" (though without the apostrophe) to indicate possession, in the same word order as English. It is used mainly with proper nouns, such as "Goethes Heimat", as well as for compounding words. Standard genitive constructions are used with nouns and modifiers of nouns such as articles and adjectives, and the inflection they receive implies possession. The first noun may be in any case and may occur in any part of the sentence; the second noun, which possesses the first noun, immediately follows the first noun, and is in the genitive case. The noun in the genitive case need not have any modifiers - e.g., Heimat Goethes, Heimat Katerina, which mean the homeland of Goethe and Katerina, respectively - though such constructions can be cumbersome and ambiguous. Proper treatment of the genitive case, including all of the declensions, is found in another part of this book. German pronouns have genitive forms, but they are used only rarely nowadays, mostly in archaic or formal German. In many cases, a preposition can be added to allow a different case to be used. Ich erinnere mich ihrer. (I remember her) Also possible: Ich erinnere mich an sie.

German/Grammar/Pronouns Wir gedachten seiner. (We thought of him) Also possible: Wir dachten an ihn. Herr, erbarme dich unser! (Lord, have mercy upon us) Also possible: Herr, erbarme dich über uns. The possessive pronouns (mein-, dein-, unser-, etc.) are almost identical in form to the genitive pronouns and but they directly modify their attribute and could be conceived of as adjectives, though they decline differently. Alternatively, one could think of possessive pronouns, e.g., "mein-", as replacing the phrase, "of me". Directly translated, "mein-" means "my" in English. Examples: I want the teacher's book. Let's rewrite this as: I want the book of the teacher. -Ich will das Buch des Lehrers (der Lehrerin).

--The genitive case here is masculine (feminine) singular, inflecting the definite article (des/der) as well as the noun (Lehrer (+s), but not Lehrerin, which doesn't change because it is feminine). Without his friend's car, we cannot go home. -Ohne den Wagen seines Freundes können wir nicht nach Hause fahren. --Here, two possessive relationships are mentioned. The car belongs to the friend, and the friend belongs to "him". For illustrative purposes, one could conceivably re-write the prepositional phrase as "without the car (accusitive case) of the friend of him". German's rendering is far less awkward. The wall of the building is old and brown. -Die Wand des Gebäudes ist alt und braun. --As in the first example, the genitive case here is in the masculine singular, and inflects the definite article and the noun (M,N add +s/+es in the genitive case).

Comparison of Pronouns to other Parts of Speech Despite the difficulty many people have in learning German declensions, case-endings in German correspond to each other to a considerable degree. Specifically, the pronouns bear an obvious resemblance to their parent direct articles. Learning the corresponding 3rd-person declensions side-by-side allows some people to comprehend the declension pattern more easily. As discussed above, possessive pronouns replace the genitive case for pronouns. In this table, they will be placed where the genitive case is, so that their similiarities to other parts of speech that actually are in the genitive case can become clear. German is very rigorous in its use of gender, and will use the pronoun corresponding to the gender of the referential noun, regardless of whether the noun being referenced is a person (unlike English, which uses "it" for everything not a person or other entities (animals, ships) in certain contexts). Der Liberalismus will be referred to as "er", or "he", whereas "das Mädchen" would be "es", or "it". Many English speakers have trouble with this, especially in spoken language. Mastery is nonetheless possible with a proper understanding of German declension and a considerable amount of practice.

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Side-by-side Declension of Definite Articles, der-word Endings, 3rd-Person Pronouns (and possessives), Strong Adjective Endings, and Interrogative Pronouns, to illustrate their similarities Gender and Case

Definite Article

der-word Endings

Pronoun (possessive)

Strong Adjective Endings

Interrogative Pronouns, sometimes also used as relative pronouns

Masculine Nominative

der

-er

er

-er

wer (who?)

Accusative

den

-en

ihn

-en

wen (whom?)

Dative

dem

-em

ihm

-em

wem (to/for whom?)

Genitive

des + s

-es

(sein-) -en (M,N strong adjective endings (corresponding "s") in genitive case do not fit pattern)

(wessen) (whose? - form similar to masculine, genitive relative pronoun). N.B.(1)

Neuter Nominative

das

-es

es

-es

was (what?)

Accusative

das

-es

es

-es

was (what?)

Dative

dem

-em

ihm

-em

Genitive

des + s

-es

(sein-) -en (M,N strong adjective endings (corresponding "s") in genitive case do not fit pattern) Feminine

Nominative

die

-e

sie

-e

Accusative

die

-e

sie

-e

Dative

der

-er

ihr

-er

Genitive

der

-er

(ihr-)

-er Plural

Nominative

die

-e

sie

-e

Accusative

die

-e

sie

-e

Dative

den + n

-en

ihnen N.B.(2)

-en

Genitive

der

-er

(ihr-)

-er

N.B.(1) The use of "wessen" is considered old-fashioned, though most Germans would find it endearing to hear a non-native speaker use the word. One is encouraged to use the "gehören + dativ (wem?)" construction, which means "to belong to s.o. (whom?)". N.B.(2) The dative plural. Except for words whose plural form adds an "-s" (mainly loan-words), and words whose plural form already ends in "-n"/"-en", all nouns add an "-n/-en" in the dative plural. Like the s's added to masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive, this is a remnant from when German inflected all of its nouns, which other languages based on declension, such as Russian and Latin, retain. Sometimes one will notice an "-e" after masculine and neuter nouns in the dative case, such as the dedication on the Reichstag building - "Dem deutschen Volke", "for the German People". This nominal declension is reflected in the dative plural pronoun (to/for them), "ihnen", instead of "ihn" (masculine, accusitive). For example, Helga: Können Sie bitte meinen Brüdern helfen? Olga: Natürlich, aber ich kann ihnen leider nur nach zwei Tagen helfen. Helga: Unsere Leben gehen trotzdem weiter.

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Make a point of studying and getting used to the dative plural. () (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs •

Alphabet •

() German – Lessons:

Cases •

Level I •

Nouns •

Level II •

Prepositions and Postpositions •

Level III •

Level IV •

Pronouns •

Sentences •

Level V (discussion)

Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

Verbs

212

Sentences German/Grammar/Sentences Sentence Structure in Main clauses Here is the ultimate syntax guide for a main clause. German allows a considerable amount of syntactical freedom as parts of speech are indicated through case, rather than syntax. Nonetheless, there are conventions to follow, especially ones that reduce the ambiguity of pronouns.

Word-Order in the Main Clause First Position

Anything

Used for emphasis. Sometimes people will even put a past participle or some other verb in the first position. You shouldn't do that until you know what you are doing. The first position is often used for the subject (Nominative), however.

Second Position

Conjugated Verb

"habe", "muss", "arbeitete"

Mittelfeld

Nominative Pronoun

"ich"

Reflexive Pronoun

"mich", "uns"

Accusative Pronoun

A "dich"

Dative Pronoun

D "dir", "mir"

(Temporal Expressions)

Expressions of time, especially short temporal adverbs, are often placed here.

Nominative Noun

"die Katze"

Dative Noun

D "meiner Mutter"

Accusative Noun

A = ADDA "meinen Vater"

Prepositional Phrases

Time, Manner, Place

Adverbs, Predicate Adjectives

Time, Manner Place

Verbal negation using "nicht"

see section on negation for proper treatment of this topic

Separable Prefixes

"Ich fange damit an!"

Past Participles (conjugated verb should be either "haben" od. "sein)

"Ich habe heute nicht gearbeitet."

Infinitives

Used with modal verb as conjugated verb. "Du sollst das nicht tun."

Final Position All Remaining Verbs

Used with modal-like verbs (sehen, hören, helfen, lassen) "Ich höre dich atmen." Extended verb phrases: three verbs in sentence

Build Inwards Translating a hypothetical English sentence with three verbs into German, the first English verb - the conjugated verb - would be in the second position in the German sentence. The second verb will be on the outside of the verb-phrase, at the end of the German sentence. The third verb will be immediately before that. Subj . 1 . [Mittelfeld] . 3 . 2. "Ich habe (1) seit dem Unfall nicht arbeiten (3) können (2)." "I have (1) not been able (2) to work (3) since the accident."

German/Grammar/Sentences

Nachfeld

The stuff you forgot to say, or that you just This position is also used for comparisons. See below. thought of after saying your verb. This happens to both native-speakers and those learning the language. However, try to avoid it.

This is the officially-sanctioned syntax of a main clause. However, German syntax is not written in stone. One has considerable latitude in the way one constructs one's sentence. Before fleshing out the topic, here are some rules, conventions, and words of advice: 1) In terms of being placed in proper syntax, the pronouns are the most important, for they are the ones most liable to ambiguity ("sie" = which person, what part of speech, which case? Put it in its correct position). 2) It is not possible for a sentence to include all of the listed items, but it is still good to be able to reproduce that schema from memory. 3) You must be able to recognize an element of a sentence. For example, you must not split something like, "mit einem Buch", for that is a prepositional phrase, i.e., one and only one sentence element. Many other sentence elements are, however, only one word. You get a lot better at this as time goes on. 4) Two good mnemonics. Number one: pronouns before nouns. always. even if it feels weird to put both your accusative and dative objects before your subject (a noun), you must get used to it. It doesn't happen very often, though. 5) The second one is "ADDA" (i.e., NOT DAAD, the Deutsche Akademische Austausch Dienst). ADDA describes, first, the pronouns (Accusative, then Dative), and then the nouns (Dative, then Accusative). ADDA. think ABBA, but with D's instead of B's. 6) The first position is usually your subject, but can also draw attention to something you want to discuss. 7) As will be explained below, prepositional phrases and adverbs follow the "Time, Manner, Place" format. 8) Beyond reducing/eliminating ambiguity, you actually do have a fair amount of freedom. "Time, Manner, Place" is more a suggestion than a commandment, and most German textbooks tell you to learn the schema laid out above, but then to speak and write your sentences with items in ascending order of importance. Put the important stuff at the end. Then you get to your verb, which gives all of the words in the sentence meaning, resulting in a crescendo of emotion and understanding. Or not. But you see how that might work. 9) If you speak enough, your verbs start going to the right places. It will seem perfectly natural that the verb is in the second position, and that the other verbs are at the end. Getting used to subordinate clauses takes more time, but eventually your words go to the right place. Don't worry about making mistakes, but also try not to forget which verb you have waiting in your head until the sentence ends. 10) Banish the terms, "subject", "direct object", and "indirect object" from your head. Get used to explaining things in terms of "nominative", "accusative", "dative", and "genitive". Same goes for "linking-" and "helping-verbs". Start talking about modal verbs, and modal-like verbs. In general, you have to learn how to talk about grammar to be able to study German successfully. 11) If you can do the declensions in your head, you can do the syntax in your head. Syntax is easier.

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Position of the Verb Clauses with one verb part - Sätze mit nur einem Verbteil In a main clause (Hauptsatz), the conjugated verb is in second position.

Clauses with one verb part First Position (I)

(II)

Mittelfeld

Punctuation

1. Er

geht

nach Hause

.

2. Heute Abend

fahre

ich mit dem Auto nach Köln .

3. Im Park

machte er einen langen Spaziergang .

Second position does not equal second word, as you can see above. However, there is only one group of words allowed before the conjugated verb. Such groups of words are called "phrases". While you can put very long phrases in front of the conjugated verb you mustn't use two. Therefore the sentence "Heute Abend ich fahre mit dem Auto nach Köln" is wrong. This is a big difference between English and German syntax.

