Forensic Psychology 4th Edition by Joanna Pozzulo; Craig Bennell; Adelle

May 4, 2018 | Author: testbanks | Category: Child Neglect, Child Abuse, Witness, Question, Testimony
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Forensic Psychology 4th Edition by Joanna Pozzulo; Craig Bennell; Adelle...

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Forensic Psychology 4th edition by Joanna Pozzulo; Craig Bennell; Adelle Chapter 6: Multiple Choice

1) Which of the following was not  a  a contributing factor to the renewed interest in research on child witnesses in the 1970s? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Expert psychological testimony was becoming more acceptable in the courtroom. Social scientists were interested in research that c ould be applied to real-world problems. There was increased interest by social scientists in applied research. There was increase in adult eyewitness research. All of the above were contributing factors to the renewed interest in child witness research.

Answer: e Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 157

2) Research suggests that the accuracy of children’s reporting is highly dependent on: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

how they are asked to report what they are asked to report who interviews them where they are interviewed all of the above

Answer: a Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 157-158

3) In the context of an interview with a child in which abuse is suspected, a question such as,  “Did the man touch you?” is an example of a(n): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ambiguous question suggestive question direct question open-ended question prejudicial question

Answer: c Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 159-160

4) Which of the following statements is false with respect to direct questioning techniques used with children? 1. Both multiple choice and yes/no questions generally do not encourage high levels o f accuracy. 2. Children are more likely to respond with “I don’t know” to wh -questions. 3. In multiple choice questions, children are biased toward selecting the first option listed. 4. Older children are more resistant to leading questions of this type than younger children. 5. Direct questions are often necessary to prompt information from children.

Answer: c Diff: Moderate Type: MC

Page Reference: 159-160

5) Recent research by Lyon, Scurich, Choi, Handmaker, and Blank (2012) examining child sexual abuse transcripts reported what type of question to lead to the mos t evaluative information elicited? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Option-posing questions Wh-questions Forced choice questions How-questions Suggestive questions

Answer: d Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 159-160

6) The theory that explains children’s su ggestibility by exploring the social characteristics o f the interview process itself is called: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

cognitive influence social domination social compliance social suggestibility adult compliance

Answer: c Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 160-161

7) Which of the following statements is false concerning the cognitive processes of children? 1. Children and adults forget information in the same way. 2. Children and adults are different in terms of retention of information. 3. Children can misattribute where information comes from.

4. Children store information differently than adults. 5. None of the above statements are false.

Answer: a Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 161

8) In your text, some problems have been identified with respect to use of anatomically detailed dolls to diagnose child sexual abuse. One of these problems is that: 1. research conducted on the use of anatomically detailed dolls is conclusive in the finding that children given these props consistently provide more inaccurate details than those children who are not given the dolls 2. many young children have difficulty correctly recognizing and identifying the anatomy of the dolls 3. while a scoring procedure has been developed to score a child’s interaction with the doll, this procedure has not been subject to much empirical testing 4. there is no standardization for what dolls should look like 5. all of the above options are correct

Answer: d Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 161-162

9) According to research, what is the main reason why or why not anatomically detailed dolls should be used? 1. 2. 3. 4.

No, because they are no different than verbal interviews. Yes, because they elicit accurate reports of sexual abuse. No, because scoring and manufacturing is not standardized. Yes, because research has shown that abused kids play with the dolls differently than non-abused kids. 5. No, because kids like to play with dolls regardless of whether or not they have been abused.

Answer: c Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 161-162

10) Criterion-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) is part of which more comprehensive protocol? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

step-wise interview narrative elaboration cognitive interview statement validity analysis National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Interview protocol

Answer: d Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 162

11) What is the underlying assumption of the Criterion-Based Content Analysis (CBCA)? 1. Descriptions of real events differ in quality an d content from memories that are fabricated. 2. Children are likely to lie when interviewed by an adult. 3. Pressure techniques aid at distinguishing truth from lies. 4. Non-verbal actions allow an interviewer to distinguish truthful reports. 5. Wh-questions aid at distinguishing truth from lies.

