# Generator and Static Excitation

September 17, 2017 | Author: mentong | Category: Electric Generator, Ac Power, Inductor, Power (Physics), Power Engineering

#### Short Description

Synchronous generator and Static Excitation system...

#### Description

ANSALDO

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THE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR) Synthetic notes The synchronous generator (alternator) is a rotating electric machine which converts mechanical energy from the turbine into electric energy. The turbine converts some kind of energy (steam, water, gas) into mechanical energy

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The key principle is based on the electromagnetic induction phenomenon: a relative rotation between a magnetic inductor flux and a system of connected induced conductors.

PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR N

GENERATOR WITH EXCITATION N

Iex +

S

S

In order to realize the relative movement between inductor and induced conductors the generator is constituted by a fixed part “the stator” and a rotating part “the rotor”. When the inductor conductor (rotor winding ) excited is turning at a fixed speed, an induced alternating voltage at the armature winding terminals (three phase winding) is produced: its frequency depends on the inductor rotating speed and its value ( RMS value) is proportional to the flux produced by the inductor according to the relationship E =k Φ n The generator speed is proportionall to the frequency according to the following relationship: N = 120 X F ________ P N is the speed (rpm) , F is the frequency ( Hz) and P the number of poles.

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A synchronous generator representation

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Current anf Power If the external circuit of the generator is closed on a load → a current will circulate in the armature windings. According to the phase angle between voltage and current, the generator can produce active power P and/or reactive power Q, in any case the rated power (nominal) is expressed in apparent power (MVA) which only depends from the product VOLTAGE X CURRENT. An=√3*Vn*In and it means the generator power plate in KVA. The nominal current value depends on the section of the conductors and on the cooling system and is equal to the maximum continous operating current. The nominal voltage value depends on the number of the induced conductors and on the dimensions of the magnetic circuits ( maximum flux).

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Excitation The inductor circuit (called field winding or rotor winding or field circuit) of the synchronous generator is fed by a continuous voltage whose value is inclusive into a range between 100V and 500 Volt (Excitation voltage). The excitation power can vary from around 0.3 to 1.5% the rated power according to the number of poles. The energy's source for the excitation is almost exclusively constituted by rectifier device that converts energy ( AC / DC converter )

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The excitation system These are the most important functions of the excitation system : •

Supply the necessary energy to fed generator field circuit converting it from an external source.

Regulate automatically, through the control of the excitation, the voltage at generator terminals .

• Limitate the generator operation inside its operating ranges; • Optimize the dynamics of generator connected to the net •

Regulate the excitation current in the manual mode

• De- excite the generator after the stop request. (fast de- excitation)

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The generator “NO LOAD CHARACTERISTIC” : It represents the generator voltage at no load as excitation current

a function of

the

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Generator

: mathematical representation of NO LOAD

characteristic Curva di saturazione a vuoto approx. 14.95

IfolIfd0

Vnom

Vm (kV)

11.213

7.475

3.738

. 0

0

175

350

525

700

Ifd (Amp)

Ifol = no load air gap current ( A) Ifd0= no load current (A) Vnom = Nominal voltage

.

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REACTIVE POWER EXCHANGE WITH THE GRID We suppose that the generator is connected to a infinite power grid (that has a voltage constant value= Vr through an uncoupling reactance X • Case of inductive reactive power production to the grid. In this case, starting from an equilibrium condition whit Vr = Va (the voltages are represented as two vectors) and with the generator at no load, the value of the excitation current is increased ⇒ the generator voltage Va is greater than Vr:

⇒ The generator produces inductive reactive power to the grid ( Q >0)

+

G

ΔVt X

ΔVt Vr

_ Vr

Va

Va

Grid

Ia

• Case of absorption of inductive reactive power from the grid (or of production of capacitive reactive power to the grid) In this case, starting from an equilibrium condition whith Vr = Va and with the generator at no load, the value of the excitation current is decreased ⇒ the generator voltage Va is smaller than Vr:

⇒ The generator absorbs inductive reactive power from the grid ( Q < 0) ΔVt G

_

X

ΔVt + Vr

Va

Vr

Va

Grid

Ia Ia

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THE CAPABILITY DIAGRAM: is a diagram showing the operating limits of the generator

Max apparent power of the generator

Active power Inaccessible area due to the turbine power limitation

Inaccessible area due to stability and overheating of the stator core ends. Nominal work. point Max turbine power

Under excitation limit

Inaccessible area due to the rotor overheating

Max rotor current limit

ϕ

Reactive power Over-excitation LAGGING

Motor

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THE STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM A first classification of the EXCITATION systems is made on the basis of the power section that fed the generator field: the excitation system can be therefore static or rotating

the system is called called static because the field is fed from a static source without rotating parts, and statics rectifiers are used to product DC current. The static excitation system directly acts on the generator field using revolving contacts (brush-rings)

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STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM ANSALDO Generator

Three phase supply

+

Excitation board

Excitation transformer

…….Actuallly the rotating excitation system ( brushless generator) are rarely used .

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BRUSHLESS EXCITATION

PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR

BRUSHLESS AUX GENERATOR

ROTATING DIODES BRIDGE MAIN GENERATOR

+ --

EXCITATION CUBICLE

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THE CONTROL INTERFACES Besides the power interfaces (see above) from the excitation transformer and to the rings, the excitation system must exchange signals with the external plant. Therefore a lot of control interfaces and therefore a lot of auxiliary connections with other plants equipments plant are realized automation automation protections protections

STATIC Excitation

plant plant

Plant means in general: interlocks, consents, commands to switchtes etc…

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ADVANTAGES OF THE STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM RELIABILITY OF THE STATIC COMPONENTS REDUNDANCE HIGH DINAMIC RESPONSE LOW LOSSES FAST DE EXCITATION SHORT TIME TO REPAIR DAMAGES SMALL DIMENSION ……. while the only advantage of a rotating excitation system is the absence of revolving contacts ( not accepted in particular environmental conditions )

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Static excitation system: power and control sections Excitation system

Line 3

Gen brk

Power supply

1

G

3

~

Power section Output signals

Excitation feedback

Control section

Commands

Generator feedback

Line feedback (option)

The system is composed by 2 sections functionally separated

- the power section that is directly connected to the rotor field generator. - the control section that guarantees the regulation of the main electrical greatness beginning from the measures of the greatness of the same generator.

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Static excitation system : Power and control sections details line

converter power supply

52G line voltage synchronous voltages

power section crow bar

alpha

converter control section

= =

excitation current

=

excitation voltage

=

crow bar current

= =

G

~

machine voltage machine current

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