Clauses with two verb parts - Sätze mit zwei Verbteilen Clauses with two verb parts First Position (I)

(II)

Mittelfeld

Second Verb Punctuation

4. Der Junge

zieht

den Mantel

an

.

5. Der Junge

hat

den Mantel

angezogen

.

6. Schüler

müssen Hausaufgaben

machen

.

7. Gestern

hat

sein Vater ein fantastisches Essen gekocht

.

sein Vater gestern

.

8. Ein fantastisches Essen hat

gekocht

Sometimes you have to use more than one verb part in a clause. This is true for Perfekt forms, separable verbs, modals etc. Only one of these verbs is conjugated. The conjugated verb stays in second position, the other part goes to the end.

Clauses with three verb parts - Sätze mit drei Verbteilen Clauses with one verb part First Position 9.

Ich

II

Mittelfeld

Third Verb

Second Verb Punctuation

werde das morgen

nicht machen

können

10. Du

hast

mich

nicht besuchen dürfen

11. Ich

kann

dir deinen Wagen übermorgen umsetzen

helfen

. . .

Sometimes there are even three verbs in a sentence. These usually involve modals and perfect tenses. The conjugated verb is in the second position. The remaining two verbs are at the end of the clause, building inwards that is to mean, what would be the second verb in English is placed at the end, and what would be the third verb is placed before the second verb.

German/Grammar/Sentences

Order of phrases - Reihenfolge der Satzglieder In English, you need the position of phrases to determine whether a noun phrase is a subject or an object. In German the cases tell you which role is assigned to a certain noun phrase. Therefore, the word order is less strict.

First Position - erste Position In neutral sentences the subject is most likely in the first position (Examples 1, 4, 5, 6). However, you can put everything there you want to stress. This is very common with phrases about time or place (Examples 2, 3, 7). English speakers need to remember that the first position is restricted to exactly one phrase. You can even put objects in first position (Example 8). You do it mostly, if you want to emphasize the object or if you have to repeat the sentence because your partner has not understood this particular part of it. If the subject is not in first position, it goes directly after the conjugated verb (Examples 2, 3, 7, 8), unless preceded by a reflexive pronoun or an accusative or dative pronoun.

Order of Phrases in the Middle of the clause - Reihenfolge der Satzglieder im Mittelfeld Introduction In the middle of the sentence - the part between the two parts of the verb - verb order is quite flexible. Often the word order for a neutral sentence can be described like this: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Time Objects Manner Place

The mnemonic is "STOMP" where S is for subject. However, when looking at wild German sentences you will find structures that do not follow this principles but are nonetheless correct. This is very frequent in spoken language. Mostly the deviation from the neutral structure is caused by a special focus. While they are not wrong, it would be inappropriate to use them all the time. Therefore it is best to learn the principles described here. If you have mastered them and can use them without thinking about it, you can try some of the deviations. Time Time seems to be a very important concept for German speaking people. It is mostly mentioned very early in the sentence, either at the very beginning in the first position which means that the subject goes directly after the conjugated verb (i.e.: Gestern war ich im Kino) or early in the middle field (i.e.: Ich war gestern im Kino). The sentence "Ich war im Kino gestern" is not exactly wrong, but it would sound weird in most situations. It could be used though in a casual conversation when putting special emphasis on "im Kino", but it's not the regular sentence pattern.

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Order of Objects The order of objects is different for nouns and pronouns. Pronouns always come before nouns, and reflexive pronouns come before everything except nominative pronouns. ADDA, mentioned above, is a good way to remember the prescribed order of cases for pronouns and then nouns. As can contain only two objects, here are the three possible combinations deriving from ADDA: Two pronouns: accusative before dative (AD) I II Ich habe Ich gab

Acc. Dat. sie ihm gegeben. sie ihm .

One noun, one pronoun: The pronoun goes first, regardless of the case I II Ich habe Ich gab

Pronoun ihm sie

Noun die Kleider gegeben. dem Jungen .

Two nouns: dative before accusative (DA) I II Ich habe Ich gab

Dat. dem Jungen dem Jungen

Acc. die Kleider gegeben. die Kleider .

Manner This includes adverbs and prepositional phrases describing how, why, and by what methods the event of the sentence has taken place. Place This includes adverbs and prepositional phrases describing location and direction

Satzglieder im Nachfeld In German grammar the term Nachfeld is used to describe parts of the sentence that come after the second part of the verb. The Nachfeld is neglected in most learner's grammars. It is mostly used in spoken language, when people add something to a sentence as an afterthought or with special emphasis. In written language it is important for comparisons. You put them almost exclusively in the nachfeld. Consider the example Peter verdient mehr Geld als Paul (Peter earns more money than Paul). Now try to convert the sentence to the perfect. If you follow the normal sentence structure rules you would have to write: Peter hat mehr Geld als Paul verdient, but this is almost never done. The sentence best accepted by a majority of German speakers is: Peter hat mehr Geld verdient als Paul. The comparison is put after' the past participle. Note that the two items being compared must be in the same case. Du verdienst mehr Geld als ich. This is also correct grammar in English, though it is now almost obsolete among native English speakers.

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Syntax of Interrogatives and Imperatives I am putting this up here for the sake of completion.

Interrogatives Interrogatives (questions) change word order in the first two fields or so. There are two kinds. In a question based on a verb, the conjugated verb comes first. Following that is the same string of pronouns first and nouns thereafter (and other sentence elements and finally the remaining verbs) that was detailed above. The main difference between questions and statements is that the freedom of the first position is eliminated; the item you wanted to emphasize must now find a different position in the sentence. The ascending-order-of-importance convention still holds. Example: Q: Hast du schon "Fargo" gesehen? A: "Fargo" habe ich noch nicht gesehen. The second kind of question involves a question word or wo-compound, which always comes at the beginning, and is immediately followed by the conjugated verb. They are then followed by the remaining parts of the sentence in the order outlined above. Be mindful of the case of the question word, and make sure never to use a wo-compound when referring to a person. Q: Warum hast du "Fargo" nie gesehen? (Why have you never seen "Fargo"?) A: Ich hatte keine Lust. (I had no interest.) Q: Wem hast du geholfen? (Wem = "whom?" in the dative case.) (Whom have you helped?) A: Ich habe meiner Mutter geholfen. (I have helped my mother.) Q: Bei wem hast du dich beworben?

(From whom have you applied [for a job]?)

A: Beim Geschäft meines Onkels habe ich mich beworben. (I applied at my uncle's business.)

Q: Worum hast du dich beworben? (For what did you apply?) A: Um eine Stelle habe ich mich beworben!

Bist du verrückt? (I applied for a job!

Are you insane?)

And so on.

Imperatives Imperatives (commands) also slightly alter the aforementioned main-clause sentence structure. Imperatives are formed in several ways: Geh', bitte! (Please go, informal) Gehen Sie, bitte! (Please go, formal) Gehen wir, bitte! (Let's go! Within a group) This sequence - verb in imperative form, perhaps followed by the person to whom it is directed in the nominative case (depending on the kind of imperative used, however) - is then followed by all of the other elements of the sentence, in the aforementioned order. German-speakers, like English-speakers and the speakers of many other languages, consider the use of the imperative mood to be rude, and, as in English, use a conditional or subjunctive construction to convey requests. This will be dealt with in a different section of this book. Both of these syntaxes are very easy to master once you understand main-clause syntax.

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Coordinating Conjunctions Before moving on to subordinate and relative clauses, we must address coordinating conjunctions and parallel clauses. A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction that connects two clauses that are able to stand alone, i.e., two main clauses. Here are some examples in English: I am here and I am glad to see you. You are grateful for this job, or you are a spoiled brat. Commas are generally optional in English, whereas they used more often in German. Here are the common coordinating conjunctions one would find in German: German

English

aber

but, nevertheless, however

denn

for, because (rarely used in spoken German; not to be confused with weil)

oder

or

sondern

but rather

und

and

As coordinating conjunctions connect two independent clauses, they do not affect word-order in the two clauses. The first clause is often separated from the second with a comma - especially if it is a long or complicated clause - after which follows the coordinating conjunction and the second clause. Here are some examples in German: Ich hasse und ich liebe, und ich weiß nicht warum. Ich bin nicht jung, aber ich bin froh.

(Odi et amo - Catullus)

There are two more constructions to be aware of: entweder/oder and weder/noch, which correspond to "either/or" and "neither/nor", respectively. Entweder bist du mit uns gemeinsam, oder du bist unser Feind. Entweder/oder and weder/noch can also be employed to contrast two items as well as clauses. Note how "entweder" functions as an adverb. English speakers should take note of the difference between aber and sondern, both of which can be translated directly as "but". Aber means "however". Sondern means "rather". Many other languages make this distinction. Coordinating conjunctions are rather straightforward, and the number of coordinating conjunctions is few.

Dependent Clauses: Subordinate and Relative Clauses Introduction Subordinate and relative clauses introduce information regarding the main clause that needs to be expressed as a separate clause. They are collectively called "dependent clauses" because they are unable to stand by themselves as independent clauses. Usually, subordinate and relative clauses occupy a part of the main clause that was not fully explained; subordinate clauses tend to fulfill more abstract missing sentence elements than relative clauses do. Here are a few examples in English: Subordinate Clauses:

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I know that you are unhappy. We came because it was your birthday. We came because we knew that you were having a rough time. This last example has two subordinate clauses: because we knew and that you were having a rough time. Subordinate clauses are usually set off by a subordinating conjunction, such as that, because, when, if, and so on. In English, it is sometimes possible to omit the subordinating conjunction, specifically that, resulting in sentences such as, "I know you are unhappy," which is perfectly acceptable in English. Such an option does not exist in German. Relative Clauses: I know the person to whom you were talking (who you were talking to). God helps those who help themselves. You are the person that got hit by the fly-ball at the game on Saturday. Relative clauses relate one element of a clause to another clause by way of a relative pronoun. The system of relative pronouns in German is considerably more extensive than that of English. In German, both subordinate clauses and relative clauses affect syntax, in most cases by moving the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. Both subordinate clauses and relative clauses are set off by a comma in German, which can frequently be omitted in English. We should now examine the two types of clauses in greater detail, and then return to their syntax.

Subordinate Clauses Subordinate clauses are always set off by a comma, and begin with a subordinating conjunction. Here is a list of all subordinating conjunctions in German. Note how all of them answer a question presumably introduced in the main clause:

Subordinating Conjunctions German

English

als

as, when

bevor

before

bis

until

da

as, since (because)

damit

so that, with it

dass

that

ehe

before

falls

in case

indem

while; "by [do]ing..." See below.

nachdem

after

ob

whether

obgleich

although

obschon

although

obwohl

although

seit/seitdem

since (time)

sobald

as soon as

German/Grammar/Sentences

220 sodass / so dass so that solang(e)

as long as

trotzdem

despite the fact that

während

while, whereas

weil

because

wenn

if, when, whenever

Furthermore, all interrogative (question) words, such as wie, wann, wer, and wo, and wo-compounds, may be used as subordinating conjunctions. For example: Ich weiß nicht, wohin er gegangen ist.

(I don't know where he went.)

