FRM 2017 Part I  Quicksheet
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C r it ic a l C o n c e pt s FOUNDATIONS OF RISK MANAGEMENT Types of Risk Key classes o f risk include market risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, legal and regulatory risk, business risk, strategic risk, and reputation risk. • Market risk includes interest rate risk, equity price risk, foreign exchange risk, and commodity price risk. • Credit risk includes default risk, bankruptcy risk, downgrade risk, and settlement risk. • Liquidity risk includes funding liquidity risk and trading liquidity risk.
Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Comprehensive and integrated framework for managing firm risks in order to meet business
fo r t h e
2017 FRM® E x a m
amounts o f leverage; when Russia defaulted on its debt in 1998, the increase in yield spreads caused huge losses and enormous cash flow problems from realizing marking to market losses; lessons include lack o f diversification, model risk, leverage, and funding and trading liquidity risks.
Banker's Trust developed derivative structures that were intentionally complex; in taped phone conversations, staff bragged about how badly they fooled clients. JPM organ an d Citigroup: main counterparties in Enrons derivatives transactions; agreed to pay a $ 2 8 6 million fine for assisting with fraud against Enron investors.
Role of Risk Management
objectives, minimize unexpected earnings volatility, and maximize firm value. Benefits include (1) increased organizational effectiveness,
1. Assess all risks faced by the firm. 2. Communicate these risks to risktaking decision makers.
(2) better risk reporting, and (3) improved business performance.
3. M onitor and manage these risks. Objective o f risk management is to recognize that large losses are possible and to develop contingency plans that deal with such losses if they should occur.
Determining Optimal Risk Exposure Target certain default probability or specific credit rating, high credit rating may have opportunity costs (e.g., forego risky/profitable projects). Sensitivity or scenario analysis: examine adverse
Systematic Risk A standardized measure o f systematic risk is beta:
Financial Disasters Drysdale Securities: borrowed $30 0 million in unsecured funds from Chase Manhattan by exploiting a flaw in the system for computing the value o f collateral. K idder Peabody: Joseph Jett reported substantial artificial profits; after the fake profits were detected, $330 million in previously reported gains had to be reversed. Barings: rogue trader, Nick Leeson, took speculative derivative positions (Nikkei 225 futures) in an attempt to cover trading losses; Leeson had dual responsibilities o f trading and supervising settlement operations, allowing him to hide trading losses; lessons include separation o f duties and management oversight.
A llied Irish Bank: currency trader, John Rusnak, hid $691 million in losses; Rusnak bullied backoffice workers into not followingup on trade confirmations for fake trades. UBS: equity derivatives business lost millions due to incorrect modeling o f longdated options and its stake in LongTerm Capital Management. Societe Generale: junior trader, Jerome Kerviel, participated in unauthorized trading activity and hid activity with fake offsetting transactions; fraud resulted in losses o f $7.1 billion. M etallgesellschafi: shortterm futures contracts used to hedge longterm exposure in the petroleum markets; stackandroll hedging strategy; marking to market on futures caused huge cash flow problems.
LongTerm C apital M anagement: hedge fund that used relative value strategies with enormous
gm
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) In equilibrium, all investors hold a portfolio o f risky assets that has the same weights as the market portfolio. T he CAPM is expressed in the equation o f the security market line (SM L). For any single security or portfolio o f securities /, the expected return in equilibrium, is: E (R j) = Rp + b etai[E (R M) —Rp]
CAPM Assumptions • Investors seek to maximize the expected utility of their wealth at the end of the period, and all investors have the same investment horizon. • Investors are risk averse. • Investors only consider the mean and standard deviation of returns (which implicitly assumes the asset returns are normally distributed). • Investors can borrow and lend at the same riskfree rate. • Investors have the same expectations concerning returns. • There are neither taxes nor transactions costs, and assets are infinitely divisible. This is often referred to as “perfect markets.”
Measures o f Performance T he Treynor measure is equal to the risk premium divided by beta, or systematic risk: Treynor measure =
E (R P)  R p
f3P
T he Sharpe measure is equal to the risk premium divided by the standard deviation, or total risk: cl
a p = E ( R p )  { R F + ( 3 p [ E ( R M)  R F]}
T h e information ratio is essentially the alpha o f the managed portfolio relative to its benchmark divided by the tracking error.
IR =
E (R P) —E (R b ) tracking error
T h e Sortino ratio is similar to the Sharpe ratio except we replace the riskfree rate with a minimum acceptable return, denoted R min, and we replace the standard deviation with a type o f semistandard deviation. E (R P) — R,min Sortino ratio = semistandard deviation
Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) T h e A PT describes expected returns as a linear function o f exposures to common risk factors: E (R i) = R F + (3ilR P 1 + 3i2RP2 + . . . + (3ikRPk where: (3.. = / factor beta for stock i RP. = risk premium associated with risk factor j T h e A PT defines the structure o f returns but does not define which factors should be used in
ben, = C o v ( R ,.R m )
impacts on value from specific shocks.
