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February 24, 2019 | Author: Vincent Arnado | Category: Arrest Warrant, Witness, Testimony, Arrest, Civil Disobedience
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United States vs. Dirain [No. 1948. May 5, 1905.] THE UNITED STTES, STTES, !"ainti## and a! !e""ee, vs. $%EMENTE DI&IN, de#endant and a!!e""ant. 'U(%I$ UTH)&ITIES. UTH)&ITIES. $&IMIN% TTEM'T TTEM'T *INST.+Te *INST.+Te sa"aries o# te !o"i-e not avin /een !aid. te de#endant. te -ie# o# !o"i-e, a--o!anied /y #or !o"i-een, a"" ared. 2ent to. te  ose o# te ni-i!a" !resident and -o!e""ed i to o to te ni-i!a" /i"din. 2ere tey 3e!t i #or ors. His re"atives avin sent i oney s##i-ient to !ay te sa"aries, e 2as a""o2ed to de! art. He"d, Tat te de#endant. 2as i"ty o# a -riina" atte!t aainst te atorities. ''E% #ro a dent o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# $avite. Te #a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te -ort. 6os7 Santiao, #or a!!e""ant. So"i-itor*enera" raneta, #or a!!e""ee. 54

54 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Dirain :I%%&D, 6.;

Te de#endant 2as te -ie# o# !o"i-e o# te to2n o# Ternate Ternate in te 'rovin-e o# $avite, and te -ort /e"o2 #ond as #a-ts, tat /e-ase te !resident o# te to2n ad not !aid te sa"aries o# te !o"i-een, te de# endant, a--o!anied /y #or o# te ared 2it ns, 2ent to te ose o# te !resident, -o!e""ed i /y #or-e to "eave it and o to te !residen-ia and tere 3e!t i -on#ined nti" e ad raised eno oney to !ay 2at 2as de te as sa"aries. Tat tese #a-ts, i# tre, -onstitte te -oission o# te -rie -ared in te -o!"aint, tere is no do/t. Te de#endant, o2ever, -"ais tat e did not -o!e" te !resident /y #or-e to a--o!any te /t 2ent to is ose #or te !r!ose o# as3in #or te oney #or te !ayent o# teir sa"aries< tat te !resident dire-ted te to o to te !residen-ia 2iter e 2o"d #o""o2 te in a #e2 oents and tere arrane te atter, and tat tis 2as done, no #or-e at a"" /ein sed. :e tin3 te 2itnesses #or te *overnent are entit"ed to ore -redit tan tose #or te de#endant. It is aditted tat te de# endant 2ent to te ose o# te !resident in te idd"e o# te a#ternoon, ared< tat te "atter at on-e 2ent to te !residen-ia and reained tere a/ot #or ors< tat re"atives o# is /rot to te !residen-ia oney s##i-ient to !ay te sa"aries o# te !o"i-een and tat te !resident ten 2ent oe. In vie2 o# te #a-t as -"aied /y te de#endant tat teir sa"aries ad /een in arrears #or soe tie and tat tey ad /een na/"e to se-re !ayent o# te #ro te !resident, it is di##i-"t to /e"ieve tat on tis !arti-"ar o--asion e 2o"d ave one to te !residen-ia nder te -ir-stan-es re"ated a/ove and reained tere a/ot #or ors nti" re"atives o# is ad !rod-ed eno oney to dis-are te o/"iations o# te !o"i-e, n"ess soe 3ind o# #or-e or intiidation ad /een sed. :e ta3e into -onsideration in #avor o# te de#endant arti-"e 11 o# te 'ena" $ode as an e=tenatin -ir-stan-e and red-e te !ena"ty i!osed /y te -ort /e"o2 54>

?)%. 4, M@ 5, 1905 54> United States vs. $ande"aria #ro #or years t2o onts and one day to t2o years #or onts and one day. In a"" oter res!e-ts te dent o# te -ort / e"o2 is a##ired 2it te -osts o# tis instan-e aainst te de#endant. re""ano, $. 6., Torres, Ma!a, 6onson, and $arson, 66., -on-r. 6dent odi#ied. United States vs. Dirain, 4 'i"., 541, No. 1948 May 5, 1905

[No. 1184A. e/rary 1, 1918.] THE UNITED STTES, STTES, !"ainti## and a! !e""ee, vs. *E%SI) T(IN and 6U%IN $NI%%S, de#endants and a!!e""ants.

1.&ESISTN$E 1.&ESISTN$E T) *ENTS *ENTS ) 'U(%I$ UTH)[email protected]+ UTH)[email protected]+ !erson 2o at te oent 2en a !o"i-ean -oes to arrest i re#ses to o/ey te -oand o# te "atter and stri3es i 2it te #ist ay /e added i"ty o# si!"e resistan-e and serios diso/edien-e nder arti-"e 5, 'ena" $ode, instead o# serios resistan-e nder arti-"e 49. Te ere #a-t tat soe #or-e is sed do es not ne-essari"y /rin te -ase nder te "atter arti-"e< and it is # or te -ort to deterine nder a"" te -ir-stan-es 2eter te a-t #a""s nder te one !rovision or te oter. .&&EST U')N :&&NT< &EUS%, ) '[email protected] T) &ETU&N :&&NT TE& &E$EI?IN* IT )& INS'E$TI)N.+:ere a !erson 2o is to /e arrested !ro-res te 2arrant #ro te o##i-er -ared 2it its e=e-tion !on.te !retense o# readin it and terea#ter re#ses to retrn te sae, s- a !erson 2i"" not /e a""o2ed to Be stion te atority o# te o##i-er s/seBent"y to arrest i nder te atority o# s- 2arrant< and te re#sa" to retrn te 2arrant !on deand is serios diso/edien-e. >.UN%:U% INTE&E&EN$E (@ 6USTI$E ) 'E$E IN ECE$UTI)N ) '&)$ESS ISSUED (@ HIMSE%.+ sti-e o# te !ea-e 2o isses a 2arrant o# arrest as no rit to inter#ere 2it te "eitiate a-tion o# a !o"i-e o##i-er enaed in a3in an arrest tere 51

51 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. nder< and a sti-e o# te !ea-e 2o n"a2#""y inter#eres !on s- o--asion ay /e i"ty o# an o##ense nder arti-"es 495, 'ena" $ode, te sae as any oter !erson. ''E% #ro a dent o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# I"oi"o. Mariano, 6. Te #a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te -ort. *reorio raneta #or a!!e""ants. -tin ttorney*enera" 'aredes #or a!!e""ee. ST&EET, 6.;

Tis is an a!!ea" #ro a de-ision o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# te 'rovin-e o# I"oi"o -onvi-tin te de#endants !on te -are o# atta-3 !on aents o# !/"i- atority, in vio"ation o# arti-"e 49, 'ena" $ode, in -onne-tion 2it te se-ond s/se-tion o# arti-"e 50, 'ena" $ode. Te o##ense is a""eed to ave /ee n -oitted in te ni-i!a"ity o# %eon, I"oi"o, !on te >d day o# e/rary, 1915. t te tie o# te a-ts ivin rise to tis !rose-tion te de#endant *e"asio Ta/iana Ta/iana 2as a 2e""res!e-ted -itien o# te ni-i!a"ity o# %eon, 2as a e/er o# te ni-i!a" -on-i", and ad t2i-e se rved as ni-i!a" !resident. He 2as a"so at te tie a -andidate #or reF"e-tion to te "atter o##i-e. Te de#endant 6"ian $ani""as 2as a"so a !/"i- o##i-er, o--!yin te !osition o# sti-e o# te !ea-e o# te ni-i!a"ity. Te t2o en 2ere /rotersin"a2 and o--!ied te sae ose. )n te ornin o# te date a/oveentioned, a nei/or o# *e"asio Ta/iana Ta/iana ad a!!eared /e#ore 6"ian $ani""as, sti-e o# te !ea-e, and ad !ro-red #ro i a 2arrant #or te arrest o# Ta/iana Ta/iana and is  erdsan !on te -are o# a trivia" isdeeanor, -onsistin o# an a""eed tres!ass -oitted !on te -o!"ainantGs !reises /y Ta/ianaGs -att"e. Te de#endant Ta/iana Ta/iana 2as s/seBent"y a-Bitted !on tis -are< /t te o##ense 2i- 2as te s/e-t o# !rose-tion in te !resent -ase ad its oriin in -ir-stan-es -onne-ted 2it te arrest nder tat 2arrant. Te a-ts 2i- are te s/e-t o# te -are in tis -ase 51A

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 51A United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. o--rred a/ot 8 oG-"o-3 !. . in te tienda o# te de#endant Ta/iana, 2i- is "o-ated nder te a!artents o--!ied /y  i and 6"ian $ani""as as a residen-e, Soe re#eren-e, o2ever, to tins 2i- o--rred ear"ier in te day is ne-essary. Te 2arrant #or te arrest o# Ta/iana and is erdsan 2as !"a-ed in te ands o# t2o !o"i-een, Ei"iano $a""ado and (a"taar $a/i"itasan, 2o #ond te de#endant Ta/iana Ta/iana a/ot 4 !. . ot in te -ontry. Te de#endant so2ed soe irritation and instead o# -oin in at on-e to"d te !o"i-een tat e 2o"d -oe in "ater and re!ort at te ni-i!a" /i"din 2it is erdsan, te oter de#endant naed in te 2arrant. Te !o"i-een -onsented, s/e-t to te a!!rova" o# te -ie# o# !o"i-e, and 2ent a2ay. t  !. ., te de#endant not avin a!!eared at te ni-i!a" /i"din, te !o"i-een 2ere dire-ted /y te -ie# to #ind i and ave i -oe to te ni-i!a" /i"din in o/edien-e to te 2arrant. Te !o"i-een ten !ro-eeded to te de#endantGs ose 2ere tey #ond i in te -o!any o# #riends. :en te !o"i-een annon-ed teir errand Ta/iana Ta/iana so2ed #rter resentent over te idea o# /ein arrested /t yie"ded and started to te ni-i!a" /i"din 2it te t2o !o"i-een. In !assin near te ar3et !"a-e Ta/iana deta-ed ise"# #ro te -stody o# te !o"i-een 2itot teir -onsent and entered te ar3et. Te !o"i-een a!!ear to ave /een -onsiderate and res!e-t#" to Ta/iana and, instead o# #o""o2in te de#endant into te ar3et, tey 2aited a/ot a"# an or, at te end o# 2i- tie tey 2ent into te ar3et and #ond Ta/iana 2it soe o# is #riends, s $a""ado, one o# te !o"i-een, a!!roa-ed te de#endant te "atter arose and as3ed #or te 2arrant sayin, Un"ess yo so2 e te 2arrant o# arrest I sa"" not o 2it yo.

$a""ado dre2 te 2arrant #ro is !o-3et< and as e so2ed it to te de#endant te "atter too3 it, "oo3ed at it, and !t it into is !o-3et. #ter tat e said, $oe a"on and ave te !o"i-ean a !s, as did a"so ore tan one oter o# Ta/ianaGs Ta/ianaGs #riends. 518

518 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. Te !arty ten re!aired to te ni-i!a" /i"din /t as it 2as ettin "ate, te -ie# o# !o"i-e and oter o##i-ia"s 2ere one. Tis ad te e##e-t o# #rter anerin Ta/iana, Ta/iana, and te res"t 2as tat 2i"e one o# te !o"i-een ran to #ind te -ie# o# !o"i-e, Ta/iana Ta/iana and is #riends "e#t te ni-i!a" /i"din, sayin tat tey 2ere oin to #ind te sti-e o# te !ea-e, te idea /ein to #ind soe/ody 2o -o"d set te de#endant at "i/erty on /ai". s te sti-e o# te !ea-e "ived 2it Ta/iana, Ta/iana, tey o# -orse dire-ted tese"ves to2ards Ta/ianaGs residen-e. It ay /e -onsidered tat teir de!artre #ro te ni-i!a" /i"din 2as e##e-ted 2it te -onsent o# te !o"i-een. 'resent"y, 'resent"y, o2ever, te -ie# o# !o"i-e arrived at te ni-i!a" / i"din, and "earnin 2at ad ta3en !"a-e, e dis!at-ed te t2o !o"i-een a"ready entioned and a tird naed %eon $ai"i to o a#ter Ta/iana and !ro-re te retrn o# te 2arrant o# arrest and to insist tat Ta/iana so"d -oe do2n at on-e so tat te atter -o"d /e #inised, or as anoter 2itness e=!ressed it, to /rin i eanin Ta/ianaJ Ta/ianaJ to te !o"i-e station. :en te !o"i-een arrived tey #ond Ta/iana in is tienda, 2it a n/er o# #riends on and. :en e 2as reBested to ive ! te 2arrant and o to te !o"i-e station e denied avin ta3en te 2arrant< and one o# Ta/ianaGs Ta/ianaGs #riends !stairs -a""ed ot, I# e as no 2arrant send i ! #or a /eatin. Ta/iana ten a!!roa-ed te !o"i-ean, $a""ado, and it i in te /reast 2it is and or #ist, at 2i- instant te !o"i-ean seied i /y te 2rist and resistan-e -eased. s te !o"i-ean started to -arry te !risoner a2ay t2o /ystanders inter#ered and too3 i a2ay #ro te !o"i-ean. (y tis tie 6"ian $ani""as, te  sti-e o# te !ea-e, ad arrived on te s-ene and /ein evident"y e=-ited, e it $a""ado on te /a-3, 2en e too 2as sto!!ed /y anoter !o"i-ean. Mean2i"e Ta/iana Ta/iana sees to ave retired to is a!artent, and 6"ian $ani""as dire-tin ise"# to te !o"i-ean said, *o /a-3 to te ni-i!a" /i"din and toorro2 yo 519