Ich weiß nicht, wie das Fest sich entwickelt hat. Ich weiß nicht, warum er dir so böse ist.

(I don't know how the party turned out)

(I don't know why he is so mad at you.)

Subordinate clauses provide information missing in the main clause. Consider the previous two examples. In both cases, the subordinate clause answered the question, "what?", or what would have been the accusitive object. Other subordinate clauses provide information that would otherwise have been provided by one of the several parts of speech. Er hat mich geschlagen, als meine Frau im Klo war.

(He hit me when my wife was in the bathroom.)

In this example, the subordinate clause, set off by the conjunction, "als", answers the question, "when?", which would otherwise be answered adverbially. The syntax regarding subordinate clauses will be discussed later. At this point, a property of subordinate clauses that is not altogether shared with relative clauses should be pointed out. Subordinate clauses are themselves parts of speech for the main clause, and to a limited extent can be treated as such. Consider the following two sentences, which are equivalent: Ich darf in Kanada bleiben, solange wir noch verheiratet sind. Solange wir noch verheiratet sind, darf ich in Kanada bleiben. Note how, in the second sentence, the subordinate clause occupied the first position, immediately followed by the conjugated verb. In reality, the use of subordinate clauses as parts of speech integrated into the main clause is limited; they are, for aesthetic reasons, restricted to the first position and to following the main clause. At both times they are set off from the main clause by a comma. Indem..., ist x passiert. This subordinating conjunction accomplishes the same functions as the English construction, "by [do]ing something..., x happened." Indem er die Tür offen gelassen hat, hat er auch die Räuber ins Haus eingelassen. By leaving the door open, he let the robbers into the house.

By requiring a subject in the clause, the German construction is less susceptible to ambiguity than English is; consider the sentence, "by leaving the door open, the robbers were able to enter the house," which is lacking an agent for the door being left open, even though such a construction is common in spoken English. This section must make note of the differences between the words, als, wenn, and wann, all of which can mean "when" in English. Als refers to a single event or condition in the past, usually expressed using the preterite tense. Als du mich anriefst, war ich noch nicht zu Hause.

(When you called me, I was not yet home.)

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Wann is the interrogative word for "when". It's use as a subordinating conjunction is limited to indirect questions and immediate temporal events. Ich weiß nicht, wann er nach Hause kommen wird. Wenn is the most versatile of the three, and has several other meanings beyond its temporal meaning. In the temporal space wenn describes, events are less recognized, or focuses on a condition, rather than an event. Finally, "wenn" has one other principal function. It also means, "if", and is used in conditional and subjunctive statements. Wenn ich einmal reich wär', ... (If i were ever rich...) We will return to syntax later.

Relative Clauses In many ways, a relative clause is a lengthy description of an item in the main clause. Minimally, a relative clause takes a part of speech from the main clause, known as the antecedent and uses it in the dependent clause. What connects the two is a relative pronoun. As should already be published in this book, the following declension table is provided:

Relative Pronoun - Declension Summary Case

Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural

Nominative der

das

die

die

Accusative

den

das

die

die

Dative

dem

dem

der

denen

Genitive

dessen

deren

dessen

deren

Relative pronouns are similar to the definite article, with the exceptions of the dative plural and the genitive case being marked in bold. Note that the distinctions between "that" and "which"; and "that" and "who" in English do not exist in German, where everything is described with a standard set of relative pronouns with no regard to how integral the qualities described in the relative clause are to the antecedent. As relative clauses take one item from the main clause and use it in some way in a dependent clause, it is important to consider how relative pronouns work to avoid confusion. All words in German possess gender, number (singular or plural), and case. The main clause, as it relates to the antecedent, determines the gender and number of the relative pronoun; the relative clause determines its case. In order to use relative clauses successfully, it is critical that this point be understood. Gender and number are "inherent" to the antecedent; no grammatical agent could conceivably change those properties. The relative pronoun's case is determined by its role in the relative clause, i.e., how it relates to the other parts of speech in the clause. Consider the following examples, all based on "the man", who is masculine and singular, and apparently not well-liked.

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Case of Relative Pronoun Nominative

222

Example Der Mann, der nach Hause allein ging, ... The man, who went home alone, ...

Accusitive

Der Mann, den mein Freund während der Hochzeit schlug, ... The man, whom my friend punched at the wedding, ...

Dative

Der Mann, dem meine Mutter kein Weihnachtsgeschenk gegeben hat, ... The man, to whom my mother didn't give a Christmas present, ...

Genitive

Der Mann, dessen Tochter arbeitslos ist, ... The man, whose daughter is unemployed, ...

In each of these examples, the gender and number of the relative pronoun were determined by the antecedent, while the case of the relative pronoun was determined by its role in the relative clause. Note particularly the genitive example, wherein the relative pronoun, meaning whose, modified a feminine noun, without his gender being affected. Whenever you construct a relative clause, be mindful of this rule. Don't confuse yourself with its complexity, especially regarding the genitive case. As discussed in the chapter on personal pronouns, the word "whose", as well as other possessive pronouns such as "my", "your", and so forth, is a pronoun and not an adjective. The pronoun always expresses the characteristics of its antecedent, viz., gender and number. Relative pronouns offered within prepositional phrases are perfectly acceptable: Der Mann, mit dem meine Mutter wieder gestritten hat, ... The man, with whom my mother argued again, ... However, if the antecedent is not a person, and the relative pronoun falls within a prepositional phrase, a wo-compound is frequently substituted: Das Flugzeug, worin ich nach Seattle geflogen bin, war fast kaputt. The airplane, in which I flew to Seattle, was almost broken. Relative clauses almost invariably follow the item that they are modifying or the main clause as a whole (with the gender and number of the relative pronoun indicating - to some extent - which potential antecedent it is referring to). Very rarely do they precede the main clause. Exceptions to this come in the form of aphorisms and proverbs: Der (oder Wer) heute abend ruhig einschläft, bekommt morgen Eiskrem und Keks. (He who goes to bed quietly tonight will get ice-cream and cookies tomorrow - something a mother might say to her children.) This usage is relatively unimportant. One final property of relative clauses should be discussed. Relative clauses in some way describe their antecedent. The rules governing attributes in German are considerably more flexible than in English, because the German case system reduces ambiguity. This allows the German speaker to turn a relative clause into an extended attribute, which is essentially a long adjective. Compare the following two sentences, which are equivalent: Der Mann, der jede Woche auf Dienstreise nach Seattle fährt, ist krank. The man, who drives to Seattle every week on business, is sick. Der jede Woche nach Seattle auf Dienstreise fahrende Mann ist krank. The to-Seattle-every-week-on-business driving man is sick.

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Such a construction is ludicrious in English, but not-uncommon in German. The experienced reader of German will, with practice, be able to read through such an item without difficulty. It would be best to review what we have learned about subordinate and relative pronouns before discussing their syntax. Dependent clauses - both subordinating and relative clauses - modify or in some other way describe the antecedent clause upon which they are based. Subordinating clauses provide a variety of ways in which new information can relate to the main clause, many of which are adverbial in nature (e.g., "weil/because", but not "dass/that", which, in the examples above, replaced the accusitive object). Relative clauses modify and describe entities already mentioned in the main clause. Generally speaking, only subordinate clauses have the ability to occupy the first position in a main clause. Format: Main clause, subordinating conjunction + subordinate clause. Subordinating conjunction + subordinate clause, conjugated verb + main clause. Main clause including antecedent, relative pronoun based on antecedent + relative clause.

Syntax of Dependent Clauses Subordinate and relative clauses have similar syntax. Indeed, neglecting the verbs, they have a syntax similar to main clauses. Recall the syntax described at the beginning of this chapter. That syntax will form the basis of the Mittelfeld in dependent clauses.

Syntax of Dependent Clauses Field Comma

Items All dependent clauses are set off with a comma unless occupying the first position of a , main clause

Conjunction For subordinate clauses, this is the subordinating conjunction. For relative clauses, this is the relative pronoun. Mittelfeld

Verbs

Examples

"dass", "weil", "obwohl", "denen"

The Mittelfeld of a dependent clause follows the same syntax as the Mittelfeld of the main clause. Nominative Pronoun

"ich", "wir"

Reflexive Pronoun

"mich", "uns"

Accusative Pronoun

A "dich"

Dative Pronoun

D "dir", "mir"

Nominative Noun

"die Katze"

Dative Noun

D "meiner Mutter"

Accusitive Noun

A = ADDA "meinen Vater"

Prepositional Phrases

Time, Manner, Place

Adverbs, Predicate Adjectives

Time, Manner, Place

Verbs will be dealt with in greater detail below.

They are very complicated.

Number of Verbs

Placement of Verbs (always at end of clause}

One (conjugated)

At end of Clause

Two (conjugated - modal/-like or auxiliary; infinitive)

Build inwards. Infinitive, then conjugated verb

Three

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224

Modal/-like is conjugated

3.2.1. Build inwards.

Modal/-like is not conjugated (likely the second verb)

Conjugated verb (1); infinitive verb (3); modal verb (2)

Once again, no dependent clause will contain each of these elements. But understanding the position of pronouns is critical. The same conventions listed under the main clause schema apply. Verbs in Dependent Clauses The way the verbs are arranged depends on the number of verbs in the verb-phrase, and the presence of a modal verb. Dependent Clauses with One Verb This is the simplest case. Such a clause has one verb, conjugated based on the person and number of the subject of the sentence. This conjugated verb is placed at the end of the clause. Subordinate Clause Du weißt, dass ich dich liebe. (You know that I love you.) Relative Clause

Er ist ein Mann, der oft Berlin besucht. (He is a man who often visits Berlin.)

Dependent Clauses with Two Verbs A clause with two verbs has one conjugated verb and one verb in the infinitive. Such examples are clauses in a perfect tense (wherein the conjugated verb is the auxiliary verb, either "haben" or "sein"), the future tense ("werden"), ones with modal verbs, and ones with modal-like verbs (sehen, hören, helfen, lassen). In a main clause, the conjugated verb will be in the second position, and the infinitive verb will be at the end of the clause. In a dependent clause, both verbs will be at the end of the clause, with the conjugated verb last. This supports the principle of "building inwards". Subordinate Clause

Du weißt, dass ich dich nicht lieben kann. (You know that I cannot love you.)

Relative Clause

Er ist ein Mann, der nach seiner absolvierten Prüfung Berlin besuchen wird. (He is a man who will visit Berlin after his graduation exam.)

Dependent Clauses with Three Verbs Sentences with three verbs typically involve a modal verb, whose presence complicates matters terribly. Let us think of some examples in English. 1) I am not able to help you move your car. - können - helfen - bewegen 2) I will be able to go to the store with you. - werden - können - gehen 3) I have not been able to afford that. (haben + "sich (dat) etw. leisten können" = to be able to afford sth.) 4) I have not been able to reach you over the phone. - haben - können - erreichen And so on. The problem is, after you've learned how to put your verb at the end of the sentence in a main clause, and after you've learned how to "build inwards" in dependent clauses, and after you've pulled your hair out, night after night, sitting in a cafe in Seattle declining relative pronouns, German grammar throws yet another rule at you, this one so pointless and downright counter-productive, and it seems like German grammar is simply making fun of you at this point, that you leap out of your seat, scream "woo hoo!", and then get back to work. The modal verb (or the modal-like verb) has to be at the end of the verb phrase, regardless of whether it has been conjugated. In cases where it has not, the conjugated verb moves to the beginning of the verb phrase. Let's look at our examples above.