Answer: a Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 162

12) Which of the following is not one of the CBCA criterion listed in your text? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Spontaneous corrections or additions Unusual details Contextual embedding Suggestive questioning Unstructured production

Answer: d Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 163

13) Which of the following CBCA criterion listed in your text refers to an assessment of whether the account is consistently organized? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Spontaneous corrections or additions Logical structure Contextual embedding Interaction details Unstructured production

Answer: e Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 163

14) Select the correct order of the following “steps” employed in the Step -Wise Interview: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

rapport building, explaining truth, general questions, free narrative explaining truth, rapport building, general questions, free narrative explaining truth, free narrative, general questions, recall of non-abuse events explaining truth, rapport building, free narrative, general questions rapport building, explaining truth, free narrative, general questions

Answer: e

Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 164

15) Which of the following is not  true  true of the Step-Wise Interview procedure? 1. It is commonly used in Canada. 2. It was recently found to be less effective than the Action for Child Protection procedure. 3. The procedure begins with the least leading questions possible and proceeds to more specific forms of questioning as necessary. 4. It encourages the use of free narrative. 5. The first goal is to build a rapport with the child.

Answer: b Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 164-165

16) Which of the following is not  specified  specified as a category of the narrative elaboration procedure? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

criminal acts participants conversation/affective states settings consequences

Answer: a Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 165

17) A police officer is interviewing 6-year old Timmy about suspected child sexual abuse by showing him a series of cue cards across different categories and aski ng him to talk about the

suspected abuse while being prompted for details via the cue c ards. What interviewing procedure is the police officer using? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Step-wise interview Narrative elaboration CBCA interview NICHD interview Cognitive interview

Answer: b Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 163-167

18) In a study by Brown and Pipe (2003), approximately how much information was reported by 6- to 9-year-olds trained with the narrative elaboration technique compared to the control condition without training on the technique? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

half as much twice as much three times as much four times as much no difference in amount of information reported

Answer: b Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 165-166

19) What are the two types of prompts found in the National Institute of Child Health an d Human Development Interview protocol? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

person and place place and action time and action time and cue person and consequences

Answer: d Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 166-167

20) False memory syndrome is a term coined to describe what? 1. a client’s false beliefs that they were sexually abused as c hildren, having no memories of this abuse until they enter therapy to deal with so me other psychological problem 2. a client’s accurate belief that they were sexually a bused as children, having no memories of this abuse until they enter therapy to deal with some other psychological problem 3. a client’s false beliefs that they were sexually abused as c hildren, having a continuou s memory of this abuse 4. a client’s accurate belief bel ief that they were sexually abused as children, having a continuous memory of this abuse 5. a client faking memories of abuse

Answer: a Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 167

21) Approximately what percentage of the sample in Porter and Birt’s study (2001) reports sexual assault or abuse as their most traumatic memory? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

Answer: a Diff: Easy Type: MC

Page Reference: 168

22) Which of the following is not  part  part of the criteria specified by Lindsay and Read (1995) when determining the veracity of a recovered memory? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

age of complainant at the time of the alleged abuse age of abuser at the time of the alleged abuse techniques used to recover memory similarity of reports across interview sessions motivation for recall

Answer: b Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 169

23) Which of the following factors was consistently associated with a higher proportion of guilty verdicts across the studies of historical child sexual abuse (HCSA) described in your text? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

repeated incidents older age of child at time of abuse claims of repression familial connection to the defendant sought therapy post-abuse

Answer: d Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 169-170

24) When asked to describe a culprit, both children and adults tend to be accurate describing: 1. 2. 3. 4.

height weight age interior facial features

5. exterior facial features

Answer: e Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 172

25) In Leichtman and Ceci’s Sam Ceci’s Sam Stone study (1995), which condition led to the highest level of accuracy and which condition led to the lowest level of accuracy? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

control condition – stereotype plus suggestion condition stereotype condition – control condition suggestion condition – stereotype condition stereotype plus suggestion – control condition There were no differences between the groups in accuracy level.

Answer: a Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 172-173

26) In the study conducted by Pozzulo and Lindsay (1998), it was found that, in contrast to a simultaneous lineup, a sequential lineup tended to __________ the gap for __________ between children and adults. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

decrease/false positives decrease/false negatives increase/false positives increase/false negatives not affect/false positives

Answer: c Diff: Hard

Type: MC Page Reference: 173-174

27) Pozzulo and Lindsay (1999) found that, with the use of the elimination procedure, children produce ___________ rates that are _________ than/as when the simultaneous procedure is used with adults. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

false false false false false

positive/lower positive/higher positive/about the same negative/about the same negative/lower

Answer: a Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 174-175

28) Pozzulo and Balfour (2006) found that correct rejection rates for children and adults were similar when: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

no change in appearance occurred the simultaneous lineup was used when no change occurred the elimination lineup was used when no change occurred a change in appearance occurred regardless of lineup procedure used none of the above