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 519 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. 2i"" ta3e tose -"otes o##, re#errin to te ni#ors 2orn /y te !o"i-een. $ani""as a"so a!!ears to a ve s!o3en oter e=-ited 2ords "itt"e -o!ortin 2it te dinity and dties o# is o##i-e. Te !o"i-een ten 2ent a2ay, 2i- ay /e attri/ted not on"y to te -oand o# te sti-e o# te !ea-e /t a"so to te #a-t tat soe o# Ta/ianaGs #riends indi-ated a deterination to #it i# te !o"i-een so"d !ersist in teir !r!ose o# arrestin Ta/iana. :e do not /e"ieve tat Ta/iana so"d /e e"d res!onsi/"e #or tese ena-es, nor #or anytin tat o--rred a#ter e 2as ta3en in and /y te !o"i-ean, as is a-tive resistan-e ad ten -eased. t te /einnin o# tis a"ter-ation te de#endant Ta/iana Ta/iana ay ave entertained te idea tat inas- as te 2arrant o# arrest ad /een otten ot o# te ands o# $a""ado te atority o# te "atter to e##e-t te arrest ad tere/y ended. Tis o# -orse 2as a ista3e, as Ta/iana ten ad te 2arrant 2ron#""y in is o2n !ossession, and e -annot /e !eritted to ta3e ad vantae o# te #a-t tat e 2as 2ito"din it #ro te o##i-er -ared 2it its e=e-tion. ro te !roo#s o# re-ord 2e are -onvin-ed tat everytin done /y Ta/iana Ta/iana !on tis o--asion is !ro!er"y re#era/"e to te idea o# resistan-e and rave diso/edien-e. :e dis-ern in is -ond-t no s- aression as a--o!anies te deterination to de#y te "a2 and its re!resentative at a"" aards. U!on te !revios o--asions o# is -onta-t 2it te !o"i-een on tis day, Ta/iana Ta/iana yie"ded, to 2it /ad ra-e< and it is evident tat e 2o"d, !on tis o--asion, ave one to te !o"i-e station aain i# it ad not /een #or te a-ts o# oters in res-in i, and #or te intervention o# te sti-e o# te !ea-e, 2o ordered te !o"i-een to desist. U!on te 2o"e 2e #ind te de#endant Ta/iana i"ty o# resistan-e and serios diso/edien-e to !/"i- atority nder arti-"e 5, 'ena" $ode, and n ot o# te ore serios o##ense indi-ated in s/se-tion  o# arti-"e 49, 'ena" $ode, 2i- 2as a!!"ied /y te $ort o# irst Instan-e. Te 50

50 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. Bestion 2eter an o##ense -onsists o# si!"e resistan-e or o# rave resistan-e is to /e deterined 2it a vie2 to te ravity o# te a-t !roved and te !arti-"ar -onditions nder 2i- -oitted. In -onsiderin tis Bestion re#eren-e so"d a"so /e ad to te natre and e=tent o# te !ena"ties atta-ed /y te ators o# te $ode to te di##erent o##enses. Ts, 2en it is o/served tat te o##ense indi-ated in arti-"e 49 -arries 2it it a ! ena"ty ranin #ro !risiKn -orre--iona" to !risiKn ayor in its ini deree, 2it -orres!ondin #ines, it is o/vios tat te "a2a3er ere ad in ind serios o##enses, -ara-teried in !art at "east /y te s!irit o# aression dire-ted aainst te atorities or teir aents. It so"d /e o/ served tat te -ir-stan-es entioned in s/se-tions 1 to 4 o# arti-"e 50 are not Ba"i#i-ations o# te de#inition -ontained in arti-"e 49 /t are aravatin -ir-stan-es 2i- are to /e se d in te a!!"i-ation o#

te !ena"ties. Tis eans tat te ere #a-t tat an o##ense o# resistan-e a!!ens to /e -ara-teried /y soe -ir-stan-e entioned in one o# tese s/se-tions does not ne-essari"y deterine tat te o##ense #a""s 2itin te de#inition -ontained in arti-"e 49. It is o/vios, #or instan-e, tat a *overnent #n-tionary ay -oit an o##ense nder arti-"e 5 as 2e"" as nder arti-"e 49< and te re"ative ravity o# te o##ense deterines 2eter it #a""s nder te one arti-"e or te oter. Te reatest esitan-y 2i- 2e ave #e"t in a!!"yin arti-"e 5 instead o# arti-"e 49 to tis -ase arises #ro te 2ords sa"" e!"oy #or-e aainst te e!"earen #era -ontra e""osJ -ontained in arti-"e 49. Tese 2ords, ta3en 2itot re#eren-e to te -onte=t, 2o"d see to a3e a/so"te"y ne -essary te a!!"i-ation o# arti-"e 49 in every -ase 2ere any deree o# #or-e is e=erted. :e /e"ieve, o2ever, tat te 2ords Boted are to /e nderstood as a!!"yin to #or-e o# a ore serios -ara-ter tan tat e!"oyed in te !resent instan-e. :e are "ed to tis -on-"sion not on"y /e-ase o# te rave !ena"ty atta-ed, as indi-ated a/ove, /t #or te #rter reason tat te $ode 51

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 51 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. entions rave resistan-e #rter on in te sae !arara! and a"so a3es s!e-ia" !rovision #or te o##ense o# si!"e resistan-e in arti-"e 5. No2 !ra-ti-a""y and rationa""y -onsidered in -onne-tion 2it te s/e-t o# arrest, resistan-e is i!ossi/"e 2itot te e!"oyent o# soe #or-e.  an ay a/s-ond or evade or e"de arrest, or ay diso/ey te -oands o# an o##i-er 2itot sin #or-e /t e -annot resist 2itot sin #or-e o# soe 3ind or in soe deree. I# at te "tiate oent no # #or-e is e!"oyed to resist, tere is not resistan-e /t s/ission< and i# it ad /een intended tat every ani#estation o# #or-e, o2ever s"it, aainst te atorities and teir aents so"d /rin te -ase nder arti-"e 49, it 2as an id"e 2aste o# 2ords to a3e oter ! rovisions to -over rave resistan-e and si!"e resistan-e. It tere#ore sees reasona/"e to o"d tat te 2ords in arti-"e 49 re"atin to te e!"oyent o# #or-e are in soe deree "iited /y te -onne-tion in 2i- tey are sed and are "ess !ere!tory tan tey at #irst see. &easona/"y inter!reted tey a!!ear to ave re#eren-e to soetin ore daneros to -ivi" so-iety tan a si!"e /"o2 2it te ands at te oent a !arty is ta3en into -stody /y a !o"i-ean. s to te de#endant 6"ian $ani""as 2e #ind tat e !arti-i!ated in te o##ense -oitted on tis o--asion, 3no2in tat te de#endant Ta/iana 2as "ia/"e to arrest nder te 2arrant issed /y ise"#< and e is tere#ore !nisa/"e in te sae anner. Te dent o# te -ort /e"o2 is tere#ore odi#ied and ea- o# te de#endants is senten-ed to t2o onts and one day o# arresto ayor, and to !ay a #ine o# '15, 2it te a--essory !ena"ties and s/sidiary i!risonent in -ase o# inso"ven-y, as !rovided /y "a2, 2it -osts aainst te a!!e""ants. So ordered. re""ano, $. 6., 6onson, $arson, and iser, 66., -on-r. Torres, 6., did not sit in te -ase, /t is o# te o!inion tat te -on-i"or so"d /e -on vi-ted and te sti-e o# te !ea-e a-Bitted. 5

5 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. &U%%), 6., dissentin;

I do not aree 2it te #oreoin de-ision. :it a"" de de#eren-e to te aority o!inion, I /e"ieve te de#endants so"d /e a-Bitted. ro te stateent o# #a-ts ade in tat de-ision, as 2e"" as #ro te eviden-e introd-ed at te tria", it a! !ears tat te de#endant, *e"asio Ta/iana, tried to avoid /ein ta3en /y te !o"i-een #ro te #ie"d in 2i- e 2as at te tie and 2ere tese o##i-ers served i 2it te 2arrant o# arrest to te to2n or to te !o"i-e station o# te ni-i!a"ity, and a"so to avoid a!!earin in said station, e !re#errin to re!ort in te ni-i!a" /i"din o# te to2n, as in #a-t e did on tat sae nit< tat, tere#ore, on /ein so 2n te 2arrant o# arrest in te #ie"d /y te !o"i-ean Ei"iano $a""ado, e to"d said !o"i-ean and te "atterGs -o!anion to !re-ede i to te !e/"o, tat e 2o"d o tere ise"# "ater on and ean2i"e 2o"d "oo3 #or is erdsan, ?i-ente N., a"so in-"ded in te 2arrant o# arrest, and 2it i 2o"d a!!ear at te ni-i!a" /i"din< tat 2en Ta/iana rea-ed te !e/"o e 2ent dire-t"y to is ose< tat a#ter2ards, 2i"e a--o!anied /y te !o"i-een, e !assed /y te ar3et, 2ere e tried to e"de te o##i-ers, and ten 2ent to te ni-i!a" /i"din, in 2i- e inBired #or te ni-i!a" !resident, te -ie# o# !o"i-e, and te sti-e o# te !ea-e< /t tat, as none o# tese o##i-ia"s 2ere in te /i"din, e retrned oe. It is !er#e-t"y -"ear 2y te de#endant, Ta/iana, so"d ave !er#ored a"" te a-ts a/ove re"ated, and a"so 2y e so"d ave so2n soe irritation, as said in te de-ision, at /ein reBired /y te !o"i-een to a--o!any te, i# 2e /t ta3e into a--ont, on te one and, as stated in te sae de-ision, tat e 2as a -itien o# ood re!tation in tat ni-i!a"ity %eonJ, 2as a e/er o# te ni-i!a" -on-i", ad /een t2i-e !resident o# te ni-i!a"ity, and, at te tie o# tis arrest, 2as a -andidate #or te o##i-e o# ni-i!a" !resident< and, on te oter and, tat, as a"so set #ort in te aority o!inion, te 5>

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918.

5> United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. 2arrant in te ands o# te !o"i-een #or te arrest o# Ta/iana and is erdsan ad /een !ro-red !on te -are o# a trivia" isdeeanor -onsistin o# an a""eed tres!ass !on te -o!"ainantGs !reises /y Ta/ianaGs -att"e. ro te sae stateent o# #a-ts and #ro te eviden-e, it a!!ears tat te -ie# o# !o"i-e, ?i-ente *ison, 2as e=tree"y an=ios to ave *e"asio Ta/iana /rot into is !resen-e /y te !o"i-een and to ave tese o##i-ers -ond-t i to te !o "i-e station /y virte o# tat 2arrant, #or, at #irst, a#ter te t2o !o"i-een ad a--e!ted, -onditiona" !on te a!!rova" o# te -ie# o# !o"i-e, Ta/ianaGs !ro!osa" to !resent ise"# toeter 2it is erdsan "ater on in te ni-i!a" /i"din, te -ie#, on "earnin at  oG-"o-3 tat evenin tat te de#endant ad not yet !t in an a!!earan-e in te ni-i!a" /i"din, ordered te !o"i-een as stated in te aority de-isionJ to o and "oo3 #or i and see tat e a!!eared at said /i"din, in o/edien-e to te 2arrant, (t as te de#endant, Ta/iana, did in #a-t a!!ear tere and a sort 2i"e a#ter2ards retrned oe, as a#oresaid, on a--ont o# not #indin in te /i"din eiter te ni-i!a" !resident, te -ie# o# !o"i-e, or te sti-e o# te !ea-e, said -ie# o# !o"i-e, arrivin a "itt"e "ater at te ni-i!a" /i"din, on "earnin o# 2at ad o--rred, sent as is a"so stated in te aority de-isionJ te t2o a#oreentioned !o"i-een, and anoter naed %eon $ai"i, tat is, tree !o"i-een, to sear- #or Ta/iana, a3e i retrn te 2arrant o# arrest, and insist !on is iediate a!!earan-e in order tat te -ase aainst i it /e terinated, or, as stated /y anoter 2itness, tat Ta/iana it /e /rot to te !o"i-e station. Tat Ta/iana so"d ave /een soe2at ve=ed on arrivin at te ni-i!a" /i"din not to #ind eiter te ni-i!a" !resident, ,te -ie# o# !o"i-e, or te sti-e o# te !ea-e is !er#e-t"y -on-eiva/"e, /e-ase e 2ent to -o!"y 2it is dty to !resent ise"# /e#ore te o##i-ia" 2o ad ordered is arrest, and / e-ase, a--ordin to is o2n testiony -orro/orated / y oter 2itnesses, e intended tere 54