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Du weißt, dass... 1) ...ich dir dein Auto nicht bewegen helfen kann. This one is straightforward, because the modal verb is the conjugated verb, allowing the clause to follow the "build inwards" principle. 2) ...ich zum Markt mit dir nicht werde gehen können. The modal verb must come last. No semantic or logical reason for this. 3) ...ich mir das nicht habe leisten können. The modal verb must come last. Note here that the modal verb does not form a past participle when it has main verb to modify. 4) ...ich dich am Telefon nicht habe erreichen können. Note the somewhat sensible placement of "nicht". And so...

Verb-order in Dependent Clauses Number of Verbs One (conjugated)

Placement of Verbs (always at end of clause} At end of Clause

Two (conjugated - modal/-like or auxiliary; infinitive) Build inwards. Infinitive, then conjugated verb Three Modal/-like is conjugated

3.2.1. Build inwards.

Modal/-like is not conjugated (likely the second verb) Conjugated verb (1); infinitive verb (3); modal verb (2)

Infinitive Clauses The reader is already familiar with several types of German verbs that require other verbs; these verbs are modal verbs (können, dürfen, wollen, etc.); modal-like verbs (sehen, hören, helfen, lassen); auxilliary verbs (sein, haben), used for the perfect tenses; and werden, used for future and passive constructions. Another verb that can take another verb without forming an infinitive clause is bleiben (e.g., stehenbleiben, to remain standing). These verbs never form infinitive clauses, and the verbs that are used with them go at the end of the sentence. Infinitive clauses are another kind of clause found in German, and are equivalent to infinitive clauses in English. Consider the following examples in English: I am here (in order) to help you clean your house. The car is ready to be driven. I work to be able to afford my car. Infinitive clauses are formed after verbs that do not regularly take other verbs. They indicate purpose, intent, and meaning of the action in the main clause. As such, infinitive clauses have no subject, or no nouns in the nominative case. Here are the above examples in German: Ich bin hier, um dir dein Haus putzen zu helfen. Das Auto ist bereit, gefahren zu werden. Ich arbeite, um mir ein Auto leisten zu können. Infinitive clauses are usually found after a main clause, though it is possible for them to occupy the first position of a main clause. They are always set off by a comma. Of particular interest is the construction, "um...zu..."", which corresponds to the English construction, "in order to...". Um is placed at the beginning of the clause, after which follows a standard infinitive clause. Whereas "in order" is frequently omitted from English infinitive clauses of this sort, "um" is always included such clauses in German.

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The Mittelfeld follows the standard syntax of main clauses, though without nominative nouns and pronouns. At any rate, infinitive tend to be rather short. Verbs (in the infinitive form) always come at the end, immediately preceded by the word zu. In the case of separable-prefix verbs, such a verb is written as one word, with the word zu between the prefix and the main verb; e.g. anzuschlagen, auszugehen, abzunehmen, and so forth. The syntax of infinitive clauses can thus be summarized as follows:

Syntax of Infinitive Clauses Position

Contents

Examples

Introduction

Comma or Capital Letter (beginning of sentence)

"," "Um"

Mittelfeld

Reflexive Pronoun

"mich", "uns"

Accusative Pronoun

A "dich"

Dative Pronoun

D "dir", "mir"

(Temporal Expressions)

Expressions of time, especially short temporal adverbs, are often placed here.

Dative Noun

D "meiner Mutter"

Accusitive Noun

A = ADDA "meinen Vater"

Prepositional Phrases

Time, Manner, Place

Adverbs, Predicate Adjectives

Time, Manner Place

Verbs with no separable prefix

zu + Infinitive; e.g., "zu gehen"

Verbs with separable prefix

prefix-zu-infinitive, written as one word; e.g., "anzufangen"

Infinitive Verb Phrase

End

Either a period to end the sentence, or a comma to introduce ","; "." the main clause

() (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs •

Alphabet •

() German – Lessons:

Cases •

Level I •

Nouns •

Level II •

Prepositions and Postpositions •

Level III •

Level IV •

Pronouns •

Sentences •

Level V (discussion)

Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

Verbs

227

Verbs German/Grammar/Verbs Verbs German verbs can be classified as weak or as strong. Weak verbs are very regular in their forms, whereas strong verbs change the stem vowel. Weak: kaufen, kaufte, gekauft Strong: singen, sang, gesungen With its Anglo-Saxon origin, this notion is also present in English. flip, flipped, flipped sing, sang, sung Some German verbs have weak and strong forms. This may depend on meaning: Der Botschafter wurde nach Berlin gesandt. Der Süddeutsche Rundfunk sendete ein Konzert aus dem Gasteig. Or on transitive vs. intransitive use: Das Hemd hing auf der Wäscheleine. Sie hängte das Hemd auf die Wäscheleine.

Separable Verbs Sometimes you will run into verbs such as anrufen, aufräumen, mitkommen. These verbs are examples of Separable Prefix Verbs. When you see these kinds of verbs, it will have a preposition prefix followed by a verb. These verbs separate when they are the main verb of a sentence. EXAMPLES: I am calling the butcher. Ich rufe den Metzger an. I am trying on the boots. Ich probiere die Stiefel an.

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Reflexive Verbs Reflexive Verbs are verbs involving the reflexive pronoun "sich" and its conjugations that reflect, or refer back, to the performer of the action. There are only accusative and dative reflexive pronouns. Accusative reflexive pronouns are used when there is no direct object. Dative reflexive pronouns are used when a direct object is present. However, when using a direct object, the possessive is not used. Examples: Accusative: Ich verletze mich. I injure myself. Dative: Ich verletze mir die Hand. I injure my hand. Accusative: Er hat sich verbrannt. He burned himself. Dative: Er hat sich den Daumen verbrannt. He burned his thumb.

Reflexiv Pronommen Akkusativ (Wenfall) Dativ (Wemfall) 1st sg.

mich

mir

2nd sg. (informal)

dich

dir

1st pl.

uns

"

2nd pl. (informal)

euch

"

2nd sg. or pl. formal; 3rd. sich

"

Notice that all reflexives are the same as the Akkusativ and Dativ Pronoun Declensions — except for 3rd Person and 2nd sg./pl. Person formal (man/sie/Sie), in which case all reflexives are sich.

Modals Dürfen Dürfen means to be allowed/permitted, may. Present

Past

Conjunctive II

ich

darf (I am allowed to)

durfte

dürfte

du

darfst (You are allowed to)

durftest dürftest

er/sie/es darf (He/She/It is allowed to)

durfte

dürfte

wir

dürfen (We are allowed to)

durften dürften

ihr

dürft (You (plural) are allowed to)

durftet

sie/Sie

dürfen (They are allowed to/You (formal) are allowed to) durften dürften

dürftet

Examples: Darf ich einen Freund zum Fest bringen? May I bring a friend to the party. Man darf hier nicht rauchen. One is not allowed to smoke here. Niemand durfte die Stadt verlassen. No one was allowed to leave the city.

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Können können means 'to be able, capable'. It is cognate with the English word 'can'/'could'. Present

Past

Conjunctive II

ich

kann (I can)

konnte

du

kannst (You can)

konntest könntest

er/sie/es kann (He/She/It can) konnte

könnte

könnte

wir

können (We can)

konnten könnten

ihr

könnt (You can)

konntet

sie/Sie

können (They can)

konnten könnten

könntet

Examples: Ich kann das nicht tun. I can't do it. Wir konnten sie nicht erreichen. We could not reach them.

Mögen mögen expresses a pleasure, or desire. In the present tense, it is used transitively with people or food. e.g. 'Ich mag dich' 'I like you' or 'Ich mag Erdbeeren' 'I like strawberries'. The subjunctive (of the past) expresses preference to perform the action of a subordinate clause 'Ich möchte nach Frankreich reisen' I would like to travel to France'. 'mögen' is cognate with the English verb 'may'/'might'. Present

Past

Conjunctive II möchte (I would like to)

ich

mag (I would like to)

mochte

du

magst (You like to)

mochtest möchtest (You would like to)

er/sie/es mag (He/She/It likes to) mochte

möchte (He/She/It would like to)

wir

mögen (We like to)

mochten möchten (We would like to)

ihr

mögt (You like to)

mochtet

sie/Sie

mögen (They like to)

mochten möchten (They would like to)

möchtet (You would like to)

Example: Ich möchte nach Deutschland reisen. I would like to travel to Germany. (There is also a present subjunctive möge, which is very formal: Der König sagte: "Er möge eintreten." - The king said: "He may enter.")

Müssen müssen expresses something forced on you. It is etymologically related to 'must'.

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Present

Past

Conjunctive II

ich

muss gehen (I must/have to go) musste (I had to) müsste

du

musst

musstest

müsstest

er/sie/es muss

musste

müsste

wir

müssen

mussten

müssten

ihr

müsst

musstet

müsstet

sie/Sie

müssen

mussten

müssten

Examples: Ich muss nicht arbeiten. ~ Ich brauche nicht zu arbeiten. Ich darf nicht arbeiten. I must not work.

I don't have to work.

Note that the negative nicht müssen is not the English must not, but rather need not or don't have/need to. must not translates to nicht dürfen. There are however some northern German uses like: Du musst das nicht tun meaning Du solltest das nicht tun.

Sollen sollen expresses an obligation or duty. It is etymologically related to 'shall'. Present

Past

ich

soll schwimmen (I am to swim) sollte (I was to)

du

sollst

solltest

er/sie/es soll

sollte

wir

sollen

sollten

ihr

sollt

solltet

sie/Sie

sollen

sollten

Wollen wollen means to want. Present

Past

ich

will rennen (I want to run) wollte

du

willst

wolltest

er/sie/es will

wollte

wir

wollen

wollten

ihr

wollt

wolltet

sie/Sie

wollen

wollten

German/Grammar/Verbs

Use in Perfect (and Pluperfect) Tense Although all these modals have a normal perfect: gedurft gekonnt gemocht gemusst gesollt in connection with other verbs, the infinitive form is used: Ich habe das tun dürfen - können - mögen - müssen - sollen. Wrong: Ich habe das tun gedurft - gekonnt - gemocht - gemusst - gesollt. It holds also for the verbs sehen and hören: Ich habe ihn kommen sehen - hören.

Use of modal verbs as full verbs Modal verbs can be used as full verbs indicating motion. Er muss nach Berlin He must go to Berlin.

Present Tense Use The Present Tense is used for.. • The Present Tense (="das Präsens") is used to describe situations that are happening and aren't the past. • For Ongoing Action, like I'm swimming in the pool now • Everyday Truths, like The moon and stars will come at night. • Future meaning, if explicitly stated, like I will run tomorrow morning • Actions started in the past and still going on in the present I've been cleaning the house all day

Progressive Forms There is a present progressive tense in colloquial spoken German. Its use is optional. Here is one example: Ich bin am Fahren. (I am at the driving) I'm driving. The person to say this would be driving during the time they say this and they would continue to drive after stating this for some time. You nominalize the verb ("fahren" (driving) becomes "das Fahren") and add a "am". You can also do this with forms of the past. Als er kam war ich gerade am Abwaschen. (When he arrived i was at "the dishwashing") I was washing the dishes when he arrived. So the verb "sein" (to be) includes the information what tense he was doing what he did in. Here the progressive meaning is also emphasized with the word "gerade" meaning something like: I was JUST ABOUT to wash the dishes(not the same though because it means he is already doing it and not about to start).

