Front-End Web Development - The Big Nerd Ranch Guide - Chris Aquino _ Todd Gandee

December 7, 2018 | Author: Buranija | Category: Html Element, Html, Command Line Interface, Cascading Style Sheets, J Query
Share Embed Donate

Short Description



Front-End Web Development: The Big Nerd Ranch Guide by Chris Aquino and Todd Gandee Copyright © 2016 Big Nerd Ranch, LLC All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, contact Big Nerd Ranch, LLC 200 Arizona Ave NE Atlanta, GA 30307 (770) 817-6373 [email protected] The 10-gallon hat with propeller logo is a trademark of Big Nerd Ranch, LLC. Exclusive worldwide distribution of the English edition of this book by Pearson Technology Group 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA The authors and publisher have taken care in writing and printing this book but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. Print ISBN-10 0134433947 Print ISBN-13 978-0134433943 First edition, first printing, July 2016 Release K.1.1.1

Dedication To Mom and Dad, for buying us that computer. To Dave and Glenn, for letting your little brother completely hog it. And to Angela, for giving me a life away from the screen. — C.A.

To my mom and dad, thank you for giving me room to find my own way. To my wife, thank you for loving a nerd. — T.G.

Acknowledgments As authors, we can take full credit for typing the words and creating the diagrams. (Yay, us!) But the whole truth is that we would still be staring at a blank page if not for the efforts of an army of contributors, collaborators, and mentors. Aaron Hillegass, for believing that the two of us could produce a work worthy of the Big Nerd Ranch name. Thank you for your immeasurable faith and support. Matt Mathias, for guiding us through the development of this book, especially during the crucial last mile. You made sure that time that would have been spent watching cat videos or Downton Abbey reruns was instead dedicated to writing. Brandy Porter, for the care and (literal) feeding of the authors on numerous occasions. You worked your magic behind the curtain, orchestrating a sequence of events that made finishing this work possible. Thank you. Jonathan Martin, our coinstructor and language maven. Thank you for enthusiastically teaching the in-progress course materials on which this book is based and offering thoughtful criticism throughout the many revisions. Our proofreaders, technical reviewers, and guinea pigs: Mike Zornek, Jeremy Sherman, Josh Justice, Jason Reece, Garry Smith, Andrew Jones, Stephen Christopher, and Bill Phillips. Thank you for volunteering as tribute. Elizabeth Holaday, our infinitely patient and reassuring editor. Thank you for breaking us out of the echo chamber, being the voice of reason, and reminding us always of our readers.

Ellie Volckhausen, who designed our cover. Simone Payment, our proofreader, who kept things consistent. Chris Loper at, who designed and produced the print and ebook versions of the book. His DocBook toolchain made life much easier, too. Lastly, thank you to the countless students who have taken the weeklong training. Without your curiosity and your questions, none of this matters. This work is a reflection of the insight and inspiration you have given us over the span of those many weeks. We hope the otters made the training a little lighter.

Table of Contents Introduction Learning Front-End Web Development Prerequisites How This Book Is Organized How to Use This Book Challenges For the More Curious Using an eBook I. Core Browser Programming 1. Setting Up Your Development Environment Installing Google Chrome Installing and Configuring Atom Atom plug-ins Documentation and Reference Sources Crash Course in the Command Line Finding out what directory you are in Creating a directory Changing directories Listing files in a directory Getting administrator privileges Quitting a program Installing Node.js and browser-sync For the More Curious: Alternatives to Atom 2. Setting Up Your First Project Setting Up Ottergram Initial HTML Linking a stylesheet

Adding content Adding images Viewing the Web Page in the Browser The Chrome Developer Tools For the More Curious: CSS Versions For the More Curious: The favicon.ico Silver Challenge: Adding a favicon.ico 3. Styles Creating a Styling Baseline Preparing the HTML for Styling Anatomy of a Style Your First Styling Rule The box model Style Inheritance Making Images Fit the Window Color Adjusting the Space Between Items Relationship selectors Adding a Font Bronze Challenge: Color Change For the More Curious: Specificity! When Selectors Collide… 4. Responsive Layouts with Flexbox Expanding the Interface Adding the detail image Horizontal layout for thumbnails Flexbox Creating a flex container Changing the flex-direction Grouping elements within a flex item The flex shorthand property