54 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. to !resent /ondsen #or te !r!ose o# se-rin is /ai". Te #a-t tat Ta/iana did !resent ise"# in te ni-i!a" /i"din tat evenin is te /est !roo# o# te #a"sity o# te testiony o# te !o"i-een to te e##e-t tat a #e2 oents /e#ore is arriva" tere and 2i"e in te ar3et,  !on /ein a!!roa-ed /y one o# tese "atter, Ei"iano $a""ado, Ta/iana deanded to /e so2n te 2arrant o# arrest, and tat 2en $a""ado so2ed it to i, te d e#endant !t it into is !o-3et, s/seBent"y denyin avin it in is !ossession. Te very #a-t tat te de#endant did a!!ear in te o##i-e o# te ni-i!a" !resident tat evenin !roves tat e 3ne2 tat a 2arrant o# arrest ad /een issed aainst i, and nBestiona/"y is s/seBent denia" tat e ad it -o"d /e o# no avai". Moreover, it is stated in te aority de-ision, in re"atin 2at o--rred 2en Ta/iana re!aired to te ni-i!a" /i"din and did not #ind te said atorities tere, tat tis ad te e##e-t o# # #rter anerin Ta/iana, and te res"t 2as tat 2i"e one o# te !o"i-een ran to #ind te -ie# o# !o"i-e, Ta/iana and is #riends "e#t te ni-i!a" /i"din, sayin tat tey 2ere oin to #ind te sti-e o# te !ea-e, te idea /ein to #ind soe/ody 2o -o"d set te, de#endant at "i/erty on /ai". s te sti-e o# te !ea-e "ived 2it Ta/iana, tey o# -orse re!aired to Ta/ianaGs residen-e, It ay, /e -onsidered tat teir de!artre #ro te ni-i!a" /i"din 2as e##e-ted 2it te -onsent o# te !o"i-een. To tese stateents o# te aority de-ision tere so"d /e added, a--ordin to te o!inion o# te ndersined, tat /y tose a-ts Ta/iana deonstrated tat e did not intend to resist servi-e o# te 2arrant o# arrest, tat, on te -ontrary, e res!e-ted te 2rit /t desired to avai" ise"# o# te rit e ad to !ro-re is !rovisiona" re"ease nder /ai" / y a!!"yin to te sti-e o# te !ea-e, te o##i-ia" -o!etent to rant it, and o# is rit to /e a--o!anied /y te !ersons 2o 2ere 2i""in to ive te /ai", as te eviden-e so2s tat tey 2ere, 'era!s te atter 2o"d ave ended ere, i# te tree 55

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 55 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. !o"i-een+2o teir -ie# ?i-ente *ison ordered, as a#oresaid.. to sear- #or Ta/iana, a3e i retrn te 2arrant, insist tat e !resent ise"# iediate"y, and /rin i nder arrest to te !o"i-e station+ad not one to Ta/ianaGs residen-e, 2ere te sti-e o# te !ea-e 6"ian $ani""as a"so "ived. In te #oreoin de-ision it is stated tat te #a-ts !roven at te tria" -onstitte, not te o##ense o# assa"t !on !ersons in atority, de#ined in arti-"e 49, !arara! , o# te 'ena" $ode, /t tat o# resistan-e and rave diso/edien-e to s- !ersons or to teir aents, !rovided #or and !nised /y arti-"e 5 o# te sae $ode< and #ro te stateent o# #a-ts -ontained in said de-ision, it is ded-ed tat te resisten-e and diso/edien-e -onsisted, not !re-ise"y in said de#endantGs de"ay and tardiness in !resentin ise"# /e#ore te -ie# o# !o"i-e in -o!"ian-e 2it te 2arrant o# arrest served !on i /y te !o"i-ean, $a""ado, and in avin ttered in te ar3et and in is o2n ose te 2ords attri/ted to i /y said !o"i-een< /t in te #a-t, !riari"y, tat te de#endant, 2en in te ar3et and !on /ein served /y te !o"i-ean, $a""ado, 2it te 2arrant o# arrest, ave te "atter a !s, a#ter sayin to i $oe a"on, and a"so in te #a-ts tat 2i"e te !o"i-een 2ere in te store o# Ta/ianaGs ose to deand o# i te retrn o# te 2arrant and tat e a--o!any te to te station, Ta/iana denied avin ta3en te 2arrant< tat one o# is #riends -ried ot #ro a/ove, I# tey ave no 2arrant o# arrest, send i ! ere and 2eG"" ive i a trasin, on 2i- o--asion Ta/iana a!!roa-ed te !o"i-ean $a""ado and ave i a /"o2 on te /reast 2it is #ist< and, #ina""y, tat on /ein ta3en a2ay nder arrest, te de#endant 2as snat-ed #ro te !o"i-eanGs -stody /y t2o o# te !ersons !resent in te store< tat te sti-e o# te !ea-e 6"ian $ani""as, 2o arrived on te s-ene st at tat oent, ave te !o"i-ean $a""ado a /"o2 on te /a-3< tat /ein !revented /y anoter !o"i-ean #ro -ontinin to stri3e, e #ort2it ordered te !o "i-een to retrn to

5

5 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. te ni-i!a" /i"din< and tat $ani""as in is e=-iteent ade se o# 2ords n/e-o in te dinity and dties o# is o##i-e. Tere is -o!"ete and a/so"te -ontradi-tion /et2een te eviden-e !resented /y te !rose-tion and tat !resented /y te de#ense. :i"e te 2itnesses #or te !rose-tion de-"ared tat -ertain #a-ts o--rred, tose #or te de#ense denied te sae, re"atin in oter ters 2at too3 !"a-e /et2een te !o"i-een and te de# #endant Ta/iana, #irst in te ar3et, ten /et2een i and is /roterin"a2 6"ian $ani""as, on te one and, and te !o"i-een, on te oter, in te store o# te ose in 2i- Ta/iana and $ani""as resided. :it res!e-t to te !s 2i- it is said Ta/iana ave te !o"i-ean, $a""ado, 2en tey 2ere in te ar3et, a#ter te 2arrant o# arrest ad /een served !on te #orer /y te "atter, testiony 2as iven /y te !o"i-e o##i-er, $a""ado, is -o!anion (a"taar $a/i"itasan, and anoter 2itness naed $e#erino $a"-as. :it res!e-t to te /"o2s iven, a--ordin to te !rose-tion, /y Ta/iana and te de#endant sti-e o# te !e a-e, 6"ian $ani""as to te !o"i-ean $a""ado 2i"e tey 2ere in te store, and in reard to 2at ten o--rred, testiony 2as iven /y te sae !o"i-een and anoter, %eon $ai"i, 2o 2ent 2it te to said ose, and /y t2o oter 2itnesses, Tirso ?aBe and nastasia $a!a-i""o, 2o stated tat tey 2ere ten in te a#oreentioned store. s so2n /y te eviden-e, te de#endant Ta/iana, 2as at te tie a e/er o# te n i-i!a" -on-i", ad t2i-e /een ni-i!a" !resident, and 2as a -andidate #or te sae o##i-e, s!!orted /y te 'roresista 'arty, o# 2i- e 2as te !resident in said ni-i!a"ity. 6an $a!a""a+2o #i"ed te -o!"aint tat ave rise to te 2arrant o# arrest aainst Ta/iana, a--sin te "atter and is erdsan o# a isdeeanor+2as o# te "eaders and te !resident o# te Na-iona"ista 'arty in said ni-i!a"ity and a"so tis !artyGs -andidate #or te o##i-e o# !resident o# te sae ni-i!a"ity, 2ere#ore e 2as a !o"iti-a" eney o# Ta/iana and 5A

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 5A United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. ad not /een on #riend"y ters 2it i # or a "on tie. It 2as a"so !roven tat a/ot one ont !rior to te #i"in o# te -o!"aint /y 6an $a!a""a aainst Ta/iana 2i- oriinated te 2arrant o# arrest, on otion /y Ta/iana te ni-i!a" -on-i" o# %eon, o# 2i- e 2as one o# te e/ers, !assed a reso"tion to re-oend to te !rovin-ia" overnor te te!orary ss!ension o# ?i-ente *ison # #ro te o##i-e o# -ie# o# !o"i-e, on a--ont o# tere /ein !endin aainst i t2o a-tions, one -riina", /rot in te sti-e o# te !ea-e -ort, #or #rad, and te oter, /rot /e#ore te -on-i" itse"#, #or te vio"ation o# arti-"e 8 o# te Mni-i!a" $ode< and tat on Mar- 15, 1915, tat is, tree onts !rior to te #i"in o# te -o !"aint aainst te t2o de#endants in tis -ase, on otion /y Ta/iana, 2o 2as sti"" a -on-i"or o# te ni-i!a"ity, te -on-i" sar!"y -ensred te o##i-ia" -ond-t o# te said -ie# o# !o"i-e, /e-ase o# is ani#est diso/edien-e ,to te "a2#" orders o# te -on-i" /y is # #ai"re to a!!ear on te day and or s!e-i#ied /e# #ore te -oittee a!!ointed to investiate te -ares /rot aainst i, and re-oended to te !rovin-ia" overnor tat *ison /e disissed #ro te o##i-e, i#, a#ter investiation, is i"t so"d /e !roven. In vie2 o# te #oreoin #a-ts, it is not at a"" strane tat, !on /ein served /y te t2o !o"i-een 2it te 2arrant o# arrest issed on -o!"aint #i"ed /y is !o"iti-a" eney 6an $a!a""a, *e"asio Ta/iana so"d ave endeavored to avoid /ein ta3en /y te !o"i-een to te -ie# o# !o"i-e, and tat e so"d ave !re#erred to o to te ni-i!a" /i"dinG and ive /ai" to te sti-e o# te !ea-e< nor is it at a"" Strane, and it is rater !er#e-t"y -on-eiva/"e, tat te -ie# o# !o"i-e, on is !art, so"d ave tried to annoy Ta/iana /y avin i -ond-ted, not /y a sin"e !o"i-ean, as -o"d ave /een done in vie2 o# te trivia" isdeeanor tat ave rise to te -o!"aint aainst i, /t /y t2o !o"i-een, as i# it 2ere a Bestion o# a daneros -riina"< nor tat te -ie# o# !o"i-e so"d ave so2n s- a !ersistent deterination to ave te de#endant /rot /e#ore i as to ave ad te !o"i-een "oo3 #or 58

58 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. i at is ose on is retrn #ro te #ie"d, not2itstandin tat Ta/iana ad !roised te tat e 2o"d !resent  ise"# at te ni-i!a" /i"din< nor tat a#ter e ad done so and 2en e 2as "oo3in #or te sti-e o# te !ea-e #or te !r!ose o# ivin /ai", te said -ie# so"d ave sent tree !o"i-een to /rin i to te station, Indeed it is evident tat te /eavior o# te -ie# o# !o"i-e -o"d on"y ave /een te res"t o# te enity tat e ar/ored aainst *e"asio Ta/iana and, -onseBent"y, a"so aainst te "atterGs /roterinIa2 and ose -o!anion, te sti-e o# te !ea-e 6"ian $ani""as, and o# is desire to i!rove te o!!ortnity to revene ise"# !on te de#endant Ta/iana on a--ont o# te "atterGs avin as3ed #or and o/tained o# te ni-i!a" -on-i" te te!orary ss!ension o# te -ie# o# !o"i-e one ont /e#ore, tat is, on 6anary 15, 1915. Moreover it -annot /e denied tat, to Ta/iana ad s--eeded in ettin te ni-i!a" -on-i" to re!riand te - ie# o# !o"i-e # or te reason a/ove stated and to reBest te !rovin-ia" overnor to disiss i. #ro o##i-e, tat is, on Mar- 15, 1915, or tree onts /e#ore te #i"in o# te -o!"aint aainst Ta/iana in te !resent -ase, te -ie# o# !o"i-e+2o 2as sti"" o##i-iatin as s- at te tie o# te tria" and te e=aination o# te !o"i-een, is s/ordinates, a s 2itnesses #or te !rose-tion, 2o it 2as a""eed Ta/iana and te oter de#

#endant $ani""as ad assa"ted+-o"d ave in#"en-ed te to testi#y as tey did and as a!!ears in teir res!e-tive testiony. Te ere !ersa" o# te stateents ade /y te on te 2itness stand -onvin-es te reader tat tey tried to e=aerate te #a-ts /y attri/tin to Ta/iana and is -ode#endant, $ani""as, 2ords and a-ts o# resistan-e and ins/ordination to te atorities, a"" o# 2i- 2ere denied and -ontradi-ted /y te de#endants and teir #or 2itnesses. To /e -onvin-ed tat s- 2as te -ase, one needs /t noti-e o2 said !o"i-een in teir res!e-tive testiony re!eated 2it a"ost e=a-t ni#ority te 2ords 2i- tey said tey  eard ttered /y *e"asio Ta/iana and is /roterin"a2, te sti-e o# te !ea-e, in te sense a/ove 59