231

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232

Perfect Tense The Perfect Tense or das Perfekt of verbs is used to talk about things in the past which have already happened. It is sometimes referred to as "Present Perfect Tense". This can cause confusion. While the formation is similar, the meaning and usage differs.

Formation As in English, the perfect tense consists of two parts. An auxiliary (Hilfsverb) and a past participle (Partizip Perfekt). Compare the examples given below with their English translations. Er hat gelacht. He has laughed.

Sie ist

gekommen

She has come.

Die Kinder

haben gegessen.

The children have

eaten.

Past participle for regular verbs The general rule is simple: verb

prefix + 3rd-person sing. participle(er/sie/es)

lachen (laugh) ge

+ (er/sie/es) lacht

gelacht

kaufen (buy)

ge

+ (er/sie/es) kauft

gekauft

mähen (mow) ge

+ (er/sie/es) mäht

gemäht

There are some groups of regular verbs that slightly differ from that pattern. Some verbs drop the prefix ge-. Like the other regular verbs they end in -t. These are: 1. Verbs with unseparable prefixes (be-, ent-, er-, empf-, ge-, ver-, miss-, zer-) Examples: verb

past participle

besuchen (visit)

besucht

entfernen (remove)

entfernt

erreichen (achieve)

erreicht

gehören (belong)

gehört

verstecken (hide)

versteckt

missverstehen (misunderstand) missverstanden

2. Verbs ending in -ieren Examples:

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233

verb kopieren (copy)

past participle kopiert

polieren (polish) poliert

3. Another group is formed by verbs with separable prefixes With separable verbs, the prefix ge is placed between the prefix and the rest of the verb. Examples: verb

sep. pref.+ ge + 3rd-person sg. = past participle

aufmachen (open)

auf + ge + macht

= aufgemacht

abstellen (put down) ab + ge + stellt

= abgestellt

Separable and inseparable verbs are distinguished by the stressed syllable: verb über'setzen (to translate)

past participle über'setzt

'übersetzen (to ferry across) 'übergesetzt

Er hat das Buch ins Chinesische übersetzt. Der Fährmann hat den Passagier übergesetzt (über den Fluss gesetzt).

Past Participle for Irregular Verbs Irregular verbs always end in -en. The vowel can be different from the one in present tense. Look at some examples: infinitive

3rd-person sg. past participle

gehen (go)

geht

gegangen

essen (eat)

isst

gegessen

schreiben (write) schreibt

geschrieben

trinken (drink)

trinkt

getrunken

schlafen (sleep)

schläft

geschlafen

nehmen (take)

nimmt

genommen

You have to learn these forms by heart. How you can obtain the necessary information and how you should learn them is described in section tips for learning below. Note that irregular verbs can be combined with the same prefixes as described above. The same rules regarding the prefix ge- apply. Therefore the forms for schreiben, verschreiben and aufschreiben are geschrieben, verschrieben and aufgeschrieben respectively.

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Which verbs are irregular A lot of verbs that are irregular in English are irregular in German, too. Unfortunately, this is not always true. It is most likely when the German and the English verb are related (i.e. look similar). Examples: see: buy: get:

irregular irregular irregular

sehen: irregular kaufen: regular bekommen: irregular ;-)

Regular verbs are much more frequent than irregular ones, but a lot of the irregular verbs are used very frequently, for instance haben, sein, gehen, kommen etc. When in doubt whether a verb is irregular or not, it is best to look it up in a dictionary (See below).

Haben or sein as auxiliaries Whether a verb is irregular or not does not influence the choice of auxiliary. Most verbs take haben as auxiliary. A) Verbs which take an accusative object (transitive verbs) B) Reflexive verbs always take haben as auxiliary. Examples A: trinken: Er hat ein Bier getrunken. lesen: Sie hat ein Buch gelesen kochen Sie haben gestern Spaghetti gekocht. Examples B: sich freuen sich kämmen sich ärgern

Ich habe mich gefreut Er hat sich gekämmt Wir haben uns schon lange nicht mehr so geärgert.

The auxiliary sein is taken by verbs that describe C) the relocation from one place to another or D) the change of a state and with E) sein (be) and bleiben (stay) Note: none of the verbs from groups C-E is combined with an accusative object. Examples C: relocation verbs verb

aux.

irregular

sentence with perfect tense

kommen (come)

sein

yes

Ich bin gekommen.

reisen (travel)

sein

no

Wir sind schon dreimal nach China gereist.

fahren (drive)

sein

yes

Ich bin mit dem Auto nach Kalifornien gefahren.

begegnen (meet)

sein

no

Er ist ihm gestern begegnet.

gehen (go)

sein

yes

Du bist gegangen.

starten (take off) sein

yes

Das Flugzeug ist gestartet.

In southern German (mostly Bavarian) use, also stehen, sitzen und schwimmen are treated like a (non-)movement:

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Ich bin gestanden - gesessen - geschwommen. High German is: Ich habe gestanden - gesessen - geschwommen. Aber: Ich habe den See durchschwommen.

Examples D: change of state verbs verb

aux.

irr.

sentence with perfect tense

aufstehen (get up)

sein

yes

Ich bin heute früh aufgestanden.

einschlafen (fall asleep)

sein

yes

Die Kinder sind endlich eingeschlafen.

verblühen (whither)

sein

no

Die Blumen sind schon verblüht

Examples E: sein and bleiben Er ist nicht lange geblieben. Er ist immer nett gewesen.

He didn't stay long. He has always been nice.

Exceptions to the rules Some of the verbs from group A can be used with an object in accusative case. In this case, they take haben as auxiliary. Compare: Ich bin nach Kalifornien gefahren.

I drove to California.

Ich bin mit dem Auto nach Kalifornien gefahren.

I drove to California by car (literally: with the car)

Ich habe das Auto (Akk.) nach Kalifornien gefahren. I drove the car to California.

The same applies to fliegen (fly), starten and reiten (ride a horse).

Usage Unlike in English the difference in meaning between Perfekt and Präteritum is rather small. The main difference between those two forms lies in usage. Perfekt is mostly used in spoken language, while Präteritum is mostly reserved for written texts. However, the modals, the verbs haben and sein and the expression es gibt are almost exclusively used in Präteritum - even when speaking. One reason might be the frequency of those verbs, the other reason is most likely the very complex perfect forms for modals. (This is in southern German use; in northern German, you'll hear the preterite also in spoken language.) On the other hand, the perfect tense is used in writing too. The more oral the text is, the more perfect tense you will find (for example in personal letters etc.). If an action has happened very recently, it tends to be in perfect tense too. Look at the following conversation and concentrate on the distribution of Präteritum and Perfekt. (1) Anna: Hallo Peter. Wo warst du denn? Ich habe dich schon lange nicht mehr gesehen. (2) Peter: Hallo Anna. Ich war die letzen zwei Wochen im Urlaub. (3) Anna: So? Wo warst du denn genau? (4) Peter: Auf der Insel Elba, in einem fantastischen Hotel. Es gab jeden Abend ein Büffet und man konnte essen, so viel man wollte! (5) Anna (lacht): Ich glaube dir sofort, dass dir das gefallen hat. Du hast aber nicht nur gegessen, oder? Was hast du denn den ganzen Tag gemacht? (6) Peter (lacht auch): Nein, natürlich nicht. Ich bin viel geschwommen, ich habe mir die Insel angeguckt und am Abend bin ich immer zum Tanzen in eine Disco gegangen. (7) Anna: Aha... Und? Hast du jemanden kennen gelernt? (8) Peter (grinst): Kein Kommentar. Vocablary to help you understand the text: der Urlaub, -e genau

vacation exactly, precisely

German/Grammar/Verbs die Insel, -n das Büffet, -s gefallen angucken kennen lernen grinsen

236 island buffet like to look at (colloquial) get to know grin

Used forms to talk about past events Präteritum du warst (1/3) ich war (2) es gab (4) konnte (4) wollte (4)

Perfekt habe gesehen (1) es hat gefallen (5) du hast gegessen (5) du hast gemacht (5) ich bin geschwommen (6) ich habe angeguckt (6) ich bin gegangen (6) du hast kennen gelernt

How to find the forms in a dictionary Unless you have a special dictionary for learners, not all the forms will be spelled out. Regular forms are often omitted. The same goes for the auxiliary haben. If no forms are indicated, you may assume that the verb is regular and has the verb haben as an auxiliary. However, if you find the abbreviation itr or i. (for intransitive) behind the verb, the auxiliary is often sein. Intransitve verbs don't have an accusative object and these are often used with sein, while transitive verbs (tr. or t.) are always conjugated with haben. Sometimes not even the forms of irregular verbs are given in the lexicon entry. Irregular verbs are often indicated by irr. for irregular or a similar abbreviation. In that case, look for a list of irregular verb forms in the index of your dictionary. To find the past participle of separable verbs you often have to cut the prefix and look for the base form of the verb. If you look for aufstehen (get up), you probably find your answer in the entry of stehen. Remember: The prefix ge goes in between the prefix of the separable verb and the verb itself: auf + ge + standen. When working online, you might consider using Canoo [1]. Enter an arbitrary form of the word you are interested in into the mask. Hit enter. On the results page, choose the link Flexion behind the appropriate entry (or inflection in the English version). You will get a table of all possible verb forms.

Tips for learning Irregular forms are just that - irregular. Therefore you have to learn them by heart. By learning four forms, you can construct every verb form for a given verb. The forms you should know are: Infinitiv infinitiv gehen nehmen fahren lesen essen kommen

Präsens 3rd person geht nimmt fährt liest isst kommt

Präteritum preterite ging nahm fuhr las aß kam

Hilfsverb auxiliary ist hat ist hat hat ist

+ + + + + + + +

Partizip Perfekt past participle gegangen genommen gefahren gelesen gegessen gekommen

German/Grammar/Verbs bleiben sein anfangen ...

bleibt ist fängt ... an

237 blieb war fing ... an

ist ist hat

+ geblieben + gewesen + angefangen

All forms - besides the infinitive of course - should be in 3rd-person singular. A good way to learn those forms is to put them on small cards. On one side you write the infinitive and probably a sentence to illustrate the usage of the verb. On the backside you put the rest of the forms and - if needed - a translation of the verb. When learning, you look at the infinitve and try to remember the forms and the meaning. You can easily verify your hypothesis by flipping the card. If you encounter a verb you want to learn, look it up in a dictionary. If it is irregular, learn the verb together with its defining forms. Like that, you spare yourself a lot of trouble later on.

Sentence Structure The perfect tense consists of two verb forms: an auxiliary and a past participle. Together they form the so called predicate. The predicate consists of all verb parts in one clause. The sentence structure in perfect behaves as with every two parts predicate (modals plus infinitive, separable verbs etc.)

Main Clauses In a main clause (Hauptsatz), the conjugated verb (the auxiliary in this case) is in the second position and the past participle stands at the end of the clause. First Position (I) (II) 1) Sein Vater hat gestern ein fantastisches Essen gekocht. 2) Gestern hat sein Vater ein fantastisches Essen gekocht. Both: Yesterday, his father cooked a fantastic meal. 3) Ein fantastisches Essen hat sein Vater gestern gekocht.* It was a fantastic meal that his father cooked yesterday. * The third example is correct, although not very frequent. You might use it if you want to stress what exactly his father has prepared or if you have to repeat the sentence because your partner has not understood this particular part of it.