T he Jensen measure (a.k.a. Jensen’s alpha or just alpha), is the asset’s excess return over the return predicted by the CAPM: Jensen measure =
E(Rp) —Rp Op
oharpe measure =  —
the model. T h e CAPM is a special case o f A PT with only one factor exposure— the market risk premium. T h e FamaFrench threefactor m odel describes returns as a linear function o f the market index return, firm size, and booktomarket factors.
Risk Data Aggregation Defining, gathering, and processing risk data for measuring performance against risk tolerance. Benefits o f effective risk data aggregation and reporting systems: • Increases ability to anticipate problems. • Identifies routes to financial health. • Improves resolvability in event o f bank stress. • Increases efficiency, reduces chance of loss, and increases profitability.
GARP Code o f Conduct Sets forth principles related to ethical behavior within the risk management profession. It stresses ethical behavior in the following areas: Principl es • Professional integrity and ethical conduct • Conflicts o f interest • Confidentiality Professional Standards • Fundamental responsibilities • Adherence to best practices Violations o f the Code o f Conduct may result in temporary suspension or permanent removal from GARP membership. In addition, violations could lead to a revocation o f the right to use the FR M designation.
an event A occurring given that event B has occurred.
• An unbiased estimator is also efficient if the variance of its sampling distribution is smaller than all the other unbiased estimators of the parameter you are trying to estimate. • A consistent estimator is one for which the accuracy of the parameter estimate increases as the sample size increases. • A point estimate should be a linear estimator when it can be used as a linear function of sample data.
Bayes’ Theorem
Continuous Uniform Distribution
Updates the prior probability for an event in response to the arrival o f new information.
Distribution where the probability o f X occurring in a possible range is the length o f the range relative to the total o f all possible values. Letting a and b be the lower and upper limits o f the uniform
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Probabilities U nconditional probability (marginal probability) is the probability o f an event occurring. Conditionalprobability, P(A B), is the probability o f
P ( I  0 ) = P (Q  I) X P(I)
V
’
P(O)
Expected Value Weighted average o f the possible outcomes o f a random variable, where the weights are the probabilities that the outcomes will occur.
E(X) = P(Xi ) x [
distribution, respectively, then for a < x } < x2 < b:
P(xj < X < x 2)
(x 2
~
P(xj )x1 + P(x2 )x2 + ... + P(xn)xn
Variance Provides a measure o f the extent o f the dispersion in the values o f the random variable around the mean. T he square root o f the variance is called the standard deviation. variance(X) = E[(X —p)2 ]
Covariance Expected value o f the product o f the deviations o f two random variables from their respective expected values.
Cov(Ri,Rj) = E{[Ri  E(Ri)] x[R j  E(Rj)]}
Correlation Measures the strength o f the linear relationship between two random variables. It ranges from  1 to +1.
Cov^Rp Rj j
Sums o f Random Variables If X and Y are any random variables: E (X + Y) = E(X) + E(Y) If X and Y are independent random variables: Var(X + Y) = Var(X) + Var(Y) If X and Y are N O T independent: Var(X + Y) = Var(X) + Var(Y) + 2 x Cov(X,Y)
Skewness and Kurtosis Skewness, or skew, refers to the extent to which a distribution is not symmetrical. T he skewness o f a normal distribution is equal to zero. • A positively skewed distribution is characterized by many oudiers in the upper region, or right tail. • A negatively skewed distribution has a disproportionately large amount of outliers that fall within its lower (left) tail. Kurtosis is a measure o f the degree to which a distribution is more or less “peaked” than a normal distribution. Excess kurtosis = kurtosis  3. • Leptokurtic describes a distribution that is more peaked than a normal distribution. • Platykurtic refers to a distribution that is less peaked, or flatter, than a normal distribution.
Desirable Properties of an Estimator • An unbiased estimator is one for which the expected value of the estimator is equal to the parameter you are trying to estimate.
E > i^ )2 a 2 = ^ 
N
T he sample variance, si1, is the measure o f dispersion that applies when we are evaluating a sample o f n observations from a population. Using n  1 instead o f n in the denominator improves the statistical properties o f s2 as an estimator o f a 2.
