Francisco Tarrega the Story of Capricho Arabe

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Francisco Tárrega: The Story of Capricho Árabe By Thanh T. Pham

Copyright 2013 by Thanh T Pham Smashwords Edition ISBN: 9781310972805

DEDICATION To my former student Akil Dev, his light was too bright to be burned out so soon.

Introduction Today’s guitar repertory contains centuries of music of various forms and stories. One particular man from Spain has redefined the modern guitar as a serious solo instrument by transcribing music from piano, contributing to the development of technique, composition of music, and furthering pedagogical studies. His name, Francisco Tárrega (18521909), is synonymous with the Spanish guitar.1 If one examines the music of Tárrega, different influences from Chopin to the folk music of the Iberian Peninsula utilize and require different performances of particular aspects of the music. Understanding the history also yields information to determine an appropriate affect of the piece. I believe these nuances help bring out the characteristics of and strengthen the affects of Tárrega’s pieces. How did Tárrega perform his music? What can be learned from how Tárrega performed his music to enrich his music in performance today? Specifically, I will investigate nuances in articulation such as written and unwritten glissando and portamento. First, I reveal the life of Tárrega and some of his influences on music. Tárrega dedicated himself to teaching the practical and theoretical ideas of the guitar. Looking at the music, I determine the affect and character of the piece. Finally, I examine the pieces in detail to determine a possible performance style to

bring out the affect, the attitude, of the piece in order for the listener to understand what Tárrega has experienced. Recordings of popular and influential guitarists are studied. Notably, The Complete Historical Recordings 1913-1942 by Augustín Barrios are studied due to the recordings' proximity of time to Tárrega's lifetime. The Miguel Llobet recordings are also studied for the same purpose but it is also significant that Llobet was one of Tárrega's students. While there cannot be an assumption that Llobet's or Barrios' playing would have the same exact characteristics of Tárrega's, their style of performance yields relevant information useful for today's guitarist. The interpretations of Capricho Árabe by Andrés Segovia, Pepe Romero, Narciso Yepes, and Anna Vidovic also are studied. The piece I chose for this study is Tárrega’s Capricho Árabe, which ranks among my favorite pieces of music. The Age of Tárrega, A Transition Period, The Romantic Period The music of Berlioz, Chopin, Schumann, Schubert, and other Romantic composers influenced the music in Tárrega’s life. The nationalistic music found in many of the Romantic composers also is evident in Tárrega’s music. When one hears Capricho Árabe or Recuerdos de la Alhambra, the pictures of Andalusia, with over half a millennium of Moorish rule and influence, may fill the mind after reading the idea of the piece. In Spain’s turbulent history, each wave of

civilization exercised new cultural influences. The Romans may have brought the trumpet and the organ (hydraulis), but the Moors brought the sunuj al-sufr (metal castanets) and the ud (Arabic lute).2 The Arabic ud is a short-necked plucked lute and a relative to the guitar. Before Tárrega, Spain’s growth in the arts were stunted. After the tumultuous century that included the Napoleonic wars, revolutions, coup d’ éstats, and the “anti-Romantic” government of Ferdinand VII, the arts began to recover.3 Fernando Sor’s journey took him to England, Moscow, and Paris, in which city he befriended fellow countryman and guitarist Dionisio Aguado. Sor also taught the Frenchman Napoléon Coste, whom appeared at Sor’s final concert. 4 In 1874 Tárrega entered the Real Conservatorio in Madrid to study piano and harmony. At this point in history, the guitar was not considered an instrument on the same performance level as the piano in Europe. Tárrega’s father even wanted him to study piano in addition to guitar.5 Tárrega’s formal education may have started then, but he was anything but a neophyte to performing. He was a traveling bohemian, going cityto-city and tavern-to-tavern. Even as a thirteen-year-old, living in Castellón was too mundane, and so he would head to Valencia for new adventures. To pay for room and board, young Tárrega played the guitar.6 Before Tárrega made it into school (where he still was having