Second position does not equal second word, as you can see above. However, there is only one group of words allowed before the conjugated verb (the auxiliary in this case). Such groups of words are called "phrases". While you can put very long phrases in front of the conjugated verb, you must not use two. Therefore the sentence "Gestern sein Vater hat ein fantastisches Essen gekocht" is wrong.

Subordinated Clauses Subordinated clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction. Well known conjunctions of this kind are weil

dass

wenn.

*In spoken language weil is often used like und or aber, which means that it is followed by a main clause. However, after weil, speakers often pause for a little while. There is no pause after either und or aber. Weil + main clause is not allowed in written language. Therefore you may say: Ich gehe, weil - (little pause) - ich bin müde. But you wouldn't use it in a letter. At least not yet. The correct conjunction for a main clause is denn, which is rarely used in spoken language.

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In subordinated clauses the conjugated verb, i.e. the auxiliary, stands at the very end of the sentence. The past participle stands directly in front of it. For example:

Ich Ich Ich Ich

weiß, glaube dir, glaube dir, gehe,

conj. dass weil denn wenn

aux.

participle du das gemacht du bisher noch nie gelogen du hast bisher noch nie gelogen. du gegangen

aux. hast. hast. bist.

Past tense Regular verbs Regular (or better, weak) verbs take the ending -te. The person endings are added afterwards. Note that the forms for 1st- and 3rd-person singular are the same. lernen ich

lernte

du

lerntest

er/sie/es lernte wir

lernten

ihr

lerntet

sie/Sie

lernten

If the stem of a verb (infinitive minus -en) ends in -t (arbeit-en), -d (end-en) or consonant plus m or n (öffn-en, rechn-en) you add an -e before the preterite endings. arbeiten ich

arbeitete

du

arbeitetest

er/sie/es arbeitete wir

arbeiteten

ihr

arbeitetet

sie/Sie

arbeiteten

Irregular verbs Without -te The strong verbs belong to this group. The endings are easy to memorize. It is harder to know which vowel to use. The rule mentioned above for t/d, double-consonant + n/m applies also for irregular verbs.

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239

fahren

stehen

ich

fuhr

stand

du

fuhrst

stand(e)st

er/sie/es fuhr

stand

wir

fuhren standen

ihr

fuhrt

sie/Sie

fuhren standen

standet

gehen, ging, gegangen stehen, stand, gestanden With -te Few irregular verbs take the -te ending. Examples are: nennen, rennen, kennen, bringen, denken and the irregular modals (können, dürfen and müssen). nennen ich

nannte

du

nanntest

er/sie/es nannte wir

nannten

ihr

nanntet

sie/Sie

nannten

Future Tense Talking about future with the present tense German uses the Present Tense to talk about the future whenever it is clear to both speaker and listener that the future is meant. In the dialogue example: Wenn du zu Hause bleibst, kommen wir dich besuchen. If you stay at home, we shall come and visit you. The whole conversation is about the future, so there is no need to indicate it again in the tense of the verb. Some more examples: Ich schreibe den Brief heute Abend. I will write the letter this evening. Wir gehen nächstes Jahr nach Spanien. We will go to Spain next year.

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Futur I Where the meaning would not otherwise be clear, and in more formal language, e.g. to express an intention, German talks about the future tense by using werden plus the infinitive at the end of the clause. The forms of werden are: ich werde du wirst er/sie/es/man wird wir werden ihr werdet sie/Sie werden Examples: Ich werde ein Haus bauen. I shall build a house. (an intention) Wir werden sehen. We will see. The future can also express some inescapable fate: Sie werden alle umkommen. They will all perish.

Future II If the sentence is speculative, "sein" or "haben" is added to the verb and Futur II is formed: Sie werden angekommen sein. literally "they will have arrived" - meaning "(I gather) they have arrived (by now)"

Sie werden es gemacht haben. "they will have done it" Normally, you use Futur II when speaking about something that should have happened already, but you are not sure or you can't prove it. () (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs •

Alphabet •

() German – Lessons:

Cases •

Level I •

Nouns •

Level II •

Prepositions and Postpositions •

Level III •

Level IV •

Pronouns •

Sentences •

Level V (discussion)

Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

Verbs

German/Grammar/Verbs

References [1] http:/ / www. canoo. net

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APPENDICES

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A.01 - Das Alphabet German/Appendices/Alphabet Appendices Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout

()

German

(discussion)

Lessons: Level I • Level II • Level III Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

The Alphabet The German alphabet, like English, consists of 26 basic letters. However, there are also combined letters and three umlauted forms (an umlaut is the pair of dots placed over certain vowels; in German, Umlaut describes the dotted letter, not just the dots.). The following table includes a listing of all these letters and a guide to their pronunciation. As in English, letter sounds can differ depending upon where within a word the letter occurs. The first pronunciation given below (second column) is that in English of the letter (or combination) itself. Reading down this column and pronouncing the "English" words will recite the alphabet auf Deutsch ("in German"). Note that letter order is exactly the same as in English, but pronunciation is not for many of the letters. In the list of pronunciation notes, no entry means essentially "pronounced as in English".

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Pronunciation:

The alphabet —

Das Alphabet

A (a) /ɑː/

Long 'a' as 'a' in 'father' (ah).

B

(be) /beː/

Pronounced like 'p' when at the end of a word

C

(ce) /tseː/

See combination letter forms; without a following 'h': before 'e', 'i', 'y', 'ä', 'ö' like the German letter 'z' else like 'k'

D (de) /deː/

Pronounced like 't' when at the end of a word; slightly more "dental"

E

(e) /eː/

Long 'e' as 'a' in 'late' (ay) without(!) the (y). Short 'e' as 'e' in 'pet'. In unstressed syllables like 'a' in 'about' or 'e' in 'garden'

F

(ef) /ɛf/

G (ge) /geː/

Pronounced like 'g' in 'get'; pronounced like 'k' when at the end of a word; pronounced like 'ich'-sound (see below) in the suffix '-ig' at the end of words

H (ha) /hɑː/

like 'h' in 'house' only at the beginning of words or a syllable before 'a', 'i', 'o', 'u', 'y', 'ä', 'ö', 'ü' (only if these vowels don't belong to a suffix), else silent

I

(i) /iː/

Long 'i' as 'e' in 'seen' (ee); short 'i' as 'i' in 'pit'

J

(jot) /jot/

Pronounced like 'y' in 'yard'

K (ka) /kɑː/ L

(el) /ɛl/

Slightly more "dental"

M (em) /ɛm/ N (en) /ɛn/

Slightly more "dental"; before 'a', 'i', 'o', 'u', 'y', 'ä', 'ö', 'ü' (only if these vowels don't belong to a suffix)

O (o) /oː/

Long 'o' as 'o' in 'open' (oh), there is no movement in the sound as in the English equivalent. Short 'o' as 'o' in 'pot'

P

(pe) /peː/

Q (ku) /kuː/

Pronounced like 'k'; only occurs in the combination 'qu', which is pronounced like 'kv' not like 'kw'

R

(er) /ɛʀ/

trilled with the front or back of the tongue, depending on area (see below)

S

(es) /ɛs/

In Germany, pronounced like 'z'; pronounced like 's' in 'sound' when at the end of a word, after consonants (except 'l', 'm', 'n', ng') and before consonants; in Austria, pronounced like 'z' only when it appears between two vowels, pronounced like 's' otherwise. Pronounced like 'sh' in the beginning of a word before 'p' or 't'

T

(te) /teː/

Slightly more "dental"

U (u) /uː/

Long 'u' as 'oo' in 'moon' (oo); short 'u' as 'u' in 'put'

V (vau) /fɑʊ/

Pronounced like 'f' when at the end of a word and in a few but often used words (in most cases of Germanic origin), in general at the beginning of German geographical and family names. In all other cases like 'v'

W (ve) /veː/

Pronounced like 'v'

X (iks) /ɪks/

Pronounced like 'ks'

Y (üpsilon) /ʏpsɪlon/

Pronounced like 'ü' (see below), except in words of English origin, where it is pronounced like in English

Z

Pronounced like 'ts'

(zet) /tsɛt/

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Unique German Letters Umlaut Letters • Umlauts were originally written as 'ae', 'oe', and 'ue'. Pronunciation:

Umlauts —

Umlaute

Ä (ä) //

Long ä pronounced similar to 'ai' in 'air'

Ö (ö) //

No English equivalent sound (see below); somewhat similar to vowel in 'jerk', 'turn', or 'third', but it is critical to note that there is no "r" sound that is pronounced in conjunction with the ö.

Ü (ü) //

No English equivalent sound (see below)

The ss-Ligature, ß Pronunciation:

ß-ligature —

Eszet

(missing file: , how to upload audio) ß (es-zet or scharfes es) // Pronounced like 's' in 'set' or 'c' in 'nice'; see below for uses.

Combined Letters Pronunciation:

Combined letters —

Buchstabenkombinationen

(missing file: , how to upload audio) ch

(ce-ha) //

ck

(ce-ka) //

tz

(te-zet) //

ie

(i-e) //

ei

(e-i) //

Pronounced like the 'ie' in 'tie' or simply the personal 'I'

eu

(e-u) //

Pronounced like the 'oi' in the English word 'oil'

äu

(ä-u) //

Pronounced like the 'oi' in the English word 'oil'

au

(a-u) //

Pronounced as a short 'ow' such as when experiencing pain

dt

(de-te) //

st

(es-te) //

Pronounced like English 'sh' followed by 't'

sp

(es-pe) //

Pronounced like English 'sh' followed by 'p'

sch

(es-ce-ha) //

Pronounced like English 'sh'

tsch, zsch, tzsch

Pronounced various ways (see Konsonanten sounds below)

Pronounced like English 'ch'

ph

(pe-ha) //

Pronounced like 'f'. Often used in the old orthography, now nearly always replaced: old: Photographie new: Fotografie

pf

(pe-ef) //

Difficult pronunciation for non-speakers. Both letters are pronounced.

qu

(ku-u) //

...