Ordering, justifying, and aligning flex items Centering the detail image Absolute and Relative Positioning 5. Adaptive Layouts with Media Queries Resetting the Viewport Adding a Media Query Bronze Challenge: Portrait For the More Curious: Common Solutions (and Bugs) with Flexbox Layouts Gold Challenge: Holy Grail Layout 6. Handling Events with JavaScript Preparing the Anchor Tags for Duty Your First Script Overview of the JavaScript for Ottergram Declaring String Variables Working in the Console Accessing DOM Elements Writing the setDetails Function Accepting arguments by declaring parameters Returning Values from Functions Adding an Event Listener Accessing All the Thumbnails Iterating Through the Array of Thumbnails Silver Challenge: Link Hijack Gold Challenge: Random Otters For the More Curious: Strict Mode For the More Curious: Closures For the More Curious: NodeLists and HTMLCollections For the More Curious: JavaScript Types 7. Visual Effects with CSS Hiding and Showing the Detail Image

Creating styles to hide the detail image Writing the JavaScript to hide the detail image Listening for the keypress event Showing the detail image again State Changes with CSS Transitions Working with the transform property Adding a CSS transition Using a timing function Transition on class change Triggering transitions with JavaScript Custom Timing Functions For the More Curious: Rules for Type Coercion II. Modules, Objects, and Forms 8. Modules, Objects, and Methods Modules The module pattern Modifying an object with an IIFE Setting Up CoffeeRun Creating the DataStore Module Adding Modules to a Namespace Constructors A constructor’s prototype Adding methods to the constructor Creating the Truck Module Adding orders Removing orders Debugging Locating bugs with the DevTools Setting the value of this with bind Initializing CoffeeRun on Page Load Creating the Truck instance

Bronze Challenge: Truck ID for Non-Trekkies For the More Curious: Private Module Data Silver Challenge: Making data Private For the More Curious: Setting this in forEach’s Callback 9. Introduction to Bootstrap Adding Bootstrap How Bootstrap works Creating the Order Form Adding text input fields Offering choices with radio buttons Adding a dropdown menu Adding a range slider Adding Submit and Reset buttons 10. Processing Forms with JavaScript Creating the FormHandler Module Introduction to jQuery Importing jQuery Configuring instances of FormHandler with a selector Adding the submit Handler Extracting the data Accepting and calling a callback Using FormHandler Registering createOrder as a submit handler UI Enhancements Bronze Challenge: Supersize It Silver Challenge: Showing the Value as the Slider Changes Gold Challenge: Adding Achievements 11. From Data to DOM Setting Up the Checklist Creating the CheckList Module

Creating the Row Constructor Creating DOM elements with jQuery Creating CheckList Rows on Submit Manipulating this with call Delivering an Order by Clicking a Row Creating the CheckList.prototype.removeRow method Removing overwritten entries Writing the addClickHandler method Calling addClickHandler Bronze Challenge: Adding the Strength to the Description Silver Challenge: Color Coding by Flavor Shot Gold Challenge: Allowing Order Editing 12. Validating Forms The required Attribute Validating with Regular Expressions Constraint Validation API Listening for the input event Associating the validation check with the input event Triggering the validity check Styling Valid and Invalid Elements Silver Challenge: Custom Validation for Decaf For the More Curious: The Webshims Library 13. Ajax XMLHttpRequest Objects RESTful Web Services The RemoteDataStore Module Sending Data to the Server Using jQuery’s $.post method Adding a callback Inspecting the Ajax request and response Retrieving Data from the Server

Inspecting the response data Adding a callback argument Deleting Data from the Server Using jQuery’s $.ajax method Replacing DataStore with RemoteDataStore Silver Challenge: Validating Against the Remote Server For the More Curious: Postman 14. Deferreds and Promises Promises and Deferreds Returning Deferred Registering Callbacks with then Handling Failures with then Using Deferreds with Callback-Only APIs Giving DataStore a Promise Creating and returning Promises Resolving a Promise Promise-ifying the other DataStore methods Silver Challenge: Fallback to DataStore III. Real-Time Data 15. Introduction to Node.js Node and npm npm init npm scripts Hello, World Adding an npm Script Serving from Files Reading a file with the fs module Working with the request URL Using the path module Creating a custom module Using your custom module