S2 = i ^ n —1
Binomial Distribution outcomes over a series o f n trials. T he probability o f “success” on each trial equals: p(x) = (number o f ways to choose x from n) px( l  p ) n“x
For a binom ial random variable:
Poisson Distribution Poisson random variable X refers to the number o f successes per unit. T he parameter lambda (X) refers to the average number o f successes per unit. For the distribution, both its mean and variance are equal to the parameter, X.
covariance
_
(Xj —X)(Yj —Y) i=l
n —1
Standard Error
the sample mean is calculated as: a
Confidence Interval I f the population has a norm al distribution with a known variance, a confidence interval for the
\xp\ x!
population mean is:
Normal Distribution Normal distribution is completely described by its mean and variance. • 90% o f observations fall within ± 1.65s. • 95% o f observations fall within ± 1.96s. • 99% of observations fall within ± 2.58s.
x ^ za /2
f—
Vn
ztt/2 = 1.65 for 9 0% confidence intervals (significance level 10% , 5% in each tail) zcx/2 = 1.96 for 9 5% confidence intervals
Standardized Random Variables A standardized random variable is normalized so that it has a mean o f zero and a standard deviation o f 1. zscore: represents number o f standard deviations a given observation is from a population mean, observation —population mean _ x —p standard deviation
Sample Covariance
T he standard error o f the sample mean is the standard deviation o f the distribution o f the sample means. W hen the standard deviation of the population, a , is known , the standard error o f
expected value = np variance = n p (l  p)
P(X = x) =
o f the population variance. N
X1
(ba)
Evaluates a random variable with two possible =
Population and Sample Variance T he population variance is defined as the average o f the squared deviations from the mean. The population standard deviation is the square root
a
Central Limit Theorem W hen selecting simple random samples o f size n from a population with mean p and finite variance a 2, the sampling distribution o f sample means approaches the normal probability distribution with mean p and variance equal to &2ln as the sample size becomes large.
Population and Sample Mean T h e population mean sums all observed values in the population and divides by the number o f observations in the population, N. N
T he sample mean is the sum o f all values in a sample o f a population, E X , divided by the number o f observations in the sample, n. It is used to make inferences about the population mean.
(significance level 5% , 2 .5 % in each tail) za/2 = 2 .5 8 for 9 9 % confidence intervals (significance level 1% , 0 .5 % in each tail)
Hypothesis Testing N ull hypothesis (H ()): hypothesis the researcher wants to reject; hypothesis that is actually tested; the basis for selection o f the test statistics. Alternative hypothesis (HA): what is concluded if there is significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
O netailed test tests whether value is greater than or less than another value. For example: H q: p < 0 versus H^: p > 0
Twotailed test tests whether value is different from another value. For example: H q: p = 0 versus H A: p ^ 0
TDistribution T he tdistribution is a bellshaped probability distribution that is symmetrical about its mean. It is the appropriate distribution to use when constructing confidence intervals based on small samples from populations with unknown variance and a normal, or approximately normal, distribution.
x —p
ChiSquare Distribution
Multiple Linear Regression
T he chisquare test is used for hypothesis tests concerning the variance o f a normally distributed population.
A simple regression is the twovariable regression with one dependent variable, Y., and one independent variable, X . A m ultivariate regression has more than one independent variable.
u. chisquare test:
(n l)s 2 \ 2 — 5CT0
FDistribution T h e Ftest is used for hypotheses tests concerning the equality o f the variances o f two populations.
Ftest: F =
2
\
4
Simple Linear Regression Y.= l B 0.+ B,1 x X .i +i e. where: Y. = dependent or explained variable X = independent or explanatory variable B Q = intercept coefficient B j = slope coefficient 6.I = error term
Total Sum o f Squares
For the dependent variable in a regression model, there is a total sum o f squares (TSS) around the sample mean. total sum o f squares = explained sum o f squares + sum o f squared residuals T S S = ESS + SSR
E ft  Y )2=E ( Y Yf +E f t  Yf Coefficient of Determination Represented by R 2, it is a measure o f the “goodness o f fit” o f the regression. „2 ESS , SSR R = = 1TSS TSS In a simple twovariable regression, the square root o f R 2 is the correlation coefficient (r) between X and Y . I f the relationship is positive, then:
Standard Error of the Regression (SER) Measures the degree o f variability o f the actual lv alu es relative to the estimated lv a lu es from a regression equation. T he S E R gauges the “fit” o f the regression line. T he smaller the standard error, the better the fit.
Linear Regression Assumptions • A linear relationship exists between the dependent and the independent variable. • The independent variable is uncorrelated with the error terms. • The expected value of the error term is zero. • The variance of the error term is constant for all independent variables. • No serial correlation of the error terms. • The model is correctly specified (does not omit variables).