difficulties paying for tuition), his mother passed away leaving his father behind. His father had been almost blind since he was thirty-five.7 Even Tárrega himself was conditionally unfit for military service due to his vision damage.8 When Tárrega was three, his babysitter hurled him headfirst into a water-filled ditch, and that incident was the source of his eye problems that plagued him until his death.9 In addition to the performances of Tárrega, his compositions, and his transcriptions of other composers, he is an important teacher and influence. Spanish guitarists Sor and Aguado befriended one another and most likely were influential in each others' music. Similarly, Tárrega was friends with Spanish composers Isaac Albéniz and Joaquín Turina. The circle of influence also included artists, intellectuals of the era such as Benlliure and Chapi, and many musicians.10 Some of these known musicians were guitarists Pujol, Llobet, and Fortea.11 Tárrega also was friends with the pianist and composer Enrique Granados.12 Often Tárrega gave his friends manuscripts as gifts, and they gave him paintings (such as a portrait of his daughter sleeping from Francisco Corell).13 Tárrega also dedicated Capricho Árabe to Tomás Bretón. It is apparent that there was a true bond between Tárrega and his circle of friends. In 1888 Tárrega was touring Andalusia stopping at Seville and heading to Cádiz when his friend Count Foxá asked him to move to

Valencia, which he did.14 Valencia has a rich Muslim legacy that has spread engineering advancements such as dam construction and irrigation, medicine; including Europe’s first psychiatric hospital, numerous crafts; and industrialization, capital of paper making.15 While living in Valencia, Tárrega’s company included many of the great artists of Spain including painters such as Ignacio Pinazo, Agrassot, and others who would dedicate works to him.16 Valencia was where Tárrega composed Capricho Árabe. The Muslim, Castilian, and Christian culture in Valencia most likely influenced Tárrega in composing Capricho Árabe. Affect in Music and the Execution In instrumental music, the affect must be apparent to the listener in order to move them. The execution of music draws many parallels to that of the delivery of an orator. In Johann Joachim Quantz’s 1752 treatise on Baroque music instruction, On Playing the Flute, he makes the comparison with the delivery of an orator and indicates that both orator and musician to “make themselves masters of the hearts of their listeners, to arouse or still their passions, and to transport them now in this sentiment, now to that.”17 Clearly, Quantz believed that music needed to move the listener and the responsibility charged to the performer. In Quantz’s chapter “Of Good Execution in General in Singing and Playing,” he continued to underline the importance for the execution

to be expressive and appropriate for each affect. For example, in an Adagio or pieces with this character, the notes must be drawn out so the listener feels the note’s delicacy.18 In addition, Quantz continued using the key as the first indicator of the passion. Intervallic distance and articulation of the notes are important factors in the indication of the passion. Quantz goes on to state: Flattery, melancholy, and tenderness are expressed by slurred and close intervals, gaiety and boldness by brief articulated notes, or those forming distant leaps … Dotted and sustained notes express the serious and the pathetic.19 There is rationale with the thought process of these composers, and I do not believe it is just to make music “beautiful” but to tell a message or an orator. If the music would be properly executed, the listener would be moved emotionally. For Tárrega’s music, his music was often the reflection of his life. He wrote pieces named after his wife and his children. Tárrega’s life was anything but easy. For every success, he experienced many failures. Before he received a formal education at Real Conservatorio, Tárrega had met Count Parcent’s son and negotiated a patronage with formal study and organized concerts only to have all hopes and dreams vanquished with the Count’s passing shortly after his installment.20 Then, there were the typical financial difficulties

that many musicians (and people in general) face. When the economy of Madrid was strong and Tárrega was a student at Real Conservatorio, José Martínez Toboso, a Valencian guitarist, and he dressed up as blind men playing guitar for money on not only the crowd’s ovation of their music but also their pity … until the police found them.21 Drawing from his rich background, it is no wonder how vivid the music is. Accordingly, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach wrote about how to successfully perform in his Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments, stating, “A musician cannot move others unless he too is moved. The must of necessity feel all of the affects that he hopes to arouse in his audience, for the revealing of his own humor will stimulate a like humor in the listener.”22 While science has moved past the concept of humors, emotions cannot be overlooked. Execution can be examined as a mere technical quandary or, as Roland Jackson puts it, performance practice is “an attempt to return, inasmuch as this is feasible, to the composer’s original conception of a musical work, and to re-enact how music sounded at the time of its initial presentation.”23 The Affect in Capricho Árabe and the Execution To have a successful performance of a piece of music, one must interpret process, internalize, and convey the meaning of the music to