Error Handling For the More Curious: npm Module Registry Bronze Challenge: Creating a Custom Error Page For the More Curious: MIME Types Silver Challenge: Providing a MIME Type Dynamically Gold Challenge: Moving Error Handling to Its Own Module 16. Real-Time Communication with WebSockets Setting Up WebSockets Testing Your WebSockets Server Creating the Chat Server Functionality First Chat! For the More Curious: WebSockets Library For the More Curious: WebSockets as a Service Bronze Challenge: Am I Repeating Myself? Silver Challenge: Speakeasy Gold Challenge: Chat Bot 17. Using ES6 with Babel Tools for Compiling JavaScript The Chattrbox Client Application First Steps with Babel Class syntax Using Browserify for Packaging Modules Running the build process Adding the ChatMessage Class Creating the ws-client Module Connection handling Handling events and sending messages Sending and echoing a message For the More Curious: Compiling to JavaScript from Other Languages

Bronze Challenge: Default Import Name Silver Challenge: Closed Connection Alert For the More Curious: Hoisting For the More Curious: Arrow Functions 18. ES6, the Adventure Continues Installing jQuery as a Node Module Creating the ChatForm Class Connecting ChatForm to the socket Creating the ChatList Class Using Gravatars Prompting for Username User Session Storage Formatting and Updating Message Timestamps Bronze Challenge: Adding Visual Effects to Messages Silver Challenge: Caching Messages Gold Challenge: Separate Chat Rooms IV. Application Architecture 19. Introduction to MVC and Ember Tracker Ember: An MVC Framework Installing Ember Creating an Ember application Starting up the server External Libraries and Addons Configuration For the More Curious: npm and Bower Install Bronze Challenge: Limiting Imports Silver Challenge: Adding Font Awesome Gold Challenge: Customizing the NavBar 20. Routing, Routes, and Models ember generate

Nesting Routes Ember Inspector Assigning Models beforeModel For the More Curious: setupController and afterModel 21. Models and Data Binding Model Definitions createRecord get and set Computed Properties For the More Curious: Retrieving Data For the More Curious: Saving and Destroying Data Bronze Challenge: Changing the Computed Property Silver Challenge: Flagging New Sightings Gold Challenge: Adding Titles 22. Data – Adapters, Serializers, and Transforms Adapters Content Security Policy Serializers Transforms For the More Curious: Ember CLI Mirage Silver Challenge: Content Security Gold Challenge: Mirage 23. Views and Templates Handlebars Models Helpers Conditionals Loops with {{#each}} Binding element attributes Links

Custom Helpers Bronze Challenge: Adding Link Rollovers Silver Challenge: Changing the Date Format Gold Challenge: Creating a Custom Thumbnail Helper 24. Controllers New Sightings Editing a Sighting Deleting a Sighting Route Actions Bronze Challenge: Sighting Detail Page Silver Challenge: Sighting Date Gold Challenge: Adding and Removing Witnesses 25. Components Iterator Items as Components Components for DRY Code Data Down, Actions Up Class Name Bindings Data Down Actions Up Bronze Challenge: Customizing the Alert Message Silver Challenge: Making the NavBar a Component Gold Challenge: Array of Alerts 26. Afterword The Final Challenge Shameless Plugs Thank You Index


Learning Front-End Web Development Doing front-end web development may require a shift in perspective, as it is a very different animal from development for other platforms. Here are a few things to keep in mind as you are learning. The browser is a platform. Perhaps you have done native development for iOS or Android; written server-side code in Ruby or PHP; or built desktop applications for OS X or Windows. As a front-end developer, your code will target the browser – a platform available on nearly every phone, tablet, and personal computer in the world. Front-end development runs along a spectrum. At one end of the spectrum is the look and feel of a web page: rounded corners, shadows, colors, fonts, whitespace, and so on. At the other end of the spectrum is the logic that governs the intricate behaviors of that web page: swapping images in an interactive photo gallery, validating data entered into a form, sending messages across a chat network, etc. You will need to become proficient with the core technologies all along this spectrum, and you will often need to use multiple technologies in synergy to create a good web application. Web technologies are open. There is no one company that controls how browsers should work. That means that front-end developers do not get a yearly SDK release that contains all the changes they will need to deal with for the next twelve months. Native platforms are a frozen pond on which you can comfortably skate. The web is a river; it curves, moves

quickly, and is rocky in some places – but that is part of its appeal. The web is the most rapidly evolving platform available. Adapting to change is a way of life for a front-end developer. This book’s purpose is to teach you how to develop for the browser. As you follow this guide, you will be taken through the process of building a series of projects. Each project will call for a different mixture of technologies along the front-end spectrum. Because of the sheer number of front-end tools, libraries, and frameworks available, this book will focus on the most essential and portable patterns and techniques.

