Based on a theory of porous solids previously developed by the author, the elasticity of a hexagonal close packing of equal spheres is treated. The packing is anisotropic and because of the weight of the spheres, also inhomogeneous. The velocities of propagation of elastic waves have been caleulated for evacuated interspaces and for interspaces filled with a liquid or gas. In the case of evacuated or air-filled interspaces, the wave rays and travel times have been computed. The packing which has been treated may be of use as a model for a dry or wet loose material such as gravel or sand. Though the model is very simplified, the results obtained show some typical effects such as anisotropy, inhomogeneity, and a 90’ angle of emergence.
OF POROUS SOLIDS
In a previous paper by the author (Cassmann, 1951) the elasticity of homogeneous isotropic or anisotropic porous solids has been treated. The following investigations are based upon the results of the above mentioned paper. Therefore these results may first be summarized, all demonstrations being omitted. A sample of a porous solid possessingthe volume I’ and the mass m, may be composed of a homogeneous isotropic solid material of volume V and mass 2 and of a homogeneous liquid or gas of volume P and mass & filling the pores. Therefore, v=jF+l7,
P n = v = porosity,
Macroscopically the porous solid may be considered as a homogeneous elastic solid if the pores are assumed sufficiently small. Though the solid material is assumed isotropic, the porous solid can behave either as an isotropic or anisotropic elastic body according to the shape of the pores. All pores are assumed to be in connection. Let us consider an initial state of stress and strain (e.g. such as the state of rocks under the weight of overlying material) and variations from this state small enough to allow the application of Hooke’s law. Two extreme cases will be taken into account. In the first case the variations of stress act only upon the solid matter, the hydrostatic pressure of the pore content remaining constant, due to circulation allowed through the pores and through the surface of the body. The porous solid then behaves like an “open system” (e.g., slow variations of stress applied to a rock sample in free air). In the second case circulation of the pore content is not possible, the porous solid behaving like a “closed * Manuscript received by the Editor May 21, 1951.
t Professor of Geophysics and Director of Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
(e.g., stress variations
in the earth’s
due to earthquake
Sotations: .\‘, _V,2 = rectangular
sx, s,, SL = rectangular variations.
Aei = components
due to stress
of strain variations.
Ael = a,'
Ae3= TiY as?
Ae5 = z
Api = components of stress variations (pressure with positive sign).
(2) Ae,=as,+?!?! ay i)_~
of the open and the closed system
constants and modulus of compression
z = modulus
of the solid material content.
open system: A&
ci;Ae,ii = I1 2’ ’ ’ . ’ ’
. . . ) 6
closed system : Ap; =
Aei = -
the elastic constants:
3k In particular,
(EL+ br + bx).
for the isotropic case:
x, p,/$ = r;+ 5 p
of the open system.
of the closed system.
x,0=AS4,, 3 I:rom (7) is obtained
Let two homogeneous
under the pressure P (Figure
E = 535_+
and isotropic spheres of equal radius R (with
constants x, ‘E) be in contact
x ~ 26 + 2)
the radius of the circle of contact is
R’ is assumed to be small compared with R, nnd s~ c
9(1 -72)2P2 = relative displacement
of the spheres.
FIG. I. Two equal spheres in contact.
FIG. z.. The hexagonal close packing of spheres.
The hexagonal close packing of equal spheres (Figure 2) now to be considered (following an idea of Hara, 1935) consists of different layers (Figure 3). The coordinates of the centers of the spheres belonging to the Nth layer (no pressure assumed) are 2 = z
[4N’ + 2N”
N' and N” being arbitrary real integers.
3 As initial stress, we assume zero pressure between the spheres of the same layer,
FIG. 3. A layer of spheres of the hexagonal close packing. i.e., the spheres with centres of the same value of z, and a pressure P>O between each pair of spheres in contact, belonging to neighboring layers. The corresponding slight deformation of the lattice (II) of the centers can be neglected in the following considerations. If the number of layers and spheres is sufficiently large, the packing at its initial state of stress can be considered as a homogeneous anisotropic porous solid a porosity n =
with the symmetry of Voigt’s class Nr. 26 of crystals. With respect to elasticity all directions perpendicular to z are equivalent (“transversely isotropic” symmetry, Love 1944, page 160) and the elasticity is determined by five constants c1, c2, . . . ) Cb, the matrix of the open system constants d;f in (4) taking the form
c, - zcs
The Cij can be taken from (4), if for suitable homogeneous deformations of the lattice (II) the variations of stress are calculated by means of (IO), variatinns As and AP being replaced by ds and dP. With I
the matrix Eij is obtained by putting cp =
cr = C,
into (13). THE
The packing of spheres introduced by Figures 2 and 3 and the formulas (II) may now be considered under the influence of self-weight, the +z axis pointing vertically downward. The interspaces between the spheres may be filled with a liquid of constant density z. Each sphere belonging to the Nth layer is in contact with three spheres of the (N+r)th layer under the pressure P.T,Iand with three spheres of the (N-r)th layer under the pressure PAT-~.The condition for equilibrium of such a sphere contains the vertical components of the six pressures, and the apparent weight 47r/3R3(5--jS)g of the sphere when g=980. 665 cm set-2. It is Pi,_l.