the listener. The musician succeeds in communicating the affect of a piece when the listener perceives and feels the same affect in the music. This detail of performance is beyond just playing “little black notes and rests” and separates the musicians from the dilettantes. A firm understanding of the history and background of the composer, the setting of the piece, the rationale of the theory, and most importantly, the overall affect of the piece are important in creating a successful performance of music. Treatises by Leopold Mozart, Johann Joachim Quantz, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Daniel Gottlob Türk will demonstrate ideas that, though not always, are often forgotten or interpreted differently by many beginning students. Deryck Cooke's The Language Music also has been very instrumental in understanding the affect of the music for this essay. These treatises also offer a pedagogical footprint for musicians to follow but are often missing or emphasized differently from modern guitar methods such as The Christopher Parkening Method: Vol. 1 or Jerry Snyder Guitar School.24 Scott Tennant’s best-selling book, Pumping Nylon, strictly has exercises that teach the student how to execute technique. In Guitar School: Theoretical–Practical Method for Guitar written by one of Tárrega’s students, Emilio Pujol, he states in the introduction, “… there are two kinds of technique: one, very apparent,

which exhibits skill and gives the impression of executing the music; and the other, firm and true, which in reality actually does execute it.”25 Pujol adheres to the statement put forth in the introduction by having four books based mostly on technical exercises and their execution with text to help fortify the execution.26 The treatises recognize the need for technical efficiency but also emphasize moving the listener and being faithful to the intent of the composer. Daniel Türk best sums up execution and its purpose with the following statement: It becomes sufficiently clear from these words that execution must be of the utmost importance for the musician. For even with all his facility in reading notes and in playing, he will never attain his main purpose, which is to move the heart of the listener, without good execution. Whoever possesses both extraordinarily facility and good execution has attributed which are not only praiseworthy but also rare.27 In Capricho Árabe Tárrega recalls the turbulent history of Spain with over 700 years of Arabic rule. In the region of Andalucía, Granada was the last stronghold of the Moorish kings, rules, and army. The Alhambra represents an accumulation of Moorish influenced art, Greek classic education, laws, music, Islam, and culture, to name a few. The infusion of this exotic orientalism also can be found in music and literature.

Examples from Tárrega’s contemporaries that use exotic Arabian themes include, Tchaikovsky's ‘Arab dance’ in his Nutcracker Suite; RimskyKorsakov’s Scheherazade Op. 35, a symphonic suite; and the guitar work by Paraguayan Augustín Barrios, Danza Arabe. Danza Mora, a miniature by Tárrega, also draws upon the imagery. The affect of Capricho Árabe changes as the piece progresses. Changes are not unusual and are to be expected. In his Principles of Violin method, Leopold Mozart writes, “In practicing every care must be taken to find and to render the affect which the composer wished to have brought out; and as sadness often alternates with joy, each must be carefully depicted according to its kind.”28 The tempo for Capricho Árabe is andantino. For the tonal tensions of joy, Cooke describes adagio as serene, moderato as easy going, and allegro as tumultuous.29 He defines tempo as part of the “time dimension” with triple meter more characterized as “relaxes and abandoned.”30 The introduction sets the mood with the tempo and meter until measure 13, where the meter becomes duple. Cooke best puts the duple meter as a “'wooden, slow march.”31 One possible interpretation could be to make the first minor section adagio, which enables the listener to have a reference of the tempo. Then, the performer could move to slightly quicker pace in the major section and multiply the affect of pleasure. A notable difference in

character occurs when the key changes from D minor to D major. This transition area has material the performer may wish to bring out.32 For the final return of the first theme in D minor, a contrast in tempo would add a dramatic and a somber affect to the music.

Figure 1: Capricho Árabe mm. 1- 4

The character of the piece changes from its opening bell sound, without the third and using harmonics, to the main theme with accompaniment. The transition to the major section reuses similar material and returns to the first theme in minor. The written syntax for harmonics on the guitar indicates the name of the string with the fret/position number next to it but does not always reflect the sound. Although the harmonic notes spell out a D5, the ear hears that it's A5. This sets up a large dominant introductory area that will lead to the low D in measure 13 and take the listener to the first theme. Given the turbulent history of Spain, the introduction section is appropriately gloomy and what Deryck Cook, using a Freudian