Regression Assumption Violations Heteroskedasticity occurs when the variance o f the residuals is not the same across all observations in the sample. M ulticollinearity refers to the condition when two or more o f the independent variables, or linear combinations o f the independent variables, in a multiple regression are highly correlated with each other. Serial correlation refers to the situation in which the residual terms are correlated with one another.
x X jj + B 2 x X 21 + E[
Yi = B0 +
Adjusted RSquared Adjusted R 2 is used to analyze the importance o f an added independent variable to a regression. adjusted R 2 = 1  ( 1  R 2 )X
n_1 n — k —1
Forecasting Model Selection Model selection criteria takes the form o f penalty
factor times mean squared error (MSE). M S E is computed as:
T t=l Penalty factors for unbiased M SE (s2), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and Schwarz information criterion (SIC) are: (T / T  k), e(2k/1), a n d T (kn), respectively. S IC has the largest penalty factor and is the most consistent selection criteria.
Trend Models A linear trend is a time series pattern that can be graphed with a straight line:
variance in the model:
a2 = (1  \)r2_! + Xa2_! where: X = weight on previous volatility estimate (between zero and one) High values o f X will minimize the effect o f daily percentage returns, whereas low values o f X will tend to increase the effect o f daily percentage returns on the current volatility estimate.
GARCH Model A G A R C H (1,1) model incorporates the most recent estimates o f variance and squared return, and also includes a variable that accounts for a longrun average level o f variance.
a2 = w + ar2_! + 0a2_j where: a = weighting on previous period’s return 0 = weighting on previous volatility estimate u; = weighted longrun variance to V l = longrun average variance = 1 —a —(3 a + (3 < 1 for stability T h e EW M A is nothing other than a special case o f a G A R C H (1,1) volatility process, with u = 0, a = 1  X, and 0 = X. T he sum a + 0 is called the persistence, and if the model is to be stationary over time (with reversion to the mean), the sum must be less than one.
Simulation Methods
yt = Po + P i(t) A nonlinear trend is a time series pattern that can be graphed with a curve. It can be modeled using either quadratic or exponential (loglinear) functions, respectively: y t = 3o + P i(0 + P2 (O2
M onte Carlo simulations can model complex problems or estimate variables when there are small sample sizes. Basic steps are: (1) specify data generating process, (2) estimate unknown variable, (3) save estimate from step 2, and (4) go back to step 1 and repeat process N times.
Yt = 0oe(3l(t);ln (yt) = in(30 ) + Pi(t)
Seasonality Seasonality in a time series is a pattern that tends to repeat from year to year. There are two approaches for modeling and forecasting a time series impacted by seasonality: (1) using a seasonally adjusted time series and (2) regression analysis with seasonal dummy variables. Combining a trend with a pure seasonal dummy model produces the following model: s
Yt = Pi (0 + TTHfi i=l
) + £t
Covariance Stationary A time series is covariance stationary if its mean, variance, and covariances with lagged and leading values do not change over time. Covariance stationarity is a requirement for using autoregressive (AR) models. Models that lack covariance stationarity are unstable and do not lend themselves to meaningful forecasting.
FINANCIAL MARKETS AND PRODUCTS P&C Insurance Company Ratios combined ratio = loss ratio + expense ratio combined ratio after dividends = combined ratio + dividends operating ratio = combined ratio after dividends  investment income
Net Asset Value (NAV) Openend mutual funds trade at the fund s NAV: Fund Assets  Fund Liabilities NAV = Total Shares Outstanding
Option and Forward Contract Payoffis T h e payoff on a call option to the option buyer is calculated as follows: C.r = max(0, ST—X) T h e price paid for the call option, C{), is referred to as the call premium. Thus, the profit to the
Autoregressive (AR) Process
option buyer is calculated as follows:
The firstorder autoregressive process [AR(1)] is specified as a variable regressed against itself in lagged form. Mean is 0 and variance is constant.
T he payoff on a put option is calculated as follows:
Yt = W t1 + et
EWMA Model T he exponentially weighted moving average (EW MA) model assumes weights decline exponentially back through time. This assumption results in a specific relationship for
profit = C T  C 0 R r = max(0, X  ST) T h e payoff to a long position in a forward contract is calculated as follows: payoff = ST  K where: ST = spot price at maturity K = delivery price
Futures Market Participants Hedgers: lockin a fixed price in advance. Speculators: accept the price risk that hedgers are unwilling to bear. Arbitrageurs: interested in market inefficiencies to obtain riskless profit.
Basis between the spot price on a hedged asset and the futures price o f the hedging instrument (e.g., futures contract). W hen the hedged asset and the asset underlying the hedging instrument are the same, the basis will be zero at maturity.
Minimum Variance Hedge Ratio T he hedge ratio minimizes the variance o f the combined hedge position. This is also the beta o f spot prices with respect to futures contract prices.