46 - PN. 4% + y R"($ - F)g =
If no load is assumed above the first layer, then PO= o and the recurrence formula (16) leads to PLY = N.-z
or taking the value of IV from
Substituting this expression for P in (rq),
If the pores are filled with a liquid, the packing of spheres may be called a “wet system.” If the pores are evacuated [F =o], the packing may be called a “dry system.” If the pores are filled with air, its density and its modulus of compression are negligible. Therefore the system possessesthe elasticity of a dry system. 3 =
p = (I -
density of the dry system. (20)
rt)f + np = density of the wet system. (H = 0.26, see (12)).
The stress below the plane z =zo> o (zo large compared with R) is not changed if the packing of spheres between the planes z =o and z= zo is replaced by an arbitrary layer between the planes z =zl and z=zo, with density p*, depending only on z, if
20 =pzo. S=Ip*(z)&
The packing of spheres may be considered as a simple model for a gravel or sand, dry (= dry system) or filled with ground water (= wet system). PROPAGATION
The elasticity of the dry system is given by the matrix of the Cij which is calculated by means of (13), (IS) and (19) with p =o. In order to calculate the elastic constants of the closed wet system, first the matrix of the dij is calculated in the same way, but with p #o in c of (19). Then the matrix of the c;j, found by (6), is the matrix (13) with
Cs = 162 + _
cq = 4L,
bl = bz =
The partial differential
> equations of wave motion, the wave length assumed
large compared with R, are obtained by substituting the stress-strain relations into the general equations of motion of an elastic solid (Love, 1944):
a3, P --=Ccg--
a2s, + (c, - c,j __, axaY
a%, P __
a2s, cq __
azs,, + (C, + Cd dvd 1 z
where t= time For the wet system, the Ci’s are to be taken from (22), for the dry system from (IS), putting ‘ij=o in (19) and (20). Now let TV(r, y, Z, t) = const. = equation of a wave front. aw -zz!z at
aw -= aY
I I .’1 11 =
1 12 A’
-112 =: (Cl
- 1 13 =
_123 a’1 33-
a z = q3.
The characteristic relation (Levi-Civit%, Id
Assuming a point source ( = focus) at x =y= z = o and considering the wave propagation in the (s,e) plane. we have by reason of symmetry, qz=o I u
~ . .._.~~._..
= velocity of propagation perpendicular to the qs2;
tan 01= E j cx = angle between the normal of the wave front and the z axis. q3
The three roots of
to the three different
kinds of waves with
v =zJ~, v2, 21~lead to
(11 II W(q12
As an example,
z~~(~~>F~>~~) has been calculated
granitic spheres, dry [v~=v~(z,cx)] and filled CY=O” (vertical direction of propagation) and using the following
The results are shown
velocity L( in m/set f-N
w in m/set 3
for a packing
with water [vl = v~*(z,o)] for direction), CY=90’ (horizontal
FIG. 4. Velocitiesof wave propagationin a packing of spheres.
The wave rays (=seismic
are the bi-characteristics
rays in the (x,z) plane (p?=o),
FIG. 5. Standard ray of elastic waves in a packing of spheres.
H, corresponding responding
e.g., to vl, is obtained
the square root of the cor-
(2 7) : qo =
The rays corresponding
to v1 will now be calculated
for the dry system:
WA I/ES THKOliCH
We introduce (Y as parameter _ ~_~_..__ ..-. I;(~)
dF __ = F’(a), da
256 sin2 2a ,
zrl = L+F(a),
and integrate (29). If t =o is assumed as focal time the results are: (33)
(auxiliary function, graphically computed) T1 = T(n) = 141,950
(integration by aid of elliptic integrals) Standard ray (Figure 5):
100 sin cy 6 r=----TI [ F(c*)
1 SJ =Liz. T(a) (=
standard travel time)
angle of emergence = go” Arbitrary ray: (I = horizontal focal distance of the ray.
QSi6 ,! =
0.4 ii rr) 0.3
FIG. h. ‘I’ravel time and apparent velocit), of elastic wavesin a Ixxrkingof spheres.
The ray is symmetric with respect to Trace! time function :
cy = ?r,
Deepest point of the ray: f Ly = ~~. 2
64 z = zs = -a
of (29) and the evaluation
of (34) have been carried out by
Dr. Oswald Wyler, and the other numerical computations by Dr. Oswald Wyler and Walter Kellenberger, both as assistants in the Geophysical Department of the Swiss Federal
The models shown in Figures
belong to the Mineralogical Department of the Institute, thank Prof. P. Niggli for permission to photograph them.
and I would like to
F. Gassmann, Ueber die Elastizitiit poriiser M&en. l’ierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaftin zurich Heft I, 195’. G. Hara, “Theorie der akustischen Schallausbreitung in gekb;rnten Substanzen und experimentelle Untersuchungen an Kohlepulver.” Elektrische Nachrichtentechnik Band 12, 1935, S. 19~200. T. Levi-CivitB, Cara&ristiques des Syst?mes Diff&entiels et Propagation des Ondes. Paris: Felix Alcan, 1932. A. E. H. Love, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. New York: Dover Publications, 1944,