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 59 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. stated on te o--asions re#erred to /y tese 2itnesses< and o2 tey testi#ied, a"ost nanios"y, 2it res!e-t to te a-ts !er#ored, as tey de-"ared, /y Ta/iana and is -ode#endant, $ani""as, 2i- -onsisted in Ta/ianaGs avin iven te !o"i-ean $a""ado a !s in te ar3et, and /ot de#endants avin str-3 tis sae !o"i-ean 2i"e tey 2ere in te store o# Ta/ianaGs ose. nd s- is te ni#ority 2it 2i- ea- one and a"" o# tese !o"i-een testi#ied 2it res!e-t to te said 2ords tat it 2o"d see tat tey a"" ad "earned te /y eart in order to re!eat te e=a-t"y in teir res!e-tive testiony. :it res!e-t to te a#oreentioned a-ts i!ted to te de#endants, it 2as easy #or said 2itnesses to re"ate te in te enera" anner in 2i- tey did. So, ten, "itt"e or no -reden-e -an /e iven to te testiony o# te !o"i-een, not on"y /e-ase o# 2at is so2n /y teir testiony in itse"#, /t a"so /e-ase teir individa" testiony st ne-essari"y /e rearded as ss!i-ios and !artia" in #avor o# te !rose-tion, so so2n /y teir o2n a-ts at te tie o# teir e=e-tion o# te 2arrant #or te de#endantGs arrest, in vie2 o# te a#oreentioned ante-edents as 2e"" as o# teir re"ations 2it te - ie# o# !o"i-e ?i-ente *ison, 2o st ave entertained no very -ordia" sentients to2ards Ta/iana and te "atterGs /roterin"a2 $ani""as. It is tre tat a 2itness, not a !o"i-ean, $e#erino $a"-as, -orro/orated te testiony iven /y te !o"i-een 2it res!e-t to Ta/ianaGs !sin te !o"i-ean, $a""ado. Tis 2itness stated tat 2en e entered te ar3et Ta/iana 2as a"ready tere< tat a sort 2i"e a#ter2ards $a""ado arrived and 2ent dire-t"y into te ar3et to2ard Ta/iana< tat te "atter trned is  ead and said; Here is te !o"i-ean 2o 2ants to arrest e, and ten as3ed te !o"i-ean 2ere te 2arrant o# arrest 2as, to 2i- te "atter re!"ied; Here it is0

5>0 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. 2ant a #it, 2eG"" #it1

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 5>1 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. s is seen, te !o"i-ean $a""ado Bo tes Ta/iana as tterin on said o--asion severa" 2ords ore tan tose entioned /y te 2itness $a"-as, and, "i3e is -o!anion $a/i"itasan, re"ates a-ts o# aression or assa"t 2i- $a"-as did not ention in is testiony as -oitted /y oter en in Ta/ianaGs -o!any in te ar3et at tat sae oent+nor did e even a3e any re#eren-e to te said en+a"to, a--ordin to is o2n testiony, e 2as !resent 2en te !o"i-een and Ta/iana "e#t te ar3et and 2ent to te ni-i!a" /i"din. Neiter did te !o"i-ean $a""ado say tat on tat o--asion Ta/iana ttered te #o""o2in 2ords; I# yo !eo!"e 2ant a "a2sit, 2eG"" o to -ort< and i# yo 2ant a #it, 2eG"" #it

5> 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. )# te t2o 2itnesses #or te !rose-tion 2o testi#ied tat tey 2ere !resent 2en, te !o"i-een /ein in te store o# te de#endantsG ose, Ta/iana ave te !o"i-ean $a""ado a /"o2 2it is #ist, and te oter de#endant, $ani""as, a /"o2 on te /a-3, Te #irst, naed Tirso ?aBe, stated tat 2en $a""ado entered te store Ta/iana a!!eared, and te #orer said to te "atter; Seor *e"asio, i# te saints are er-i#", "et te retrn to e te 2arrant o# arrest yo too3 # #ro e, and -oe 2it e to te ni-i!a" /i"din>

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 5>> United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. di-ted tese"ves. S- -ontradi-tion so2s te easre o# -reden-e tat so"d /e a""o2ed te testiony o# tis 2itness and te tree !o"i-een. Te oter 2itness, nastasiaG $a!a-i""o, a"so !resented /y te !rose-tion as an eye2itness to 2at o--rred in te store, "i3e2ise "iited er testiony to sayin tat se 2ent tere tat evenin to /y soe !etro"e< tat on enterin< te door se sa2 *e"asio Ta/iana stri3e te !o"i-ean< tat a#ter2ards se a"so sa2 te sti-e o# te !ea-e stri3e i< and tat 2en se o/served tat tins "oo3ed /ad se retrned oe. It is strane tat avin seen Ta/iana and te sti-e o# te !ea-e $ani""as stri3e te !o"i-ean, tis 2itness so"d ave said notin in er testiony a/ot te str"e tat ten too3 !"a-e /et2een Ta/iana, ran-is-a $ani""as, and !o"onio $ai"i on te one and, and te !o"i-een on te oter a--ordin to te testiony o# tese sae !o"i-eenJ, not2itstandin tat se st ave 2itnessed it /e-ase it a"" o--rred at te sae tie. It is #rter to /e -onsidered tat tis 2itness 2as an ant, as se erse"# stated, o# te -o!"ainant, 6an $a!a""a, a !o"iti-a" eney o# Ta/iana Ta/iana and te sae !erson 2o #i"ed te -o!"aint -asin te 2arrant o# arrest to isse aainst Ta/iana Ta/iana 2i-, 2it s- inordinate ea" an d 2it so - deterination, te -ie# o# !o"i-e ?i-ente *ison endeavored to en#or-e. In vie2 o# te eviden-e !resented /y te !rose-tion, it -annot tere#ore /e -onsidered as !roven tat te de#endants !er#ored te a-ts a""eed to -onstitte te o##ense o# assa"t !on te aents o# te atorities 2i-, in te aority de-ision, ave /een -"assi#ied as an o##ense o# resistan-e and serios diso/edien-e to s- aents, nor tat te de#endants ttered te 2ords and !rases attri/ted to te indi-ative o# o!!osition and diso/edien-e to te !o"i-een 2en atte!tin to serve te 2arrant o# arrest !on Ta/iana, one o# te de#endants. )n te -ontrary, it very -"ear"y a!!ears #ro te eviden-e o# te !rose-tion tat Ta/iana Ta/iana did not see3 to diso/ey te 2arrant o# arrest, 5>4

5>4 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. nor did e #ai" to -o!"y tere2it, #or+in -o!"ian-e 2it is o##er to te !o"i-ean $a""ado tat a#ternoon 2en te de#endant 2as in te #ie"d, to 2it, tat te o##i-er it !re-ede i to te !e/"o, and tat e Ta/ianaJ 2o"d #o""o2 and ean2i"e 2o"d o to "oo3 #or is erdsan ?i-ente 2o 2as a"so in-"ded in te 2arrant o# arrest+e did in #a-t ten retrn to te !e/"o and, #irst !assin /y te ar3et, 2ent, no2 a--o!anied /y te !o"i-een, to te ni-i!a"

/i"din 2ere e inBired #or te ni-i!a" !resident, te sti-e o# te !ea-e, and te -ie# o# !o"i-e. Tis e ndo/ted"y 2o"d not ave done i# e ad not intended to s/it to te 2arrant o# arrest, or i# e ad !"anned to o!!ose it in te anner re"ated /y tese !o"i-een, and - "ess i# e ad a-ta""y ad te 2arrant in is !ossession and ad re#sed to de"iver it to te !o"i-een as te "atter testi#ied tat e d idJ, in order to resist retrnin 2it te to te ni-i!a" /i"din tat sae evenin or to resist /ein ta3en /y te to te !o"i-e station+/e-ase te de#endant ad a"ready a-3no2"eded servi-e o# te 2arrant in te ni-i!a" /i"din a #e2 oents /e#ore, and tere#ore a denia" o# te e=isten-e o# te 2arrant -o"d ave served no !r!ose 2atever. )n te oter and, #ro te eviden-e add-ed /y te de#ense it a!!ears tat neiter te de#endants nor te !erson s 2o 2ere 2it Ta/iana in te ar3et tat a#ternoon -oitted any a-t o# aression, assa "t, or resistan-e !on or to te !o"i-een 2o 2ent tere in sear- o# Ta/iana< Ta/iana< tat Ta/iana ad ise"# a--o!anied /y !o"onio $ai"i on te 2ay #ro te ar3et and, /esides, sent #or (oni#a-io "taya in order to se te as is /ondsen and ts o/tain is !rovisiona" "i/erty !on !resentin ise"# in te ni-i!a" /i"din tat evenin 2ere e e=!e-ted to #ind te sti-e o# te !ea-e, tat not #indin te "atter tere, e 2ent to is ose 2it te said !o"onio $ai"i, 2ere te sti-e o# te !ea-e,  is /roterin"a2, /roterin"a2, 2as "ivin, and tat on-e tere, in te !resen-e a"so o# !o"onio $ai"i and (oni#a-io "taya, e !resented tese t2o en as is /ondsen< tat te sti-e o# te !ea-e a--e!ted 5>5

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 5>5 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. te as s- and #i=ed te aont o# te /ai" at '5 on a--ont o# te o##ense /ein a ere isdeeanor< tat te sti-e o# te !ea-e so in#ored te !o"i-een and ordered te to 2itdra2 /e-ase te de#endant 2as at "i/erty nder /ai"< tat, as te !o"i-een derred, te sti-e o# te !ea-e, as e testi#ied at te tria", to"d te to retrn tat sae evenin and e 2o"d isse an order in 2ritin< tat te !o"i-een "e#t and did not retrn  nti" te #o""o2in ornin< tat ten te sti-e o# te !ea-e anded te a -oni-ation #or te -ie# o# !o"i-e in 2i- it 2as stated tat te de#endant Ta/iana 2as re"eased nder /ai"< tat "ater tat sae ornin, te sti-e o# te !ea-e a nd Ta/iana Ta/iana 2ent to te ni-i!a" /i"din, #o""o2ed /y te !o"i-een, and ten an d tere te /ai" /ond 2as ade ot and sined /y te /ondsen, ts settin Ta/iana at "i/erty< and tat !on te tria" o# Ta/iana nder te -o!"aint #i"ed /y 6a n $a!a""a, tis de#endant 2as a-Bitted /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e o# Ti/aan, 2o tried te -ase /e-ase te de#endant $ani""as, sti-e o# te !ea-e o# %eon, 2as ini/ited /y reason o# /ein Ta/ianaGs /roterin"a2. It -annot /e denied tat i# *e"asio Ta/iana Ta/iana 2as not ta3en to te ni-i!a" /i"din or to te !o"i-e station tat evenin /y te !o"i-een 2o 2ent to is ose, tere st ave /een soe reason tat !revented it. s it -annot /e deeed !roven, as a#oresaid, tat te reason st a""ded to 2as resistan-e on Ta/ianaGs Ta/ianaGs !art+2it te -oo!eration o# is /roterin"a2, te sti-e o# te !ea-e $ani""as+to #o""o2in te !o"i-een, te on"y reasona/"e e=!"anation tat -an /e iven is tat, tro te a--e!tan-e /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e o# te ver/a" se-rity o# '5 o##ered /y te de#endant Ta/iana and iven /y !o"onio $ai"i and (oni#a-io "taya, Ta/iana Ta/iana 2as a""o2ed !rovisiona" "i/erty nti" te #o""o2in day 2en s- ver/a" se-rity 2as to /e #ora"ied in 2ritin, and tese #a-ts+ #ro te testiony iven /ot /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e and /y Ta/iana and is 2itnesses, aon te, one o# te /ondsen tese"ves+a!!ear to /e -orro/orated /y te 5>

5> 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. #a-t o# Ta/ianaGs avin one in -o!any 2it te sti-e o# te !ea-e, is /roterin"a2, on te #o""o2in ornin to te ni-i!a" /i"din and tere avin d"y iven te reBired /ai", 2ere/y e 2as te!orari"y re"eased, It is tre tat tat sae ornin, a--ordin to te testiony o# te !o"i-ean Ei"iano $a""ado, -orro/orated /y is -ie#, ?i-ente *ison, #ive !o"i-een 2it $a""ado, a"" ared 2it revo"vers and sa/ers and a-tin nder te orders o# te -ie# o# !o"i-e, aain stationed tese"ves arond te ose in 2i- Ta/iana and $ani""as 2ere "ivin, and tere, as $a""ado a"so stated, stood ard nti" Ta/iana -ae ot, 2en te !o"i-een #o""o2ed i and te sti-e o# te !ea-e as tey 2ent to te ni-i!a" /i"din to ive /ai". (t tese very #a-ts, in -onn-tion 2it te one 2i- te !rose-tion a!!arent"y tried to !rove, to 2it, tat te !revios evenin tere too3 !"a-e /et2een te de#endants and tese tree !o"i-een te o--rren-es re"ated /y te "atter, -an a"so serve as !roo# o# te #a-t tat te -ie# o# !o"i-e, ?i-ente *ison, 2ised to a3e a so2 o# is atority and !o2er /y annoyin Ta/iana and i"iatin i, #or, as it ay easi"y /e n derstood+as Ta/iana Ta/iana 2as "ivin in te sae ose 2it te sti-e o# te !ea-e, 2o !revented te arrest o# Ta/iana tat evenin+tere 2as no need #or #ive ared !o"i-een to o to 2at- Ta/ianaGs Ta/ianaGs ose and -ond-t i, as i# e 2ere a daneros -riina", to te ni-i!a" /i"din, not2itstandin tat e 2as a--o!anied /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e ise"#. Tis+in -onne-tion 2it te #a-ts a"ready stated -on-ernin te resentent 2i- te -ie# o# !o"i-e st ave ar/ored aainst Ta/iana, and, #rter, #rter, in -onne-tion 2it te very sini#i-ative detai" tat te !ro-eedins 2ere institted and !rose-ted so"e"y aainst Ta/iana and $ani""as, not2itstandin tat, a--ordin to te testiony o# tese very sae !o"i-een, !o"onio $ai"i, Daian $a"o!e, Ma=io se/Be, and Doino $a""ado a"so assa"ted and atta-3ed said !o"i-een, te "astnaed even oin so #ar as to "ay and on is /o"o and treaten te !o"i-ean $a""ado 5>A

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 5>A United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as.

