FPSO Related Piping and Pipe Stress Aspects
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FPSO Related Piping and Pipe Stress Aspects...
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects Paul Voorhaar & Hugo Kamphuijs
November 2010
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Rough sea
Who we are
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We are Colleagues at Bluewater Energy Services in Hoofddorp working as stress engineer
What we are not: •Persons that think their approach is simply the best •Stress engineers that have stopped being critical about themselves
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•Technicians that do not listen to other stress engineers
Why are we giving this presentation?
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• Firstly because we were asked by Dynaflow to do so • Secondly because we feel that we can share some of our problems with others and we will all benefit • We appreciate pp Dynaflow y for g giving g these p presentations for all interested relations • We have heard many others, telling about their field of expertise and we were more or less obliged to give our contribution even if we can not reach the high level of the others we have heard • By preparing this presentation we were forced to think about the importance
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and nonimportance of several stress items with FPSO’s
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Difference between: • Land based installations • Coastal installations (Jetties) • Fixed Sea based installations • Floating Sea based installations on a fixed location (FPSO)
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
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Length 248.12 meters Breadth moulded 42 meters Depth moulded 21.2 21 2 meters Draft, design + scantling 14.9 meters Dead weight tonnage 105,000 dwt Deck area 7 7,985 985 m2 Topsides area 6,000 m2 Deck payload 7,000 tonnes Accommodation 84 persons
Ship movements
Space for visuals, tables or info graphics g p
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Determination of loading cases
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RESTRAINT SUMMARY REPORT: Loads On Restraints Various Load Cases LOAD CASE DEFINITION KEY CASE 1 (SUS) W CASE 14 (OPE) W+D4+T2+P2+U1
CASE 15 (SUS) U1 CASE 16 (SUS) U2 CASE 17 (SUS) WIN1 NODE
Load
FX N.
FY N.
FZ N.
MX N.m.
MY N.m.
MZ N.m.
Case 160
Rigid Y 1(SUS)
986
10794 10794
719
0
0
0
14(OPE)
2729
9115
167
0
0
0
15(SUS)
186
2796
818
0
0
0
16(SUS)
252
4755
1404
0
0
0
17(SUS) MAX
1 2729/L14
13 10794/L1
4 1404/L16
0
0
0
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The result of this
Ship movements
Space for visuals, tables or info graphics g p
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Loading Cases
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To avoid numerous combinations of loadings we do calculate the worst combination of acceleration first U1 X Y Z
U2
U3
0.5 0.3 0.2
L1
W+U1+U2+U3
SUS
L2
W+U1+U2U3
SUS
L3
W+U1U2U3
SUS
L4
W+U1U2+U3
SUS
L5
WU1U2U3
SUS
L6
WU1U2+U3
SUS
L7
WU1+U2U3
SUS
L8
WU1+U2+U3
SUS
Loading Cases
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One of these combinations will give the highest stresses. Say it is combination 2 2. In that case only the following accelerations will be used: U1=+0.5X0.3Y+0.2Z In this way we limit the number of pages of the output.
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Flexibility analysis Flexibility analysis is performed in order to investigate the effect from alternating bending moments caused by pipe temperature expansion/contraction and other imposed displacements from e.g. thermal expansion of pressurised equipment, FPSO swivel stacks, live load deck deflections, sag and hog effect on an FPSO.
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Primary Stresses • Primary stresses are those developed by the imposed loading and are necessaryy to satisfy y the equilibrium q between external and internal forces and moments of the piping system. • Typical loads are dead weight and internal pressure pressure. • Sustained stresses are primary stresses. • Primary stresses are NOT selflimiting.
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Secondary Stresses • Secondary stresses are those developed by constraining the free displacement p of p piping p g subjected j to thermal loads or imposed p displacements p from movements of anchor points etc. • Hence, Hence thermaland displacement stresses are in the secondary stress category. • Secondary S stresses are selflimiting. f
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Peak Stresses • Unlike loading conditions of secondary stress which causes distortion, peak stresses cause no significant distortion in piping. • Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and should always be taken into consideration in fatigue f and fracture f mechanic calculations.