Forward price with storage costs, u: F0 = (S0 + U )erT or F0 = S0e(r+u)T
dp
# of contracts = (3p x
portfolio value futures price X contract multiplier
Adjusting Portfolio Beta I f the beta o f the capital asset pricing model is used as the systematic risk measure, then hedging boils down to a reduction o f the portfolio beta. # o f contracts = r .. . r i• i \ portfolio value (target beta —portfolio beta)* :underlying asset
.
Forward Interest Rates Forward rates are interest rates implied by the spot curve for a specified future period. The forward rate between T } and T 2 can be calculated as: R 2T 2 — R 1 1TA11 R forward T2  T ! Ti — R 2 + (R 2 “ R j ) x
To—T1)
Forward Rate Agreement (FRA) Cash Flows An FRA is a forward contract obligating two parties to agree that a certain interest rate will apply to a principal amount during a specified future time. T he 7 \ cash flow o f an FRA that promises the receipt or payment o f is: cash flow (if receiving R ^ ) = L x ( R k  R ) x (T2  T 1) cash flow (if paying R ^ ) = L x ( R  R k ) x (T2  T 1) where: L = principal R ^ = annualized rate on L R = annualized actual rate Tj = time i expressed in years
CostofCarry Model Forward price when underlying asset does not have cash flows: r: _ r rT ho — S qc Forward price when underlying asset has cash flows, I: F0  (S0  I)erT
positive value to one counterparty, that party is exposed to credit risk. Vswap (D C ) = B d c —(S0 X B FC) where: S0 = spot rate in D C per FC
Option Pricing Bounds
Ib Forward foreign exchange rate using interest rate parity (IRP):
Upper bound European/American call: c < S 0; C < S 0 Upper bound European/American put:
Fq — S0e(rd_rf)T
Arbitrage*. Remember to buy low, sell high. • I f Fq > Soer* , borrow, buy spot, sell forward today; deliver asset, repay loan at end. • I f F o < S0er , short spot, invest, buy forward today; collect loan, buy asset under futures contract, deliver to cover short sale.
Backwardation and Contango
Hedging W ith Stock Index Futures
,
F0 = S0e ^ > T
Forward price with convenience yield, c.
T he basis in a hedge is defined as the difference
H R = pS)F
Forward price with continuous dividend yield, q :
• Backwardation refers to a situation where the futures price is below the spot price. For this to occur, there must be a significant benefit to holding the asset. • Contango refers to a situation where the futures price is above the spot price. If there are no benefits to holding the asset (e.g., dividends, coupons, or convenience yield), contango will occur because the futures price will be greater than the spot price.
Treasury Bond Futures In a Tbond futures contract, any government bond with more than 15 years to maturity on the first o f the delivery month (and not callable within 15 years) is deliverable on the contract. T h e procedure to determine which bond is the cheapesttodeliver (C T D ) is as follows:
p < X e r T ; P < X Lower bound European call on nondividendpaying stock: c > max(SQ— X e  r l ,0) Lower bound European put on nondividendpaying stock: p > m a x ( X e  r l — SQ,0)
Exercising American Options • It is never optimal to exercise an American call on a nondividendpaying stock before its expiration date. • American puts can be optimally exercised early if they are sufficiently inthemoney. • An American call on a dividendpaying stock may be exercised early if the dividend exceeds the amount of forgone interest.
PutCall Parity p = c —S + X e _rT c = p + S —X e_rT
Covered Call and Protective Put
cash received by the short = (Q FP x C F) + AI cost to purchase bond = Q B P + AI
Covered call: Long stock plus short call. Protective p u t Long stock plus long put. Also
where: Q FP = CF = Q BP = AI =
called portfolio insurance. quoted futures price conversion factor quoted bond price accrued interest
T h e C T D is the bond that minimizes the following: Q B P  (Q FP x CF). This formula calculates the cost o f delivering the bond.
DurationBased Hedge Ratio
T h e objective o f a durationbased hedge is to create a combined position that does not change in value when yields change by a small amount.
r
portfolio value X durationp # or contracts = —;— futures value X durationp
Interest Rate Swaps
Plain vanilla interest rate swap: exchanges fixed for floatingrate payments over the life o f the swap. At inception, the value o f the swap is zero. After inception, the value o f the swap is the difference between the present value o f the remaining fixed and floatingrate payments: \T _ T) _ T> vswap to pay fixed Afloat °fix Xswap to receive fixed B fixed

®fix
Afloat
(PM Tfixed,t, x e " ' ) + (PM Tflxaj )t2 x e " 2 ) + ... + [(notional + P M T rixedjt ) X e rt" ]
B floating = [notional + (notional X rfloat)] X e_rtl
Currency Swaps Exchanges payments in two different currencies; payments can be fixed or floating. I f a swap has a
Option Spread Strategies Bull spread: Purchase call option with low exercise price and subsidize the purchase with sale o f a call option with a higher exercise price. B ear spread: Purchase call with high strike price and short call with low strike price. Investor keeps difference in price o f the options if stock price falls. Bear spread with puts involves buying put with high exercise price and selling put with low exercise price.