2en e tried to arrest Ta/iana, a--ordin to tis !o"i-eanGs testiony a"" te said #ive en st a/ove naed ts -oo!eratin in te e=e-tion o# te -rie+ /rins ot in /o"d re"ie# te ain #eatres o# tis !rose-tion. I# te de#endants ot to /e a-Bitted #or "a-3 o# ! roo# o# te a-ts 2i-, as -onstittin a -rie, 2ere -ared aainst te in te -o!"aint, te a-Bitta" o# one o# te, to 2it, te sti-e o# te !ea-e 6"ian $ani""as, inde!endent"y o# tat o# is -ode#endant, is in a"" res!e-ts !ro!er, /e-ase, even to e ay ave !er#ored tose a-ts, e -o"d not /e -onsidered i"ty o#, and -onseBent"y -onvi-ted #or, te o##ense o# assa"t !on te aents o# te atorities, nor o# tat o# resistan-e and serios diso/edien-e to s- aents. In #a-t, said sti-e o# te !ea-e, in te e=er-ise o# is atority as s- and /y virte o# te -o!"aint !resented aainst Ta/iana /y 6an $a!a""a #or te -oission o# a isdeeanor aainst !ro!erty, issed aainst Ta/iana te 2arrant o# arrest -arried /y te !o"i-ean $a""ado and is -o!anion $a/i"itasan, and, in te evenin o# te sae day 2en te 2arrant 2as issed, !on Ta/ianaGs a!!"yin to said sti-e o# te !ea-e and 2i"e tese t2o, te "atter and Ta/iana, 2ere in teir o2n ose, t2o /ondsen a!!eared to o/tain Ta/ianaGs Ta/ianaGs !rovisiona" "i/erty #or tat nit and nti" te /ai"/ond so"d /e #ora"ied in 2ritin in te ni-i!a" /i"din on te #o""o2in day. Te sti-e o# te !ea-e a--e!ted te /ai" o##ered, #i=ed te aont at '5, and ordered te !o"i-een to 2itdra2, #or, #or, as te sti-e o# te !ea-e ise"# said in is testiony, e 2as -onvin-ed tat e 2as e!o2ered !rovisiona""y to re"ease te de#endant Ta/iana nder te /ai" iven /y tese /ondsen, and tere#ore e=er-ised s- atority,G Te sti-e a"so testi#ied tat e to"d te !o"i-een to o to te ni-i!a" /i"din /e-ase te de#endant 2as re"eased nder /ai". Te #oreoin #a-ts are !roven, not on"y /y te testiony o# te sti-e o# te !ea-e ise"# and is -ode#endant Ta/iana, /t a"so /y tat o# te /ondsan !o"onio $ai"i and te tree 2itnesses Ma=io se/Be, Daaso 5>8

5>8 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. $a/ronero, and %-as $a/aran, !resent on tat o--asion, se/Be, 2o 2ent in sear- o# te oter /ondsan (oni#a-io "taya, "taya, /ein one o# te+a"" o# 2o 2itnessed Ta/ianaGs Ta/ianaGs o##er to ive /ai", and te a--e!tan-e o# tat o##er /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e. Tese #a-ts 2ere not re#ted /y te !rose-tion, not2itstandin tat it -rosse=ained te !o"i-ean $a""ado< on te -ontrary, -ontrary, it a!!ears #ro $a""adoGs o2n testiony on dire-t e=aination, tat, in te very store o# te ose o# Ta/iana Ta/iana and te sti-e o# te !ea-e, tat nit 2en te !o"i-een 2ent tere, as tey stated, to ta3e te 2arrant o# arrest #ro Ta/iana Ta/iana and ta3e i to te station, ran-is-o $ani""as and Me"iton $ani""as, 2o 2ere a"so tere, o##ered to ive /ai" #or Ta/iana, even to it :ere '1,000 in -as, and stated tat #or tis !r!ose tey ad /rot te "andta= re-ei!ts. Te sae dis!osition 2as a"so ani#ested /y tose 2o a--o!anied te de#endant Ta/iana #ro te ar3et to te ni-i!a" /i"din, aon 2o 2ere !o"onio $ai"i and Daaso se/Be, te "atter /ein te one 2o 2ent in sear- o# (oni#a-io "taya to /rin i to te ose o# te sti-e o# te !ea-e, to 2i- te de#endant Ta/iana 2ent, toeter 2it is -o!anions, /e-ase e ad not #ond eiter te sti-e o# te !ea-e, te ni-i!a" !resident, or te -ie# o# !o"i-e in te ni-i!a" /i"din. ?iada, in is $oentaries on te 'ena" $ode ?o". II, 4 ed., !. >4J, in dis-ssin arti-"e A8 o# te 'ena" $ode o# S!ain No. 5 o# tat o# te 'i"i!!inesJ 2i- !nises 2it te a=i o# te res!e-tive !ena"ty and a"so 2it te !ena"ty o# te!orary, a/so"te disBa"i#i-ation, any !erson 2o, /ein vested 2it atority, -oits -oits any o# te -ries s!e-i#ied in te tree -a!ters !re-edin said arti-"e, aon 2i- -ries are in-"ded tose re"ative to assa"t !on te atorities and teir aents, and o# resistan-e and serios diso/edien-e tereto, says; :e do not /e"ieve tere -an /e assa"t or diso/edien-e !on or to one atority /y anoter 2en tey /ot -on 5>9

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 5>9 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. tend in te e=er-ise o# teir res!e-tive dties. I# in s- a -ase, one o# te a/ses, de#aes, ins"ts, or otraes te oter, te o##ense o# a/se, or !rivate de#aation, or tat o# "esiones, i# te otrae rea-es tat !oint, 2o"d /e -oitted, /t not te -rie o# diso/edien-e, nor tat o# assa"t, 2i- invo"ves te e=er-ise o# atority /y te o##ended !e rson and te "a-3 o# tis -ir-stan-e on te !art o# te o##ended !arty. It 2o"d /e oter2ise i# te !erson vested 2it atority, /t not a-tin in te !er#oran-e o# is dty, so"d a/se, de#ae, or otrae te !erson e=er-isin te !rivate dties o# is o##i-e< in tis -ase, tere a-ta""y /ein diso/edien-e or assa"t, te s!e-ia" aravation de#ined in tis arti-"e 2o"d /e a !!"i-a/"e. In a -ase 2ere a dis!te or Barre" arose in te street /et2een severa" !ersons, te ni-i!a" de, a--o!anied /y a -onsta/"e, a!!eared on te s-ene to !a-i#y te dis!tants. Te a"-a"de a"so intervened and !sed aside te de, te""in i tat e, te de, 2as notin tere, tat in te street e, te a"-a"de, a"one -oanded, 2it oter n/e-oin and treatenin e=!ressions 2i- -ased te de to 2itdra2. Te -ort o# Soria, S!ain, e"d tat te #a-ts -onstitted te o##ense o# assa"t !on a !/"i- o##i-ia" and senten-ed te de#endant to te -orres!ondin !ena"ty in its a=i deree, ta3in into a--ont #or tis !r!ose te -ir-stan-e o# te o##ender /ein vested 2it atority. n n a!!ea" #ro tat dent 2as ta3en /y te #is-a" on te rond o# vio"ation o# "a2, 2ere!on te s!ree -ort, in its de-ision o# Nove/er 4, 1890, sstained te a!!ea" on te #o""o2in ronds; Tat, in o##enses o# assa"t as in tose o# diso/edien-e, te "eis"ator as !ena"ied diso/edien-e to te atorities a--ordin to te natre and te reater or "esser vio"en-e e!"oyed in te a-t, 2oever /e te !erson 2o -oits it and 2atever /e is -a! a-ity. a-ity. S- -a!a-ity ay ive rise to reater "ia/i"ity, "ia/i"ity, !rsant to te !rovisions o# arti-"e A8 o# te $ode [5 o# tat o# te 'i"i!!ines]. 540

540 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. Tat s- s!e-ia" note o# te o##enses entioned e=-"des te "ea" !ossi/i"ity o# in-"din aon te eiter te otrae tat a s!erior .ay -oit !on an in#erior in te -orse o# teir re"ations, even 2en /ot o# te are !/"i- o##i-ia"s, or te a/ses, o# 2atever natre tey ay /e, 2i- one atority -oits aainst anoter in -ases o# a-ta" -on#"i-t o# risdi-tion, inas- as, in s- -ases, tere is !ro!er"y no diso/edien-e aainst te !rin-i!"e o# atority, /t an endeavor to en#or-e te atority 2i- ea- o# te dis!tants re!resents< tere#ore, even to it is evident tat a"" a torities o2e ea- oter ta" res!e-t, and tat te vio"en-e 2i- tey -oit /et2een tese"ves on te o--a sion o# s- -on#"i-ts it !era!s reBire a s!e-ia" -orre-tion tey do not, #or te reasons stated, #a"" 2itin te !resent -on-e!tion o# te o##enses o# assa"t and diso/edien-e, and -an on"y /e !nised, nder te $ode, a--ordin to teir natre. Tat te #a-t tat an a"-a"de, in is -ara-ter as s- and on te o--asion o# te e=er-ise o# is !o2ers, #or-i/"y !revents a ni-i!a" de #ro e=er-isin is o2n, evident"y -onstittes te -oer-ion entioned in arti-"e 510 o# te $ode. In anoter -ase, a dis!te avin arisen in te yard o# a !ena" esta/"isent /et2een a !risoner and a ard on dty, as te "atter ade a otion as i# e 2o"d dra2 a 2ea!on, anoter ard, a"so on dty, intervened, e"d te #irst ard #ast and, assisted /y severa" oters, -ased i to 2itdra2. Te "atter tere!on /e-ae anry, dre2 a 3ni#e and in#"i-ted !on te ard 2o intervened an in-ised ,2ond 2i- 2as -red in seven days, "eavin no de#ority nor i!edient to "a/or. Te -riina" -ort o# Tarraona, S!ain, -"assi#ied te a##air as an ared assa"t aainst an aent o# te atorities, and -onvi-ted te de#endant o# said -rie. Te de#endant, o2ever, a!!ea"ed #ro tis dent on te rond o# vio"ation o# "a2, and te s!ree -ort o# S!ain in its de-ision o# 6anary 9, 1890, sstained te a!!ea" on te #o""o2in ronds; 541

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 541 United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. Tat te dis!te /et2een t2o ards o# a !ena" esta/"isent, on te o--asion o# 2i- one o# te in#"i-ted a s"it 2ond !on te oter, /ears none o# te #eatres !ro!er"y a!!ertainin to te -rie o# assa"t, i# te Barre" 2as rea""y o# a !rivate natre, /e-ase it did not a##e-t te servi-e at te oent it arose, and, on te oter and, it -annot /e said tat te !rin-i!"e o# atority 2as vio"ated or i!aired as a -onseBen-e o# te aression, #or te reason tat /ot dis!tants 2ere vested 2it te sae o##i-ia" -ara-ter. It is nBestiona/"e tat i# te sti-e o# te !ea-e 6"ian $ani""as str-3 te !o"i-ean $a""ado a /"o2 on te /a-3 2i"e te "atter and is -o!anions 2ere insistin !on ta3in Ta/iana a2ay 2it te nder arrest, and i# e ade rear3s 2i- it /e -onsidered o##ensive to te, s- an otrae 2as -oitted /y a s!erior, te sti-e o# te !ea-e, !on an in#erior, te !o"i-ean, in te -orse o# teir o##i-ia" re"ations and in te !er#oran-e o# o##i-ia" dties /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e, or, /etter said, 2itin te very !er#oran-e o# s- dties, #or, te !o"i-ean $a""ado /ein -ared 2it servin !on Ta/iana te 2arrant o# arrest issed /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e $ani""as, tis "atter+nder te !o2er and atority vested in i, in orderin said !o"i-ean and is -o!anions to 2itdra2, and in te""in te tat Ta/iana 2as re"eased nder /ai"+set aside, or, at "east, ss!ended said 2arrant o# a rrest, e /ein te on"y !erson 2o -o"d ta3e s- a-tion, te sti-e or "ea"ity o# 2i- it 2as not in-/ent !on te !o"i-een to dis!te, /t, on te -ontrary, so"d ave /een iediate"y a-Bies-ed in /y te. Tere#ore, in -on#ority 2it te "ea" do-trine "aid do2n in te a/ove-ited de-isions, tere not avin /een any a-t o# diso/edien-e aainst te atorities, and as it -annot /e said tat te !rin-i!"e o# atority 2as vio"ated or i!aired in -onseBen-e o# te /"o2 iven /y te sti-e o# te !ea-e to te !o"i-ean $a""ado, or in -onseBen-e o# te 2ords or !rases attri/ted to said sti-e 54