Prerequisites This book is not an introduction to programming. It assumes you have experience with the fundamentals of writing code. You are expected to be familiar with basic types, functions, and objects. That said, it also does not assume you already know JavaScript. It introduces you to JavaScript concepts in context, as you need them.

How This Book Is Organized This book walks you through writing four different web applications. Each application has its own section of the book. Each chapter in a section adds new features to the application you are building. Doing the work of building these four applications takes you from one extreme of the front-end spectrum to the other. In your first project, you will create a web-based photo gallery. Building Ottergram will teach you the fundamentals of programming for the browser using Ottergram HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. You will build the user interface manually, learning how the browser loads and renders content. Part coffee order form, part checklist, CoffeeRun takes you through a number of JavaScript techniques including writing modular code, taking advantage of closures, and CoffeeRun communicating with a remote server using Ajax. Your focus will shift from manually creating the UI to creating and manipulating it programmatically. Chattrbox has the shortest section and is the most distinct of the apps. You will use JavaScript to build a chat Chattrbox system, writing a chat server with Node.js as well as a browser-based chat client.


Your final project uses Ember.js, one of the most powerful frameworks for front-end development. You will create an application that catalogs sightings of rare, exotic, and mythical creatures. Along the way, you will

learn your way around the rich ecosystem that powers the Ember.js framework. As you work through these applications, you will be introduced to a number of tools, including: the Atom text editor and some useful plug-ins for working with code documentation resources like the Mozilla Developer Network the command line, using the OS X Terminal app or the Windows command prompt browser-sync Google Chrome’s Developer Tools normalize.css Bootstrap jQuery and libraries like crypto-js and moment Node.js, the Node package manager (npm), and nodemon WebSockets and the wscat module Babel, Babelify, Browserify, and Watchify Ember.js and addons like Ember CLI, Ember Inspector, Ember CLI Mirage, and Handlebars Bower Homebrew Watchman

How to Use This Book This book is not a reference book. Its goal is to get you over the initial hump to where you can get the most out of the reference and recipe books available. It is based on our five-day class at Big Nerd Ranch, and, as such, it is meant to be worked through from the beginning. Chapters build on each other, and skipping around would be unproductive. In our classes, students work through these materials, but they also benefit from the right environment – a dedicated classroom, good food and comfortable board, a group of motivated peers, and an instructor to answer questions. As a reader, you want your environment to be similar. That means getting a good night’s rest and finding a quiet place to work. These things can help, too: Start a reading group with your friends or coworkers. Arrange to have blocks of focused time to work on chapters. Participate in the forum for this book at, where you can discuss the book and find errata and solutions. Find someone who knows front-end web development to help you out.

Challenges Most chapters in this book end with at least one challenge. Challenges are opportunities to review what you have learned and take your work in the chapter one step further. We recommend that you tackle as many of them as you can to cement your knowledge and move from learning JavaScript development from us to doing JavaScript development on your own. Challenges come in three levels of difficulty: Bronze challenges typically ask you to do something very similar to what you did in the chapter. These challenges reinforce what you learned in the chapter and force you to type in similar code without having it laid out in front of you. Practice makes perfect. Silver challenges require you to do more digging and more thinking. Sometimes you will need to use functions, events, markup, and styles that you have not seen before, but the tasks are still similar to what you did in the chapter. Gold challenges are difficult and can take hours to complete. They require you to understand the concepts from the chapter and then do some quality thinking and problem solving on your own. Tackling these challenges will prepare you for the realworld work of JavaScript development. You should make a copy of your code before you work on the challenges for any chapter. Otherwise, the changes that you make may not be compatible with subsequent exercises. If you get lost, you can always visit for some assistance.

For the More Curious Many chapters also have “For the More Curious” sections. These sections offer deeper explanations or additional information about topics presented in the chapter. The information in these sections is not absolutely essential, but we hope you will find it interesting and useful.

Using an eBook If you are reading this book on a Kindle or Kindle Fire device, or in a Kindle for Android/iPhone/iPad app, reading the code may be tricky at times. Longer lines of code may wrap to a second line, depending on your selected font size.

The longest lines of code in this book are 86 monospace characters, like this one.
View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.