Butterfly spread: Three different options: buy one call with low exercise price, buy another with a high exercise price, and short two calls with an exercise price in between. Butterfly buyer is betting the stock price will stay near the price o f the written calls. Calendar spread: Two options with different expirations. Sell a shortdated option and buy a longdated option. Investor profits if stock price stays in a narrow range.
D iagonal spread: Similar to a calendar spread except that the options can have different strike prices in addition to different expirations. Box spread: Combination o f bull call spread and bear put spread on the same asset. This strategy will produce a constant payoff that is equal to the high exercise price minus the low exercise price.
Option Combination Strategies Long straddle: Bet on volatility. Buy a call and a put with the same exercise price and expiration date. Profit is earned if stock price has a large change in either direction.
Short straddle'. Sell a put and a call with the same exercise price and expiration date. I f stock price remains unchanged, seller keeps option premiums. Unlimited potential losses. Strangle'. Similar to straddle except purchased option is outofthemoney, so it is cheaper to implement. Stock price has to move more to be profitable. Strips an d straps: Add an additional put (strip) or call (strap) to a straddle strategy.
Exotic Options Gap option: payoff is increased or decreased by the difference between two strike prices. Compound option: option on another option. Chooser option: owner chooses whether option is a call or a put after initiation. Barrier option: payoff and existence depend on price reaching a certain barrier level. Binary option: pay either nothing or a fixed amount.
Conditional Prepayment Rate (CPR) Annual rate at which a mortgage pool balance is assumed to be prepaid during the life o f the pool. T he single monthly mortality (SM M ) rate is derived from C P R and used to estimate monthly prepayments for a mortgage pool: SM M = 1  (1  C P R )1/12
OptionAdjusted Spread (OAS) • Spread after the “optionality” of the cash flows is taken into account. • Expresses the difference between price and theoretical value. • When comparing two MBSs of similar credit quality, buy the bond with the biggest OAS. • OAS = zerovolatility spread  option cost.
VALUATION AND RISK MODELS
Lookback option: payoff depends on the maximum
Value at Risk (VaR)
(call) or minimum (put) value o f the underlying asset over the life o f the option. This can be fixed or floating depending on the specification o f a
M inimum amount one could expect to lose with a given probability over a specific period o f time. V a R (X % ) = zXo/0 x a
strike price.
Use the square root o f time to change daily to monthly or annual VaR.
Shout option: owner receives intrinsic value of option at shout date or expiration, whichever is greater.
Asian option: payoff depends on average o f the underlying asset price over the life o f the option; less volatile than standard option. Basket options: options to purchase or sell baskets o f securities. These baskets may be defined specifically for the individual investor and may be composed
VaR Methods
O ffbalance sheet hedging, enter into a position in
T he deltanorm al m ethod (a.k.a. the variancecovariance method) for estimating VaR requires the assumption o f a normal distribution. The method utilizes the expected return and standard deviation o f returns. The historical simulation m ethod for estimating VaR uses historical data. For example, to calculate the 5% daily VaR, you accumulate a number o f )ast daily returns, rank the returns from highest to owest, and then identify the lowest 5% o f returns. T he M onte Carlo simulation m ethod refers to computer software that generates many possible outcomes from the distributions o f inputs specified by the user. All o f the examined portfolio returns will form a distribution, which will approximate the normal distribution. VaR is then calculated in the same way as with the deltanormal method.
a forward contract.
Expected Shortfall (ES)
o f specific stocks, indices, or currencies. Any exotic options that involve several different assets are more generally referred to as rainbow options.
Foreign Currency Risk A net long (short) currency position means a bank faces the risk that the F X rate will fall (rise) versus the domestic currency, net currency exposure = (assets  liabilities) + (bought  sold) O nbalance sheet hedging, matched maturity and currency foreign assetliability book.