54 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. o# te !ea-e 2it res!e-t to te !o"i-een erein -on-erned, tese a-ts do not -onstitte te o##ense o# assa"t !on te aents o# te atorities, nor tat o# resistan-e and rave diso/edien-e to te sae. $onseBent"y, te de#endant $ani""as so"d not /e -onvi-ted o# eiter o# tese o##enses. M%$)%M, 6., dissentin;

In addition to te ana"ysis o# te #a-ts /y 6sti-e ra""o, I a"so dissent /e-ase I a -onvin-ed tat tose !rovisions o# te 'ena" $ode dea"in 2it assa"ts !on !ersons in atority are no "oner in #or-e. To e"-idate+ Tit"e III o# (oo3 II o# te 'ena" $ode -on-erns -ries aainst !/"i- order. $a!ter I is entit"ed &e/e""ion. It -ontains s- !rovisions as tese;

Te -rie o# re/e""ion is -oitted /y any !erson or !ersons 2o sa"" rise !/"i-"y and in o!en osti"ity to te *overnent #or any o# te #o""o2in !r!oses; 1. To !ro-"ai te inde!enden-e o # any !art o# te territory 3no2n as te 'i"i!!ine Is"ands. .To detrone te Oin, de!ose te &eent, or overtro2 te &een-y o# te Oindo, or de!rive te Oin or &eent o# is !ersona" "i/erty or -o!e" i to do soetin aainst is 2i"". irst arti-"e o# -a!ter.J Sre"y tis -a!ter is no2 a n""ity. $a!ter II is entit"ed Sedition. It as /een s!erseded /y -t No. 9 o# te 'i"i!!ine $oission. $a!ter III dea"in 2it !rovisions -oon to te t2o ne=t !re-edin -a!ters #a""s 2it te -a!ters on 2i- de!endent. Ten #o""o2 $a!ter I?, assa"t !on !ersons in atority and teir aents, resistan-e and diso/edien-e tereto, and $a!ter ?, -onte!ts, ins"ts, inrias, and treats aainst !ersons in atority, and ins"ts, inrias, and treats aainst teir aents and oter !/"i- o##i-ers. Tese are te t2o -a!ters 2i- I -"ai are no "oner in e##e-t. Noti-e soe o# te !rovisions o# tese -a!ters. rti-"e 49, No. 1, reads; Te o##ense o# assa"t atentadoJ is -oitted /y; 1. 'ersons 2o, 2itot a !/"i!risin, sa"" e!"oy #or-e or intiidation #or te attainent o# any o# te !r!oses enerated in de#inin te -ries o# 54>

?)%. >A, E(&U[email protected] 1, 1918. 54> United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. re/e""ion and sedition.+Tat is, re/e""ion and sedition aainst S!ain. No.  o# te sae arti-"e reads; ny !erson 2o sa"" atta-3, e!"oy #or-e aainst, or serios"y resist or intiidate, any !erson in atority, or te aents o# s - !erson, 2i"e enaed in te !er#oran-e o# o##i-ia" dties, or /y reason o# s- !er#oran-e.+Tat is, any !erson in atority Under te *overnent o# S!ain. 'assin on to te ne=t -a!ter, arti-"e 5>, No. 1, reads; Te o##ense o# -onte!t is -oitted /y; 1. nyone 2o, 2i"e a Minister o# te $ro2n or any !erson in atority is enaed in te ! er#oran-e o# o##i-ia" dties, or /y reason o# s- !er#oran-e, sa"" /y 2ord or deed de#ae -a"niarJ, a/se inriarJ, ins"t, or treaten s- inister or !erson in is !resen-e or in any 2ritin addressed to i.+Tat is, -onte!t o# a Minister o# te $ro2n o# te Monar-y o# S!ain. or tese o##enses one -an /e !nised 2it !risiKn -orre--iona" or !risiKn ayor+tat is, 2it as - as si= years and one day i!risonent. )##enses 2i- in a deo-ra-y are eiter ta3en a s a o3e or !ass 2it a re!riand, or are !ena"ied 2it a sa"" #ine, or a #e2 days i!risonent, are in a onar-y treated as "ese aest7 and so"en"y and severe"y !nised. ain, it is !ertinent to as3, :o 2ere te !ersons in atority #or resistan-e and diso/edien-e to 2o s- rave !ena"ties 2ere to /e eted ot Tese !ersons in-"ded te *overnor*enera", 2o 2as te !ersona" re!resentative o# te S!anis $ro2n in te 'i"i!!ines, and 2o e=er-ised a"ost rea" !o2er< a"-a"des ayores, 2o #or a "on !eriod o# tie -o/ined /ot e=e-tive and di-ia" #n-tions< -ivi" overnors, invaria/"y S!aniards, 2o 2ere te dire-t re!resentatives o# te *overnor*enera"< and te ardia -ivi" o# nsavory re!tation. Tese !rovisions o# te !ena" "a2 2ere oreover # #or"ated /y S!ain, #or te ood o# S!ain, and ere"y tro te 2i"" o# S!ain 2ere tey e=tended to te 'i"i!!ines. It is a enera" !rin-i!"e o# te !/"i- "a2 tat on a-Bisition o# territory te !revios !o"iti-a" re"ations o# te 544

544 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as. -eded reion are tota""y a/roated, Te !o"iti-a" "a2 !ertainin to te !reroatives o# te #orer *overnent ne-essari"y -eases. It -annot /e aditted tat te Oin o# S!ain -o"d, /y treaty or oter2ise, i!art to te United States any o# is roya" !reroatives< and - "ess -an it /e aditted tat tey ave -a!a-ity to re-eive or !o2er to e=er-ise te. Every na tion a-Birin territory, /y treaty or oter2ise, st o"d it s/e-t to te $onstittion and "a2s o# its o2n overnent and not a--ordin to tose o# te overnent -edin it. 'o""ard vs. Haan [1845], > Ho2., 1.J So "i3e2ise it -annot adit o# do/t tat tose !rovisions o# te S!anis 'ena" $ode -on-ernin assa"ts !on !ersons in atority 2ere in te natre o# !o"iti-a" "a2 ena-ted and !ro"ated /y a onar-y and 2ere ts entire"y in-o!ati/"e 2it deo-rati- instittions. )n every o--asion 2en Bestions o# tis natre ave /een !resented to te S!ree $ort o# tese Is"ands, "a2s and !arts o# "a2s o# a sii"ar -ara-ter ave /een e"d not to /e in #or-e. Ts in Te United States vs. S2eet [1901], 1 'i", 18J, te S!ree $ort #ond te S!anis Mi"itary $ode no "oner o!erative in te 'i"i!!ines, !resa/"y /e-ase a !o"iti-a" "a2. In Te United States vs. (a"-orta [191>], 5 'i"., A>J, te S!ree $ort e"d tose arti-"es o# te 'ena" $ode de#inin s!e-ia" -ries a ainst te state re"iion as ne-essari"y not no2 in e##e-t in te 'i"i!!ines. Eno as /een said to deonstrate tat $a!ters I? and ?, tit"e >, /oo3 , o# te 'ena" $ode are no "oner in #or-e in te 'i"i!!ines. I# ne-essary, any additiona" arents and atorities -o"d /e add-ed and in-"ded in s!!ort o# tis -on-"sion. s te 'i"i!!ine %eis"atre is even no 2 -onsiderin a odern $orre-tiona" $ode to s!!"ant te o"d 'ena" $ode, s- an e=tended dis-ssion 2o"d not !rove !ro#ita/"e, and 2o"d ere"y serve to !i"e ! arents on a !oint 2i- to e a!!ears not to /e in do/t. 6dent odi#ied. United States vs. Ta/iana and $ani""as., >A 'i". 515, No. 1184A e/rary 1, 1918

G.R. No. L-40577

August 23, 1934

THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, !"ainti##a!!e""ee,

vs. PROOPIO RE!ES, POLIARPIO NAANA, FLORENTINO LE"ENTE, HER"OGENES "ALLARI, "ARELINO "ALLARI, ASTOR ALIPIO, #$% R&FINO "ATIAS, de#endantsa!!e""ants. Hilarion U. Jarencio for appellants.  Acting Solicitor-General Peña for appellee. H&LL, J.:

!!e""ants 2ere -onvi-ted in te $ort o#  irst Instan-e o# Tar"a- o# a vio"ation o# arti-"e 1>> o# te &evised 'ena" $ode, 2i- read s; &T. 1>>. Offending the religious feelings .+Te !ena"ty o# arresto mayor  in its a=i !eriod to  prision correccional in its ini !eriod sa"" /e i!osed !on anyone 2o, in a !"a-e devoted to re"iios -ereony, sa"" !er#or a-ts notorios"y o##ensive to te #ee"ins o# te #ait#". In te /arrio o# Ma-a"on, ni-i!a"ity o# %a 'a, 'rovin-e o# Tar"a-, tere is a -a!e" 2ere it is -stoary to o"d 2at is 3no2n in "o-a" !ar"an-e as a  pabasa. s stated /y te "o2er -ort, te ter pabasa is a!!"ied to te a-t o# te !eo!"e, !ro#essin te &oan $ato"i- #ait, o# asse/"in, drin %ent, at a -ertain desinated !"a-e, #or te !r!ose o# readin and te "i#e, !assion and deat o# 6ess $rist.  /oo3 3no2n as te G?ida, 'asion y Merte de 6es-ristoG, 2i- -ontains a #n a--ont in verse o# te "i#e, !assion and deat o# 6ess $rist, is sed in tis -e"e/ration. Te pabasa in Ma-a"on sed to /ein on 'a" Snday and -ontine day and nit, 2itot any interr!tion 2atsoever, nti" *ood riday. s sa", re#resent and #ood 2ere served in te yard adoinin te -a!e", and te e=!enses in-identa" tereto 2ere de#rayed /y di##erent !ersons. :i"e te pabasa 2as oin on te evenin o# !ri" 10, 19>>, /et2een 11 and 1 oG-"o-3, te de#endants 'ro-o!io &eyes, 'o"i-ar!io Na-ana, "orentino $"eente, Heroenes Ma""ari, Mar-e"ino Ma""ari, $astor "i!io, and &#ino Matias arrived at te !"a-e, -arryin /o"os and -ro2/ars, and started to -onstr-t a /ar/ed 2ire #en-e in #ront o# te -a!e". "#onso $asti""o, 2o 2as -airan o# te -oittee in -are o# te  pabasa, tried to !ersade te to re#rain #ro -arryin ot teir !"an, /y reindin te o# te #a-t tat it 2as Ho"y :ee3 and tat it 2as i"y i!ro!er to -onstr-t a #en-e at tat tie o# te evenin.  ver/a" a"ter-ation ensed. :en te !eo!"e attendin te pabasa in te -a!e" and tose 2o 2ere eatin in te yard tereo# noti-ed 2at 2as a!!enin, tey /e-ae e=-ited and "e#t te !"a-e rried"y and in s- -on#sion tat dises and sa-ers 2ere /ro3en and /en-es to!!"ed over. Te pabasa 2as dis-ontined and it 2as not resed nti" a#ter an investiation -ond-ted /y te -ie# o# !o"i-e on te #o""o2in ornin, 2i- investiation "ed to te #i"in o# te -o!"aint a!!earin on !aes 1 and  o# te re-ord. Many years ao te $"eente #ai"y /y in#ora" donation ave te "and on 2i- te o"d -a!e" 2as ere-ted. :en it 2as destroyed, te !resent -a!e" 2as ere-ted, and tere is no2 a dis!te as to 2eter te ne2 -a!e" is not no2 i!inin on te "and tat /e"ons to te $"eente #ai"y. Te a!!e""ants are !artisans o# e $"eente #ai"y. It is to /e noted tat arti-"e 1>> o# te &evises 'ena" $ode !nises a-ts notorios"y o##ensive to te #ee"ins o# te #ait#". Te -onstr-tion o# a #en-e, even to irritatin and ve=atios nder te -ir-stan-es to tose !resent, is not s- an a-t as -an /e desinated as notorios"y o##ensive to te #ait#", as nora""y s- an a-t 2o"d /e a atter o# -o!"ete indi##eren-e to tose not !resent, no atter o2 re"iios a trn o# ind tey it /e. Te distr/an-e or interr!tion o# any -ereony o# a re"iios -ara-ter nder te o"d 'ena" $ode 2as denon-ed /y arti-"e 5A1 and 2as !nised /y arrest #ro one to ten days and a #ine o# #ro 15 to 15  pesetas. (t tis arti-"e 2as oitted #ro te &evised 'ena" $ode and te o##ense, i# any 2as -oitted /y te a!!e""ants, is denon-ed in arti-"e 8A as an nst ve=ation and !nised /y arresto menor or a #ine ranin #ro 5 to 00 !esos or /ot. It is red !on s tat te a-t o# /i"din a #en-e 2as inno-ent and 2as si!"y to !rote-t !rivate !ro!erty rits. Te #a-t tat tis arent is a !retense on"y is -"ear"y so2n /y te -ir-stan-es nder 2i- te #en-e 2as -onstr-ted, nae"y, "ate at nit and in s- a 2ay as to ve= and annoy te !arties 2o ad atered to -e"e/rate te pabasa and is #rter so2n /y te #a-t tat any o# te a!!e""ants sa2 #it to introd-e as teir de#ense a #a"se a"i/i. !!e""ants are tere#ore a-Bitted o# a vio"ation o# arti-"e 1>> o# te &evised 'ena" $ode /t #ond i"ty o# a vio"ation o# arti-"e 8A o# te &evised 'ena" $ode and are senten-ed ea- to a #ine o# 'A5 2it s/sidiary -on#ineent in -ase o# inso"ven-y, toeter 2it te -osts in /ot instan-es. So ordered.  Aanceña! ".J.! Abad Santos! #ic$ers! and %ia&! JJ.! concur.