German/Appendices/Alphabet

• Audio:

OGG (305KB) ~ Das Alphabet oder Das ABC

• Audio:

OGG (114KB) ~ Die Umlaute

Deutsche Aussprache ~ German Pronunciation Guide Vokale ~ Vowels German vowels are either long or short, but never drawled as in some English dialects. A simple method of recognizing whether a vowel is likely to be long or short in a German word is called the Rule of double consonants. If a vowel is followed by a single consonant — as in haben (have), dir (you, dat.), Peter (Peter), and schon (already) — the vowel sound is usually long. If there are two or more consonants following the vowel — as in falsch (false), elf (eleven), immer (always), and noch (still) — the vowel sound is usually short. There are some German words that are exceptions to the double consonant rule: bin, bis, das, es, hat, and was all have short vowel sounds. It is also the case that the silent 'h' does not count as a consonant and the preceding vowel is always long. Ihnen is an example. This "rule" is applied to the use of 'ss' vs. 'ß' (see below), in that 'ß' is treated as 'hs'. Thus, the vowel before 'ß' in der Fuß (foot) is long, while that before 'ss' in das Fass (cask) is short. • au – 'Ah-oo' is pronounced like 'ow' in English 'cow'. German examples are blau (blue) and auch (also see below under ach ~ unique German sounds). • äu – 'Ah-umlaut-oo' is pronounced like the German eu (ay-oo; see next). In written and printed German, 'ae' can be an acceptable substitute for 'ä' if the latter is unavailable. • eu – 'Ay-oo' is pronounced like 'oi' in English word 'oil'. German examples are neun (nine) and heute (today). • ie and ei – 'Ee-ay' has exactly the same sound as a German long 'i'; that is, like the 'ee' in 'seen'. 'Ay-ee' is pronounced like the 'ei' in 'height'. Note that this appears to be the opposite for these two vowel combinations in English, where the rule is that the first vowel is long and the second is silent. Consider this word: 'die' — in German it is pronounced 'dee', in English like 'dye'. The word mein in German is the English 'mine'. In effect, 'ie' follows the same rule as in English, with the first vowel long (ee in German) and the second vowel silent; 'ei' is the equivalent sound in German to the English long 'i' as in 'mine'.

Konsonanten ~ Consonants Most German consonants are pronounced similar to the way they are in English, with exceptions noted in column 3 above. Details of certain consonant sounds and uses are discussed further here: • ch – Pronounced like 'k' in many words of Greek origin like Christ or Charakter, but like 'sh' in words of French origin, and 'tch' in words of English origin. The German sechs (six) is pronounced very much similar to the English 'sex', but with a voiced 's' (so it's more like 'zex'). See also the discussion of "ich-sound" below. The pronunciation of words with an initial 'ch' followed by a vowel, as in China or Chemie varies: in High German the "ich-sound" is the standard pronunciation, but in South German dialect and Austrian German 'k' is preferred. • d, t, l, and n – These letters are pronounced similarly in English and German. However, in pronouncing these letters, the German extends his tongue up to the back of the base of the teeth, creating a more dental sound. As noted above, 'd' is a 'dental d' except at the end of a word, where it becomes a 'dental t'. • sch – in German 'Ess-tsay-hah' is pronounced like 'sh', not 'sk' as in English. German word example: Schüler (student). • sp and st – Where the combinations 'ess-pay' or 'ess-tay' appear at the beginning of a word, the 'ess' sound becomes an 'sh' sound. German examples are spielen (play) and spät (late). An interesting "exception" is a word like Bleistift (pencil), where the inside 'sti' is pronounced 'shti' — however, this is a compound word from Blei (lead) and Stift (pen). Some local dialects however pronounce all occurrences "sharp" (with an 'ess' sound --

246

German/Appendices/Alphabet typical for North German dialects, especially near Hamburg) or "soft" (with an 'sh' sound -- typical for the Swabian dialect). • ß – The former ligature (of 'ss' or 'sz'), 'ess-tset' is widely used in German, but its use is somewhat more restricted in very modern German (always pronounced like 's' in 'sound'). 'ß' is used for the sound 's' in cases where 'ss' or 's' can't be used: this is especially after long vowels and diphthongs (cf. the English usage of 'c' like in 'vice' or 'grocery'). Thus, the vowel before 'ß' in der Fuß (foot) is long, while that before 'ss' in das Fass (cask) is short. 'ß' appears after diphthongs ('au', 'ei', 'eu') because they are long. In written and printed German, 'ss' can be an acceptable substitute for 'ß' if the letter is unavailable. The Greek letter, β, is not to be used as a substitute for 'ß'. Note that in Switzerland, 'ß' is always written as 'ss'.

German Sounds not found in English There are sounds in the German language that have no real equivalent in the English language. These are discussed here. • r – German language has two pronunciations for r: The more common is similiar to the French r, a guttural sound resembling a fractionated g, as found in Arabic ‫ ﻍ‬or some pronunciations of modern Greek γ, as well as modern Hebrew ‫( ר‬the modern sound was affected by German). The second pronounciation is a "rolled" r as in Spanish or Scots. Its use is limited to Switzerland and parts of Southern Germany. • ö (oh-umlaut) – The word "umlaut" means "change in sound" and an umlauted 'o' changes to a sound with no equivalent in English. An easy way to get this sound is to think of it as the 'u' in the British word 'murder'. Commonly, the 'long ö' is made by first sounding 'oo' as in moon, then pursing the lips as if to whistle, and changing the sound to 'a' as in 'late'. An example word is schön (beautiful). The 'short ö' sound is made by first sounding 'oo', pursing the lips, and changing the sound to 'e' as in 'pet. A 'short ö' sounds actually very similar to the 'i' in 'sir'. An example word is zwölf (twelve). If you have problems pronouncing ö, do not replace it by "o" but by "e" (as in elf) like in many German dialects. In written and printed German, 'oe' can be an acceptable substitute for 'ö' if the latter is unavailable. • ü (oo-umlaut) – As with 'ö', 'oo-umlaut' is a rounded vowel sound with no real English equivalent. The 'long ü' is made by first sounding 'oo' as in moon, then pursing the lips as if to whistle, and changing the sound to 'ee' as in 'seen'. A simpler approach is to simply shape your lips as if you were to whistle, and then put some voice. An example word is früh. The 'short ü' sound is made by first sounding 'oo', pursing the lips, and changing the sound to 'i' as in 'pit. An example word is fünf (five). If you have problems pronouncing ü, do not replace it by "u" but by "i" (as in fish) like in many German dialects. In written and printed German, 'ue' can be an acceptable substitute for 'ü' if the latter is unavailable. • ach – The letter combination 'ch' as in auch (also) is called the "ach-sound" and resembles a throat-clearing (guttural) sound. It is used after 'a', 'o', 'u', and 'au'. It is pronounced somewhat like "och" in Loch Ness (lock, not loke) in its original form. The Hebrew letter ‫ ח‬and the Arabic letter ‫ ﺥ‬as well as continental Spanish j are pronounced the same as the "ach-sound". • ich – The "ich-sound" in German is also somewhat guttural, like a more forceful 'h' in English "hue", "huge". Another approach is to say "sh" while (almost) touching the palpatine not with the tip but with the middle of your tongue. In the word richtig ("correct") both the 'ich' and the final 'ig' have this sound. It is used after 'e', 'i', 'y', 'ä', 'ö', 'ü', 'ei', 'eu', 'äu', after consonant-letters and sometimes at the beginning of words (especially before 'e', 'i', 'y', 'ä', 'ö'). If you have problems pronouncing ich, replace with the sound of 'hue' or by 'sh' but never by a hard 'k' (never "ick")! In some parts of Germany "ich", as well as the final 'ig', is pronounced "ish". In Austria and some local dialects of Germany the final 'ig' (as in "richtig") is simply pronounced as in English "dig". Audio: OGG (37KB) ~ ach, auch, ich, richtig

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German/Appendices/Alphabet

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Syllable Stress The general rule in German is that words are stressed on the first syllable. However, there are exceptions. Almost all exceptions are of Latin, French, or Greek origin. Mostly these are words stressed on the last syllable, as shown by the following: Vo=`kal

Kon=so=`nant

Lek=ti=`on

These words (not stressed on the first syllable) appear in the (Level II and III) lesson vocabularies as Vokal, Lektion (in some regions: Lektion), etc. Words starting in common prefixes (ge-, be-, ver-, etc.) stress the syllable following said prefix. Examples are Gemüse, Beamte, and Vereinigung.

Links For very advanced Readers: • w:de:Vokal#Vokale_im_Deutschen • w:de:ß ()

Appendices

(discussion)

Alphabet • Vocabulary • Phrasebook • Resources • Names • German History • Nations of the World • False Friends • Numbers • Keyboard Layout

() German – Lessons:

Level I •

Level II •

Level III •

Level IV •

Level V (discussion)

Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

249

A.02 - Phrase Book German/Appendices/Phrasebook Appendices Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout

()

German

(discussion)

Lessons: Level I • Level II • Level III Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

German Phrases Greetings Hallo! Guten Tag! Tag! Guten Morgen! Guten Abend! Gute Nacht! Wie geht es Ihnen? Wie geht's Es geht mir gut Prima!, Großartig! Spitze! Gut! Sehr gut! Toll! Ganz gut So lala Es geht so

Hello! Good day! Good day! Good morning! Good evening! Good night! How are you (formal)? How are you doing? How are you (informal) I'm doing fine, I'm well Great! Super! Good! Very good! Terrific! Pretty good OK Going ok

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Nicht gut Schlecht Sehr schlecht Miserabel Und Ihnen?

Not well Bad Very bad Miserable And you (formal)?

Auf Wiedersehen! Wiedersehen! Tschüss! Tschau! Bis später! Bis dann! Wiederhören

Good bye! Bye! See you! Ciao! (Italian for 'see you') Later! (until later) Later! (until whenever) (hear) again (used over the phone)

Note: How are you? is not a typical query in German greeting etiquette as it is in English, where the standard answer is I'm Fine. A German speaker will consider this to be an earnest question, and you may receive an honest answer that is longer than you expected. Note: Wiedersehen directly translates as "to see again".

Gespräche (conversations) Danke (sehr)! Danke schön! Bitte? Bitte (sehr)! Entschuldigung! Vielen Dank Gern geschehen

Thanks, thank you Thanks a lot! Please? You're welcome! (comes after danke) Excuse me! Much thanks You are welcome

Verstehen (understanding) Sprechen Sie bitte etwas langsamer.

Please, speak somewhat slower.

Bitte sprechen Sie langsamer.

Please speak more slowly.

Können Sie mich verstehen?

Can you understand me?

Ich verstehe Sie nicht.

I don't understand you.

Ich weiß nicht.

I don't know

Was haben Sie gesagt?

What was that? What have you said?

Können Sie das bitte wiederholen?

Can you say that again, please!

Ich spreche kein deutsch.

I don't speak German (literally: I speak no German)

Ich spreche nur ein bisschen deutsch.

I speak only a little German

Ich spreche nur wenig deutsch.

I speak a little German

Ich spreche nur ein paar Wörter auf deutsch. I only speak a few words of German. Sprechen Sie deutsch?

Do you speak German?

Sprechen Sie englisch?

Do you speak English?

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251

Positionen (Locations) Wo ist die Apotheke? Wo ist das Geschäft? Wissen Sie, wo der Flughafen ist? Wie gelangt man zur Bowlingbahn?

Where is the drug store? Where is the shop? Do you know where the airport is? How do you get to the bowling alley?

More commonly used is: (few people say "gelangt") Wie kommt man zur…

How does one get to…? (for feminine words)

Wie kommt man zur Apotheke? Wie kommt man zum…

How does one get to the chemist / pharmacy? How does one get to…? (for neuter or masculine words)

Wie kommt man zum Flughafen?

How does one get to the airport?

Gehen Sie nach links. Gehen Sie nach rechts.

Go left Go right

Common phrases Translation

Phrase

IPA

Pronunciation

Sound

German

Deutsch

/dɔɪ̯ʧ/

(doytsh)

(listen)

hello

Hallo

/ˈhaloː/

(HAH-loh)

(listen)

good-bye

auf Wiedersehen

/aʊ̯f ˈviːdɐzeːn/

(owf VEE-der-zayn)

(listen)

please

bitte

/ˈbɪtə/

(BIT-tuh)

(listen)

you’re welcome

bitte schön

/ˈbɪtə ʃøːn/

(BIT-tuh shurn)

thank you

danke

/ˈdaŋkə/

(DAHNG-kuh)

(listen)

that one

das da

/das da/

(duss dah)

(listen)

how much?

wie viel?