expression, would label as “pain.”33 While there could be difficulty in the assumption that “pain,” “sorrow,” or “melancholy” are appropriate affects for the minor mode half, I believe the usage of the minor also enriches the Arabic atmosphere beginning with the second measure after the belllike harmonics. The slurs add an idiomatic articulation from the fingers pulling off the strings (all the slurs are descending) leading to the second scale degree after falling from the high G. The slurs and the idiomatic tendency for the second note to receive a different attack creates a descending shape or a “sighing” motive.34 This motive will again return in the music like in measure 52. A performer could lean or play the first note with a slight accent over the second note to accentuate this affect. Quantz would also reinforce a need for a distinction in the execution of the first note and the second note.35 In addition, Cooke discusses tone color and texture as “characterizing agents” or the devices that set up the tensions between each note. 36 Cooke’s “characterizing agents” include the texture of the harmonics contrasted to the slurs for the quick passage of the minor scale. The volume level of the harmonics acts as an expressive element similar to bells, whether for war, religion, or the strike of two o’clock (the second set of bells ring after a repeat of the opening introduction). The performer can interpret the harmonics by changing the dynamics. The harmonics return at the end on a D5 bringing the piece to

conclusion. Anna Vidovic, on her 2000 release of Guitar Recital, plays the opening harmonics at a forte level and plays them at a piano level upon the repeat of the introduction. The repeat is very soft and completely contrasts the opening harmonics and introduction. Pepe Romero played the harmonics the same, but he plays the rest of the introduction an octave lower. One interpretation of this passage could be that danger was in the distance, which is exemplified by the harmonics followed by the higher registered notes. Then, the threat was closer with the same notes played an octave lower upon the repeat. These are two different approaches to interpret the introduction. Another, of course, is to play the introduction the same both ways. Andrés Segovia and Augustín Barrios both play the introduction the same without any embellishments on the repeat.

Figure 2: Harmonics at the introduction

Figure 3: Complementary harmonics at the end

In addition to the “characterizing agents,” the notes themselves lend to a meaning. These Cooke shapes such as a descending minor 5-3-1 progression of notes would be used to convey an “incoming painful emotion … passive suffering.”37 The second measure doesn't neatly fit into one of Cooke's shapes. Upon closer inspection, the listener will continue to hear an A Dominant sound through an A Phrygian Dominant/ Phrygian passage. The general interpretation for the Cooke shape is of descending minor tones creating an incoming sense of pain, since the first interval is of a minor third on beat one of the second measure.38 This run ends in measure three with an accented second scale degree, E, but

it never touches the minor third scale degree, F.

Figure 4: Introduction, mm. 1 – 12

In measure nine Tárrega begins to ascend by thirds on the dominant, reaches the sixth scale degree, and resolve it down to the fifth scale degree. Leading into beat two, we encounter one of the key expressions in this piece that gives the listener its exotic Arabic quality. The appoggiatura and portamento from A to E is also important from the affect resembling the Cooke shape arched 5-3-(2)-1, missing the third in our example. The finger change from 1 to 3 creates a combination of an appoggiatura by means of a portamento with the principal note struck again. Cooke notes that this shape “conveys the feeling of a passionate

outburst of painful emotion, which does not further protest, but falls back into acceptance - a flow and ebb of grief.”39 Given the historical context of the area, the dramatic, viscous cycles of rule by assassination, the exile of conquered people, and even the Inquisition, keeping the portamento intact enhances the affect. The tension here is the usage of time for the duration of the portamento, a long portamento perhaps for a very dramatic moment such as a return from the major section or the first encounter.40 Segovia plays the appoggiatura by means of a glissando in measure 10, but he plays an appoggiatura by means of a portamento before the fermata in measure 12. Pepe Romero also uses the portamento to stretch the time before the fermata but does not use a glissando or portamento for measure nine. The device of “Appoggiatura by Slide or Glissando” is described in Emilio Pujol's Guitar School: Book II. Pujol writes: This appoggiatura consists of executing the two notes by means of glissando or slide that moves from the first note and finishes on the principal note. When the appoggiatura is short, (of the type known as acciaccatura), the slide should be made more rapidly, emphasizing the pressure on the string while moving to the principal note.41 Pujol continues with the length of the appoggiatura by stating that it

will get half the value as the principal note without extra pressure. With this expectation, the Cooke usage of time-tension can enhance the sense of the affect. The first occurrence of the appoggiatura and portamento combination occurs in measure 10 with the principal note ending on the second scale degree. Scale degree two is emotionally neutral. The second occurrence happens going into measure 12, but this time the note is held on a halfnote fermata on the flat-six scale degree. According to Cooke, the minor sixth conveys a feeling of “active anguish in a context of flux.”42 The fermata extends the duration of this moment before it steps down to the dominant, end the introduction, and begins the transition to the main theme.