Answer: d Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 175

29) Recent research by Pozzulo, Dempsey, Bruer, and Sheahan (2010) reported that children perform with nearly 100% accuracy at identifying familiar faces in target-present lineups; however, in target-absent lineups they display a si gnificantly lower correct rejection rate than

adults. This finding suggests that ________________ may be more influential for children viewing target-absent lineups and lead to greater erroneous identifications. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

emotional factors memory problems social factors cognitive factors all of the above factors

Answer: c Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 175

30) Under the new Canada Evidence Act, a child is defined as anyone under: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

18 16 14 12 10

years years years years years

old old old old old

Answer: c Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 175-176

31) Under the new Canada Evidence Act, section 16.1, how do children testify? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

under oath under a promise to tell the truth Children are not allowed to testify. A child’s testimony is onl y allowed if it can be corroborated. Children testify the same way as adults do.

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 176

32) Several alternatives to child in-c ourt testimony have been identified. Which alternative is no t permissible in the Canadian court system? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

closed-circuit testimony hearsay witnesses presence of a support person while the child gives testimony closing the courtroom to the public banning all cross-examination of the child

Answer: e Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 176-177

33) Gina has disclosed to her first grade teacher that her grandfather sexually abused her. According to the rules of evidence and courtroom accommodations made for children, Gina’s teacher would likely be considered a __________________ and ___________________. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

biased witness; not called to testify hearsay witness; called to testify disclosure witness; called to testify hearsay witness; not called to testify disclosure witness; not called to testify

Answer: b Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 177

34) Which of the following currently applies to the use of corporal punishment in Canada? 12. Parents are permitted to strike their children on the head or face between the ages of 3 and 12. 13. Parents may use physical force w ith a child between the ages of 3 and 1 2, but may not use an object to hit the child. 14. Parents are permitted to spank a child, under the age of 2 o r older than age 12. 15. Under no circumstances is a teacher allowed to use physical force with a student. 16. none of the above

Answer: b Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 178

35) Which of the following is not a category of child maltreatment in Canada? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sexual abuse Neglect Emotional maltreatment Economic abuse Physical abuse

Answer: d Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 177-178

36) According to a 2008 incidence report of child maltreatment cases in Can ada, the most common form of abuse substantiated was: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

sexual abuse physical abuse emotional maltreatment neglect all of the above had comparable substantiated rates

Answer: d Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 180

37) As stated in your text, while risk factors for ____________ are varied, risk factors for  ____________ tend to revolve around family composi tion. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

physical abuse/sexual abuse sexual abuse/physical abuse emotional abuse/physical abuse sexual abuse/emotional abuse neglect/emotional abuse

Answer: a Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 181

38) The presence of a non-natural parent (i.e., step-parent) in the household was identified as a risk factor for: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

physical abuse sexual abuse emotional abuse neglect all of the above

Answer: b Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 181-183

39) Low socioeconomic status and large family size are risk factors associated with what type of abuse? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

physical abuse sexual abuse emotional abuse neglect all of the above

Answer: a Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 181

40) Perceptual-motor deficits are commonly reported as a short-term effect of what form of child abuse? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

physical abuse sexual abuse emotional abuse neglect all of the above

Answer: a Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 181-182

41) Which was not  identified  identified by Putnam (2003) as a category of outcomes in adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

dysfunctional behaviours psychiatric disorders neurobiological dysregulation eating disorders all of the above were identified as outcomes

Answer: d Diff: Hard Type: MC Page Reference: 182-183

42) In a retrospective study by Perez-Fuentes et al. (2012) involving interviews between 20042005 in the United States, approximately what percentage of male participants and what percentage of female participants reported childhood sexual abuse? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

5% male – 35% female 15% male – 20% female 25% male – 75% female 20% male – 50% female 10% male – 15% female

Answer: c Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 183

43) Which of the following follow ing was reported by Dube et al. (2005) to be twice as likely in men and women reporting child sexual abuse histories relative to those without such a history? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Spousal abuse Substance abuse disorders Depression Neurological disorders Suicide attempts

Answer: e Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 183

44) What is the maximum prison sentence for someone convicted of using the Internet to communicate with a child for the purpose of committing a sexual act? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6 months 1 year 18 months 2 years 5 years

Answer: e Diff: Easy Type: MC Page Reference: 183

45) Police estimate how many children are invited to meet for a sexual enc ounter over the internet? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1% 5% 10% 25% 35%

Answer: d Diff: Moderate Type: MC Page Reference: 184

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