/vi fiːl/

(vee feel)

(listen)

English

Englisch

/ˈʔɛŋlɪʃ/

(ANG-lish)

(listen)

yes

ja

/jaː/

(yah)

(listen)

no

nein

/naɪ̯n/

(nine)

(listen)

I need help

Ich brauche Hilfe

/ʔiç ˈbʁaʊ̯χə ˈhɪlfə/

(ish BROW-khuh HEEL-fuh)

excuse me

Entschuldigen Sie

/ʔɛntˈʃʊldɪgən ziː/

(ent-SHOOL-dee-gen zee)

pardon me

verzeihen Sie

/fɐˈʦaɪ̯ən ziː/

(fair-TSEYE-en zee)

I am sick

ich bin krank

/ʔɪç bɪn kʁaŋk/

(ish bin krunk)

where’s the bathroom?

Wo ist die Toilette?

/voː ʔɪst diː toːˈlɛtə/

(vo ist dee toe-LET-tuh)

(listen)

generic toast

prosit prost

/ˈpʁoziːt/ /pʁoːst/

(PRO-zeet) (proast)

(listen) (listen)

Do you speak English?

Sprechen Sie Englisch?

/ˈʃpʁɛçən ziː ˈʔɛŋlɪʃ/

(SHPRE-shen zee ANG-lish)

(listen)

I don’t speak German

Ich spreche kein Deutsch

/ʔɪç ˈʃprɛçə kaɪ̯n dɔɪ̯ʧ/

(ish SHPRE-shuh kine doytsh)

I don’t understand

Ich verstehe nicht.

/ʔɪç fɐˈʃteːə nɪçt/

(ish fair-SHTAY-uh nisht)

(listen)

Sorry

Entschuldigung

/ʔɛntˈʃʊldɪgʊŋ/

(ent-SHOOL-dee-gung)

(listen)

German/Appendices/Phrasebook

252

I don’t know

Ich weiß nicht

/ʔɪç vaɪ̯s nɪçt/

(ish vice nisht)

Happy birthday

Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag

/ˈhɛɐ̯ʦlɪçən ˈglʏkvʊnʃ ʦʊm gəˈbʊɐ̯ʦtaːk/

(HAIRTS-lee-shen GLUKE-voonsh tsoom ge-BOORTS-tahk)

()

Appendices

(listen)

(discussion)

Alphabet • Vocabulary • Phrasebook • Resources • Names • German History • Nations of the World • False Friends • Numbers • Keyboard Layout

() German – Lessons:

Level I •

Level II •

Level III •

Level IV •

Level V (discussion)

Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

253

A.03 - Grammar Reference Table I German/Appendices/Grammar I Beginning German | Basic German | Intermediate German

Der-word Case for German Nouns Case Gender

Nominativ Genitiv       Dativ          Akkusativ

masculine der

des

dem

den

feminine

die

der

der

die

neuter

das

des

dem

das

plural*

die

der

den

die

* The same regardless of singular noun gender

Personal Pronoun Tables: nominative, genitive, dative & accusative cases Nominative case personal pronouns The nominative case is used as the subject of a verb. Singular 1st person

ich

I

2nd person du (Sie*) you

Plural wir

we

ihr (Sie*) you

3rd person er, sie, es he, she, it sie

they

*Polite form.

Genitive case personal pronouns The genitive case corresponds to the possessive case in English or to the English objective case preceded by 'of' and denoting possession. The use of genitive personal pronouns is very rare in German and many Germans are unable to use them correctly.

German/Appendices/Grammar I

254

Singular 1st person

meiner

2nd person deiner (Ihrer*)

Plural my

unser

our

your

eurer (Ihrer*) your

3rd person seiner, ihrer, seiner his, her, its ihrer

their

*Polite form. Examples: Ich erbarme mich eurer. ~ I take pity on you(rs). meiner unbedeutenden Meinung nach. ~ in my humble opinion (IMHO)

Dative case personal pronouns The personal pronouns in the dative case are used as indirect objects of verbs and after the prepositions aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu. Singular 1st person

mir

2nd person dir (Ihnen*)

Plural

me

uns

us

you

euch (Ihnen*) you

3rd person ihm, ihr, ihm him, her, it ihnen

them

*Polite form.

Accusative case personal pronouns The personal pronouns in the accusative case are used as direct objects of transitve verbs and after the prepositions durch, für, gegen, ohne, um. Singular 1st person

mich

2nd person dich (Sie*)

Plural

me

uns

you

euch (Sie*) you

3rd person ihn, sie, es    him, her, it sie

* Polite form.

us

them

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A.04 - Grammar Reference Table II German/Appendices/Grammar II Beard, Bett->Bed, Gut->Good, Hart->Hard, Rot->Red, and Not->Need. Word German meaning (in English) Englische Bedeutung (auf Deutsch)

After Anus Später, Nachher

also thus auch

German/Appendices/False friends

Angel Fishing Rod Engel

Apart Striking Abgesondert, Abseits

Arm Poor Arm

Art Kind, sort, species Kunst, Künstlichkeit

Ass Ace Esel, Dumpfbacke, Knallkopf, Arsch (vulg.)

Bad Bath Schlecht, Schlimm

Bagger Excavator Angesteller im Supermarkt der die Einkäufe in Tüten packt

bald Soon Unbehaart, Kahlköpfig

bang Afraid Knall, Krach, Schall

bar in Cash, Pure Stab (see also: Stab), Kneipe

Bart Beard Name eines Mannes

bat asked politely, requested (past tense) Fledermaus

274

German/Appendices/False friends

Beet Flower bed Zuckerruebe, rote Ruebe

bitten to ask politely, request gebissen

blank Shiny, Shining Unbeschriftet, Unausgefüllt

Blech Sheet metal Ausdruck des Ekels

bog to Twist, Form, Bend (past tense) Sumpf, Torfmoor

Brand Fire Markenprodukt

Brilliant, brillant Diamond, prächtig, herrlich Blendend, Geistvoll

Bug Front of a boat or plane Laus, Insekt, Störung

Danke Thanks Feucht

dick Thick Schnüffler, Schwanz, der steife Penis

Elf Eleven, (coll. soccer team) Elfe, Kobold

falls If, in case Wasserfälle

275

German/Appendices/False friends

Fang, fang Catch, to catch, to capture (imperative) Reißzahn

fatal Unfortunate Verhängnisvoll, Unheilvoll, Tödlich

fast Almost, Nearly Schnell

fasten Fast Befestigen

Fee Fairy Preise, Gebühr

Fell Coat (animal) fällen

fern Far away, Distant Farnkraut

First Ridge Zuerst

flog Flew Peitschen, Auspeitschen

fort Away, Off, Gone Festung, Kastell

Funk Radio Drückeberger, Musik von 1970's

Gang Walk, Gait, Way Gruppe, Bande, Trupp

276

German/Appendices/False friends

Gift Poison Gabe, Geschenk

Grab Grave Aufgreifen, Ergreifen

Grad Degree (temperature) einen akademischen Grad erlangen

grub dug (past tense) Futter

gut Good Darm (Schnecke und Kette)

Hack ground meal, hash Heib, Kerbe, Zerhacken

half Helped (past tense) Halb

Handy Cell Phone Praktisch, Passend, Handlich

Hang Slope, Inclination Hängen, Henken

Happen Bit, Morsel Zufällig Geschehen, Vorkommen, Passieren

hart Hard Hirsch

Heck Back of a car, boat or plane Was zum Teufel? (What the Heck?)

277

German/Appendices/False friends

Held Hero Gehalten

hell Bright Hölle

Herd Cooker, Oven, Range Herde

Hose Pants Schlauch

Hub, hub Throw, Lob, Swing (see also: Lob), (past tense of) to lift Wickelkern, Nabe

Hummer Lobster Jemand der summt

Hut Hat Hütte

Kind child Art, Sorte

Labor Laboratory Arbeit

Lack Varnish Knappheit, Mangel

lag Lay zurueckbleiben, zoegern

Last Load, Burden, Weight Zuletzt

278

German/Appendices/False friends

Lied Song Gelogen

links Left Verknüpfung, Verbindungen

List Cunning Schlagseite

Lob Praise Werf, Hub (see also: Hub)

log Lied Block, Klotz

Lot Plumb (line) Pazille, die Menge, die Masse

Lust To feel like doing something, desire (this can has the English meaning, depending on the situation) Sinnliche Begierde

Made Maggot Hergestellt, Gemacht

Maul Mouth (animal) der Schlegel, Beschädigen, Durchprügeln

Mist Manure, Trash leichter Nebel

Not distress, need Nicht

Note Grade (in school), musical note bemerken, aufschreiben, kleiner Brief

279

German/Appendices/False friends

nun Now die Schwester (im Kloster), Nonne

Pest Plague Nervensäge

Rang Rank Geklingelt, Geklungen

Rad Wheel Ausdruck der Bewunderung (wie Geil)

Rat Advice die Ratte

Regal Shelves Majestätisch, Königlich, Hoheitsvoll

Rind Beef, Cattle Schwarte, Schale

Rock Skirt Stein, Fels

Roman Novel der Römer

Rot Red Verrotten, Verwesung

Sage History, Myth Weise, Klug, Gescheit

See Lake Siehe

280

German/Appendices/False friends

Sense Scythe Wahrnehmung, Bedeutung, Verstand, Sinn

Silvester New Year's Eve Name eines Mannes

Speck Bacon Fleck

Spur Trace, Tracks, Lane Schiffsschnabel, Sporn, Ansporn (see also: Spore)

Stab Rod, Pole, Baton, Bar (see also: Bar) Erstechen

Stare Starlings anstarren

stark Strong Völlig, Gänzlich

Stern Star Ernst, das Heck

Tag Day Markierstelle, Kennzeichnung

Tang Seaweed Amerikanisches Orangengetränk

Taste Key (as in keyboard) Kostprobe, Geschmackssinn

toll Great! Super! Zollabgabe, Straßenbenutzungsgebühr

281

German/Appendices/False friends

Tod Death, Dead Name eines Mannes

Ton Clay, a Sound die Tonne

Tot Dead kleines Kind, kleiner Knirps

Wade calf (of the leg) waten

Wand Wall der Zauberstab

war Was (see also: Was) Krieg

was What? wurde/war (see also: War)

Welt World Quaddel, Beule

Wetter Weather Nasser

wider Against, Contrary to Weiter, Breiter

will Wants Wille

Although not spelled identically in both languages, beginners are often confused by the similarity of the German "bekommen" and English "to become". bekommen => to receive, to get werden => to become

282

German/Appendices/False friends

283

()

Appendices

(discussion)

Alphabet • Vocabulary • Phrasebook • Resources • Names • German History • Nations of the World • False Friends • Numbers • Keyboard Layout

() German – Lessons:

Level I •

Level II •

Level III •

Level IV •

Level V (discussion)

Grammar • Appendices • About (including print versions) • Q&A • Planning

References [1] http:/ / en. wiktionary. org/ wiki/ etymology

284

A.09 - Level I Vocabulary German/Level I/Vocabulary
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