Figure 5: mm. 13 – 20

The theme at the double bar line begins on the tonic with the appoggiatura by glissando from the minor third, F to A. Narciso Yepes, on his album Malaguaña, performs the embellishment going into beat two in measure 10 as an appoggiatura without thes glissando from A (the same note that is stopped). Yepes also does not perform the F to A appoggiatura and glissando in measure 15. Pepe Romero, from his album Recuerdos de la Alhambra, does not perform the F to A appoggiatura and glissando in measure 15 but does use it upon the final journey back to the theme. The return to the minor material is at a ritardando and thus brings out the affect of the minor third scale degree with a portamento. As he glides, he tastefully includes chromatic tones

as the music reaches the fifth. The chromatic notes multiply the affect, and on the final journey to this Arabic theme there exists only the feeling of hopelessness.

Figure 6: mm. 21 - 24

The feeling of hopelessness continues, and while there may have been pockets of protests in the ascending runs in measure 21 and 22, Tárrega grounds any protest by asserting flat-two scale degree before returning to the theme. A half step away from the tonic, Cooke describes the minor second as “spiritless anguish, context of finality.”43

Figure 7: mm. 43 - 61

Measure 43 has a long chromatic passage that imitates a slow portamento but also has the function of going to the parallel major key of

D. This scale run is similar to the appoggiatura by means of a glissando in measure 15 but, given the crescendo, appropriately bridges the affect to an outgoing and uplifting feeling. A sense of arrival to the new key is felt due to the tendency tone G-sharp resolving to A, the fifth scale degree. The harmony follows with a D major on beat two of measure 45 and a cadence going into measure 46. The general interpretation from recordings I've listened to is to play the run in measures 43 and 44 as a quick ascending scale. The notes are all articulated with the written crescendo. The appoggiatura by means of a glissando returns to the melody in measure 47. While the return of the melody is on the same scale degree, this time it is in D major. This creates a mood of outgoing joy and even the sense of triumph with the glissando multiplying the affect.44 Then the sense of outward joy is echoed on beat one of measure 48 with the appoggiatura by means of a glissando on C-sharp to E. The major seventh is emotionally neutral but has a “violent longing, aspiration in a context of finality.”45 In this case, it will overshoot the tonic and land on the second scale degree. In the second half of beat three of measure 48, the sighing motive returns, but, instead of using a slur on the first encounter, the portamento

exaggerates the sigh from G-sharp to A and leaping to the C-sharp and slurred down to the B and descending G to E. Cooke describes the sharp four (G-sharp) as “devilish” or “pure and simple.”46 From this point, the theme returns with a more embellished runs and goes back to the appoggiatura by means of a glissando in measures 55 and 56. Again, the return of material occurs with the sharp four, but this time the climax is on a fermata in measure 58 on the second scale degree before it drops down to the D to continue to the bridging material for the return of the opening minor theme. The end half of measure 59 has one last appoggiatura by means of a glissando (or portamento) from the tonic up to the fifth. This is the last gasp of outgoing joy before the first theme returns.

Figure 8: mm. 61 – 63

Upon the return of the first theme in minor, the affect must be set. The listener can hear there is a transition in measures 61 and 62 going into minor after the cadence has been set up, only to have the rhythm

continue to march. The listener has been fooled; rather than the expectation of hope, the story returns to the tragic sound of the first theme. The guitarist Pepe Romero uses this transition to squeeze the affect out of the appoggiatura by means of a portamento (the duration and rationale is to enhance the sound of the outgoing pain). Romero's interpretation of the passage does not apply an appoggiatura when he first encounters the section but saves it for the finale. His interpretation enhances the affect of the minor theme's return because it is unexpected.

Figure 9: mm. 23 – 25

Figure 10: mm. 71 - 73

The ending area from measures 71 to 72 returns to the same “death march” in measure 23. Tárrega repeats the measure to really emphasize the gloom. The flat-two creates the hopelessness and when is understood of its affect leads to the ending harmonics and chords. Similar, to the introduction, the harmonics are on an open fifth on D but conclude on a D minor chord. Segovia plays measures 34 and 35 similarly how he plays it in measures 23 and 24. He accents the bass line that consists of a tonic, b6, b2, and 5. When the measure is repeated, he softens the attack on the bass line and observes the written ritardando. Conclusion Tárrega's Capricho Árabe is different than the curious addition of “exotic” material found in many Romantic composers in the story that it conveys. The affect of the piece is clear from the introduction to the ending. This piece tells the story of the battles lasting centuries with the Arabians, Christians, and the struggle for power and life. It is not clear whether the story portrays the Arabic people or the inhabitants of Valencia, where Tárrega has written the piece. Regardless, the ornaments such as the appoggiatura by means of a portamento or glissando are vital to reproducing the affects. The chromatic portamento multiplies the sensation of the outward pain upon the final return of the