[No. %11598. 6anary A, 1959] THE 'E)'%E ) THE 'HI%I''INES, !"ainti## and a!!e""ee, vs. EDE&I$) (USTMNTE, de#endant and a!!e""ant 1.M&&I*E< ?I$E M@)& $TIN* S M@)&< UTH)[email protected] T) S)%EMNIPE M&&I*E.+Te vi-e ayor o# a ni-i!a"ity a-tin as -tin Mayor as te atority to so"enie arriaes, /e-ase i# te vi-e ayor asses te !o2ers and dties o# te o##i-e o# te ayor, 2en !ro!er, it is iateria" 2eter it is /e-ase te "atter is te -tin Mayor or ere"y -tin as ayor, #or in /ot instan-es, e dis-ares a"" te dties and 2ie"ds te !o2ers a!!rtenant to said o##i-e. %a=aana vs. (a"taar, 9 'i"., >< 48 )##. *a. No. 9, >89< see 195 &evised dinistrative $ode.J 5

?)%. 105, 6NU[email protected] A, 1959 5 'eo!"e vs. (staante .$&IMIN% '&)$EDU&E, &U%ES ), IN)&MTI)N $H&*IN* (I*[email protected]< :&)N* ?E&MENT :H) S)%EMNIPED SE$)ND M&&I*E.+Te 2ron averent ade in te in#oration -arin /iay as to te !erson tat so"enied te se-ond arriae is -onsidered ns/stantia" and iateria", #or it atters not 2o so"enied te arriae, it /ein s##i-ient tat te in#oration -arin /iay a""ees tat a se-on d arriae 2as -ontra-ted 2i"e te #irst sti"" reained ndisso"ved. Te in#oration #i"ed in te -ase at /ar avin !ro!er"y stated te tie and !"a-e o# te se-ond 2eddin, 2as s##i-ient to a!!rise te de#endant o# te -rie i!ted. ''E% #ro a dent o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# 'anasinan. Mo, 6. Te #a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te $ort. ssistant So"i-itor *enera" ntonio . Torres and tty. Edardo $. /aya #or a!!e""ee. &aon S. Mi"o #or a!!e""ant. [email protected], 6. (. %., 6.;

$ared and -onvi-ted o# te -rie o# /iay in te $ort o#  irst Instan-e o# 'anasinan, ederi-o (staente a!!ea"ed to tis $ort on !oints o# "a2. Te re-ords dis-"ose tat de#endanta!!e""ant (staante 2as nited in 2ed"o-3 to one Maria 'ere on st 9, 1954, /e#ore te 6sti-e o# te 'ea-e o# (ina"onan, 'anasinan E=. , !!. 911, t.s.n.J.  "itt"e over a year "ater, or on Se!te/er 1, 1955, e -ontra-ted a se-ond arriae 2it Deetria Ti/ayan, so"enied /e#ore ?i-eMayor ran-is-o (. Nato o# Ma!andan, 'anasinan, 2o 2as ten a-tin as Mayor o# said Mni-i!a"ity E=. (J, 2i"e te #irst arriae 2as sti"" s/sistin. De#endant d2e"t 2it Deetria and er !arents #or a/ot a ont, a#ter 2i- tie e retrned to $a"asiao, 'anasinan to "ive 2it te #irst 2i#e, Maria 'ere. In te -orse o#  er sear- #or i, Deetria dis-overed #ro te (ina"onan ni-i!a" atorities te !revios arriae o# de#endant (staante. Hen-e, tis a--sation. 

 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED 'eo!"e vs. (staante De#endant did not testi#y in is /ea"# drin te tria". Te ain !ro/"e !oised in tis a!!ea" -on-erns te atority 01 ran-is-o Nato to so"enie te se-ond arriae. It a!!ears tat EnriBe Bino and ran-is-o Nato 2ere te d"y e"e-ted ayor and vi-eayor, res!e-tive"y, o# te ni-i!a"ity o# Ma!andan, 'anasinan in te e"e-tions o# 1951. )n Se!te/er 1, 1955, Bino 2ent on "eave o# a/ sen-e #or one ont. In vie2 o# tis, te vi-eayor 2as desinated /y te ayor to ta3e over te rein o# ni-i!a" overnent drin is a/sen-e< and, Nato 2as a-tin in tis -a!a-ity 2en e !er#ored te se-ond arriae o# (staante 2it Deetria Ti/ayan. !!e""ant, re"yin !on arti-"e 5 o# te $ivi" $ode o# te 'i"i!!ines+ &T. 5. Marriae ay /e so"enied /y; 1J Te $ie# 6sti-e and sso-iate 6sti-es o# te S!ree $ort< J Te 'residin 6sti-e and te 6sti-es o# te $ort o# !!ea"s< >J 6des o# te $orts o# irst Instan-e< 4J Mayors o# -ities and ni-i!a"ities< 5J Mni-i!a" des and sti-es o# te 'ea-e< J 'riests, ra//is, inisters o# te os!e" o# any denoination, -r-, re"iion or se-t, d"y reistered, as !rovided in arti-"e 9< and AJ Si! -a!tains, air!"ane -ie#s, i"itary -oanders, and -ons"s an d vi-e-ons"s in s!e-ia" -ases !rovided in arti-"es A4 and A5. -ontends tat tere -o"d not ave /een a se-ond arriae to s!ea3 o#, as Nato 2as ere"y a-tin as ayor 2en e -e"e/rated te sae, en-e, 2itot atority o# "a2 to do so. He "ays stress on te distin-tion ade /y tis -ort in te -ase o# Sa"aysay vs. Hon. red &i $astro, et a". L 5 )##. *a., No. , 809, /et2een an -tin Mayor and a ?i-eMayor a-tin as Mayor, rin tat  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

L 98 'i"., >4. A

?)%. 105, 6NU[email protected] A, 1959 A 'eo!"e vs. (staante 2i"e te #orer ay so"enie arriaes, te "atter -o"d no t. :e #ind tis -ontention ntena/"e. :en te isse invo"ves te ass!tion o# !o2ers an d dties o# te o##i-e o# te ayor /y te vi-eayor, 2en !ro!er, it is iateria" 2eter it is /e-ase te "atter is te -tin Mayor or ere"y a-tin as Mayor, #or in /ot instan-es, e dis-ares a"" te dties and 2ie"ds te !o2ers a!!rtenant to said o##i-e %a=aana vs. (a"taar,1 48 )##. *a. No. 9, >89< Se-. 195, &evised dinistrative $odeJ. Te -ase o# Sa"aysay vs. $astro s!raJ -ited /y te a!!e""ant, 2i- revo"ves !on te inter!retation o# se-tion A o# te &evised E"e-tion $ode, is entire"y distin-t #ro te one at /ar. Tis instan-e does not invo"ve a Bestion o# tit"e to te o##i-e, /t te !er#oran-e o# te #n-tions terento a!!ertainin /y one 2o is aditted to /e te!orari"y vested 2it it. s -orre-t"y o/served /y te "o2er -ort, tat -ase even -on-edes and re-onies te !o2ers and dties o# te Mayor to devo"ve !on te ?i-eMayor 2enever te "atter is in an a-tin -a!a-ity. Te 2ord a-tin as e"d in te -ase o# stria vs. ante, 45 )##. *a., 809, 2en !re-edin te tit"e o# an o##i-e -onnotes ere"y te te!orary -ara-ter or natre o# te sae. Te in#oration -ares tat te a!!e""ant -ontra-ted te se-ond arriae /e#ore te 6sti-e o# te 'ea-e o# Ma!andan, 'anasinan, 2i"e te arriae -erti#i-ate, E=. (, and te testionies o# 2itnesses indi-ate -"ear"y tat it 2as ! er#ored /y ran-is-o Nato. !!e""ant assins as error te adission /y te "o2er -ort o# te said eviden-e, not2itstandin -onse"Gs o/e-tion. Tis is not reversi/"e error. Te 2ron averent, i# at a"", 2as ns/stantia" and iateria" tat need not even /e a""eed, #or it atters not 2o so"enied te arriae, it /ein s##i-ient tat te in#oration -arin /iay a""ees tat a se-ond arriae 2as -ontra-ted 2i"e te #irst sti"" reained ndisso"ved. Te in#oration #i"ed in tis -ase 2i- !ro!er"y states te tie and !"a-e o# te  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

1 9 'i"., >.  A9 'i"., A80. 8

8 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED 'eo!"e vs. *iao se-ond 2eddin, 2as s##i-ient to a!!rise te de#end ant o# te -rie i!ted. Neiter !ro-edra" !redi-e nor error 2as -oitted /y te "o2er -ort in #indin a!!e""ant i"ty. rti-"e >49 o# te &evised 'ena" $ode atta-es te !ena"ty o# !risiKn ayor to te -rie o# /iay. 'rsant to te Indeterinate Senten-e %a2, te -ort st i!ose an indeterinate !ena"ty, te a=i ter o# 2i- sa"" /e tat 2i-, in vie2 o# te attendin -ir-stan-es, -o"d /e !ro!er"y i!osed nder te $ode in tis -ase te edi !eriod o# !risiKn ayor, tere /ein no aravatin no r itiatin -ir-stan-esJ, and te ini 2i- sa"" /e 2itin te rane o# te !ena"ty ne=t "o2er to tat !res-ri/ed #or te o##ense or !risiKn -orre--iona" ediJ 'eo!"e vs. *ona"es, A> 'i"., 549J. Te !ena"ty i!osed /y te "o2er -ort i!risonent #or not "ess tan t2o J years, #or 4J onts and one 1J day o# !risiKn -orre--iona" and not ore tan eit 8J years and one 1J day o# !risiKn ayorJ, /ein in a--ordan-e 2it "a2, is a##ired. $osts aainst a!!e""ant. So ordered. 'arRs, $. 6., (enon, 'adi""a, Monteayor, (atista ne"o, %a/rador, $on-e!-iKn, and Enden-ia, 66., -on-r. 6dent a##ired.  'eo!"e vs. (staante, 105 'i". 4, No. %11598 6anary A, 1959

&ivera vs. 'eo!"e *.&. No. 1>855>. 6ne >0, 005.L EN&IUE T)T)@ &I?E& @ DE *UPMN !etitioner, vs. 'E)'%E ) THE 'HI%I''INES, res!ondent. $riina" %a2< Dire-t ssa"t< T2o 2ays o# -oittin te -rie o# dire-t assa"t.+Dire-t assa"t, a -rie aainst !/"i- order, ay /e -oitted in t2o 2ays; #irst, /y any !erson or !ersons 2o, 2itot a !/"i- !risin, sa"" e!"oy #or-e or intiidation #or te attainent o# any o# te !r!oses enerated in de#inin

te -ries o# re/e""ion and sedition< an d se-ond, /y any !erson or !ersons 2o, 2itot a !/"i- !risin, sa"" atta-3, e!"oy #or-e, or serios"y intiidate or resist any !erson in atority or any o# is aents, 2i"e enaed in te !er#oran-e o# o##i-ia" dties, or on o--asion o# s- !er#oran-e. Sae< Sae< a-tors 2i- aravate te se-ond ode o# -oittin assa"t.+'etitionerVs -ase #a""s nder te se-ond ode, 2i- is te ore -oon #or o# assa"t and is aravated 2en; aJ te assa"t is -oitted 2it a 2ea!on< or /J 2en te o##ender is a !/"i- o##i-er or e!"oyee< or -J 2en te o##ender "ays and !on a !erson in atority. Sae< Sae< Eviden-e< :itnesses< Te #ai"re o# a 2itness to re-a"" ea- and every detai" o# an o--rren-e ay even serve to strenten rater tan 2ea3en is -redi/i"ity /e-ase it erases any ss!i-ion o# a -oa-ed or reearsed testiony.+or sre, #ar #ro adverse"y a##e-tin %t. %eyoVs -redi/i"ity, is #ai"re to re-a"" every inte detai" o# 2at trans!ired even #orti#ies it. :e ave ts e"d tat te #ai"re o# a 2itness to re-a"" ea- and every detai" o# an o--rren-e ay even serve to strenten rater tan 2ea3en is -redi/i"ity /e-ase it erases any ss!i-ion o# a -oa-ed or reearsed testiony. :at is vita" in %t. %eyoVs testiony is te #a-t tat !etitioner !n-ed  i on is #a-e, a/ot 2i-  e 2as stead#ast and n#"in-in.  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