Central Counterparties (CCPs) W hen trades are centrally cleared, a CCP becomes the seller to a buyer and the buyer to a seller. Advantages o f CCPs: transparency, offsetting, loss mutualization, legal and operational efficiency, liquidity, and default management. Disadvantages o f CCPs: moral hazard, adverse selection, separation o f cleared and noncleared products, and margin procyclicality. Risksfaced by CCPs: default risk, model risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, and legal risk. Default o f a clearing member and its flow through effects is the most significant risk for a CCP
MBS Prepayment Risk Factors that affect prepayments: • Prevailing mortgage rates, including (1) spread of current versus original mortgage rates, (2) mortgage rate path (refinancing burnout), and (3) level of mortgage rates. • Underlying mortgage characteristics. • Seasonal factors. • General economic activity.
• Average or expected value of all losses greater than the VaR: E[Lp Lp > VaR]. • Popular measure to report along with VaR. • ES is also known as conditional VaR or expected tail loss. • Unlike VaR, ES has the ability to satisfy the coherent risk measure property of subadditivity.
Binomial Option Pricing Model
A onestep binom ial model is best described within a twostate world where the price o f a stock will either go up once or down once, and the change will occur one step ahead at the end o f the holding period. In the tw operiod binom ial m odel and multiperiod models, the tree is expanded to provide for a greater number o f potential outcomes. Step 1: Calculate option payoffs at the end o f all states.
Step 2 : Calculate option values using riskneutral probabilities. size o f up move = U = eav 1 size o f down move = D = — U U D
>^down
1
^ up
Step 3 : Discount to today using riskfree rate. up can be altered so that the binomial model can price options on stocks with dividends, stock
tt
indices, currencies, and futures.
Stocks with dividends an d stock indices: replace with ^(r~q)1, where q is the dividend yield o f a stock or stock index.
Currencies: replace ef[ with where rf is the foreign riskfree rate o f interest. Futures: replace with 1 since futures are considered zero growth instruments.
BlackScholesMerton Model c = S0 x N ( d 1)  X e _rTN (d 2 ) p = X e  rTN (  d 2 )  S 0N (  d 1) where: r + 0.5xa2 x T
d2
= dj —  ax V T )
T S0 X r a N («)
= = = = = =
time to maturity asset price exercise price riskfree rate stock return volatility cumulative normal probability
Greeks D elta: estimates the change in value for an option for a oneunit change in stock price. • Call delta between 0 and +1; increases as stock price increases. • Call delta close to 0 for far outofthemoney calls; close to 1 for deep inthemoney calls. • Put delta between  1 and 0; increases from 1 to 0 as stock price increases. • Put delta close to 0 for far outofthemoney puts; close to 1 for deep inthemoney puts. • The delta of a forward contract is equal to 1. • The delta of a futures contract is equal to . • When the underlying asset pays a dividend, q , the delta must be adjusted. I f a dividend yield exists, delta of call equals r * v x N(dj), delta of put equals e^Yx [N(dj)  1], delta of forward equals e~*l\ and delta of futures equals ^r_q)1. Theta: time decay; change in value o f an option for a oneunit change in time; more negative when option is atthemoney and close to expiration.
Gamma: rate o f change in delta as underlying stock price changes; largest when option is atthemoney. Vega: change in value o f an option for a oneunit change in volatility; largest when option is atthemoney; close to 0 when option is deep in or outofthemoney. Rho: sensitivity o f options price to changes in the riskfree rate; largest for inthemoney options.
DeltaNeutral Hedging • To completely hedge a long stock/short call position, purchase shares of stock equal to delta x number of options sold. • Only appropriate for small changes in the value of the underlying asset. • Gamma can correct hedging error by protecting against large movements in asset price. • Gammaneutral positions are created by matching portfolio gamma with an offsetting option position.
Bond Valuation
Yield to Maturity (YTM)
Country Risk
There are three steps in the bond valuation process:
T he Y T M o f a fixedincome security is equivalent to its internal rate o f return. T he Y T M is the discount rate that equates the present value o f all cash flows associated with the instrument to its
Sources o f country risk: (1) where the country is in
Step 1: Estimate the cash flow s. For a bond, there are two types o f cash flows: (1) the annual or semiannual coupon payments and (2) the recovery o f principal at maturity, or when the bond is retired.
Step 2 : D eterm ine the appropriate discount rate. The approximate discount rate can be either the bonds yield to maturity (YTM ) or a series o f spot rates.
Step 3 : Calculate the P V o f the estim ated cash flow s. T he PV is determined by discounting the bonds cash flow stream by the appropriate discount rate(s).
Clean and Dirty Bond Prices
price. T he yield to maturity assumes cash flows will be reinvested at the Y T M and assumes that the bond will be held until maturity.
Relationship Among Coupon, YTM, and Price I f coupon rate > Y T M , bond price will be greater than par value: prem ium bond. I f coupon rate < Y T M , bond price will be less than par value: discount bond. I f coupon rate = Y T M , bond price will be equal to par value: p a r bond.