minor theme as musical tension from rhythm, duration, and expectations. Tárrega used gut strings on his guitar, as today's standard nylon strings were not available until Andrés Segovia pioneered their development.47 Often, classical guitarists avoid slide noises and today's bass strings (metal-wound nylon strings) produce a slide noise when a finger slides on them. For Capricho Árabe, most of the slides are on the treble strings and are not metal wound. In addition, the availability of “polished strings” allows less string noise on all the strings. Also, the technique of using the fleshy part of the fretted-hand finger, rather than the tip of the finger, also produces less slide noise. Both Romero and Segovia use this technique when they use a portamento in measure 12. The affect used in the passage by Romero and Segovia is breathtaking. Stanley Yates suggests that guitarists leave these ornaments in to more faithfully produce the sound that Tárrega produces when he was alive.48 Listening to the recordings of Miguel Llobet, I noticed that used glissandi when going from note to note or chord to chord. Llobet's interpretation of Bach's Sarabande in B minor, BWV 1002, entailed many slides connecting chords and idiomatic passages. When Llobet played notes on the same string, he often would use a slide to connect the notes. The recordings of Augustìn Barrios also reveal his usage of glissandi and slides. In my opinion, Barrios used slides in Capricho

Árabe too freely. The affect was brought out every time he performed a slide, and after numerous repetitions one may become tiresome of the effect. This was most likely the performance practice of Barrios and Llobet's time. In the performance practice of music, performers can mix the combination of expressions with their own feelings and mix the knowledge and the feeling together by adding the rhythmic nuances and ornaments. They have the magic to “transport the listener back into earlier time periods by invoking the technical and emotional qualities that were present in them.”49 Andrés Segovia's and Pepe Romero's interpretations are not exactly note-for-note to the score, but they enhance the affect by embellishing the music with portamenti, glissandi, and appoggiaturas. Given the rich history of Tárrega and the history of Spain, the affect of the piece must be able to re-tell the story or part of the story and feeling can be lost.

Selected Bibliography Bach, C. P. E. Essay on the True Art of Keyboard Playing. Translated and edited by William J. Mitchell. New York: W.W. Norton, 1949.

Barrios, Augustín. Plays his own Compositions and other Works: The Complete Historical Recordings 1913-1942. Chanterelle Verlag, CD CHR 102.

and © 2009 by Chanterelle Verlag. (Includes Tárrega's

Capricho Árabe and others.)

Clough, Francis F., and G. J. Cuming. The World’s Encyclopædia of Recorded Music. London: City and South London, 1952.

Cooke, Deryck. The Language of Music. 1959. Reprint, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Ferrero, Ángela, and Iago Reigosa. “Spanish Guitar ca. 1800: A New Music for a New Instrument.” In Gitarre und Zister: Bauweise, Spieltechnik und Geschichte bis 1800, edited by Monika Lustig, 22328. Michaelstein: Blankenburg, 2005.

FSTC Limited. “Muslim Heritage: Valencia.”

Hodel, Brian. “Twentieth Century of Music and the Guitar, Part 1: 1900– 1945.” Guitar Review 117 (Summer 1999): 9–15.

Hofmeester, T. M., Jr. “Is There a School of Tárrega?” Guitar Review 1 (Oct. – Nov. 1946): 4–6.

Jackson, Roland. Performance Practice: A Dictionary-Guide for Musicians. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Llobet, Miguel. The Guitar Recordings 1925-1929. Chanterelle Verlag, CD CHR 001.

and © 2009 by Chanterelle Verlag. (Includes

Tárrega's Capricho Árabe and others.)

Mangan, John. “Chopin for the Guitar: A Newly Discovered Transcription by Francisco Tárrega.” Guitar Review 109 (Spring 1997): 1–11.

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Mills, John. “A Closer Look: Capricho Árabe by Francisco Tárrega.” Classical Guitar 20, no. 4 (2001): 22–25.

Mozart, Leopold. A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing. Translated by Editha Knocker. London: Oxford University, 1967.