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Appendix P of ASME B31.3
This Appendix provides alternative rules for evaluating the stress range in piping systems. It considers stresses at operating conditions, including both displacement and sustained loads loads, rather than displacement stress range only only. The method is more comprehensive than that provided in Chapter II and is more suitable for computer analysis of piping systems, including nonlinear effects such as pipes lifting off of supports.
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Loading Cases
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W
SUS
L2
WW+HYD
SUS
L3
W+P1
SUS
L4
W+T1+P1
OPE
L5
W+T2+P1
OPE
L6
W+T1+P1+WIN1
OPE
L7
W+T2+P1+WIN1
OPE
L8
W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D1
OPE
L9
W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D1+F1
OPE
L10
W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D2 W T1 P1 U1 WIN1 D2
OPE
L11
W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D2+F1
OPE
L12
W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D1
OPE
L13
W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D1+F1
OPE
L14
W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D2
OPE
L15
W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D2+F1
OPE
L16
W+T2+P1+U2+WIN1+D3
OPE
Supress
Supress
Supress
Supress
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L1
Loading Cases
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L17
L8L6
EXP
U1+D1
Supress
L18
L10L6
EXP
U1+D2
Supress
L19
L16L7
EXP
U2+D3
Supress
L20
L4L3+L5L3
EXP
T1+T2
Abs
L21
L17+L18+L19
EXP
2U1+D1+D2+T1+T2
Abs
L22
L6L5
OCC
WIN1
L23
L9L8
OCC
F1
L24
L11L10
OCC
F1
L25
L13L12
OCC
F1
L26
L15L14
OCC
F1
L27
L2
FAT
1
L28
L3L1+L20
FAT
3650
L29
2L19
FAT
50000000
WW+HYD P1+(T1+T2)
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2(U2+D3)
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Flexibility analysis • So S we have h seen th thatt we h have tto perform f an analysis l i th thatt ffulfils lfil our requirements i t since i the notified bodies involved not always support us in the required solutions. • If we look at the codes there are some requirements to get approval of the notified body. • We do make a difference between the requirements of the notified body in order to get an approval and the requirements of the company we work for. • Although we have to comply with the applicable codes we also have to get a safe “feeling” about our design.
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction
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Hogging and sagging
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Space for visuals, tables or info graphics
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Ship displacements
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
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Ship displacements
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction
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Supporting
Supporting
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The bending moment decreases as the distance of the load from the support increases. Bending force f1 is slightly less than force f2 and this difference (f1f2) is transferred inward toward the web by the longitudinal force (fs)
Supporting
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This force also has an equal component in the transverse direction. A transverse force applied to a beam sets up transverse (and horizontal) shear forces within the section.
Supporting
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In the case of a symmetrical y section (A) ( ) a force (P) ( ) applied pp in line with the principle axis (yy) does not result in any twisting action on the member. This is because the torsional moment of the internal transverse shear forces (Æ) is equal to zero.
Supporting
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On the other hand,, in the case of an unsymmetrical y section (B) ( ) the internal transverse shear forces (Æ) form a twisting moment. Due to the above there will be a twisting action applied to the member which will twist under load, in addition to bending.
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Supporting
Supporting
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Supporting that is very flexible is not advisable on an FPSO In this system this type of supporting is used frequently Probably because the pipe itself was thought to be light
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Here it caused problems once it was filled with water as was to be expected
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Supporting
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Friction • Approximate and simplified methods of analysis may be applied only within the range for which it has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the competent b d th body thatt th they are sufficiently ffi i tl accurate. t • It is important that we assess the highest load case. Friction is included in most analyses. • The most severe load case of the two (with or without friction) should be send to the notified body and report that the other one leads to lower stresses (with the exceptions, if any).
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Wishful thinking • Since a ship is moving all the time no buildup of friction forces will occur • Since a ship is moving all the time the direction of the friction forces changes with time
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Increase Flexibility by means of: • Sliding Couplings (Victaulic, Dresser or alike) • Expansion pa s o Bellows e o s • Expansion Loops
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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Loadings • Gforces due to waves • Blastload • Slugflow • Waterhammer • Hydraulic Shock (Water Piston)
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Modifications
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Modifications
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects
Any questions?
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