W hen a bond is purchased, the buyer must pay
Dollar Value of a Basis Point
any accrued interest (AI) earned through the setdement date.
T he DV01 is the change in a fixed income
# o f days from last coupon to the setdement date
AI = coupon x
# o f days in coupon period
Clean price', bond price without accrued interest. Dirty price, includes accrued interest; price the seller o f the bond must be paid to give up ownership.
Compounding Discrete compounding: \
mxn
FVn = PV 0 1 + —
mj
where: r = annual rate m = compounding periods per year n = years Continuous compounding: FVn = PV0erXn
10,000 x Ay
DVO1 = duration X 0 .0 0 0 1 X bond value
Effective Duration and Convexity Duration: first derivative o f the priceyield relationship; most widely used measure o f bond price volatility; the longer (shorter) the duration, the more (less) sensitive the bonds price is to changes in interest rates; can be used for linear estimates o f bond price changes. B V a v ~ BVi a v effective duration =  — 2 x BV 0 x A y
Convexity: measure o f the degree o f curvature (second derivative) o f the price/yield relationship; accounts for error in price change estimates from duration. Positive convexity always has a favorable impact on bond price. —2 x BV0
convexity =  
A /period spot rate, denoted as z(t), is the yield to maturity on a zerocoupon bond that matures in /years. It can be calculated using a financial calculator or by using the following formula (assuming periods are semiannual), where d(t) is a discount factor: z(t) = 2
DV01 =  
BV_ Ay + BV_a
Spot Rates
1
security’s value for every one basis point change in interest rates.
/2t
—1
dW
BV q x A y2
Bond Price Changes With Duration and Convexity percentage bond price change « duration effect + convexity effect AB 1 . 2 = —duration X Ay H— X convexity X Ay B 2
Bonds With Embedded Options C allable bond: issuer has the right to buy back
Forward Rates
the bond in the future at a set price; as yields fall,
Forward rates are interest rates that span future periods.
bond is likely to be called; prices will rise at a
(1 + forward rare)' = ■1 ± periodic yidd)1+1 (1 + periodic yield)1
decreasing rate— negative convexity. Putable bond: bondholder has the right to sell bond back to the issuer at a set price.
IS B N :9 7 8 1 4 7 5 4 5 3 0 5 8
Internal Credit Ratings A tthepoint approach: goal is to predict the credit quality over a relatively short horizon o f a few months or, more generally, a year.
Throughthecycle approach: focuses on a longer time horizon and includes the effects o f forecasted cycles.
Expected Loss T he expected loss (EL) represents the decrease in value o f an asset (portfolio) with a given exposure subject to a positive probability o f default, expected loss = exposure amount (EA) x loss rate (LR) x probability o f default (PD)
Unexpected Loss Unexpected loss represents the variability o f potential losses and can be modeled using the definition o f standard deviation. UL = EA x ^PD x o 2 r + L R 2 x app
Operational Risk Operational risk is defined as: The risk o f direct an d indirect loss resultingfrom inadequate or fa ile d internal processes, people , an d systems or from external events.
Operational Risk Capital Requirements • Basic indicator approach: capital charge measured on a firmwide basis as a percentage of annual gross income. • Standardized approach: banks divide activities among business lines; capital charge = sum for each business line. Capital for each business line determined with beta factors and annual gross income. • Advanced measurement approach: banks use their own methodologies for assessing operational risk. Capital allocation is based on the bank’s operational VaR.
Loss Frequency and Loss Severity Operational risk losses are classified along two independent dimensions:
Loss frequency: the number o f losses over a specific time period (typically one year). Often modeled with the Poisson distribution (a distribution that models random events).
(distribution is asymmetrical and has fat tails). Stress testing shocks key input variables by large amounts to measure the impact on portfolio value. Key elements o f effective governance over stress testing include the governance structure, policies
BVt + C t  BVt_ 1 R ‘ u ■
such as pension and social service commitments, (3) a country’s level o f and stability o f tax receipts, (4) political risks, and (5) backing from other countries or entities.
Stress Testing
value divided by its beginningofperiod value.
5^ ;
T h e net realized return for a bond is its gross realized return minus per period financing costs.
and (4) the disproportionate reliance o f a country on one commodity or service. Factors influencing sovereign default risk: (1) a country’s level o f indebtedness, (2) obligations
Loss severity: value o f financial loss suffered. Often modeled with the lognorm al distribution
Realized Return T h e gross realized return for a bond is its endofperiod total value minus its beginningofperiod
the economic growth life cycle, (2) political risks, (3) the legal systems o f a country, including both the structure and the efficiency o f legal systems,
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and procedures, documentation, validation and independent review, and internal audit.
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