Pujol, Emilio. Guitar School: A Theoretical-Practical Method for Guitar. 3 vols. 1934. Reprint edited by Mantanya Ophee and translated by Brian Jeffery with introduction by Manuel de Falla. Columbus: Editions Orphée, 1983.

Quantz, Johann Joachim. On Playing the Flute. Translated by Edward R. Reilly. New York: Schirmer Books, 1966.

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Savino, Richard. “Essential Issues in Performance Practices of the Classical Guitar: 1770–1850.” Chap. 9 in Performance on Lute, Guitar, and Vihuela: Historic Practice and Modern Interpretation, edited by Victor Anand Coelho. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

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Yates, Stanley, and Graham Wade. Francisco Tárrega: His Life and Music. 21754DVD. Directed by Brendan McCormack. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay, 2008.

Yepes, Narciso. Malagueña. Polydor International, 289 469 549-2. ©1977. (Includes Tárrega's Capricho Árabe and others.)



Maurice J. Summerfield, The Classical Guitar: Its Evolution, Players, and Personalities since 1800 (UK: Ashley Mark, 2002), 289–91. 2 Oxford Music Online, s.v. “Spain” (by Belen Perez Castillo), (accessed Nov 1, 2009). 3 Oxford Music Online, s.v. “Spain” (by Castillo), (accessed Nov 2, 2009). 4 Graham Wade, Mel Bay Presents: A Concise History of the Classical Guitar (Pacific, MO: Mel Bay, 2001), 77–80, 81–83. 5 Oxford Music Online, s.v. “Tarrega” (by Thomas A. Heck), (accessed Nov 2, 2009). 6 Adrián Rius, Francisco Tárrega: 1852–1909, Biography (Valencia, Spain: Piles, 2006), 27. 7 Rius, 34. 8 Rius, 34. 9 Rius, 18. 10 Rius, 25, 66. 11 Rius, 25, 66. 12 Rius, 25, 66. 13 Rius, 76. 14 Rius, 72-73. 15 FSTC Limited, “Muslim Heritage: Valencia,” (accessed Nov. 3, 2009). 16 Rius, 73. 17 Johann Joachim Quantz, On Playing the Flute, trans. Edward R. Reilly (New York: Schirmer Books, 1966), 118. 18 Quantz, 124–25. 19 Quantz, 125. 20 Rius, 28–29. 21 Rius, 43. 22 C. P. E. Bach, Essay on the True Art of Keyboard Playing, trans. and ed. William J. Mitchell (New York: W.W. Norton, 1949), 153. 23 Roland Jackson, Performance Practice: A Dictionary-Guide for Musicians (New York: Routledge, 2005), ix. 24 Please note that The Christopher Parkening Method: Vol. 2 does spend a little more time into the meaning and rationale of creating music and Jerry Snyder Guitar School does not only cover classical guitar but a few styles of playing. 25

Emilio Pujol, Guitar School: A Theoretical-Practical Method for Guitar, Book One, 1934, ed. Mantanya Ophee and trans. Brian Jeffery (Columbus: Editions Orphée, 1983), xxiii. 26 Three of the four books have been translated into English. 27 Daniel Gottlob Türk, School of Clavier Playing: Instructions in Playing the Clavier for Teachers and Students, trans. Raymond H. Haggh (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 322. 28

Leopold Mozart, A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing, trans. Editha Knocker (London: Oxford University, 1967), 218. 29 Deryck Cooke, The Language of Music (1959; Reprint, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 97-102. 30 Cooke, 97-102. 31 Cooke, 97-102. 32 The chromatic run in measure 43 is discussed further on page 18.


Cooke, 50-58. The note is struck once in the plucking hand and the finger is pulled off on the fretted hand sounding a new note. 35 Quantz, 123. 36 Cooke, 34, 112. 37 Cooke, 133. 38 Cooke, 133-37. 39 Cooke, 137-38. 40 Cooke, 36–38. 41 Pujol, 101. 42 Cooke, 90. 43 Cooke, 90. 44 Cooke, 115-19. 45 Cooke, 90. 46 Cooke, 90. 34


Ivor Mairants , “From Gut to Nylon,” Albert Augustine Classical Guitar Strings, (accessed December 1, 2009). 48 Stanley Yates and Graham Wade, “Ornamentation,” Francisco Tárrega: His Life and Music, 21754DVD, dir. Brendan McCormack (Pacific, MO: Mel Bay, 2008). 49

Jackson, x.

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