L THI&D DI?ISI)N. >51

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >51 &ivera vs. 'eo!"e Sae< Sae< Sae< Te assessent o# te -redi/i"ity o# 2itnesses and teir testionies is /est nderta3en /y te tria" -ort.+Tis $ort as said tie and aain tat te assessent o# te -redi/i"ity o# 2itnesses and teir testionies is /est nderta3en /y te tria" -ort, 2at 2it rea"ity tat it as te o!!ortnity to o/serve te 2itnesses #irstand and to note teir deeanor, -ond-t, and attitde 2i"e testi#yin. Its #indins on s- atters, a/sent, a s ere, o# any ar/itrariness or oversit o# #a-ts or -ir-stan-es o# 2eit and s/stan-e, are #ina" and -on-"sive !on tis $ort and 2i"" not to /e distr/ed on a!!ea". Sae< Sae< Sae< :e""esta/"ised is te r"e in tis risdi-tion tat te testiony o# a sin"e 2itness i# strait#or2ard and -ateori-a" is s##i-ient to -onvi-t< $orro/orative eviden-e is deeed ne-essary on"y 2en tere are reasons to 2arrant te ss!i-ion tat te 2itness #a"si#ied te trt or tat is o/servations ad /een ina--rate.+ssin, in ratia arente, tat %t. %eyoVs testiony 2as not -orro/orated /y te t2o J oter !rose-tion 2itnesses drin teir -rosse=ainations, sti"" te day -annot /e saved #or te !etitioner. :e""sett"ed is te r"e in tis risdi-tion tat te testiony o# a sin"e 2itness, i# strait#or2ard and -ateori-a", is s##i-ient to -onvi-t. #ter a"", 2itnesses are 2eied, not n/ered, and eviden-e are assessed in ters o# Ba"ity, not Bantity. It is not n-oon, ten, to rea- a -on-"sion o# i"t on te /asis o# te testiony o# a "one 2itness. $orro/orative eviden-e is deeed ne-essary on"y 2en tere are reasons to 2arrant te ss!i-ion tat te 2itness #a"si#ied te trt or tat is o/servations ad /e en ina--rate. Un#ortnate"y #or te !etitioner, te tria" -ort #ond notin to indi-ate tat %t. %eyo #a"si#ied te trt or tat is o/servations ad /een ina--rate. 'ETITI)N #or revie2 on -ertiorari o# te de-ision and reso"tion o# te $ort o# !!ea"s.

Te #a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te $ort. Isae" S. $risanto #or !etitioner. >5

>5 SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED &ivera vs. 'eo!"e *&$I, 6.;

ssai"ed and sot to /e set aside in tis !etition #or revie2 on -ertiorari are te )-to/er 1, 1998 d e-ision1 and !ri" 5, 1999 reso"tion o# te $ort o# !!ea"s in $*.&. $& No. 1A84, 2i- res!e-tive"y a##ired in toto an ear"ier de-ision o# te &eiona" Tria" $ort o# %a Trinidad, (enet -onvi-tin erein !etitioner EnriBe Totoy &ivera o# te -rie o# dire-t assa"t, and denied !etitionerVs otion #or re-onsideration. )n May , 199>, in te &eiona" Tria" $ort at %a Trinidad, (enet an in#oration> #or dire-t assa"t 2as #i"ed aainst !etitioner, a""eed"y -oitted, as #o""o2s; Tat on or a/ot te 0t day o# Mar-, 199>, at Toay, Si"an, Mni-i!a"ity o# %a Trinidad, 'rovin-e o# (enet, 'i"i!!ines, and 2itin te risdi-tion o# tis Honora/"e $ort, te a/ovenaed a--sed, did ten and tere 2i"#""y, n"a2#""y and #e"onios"y atta-3, e!"oy #or-e and serios"y resist one %t. ED:&D M. %[email protected]*), 3no2in i to /e a !o"i-ean, /y ten and tere -a""enin te "atter to a #ist#it and terea#ter ra!!"in a nd ittin te said !o"i-ean on is #a-e, ts inrin i in te !ro-ess 2i"e te "atter 2as a-ta""y enaed in te !er#oran-e o# is o##i-ia" dties.

$ontrary to "a2. )n arrainent, !etitioner entered a !"ea o# Not *i"ty. Terea#ter, tria" ensed. To !rove its -ase, te !rose-tion !resented in eviden-e te testionies o# te vi-ti ise"#, %t. Ed2ard %eyo, and te t2o a""eed eye2itnesses to te in-ident, S')1 6ose (an-ado  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

1 'enned /y sso-iate 6sti-e &odrio ?. $osi-o and -on-rred in /y sso-iate 6sti-es rteon D. %na ret.J and De"i"a ?ida""onMato"is< &o""o, !!. 45>.  &o""o, !. 55. > )riina" &e-ord, !!. 45. >5>

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >5> &ivera vs. 'eo!"e and (renda D!et. or its !art, te de#ense !resented te !etitioner ise"# and one "#redo $astro. s saried /y te tria" -ort and ado!ted /y te $ort o# !!ea"s in te de-ision erein assai"ed, te 'eo!"eVs version4 is, as #o""o2s; )n Mar- 0, 199> at arond 8;00 oV-"o-3 in te evenin, 'o"i-e Ins!e-tor Ed2ard M. %eyo, De!ty $ie# o# 'o"i-e #or )!eration and 'atro" o# te %a Trinidad 'o"i-e Station, %a Trinidad, (enet and S')1 6ose! (asBia" 2ere -ond-tin rotinary !atro" o n /oard a !o"i-e -ar soe2ere in Si"an, %a Trinidad, (enet 2en tey -ae !on a tr-3 n"oadin sa-3s o# -i-3en dn at te sta"" o# a--sed EnriBe Totoy &ivera 2i- 2as "o-ated a"on te Ha"sea Hi2ay at Si"an, %a Trinidad, (enet. Ins!e-tor %eyo advised te driver to sto! n"oadin te anre as it vio"ates %a Trinidad Mni-i!a" )rdinan-e No. I 91 E=i/it $J 2i- !roi/its, aon oters, te "oadin and n"oadin o# -i-3en anre a "on te side2a"3s or road so"ders or 2itin 15 eters #ro te -enter o# te Ha"sea Hi2ay "o-ated at %a Trinidad, (enet. Te driver -o!"ied 2it te !o"i-e dire-tive. Te !o"i-een ten es-orted te tr-3 /a-3 to 'o/"a-ion, %a Trinidad, (enet and !ro-eeded to te !o"i-e eadBarters. Not "on a#ter, S')1 6ose (an-ado and S')1 &ivera Daya!, e/ers o# te %a Trinidad 'o"i-e nder Ins!e-tor %eyo 2ere -ond-tin !atro" a/oard a !o"i-e -ar soe2ere at O. , %a Trinidad, (enet 2en tey o/served a tr-3 "oaded 2it -i-3en dn !ro-eedin to2ards Si"an, %a Trinidad, (enet. Havin in ind te instr-tions o# %a Trinidad Mayor Edna $. Ta/anda and teir $oandin )##i-er Ins!e-tor %eyo to I!"eent )rdinan-e No. I91, te t2o !o"i-een #o""o2ed and sto!!ed te tr-3 at $r, %a Trinidad, (enet. Iediate"y tey -a""ed Ins!e-tor %eyo on te radio and in#ored i tat tey sto!!ed a tr-3 -arryin -i-3en dn. Ins!e-tor %eyo ordered te to restrain te tr-3, as e 2o"d /e !ro-eedin to te area. Ono2in tat te tr-3 /ein restrained /y te t2o !o"i-een 2as te sae tr-3 2i- tey ad es-orted ear"ier #ro Si"an, %a Trinidad, (enet, Ins!e-tor %eyo #e"t inored and ins"ted. He  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

4 &o""o, !!. 4>45. >54

>54 SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED &ivera vs. 'eo!"e iediate"y -a""ed S')4 6stino Ti2ti2a, S')1 (a"d2in No"a/ and S')1 6ose! (asBia" and te ro! s!ed to $r, %a Trinidad, (enet. Mean2i"e, /a-3 at $r, %a Trinidad, (enet, te a--sed arrived /e#ore te ro! o# Ins!e-tor %eyo did and ordered te driver not to o/ey te !o"i-een /t instead o/ey i, as e a--sedJ 2as te /oss. Te tr-3 driver #o""o2ed te a--sedVs order and drove te tr-3 to2ards Si"an, %a Trinidad, (enet 2it te a--sed #o""o2in -"ose"y /eind in is vei-"e. Ins!e-tor %eyo and is ro! arrived in tie to see te tr-3 !""in a2ay and so tey ave -ase. Te !o"i-e 2ere a/"e to overta3e and sto! te tr-3 at Densi, Toay, %a Trinidad, (enet. Ins!e-tor %eyo -on#ronted te tr-3 driver and as3ed i 2y e sti"" insisted on !ro-eedin to Si"an to n"oad -i-3en anre des!ite te #a-t tat e 2as ordered to o /a-3 ear"ier in te evenin. Te tr-3 driver stated tat e 2as st #o""o2in te orders o# te a--sed. Iediate"y, Ins!e-tor %eyo trned arond to see te a--sed 2o ad at tat tie a"ited #ro is vei-"e /eind te tr-3. Ins!e-tor %eyo as3ed te a--sed 2y e insisted on de#yin te /an on te n"oadin and "oadin o# -i-3en anre. Instead o# ans2erin o2ever, te a--sed !ointed a #iner on te !o"i-ean and ttered 2ords "i3e (a/a"ian 3ita n /to IV"" /rea3 yor /onesJ. I"a"a!aso 3ita IV"" s-r/ yoJ. '"is "an 3ayo yo are on"y !o"i-eenJ and oter nsavory and ins"tin 2ords. Ins!e-tor %eyo 2o 2as a "itt"e /it anry 2arned te a--sed to sto! tterin #rter ins"tin 2ords and -ationed

i to ta3e it easy and ten in#ored i tat e 2as /ein arrested #or vio"ation o# te -i-3en dn ordinan-e. Te a--sed reoved is a-3et, !"a-ed it inside te vei-"e, assed a #itin stan-e and -a""ened te !o"i-ean. Ins!e-tor %eyo ten a!!roa-ed te a--sed and 2arned i ane2 tat e 2as /ein arrested. Te a--sed res!onded /y !n-in Ins!e-tor %eyo on is #a-e, !arti-"ar"y on is "i!. Te t2o ten ra!!"ed as Ins!e-tor %eyo tried to o"d te a--sed. ina""y, 2it te e"! o# 'o"i-een Daya! and (on-ado, te a--sed 2as s/ded. Te a--sed 2as ten !sed into one o# te !o"i-e -ars /t e resisted nti" "#redo $astro, one o# te -i-3en dn dea"ers in te area, /oarded te !o"i-e -ar to a--o!any i. Te a--sed 2as /rot to te !o"i-e eadBarters 2ere Ins!e-tor %eyo iediate"y -a""ed Mayor Ta/anda 2o arrived at a/ot 10;00 oV-"o-3 tat sae evenin. Se -on#ronted te t2o !ro >55

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >55 &ivera vs. 'eo!"e taonists and at te sae tie adonised te a--sed #or vio"atin )rdinan-e No. I91. Mayor Ta/anda ten a--o!anied te a--sed and Ins!e-tor %eyo to te (enet *enera" Hos!ita" 2ere /ot 2ere e=ained /y Dr. ntonio T. $arino. In te edi-o"ea" -erti#i-ate E=i/it J o# Ins!e-tor %eyo, is inry des-ri/ed as -ontsion 2it 0.5 "a-eration, !!er "i!, "e#t side 2it ea"in !eriod #ro 5 to A days. S/seBent"y, tis !resent -ase 2as #i"ed aainst te a--sed. &e!rod-ed #ro te sae de-ision o# te a!!e""ate -ort, te de#enseVs version5 rn s; t a/ot 8;00 oV-"o-3 in te evenin o# Mar- 0, 199>, 2i"e te a--sed 2as at te Tradin 'ost at O. 5, %a Trinidad, (enet, te driver re!orted to i tat e 2as !revented /y te !o"i-e #ro n"oadin -i-3en anre at Si"an, %a Trinidad, (enet. Te a--sed reinded te driver tat e so"d ave /rot te -i-3en anre to -o!, T/"ay, (enet 2ere dea"ers se"" it 2en !revented #ro n"oadin 2itin te ni-i!a"ity o# %a Trinidad, (enet. s it 2o"d /e ore e=!ensive to retrn te -i-3en dn to (atanas 2ere it -ae #ro, te a--sed to"d te driver to /rin te -i-3en dn to -o!, T/"ay, (enet. Te driver e=!ressed is #ear tat te !o"i-e it sto! i a"on te 2ay and so te a--sed ordered te driver to !ro-eed and ave i te assran-e tat e a--sedJ 2o"d #o""o2 "ater. Te tr-3 ten !ro-eeded as instr-ted and te a--sed #o""o2in a#ter a sort 2i"e. rrivin at $r, %a Trinidad, (enet, te a--sed noti-ed tat te tr-3 2as sto!!ed at te side o# te road 2i"e a !o"i-e vei-"e and tree !o"i-een 2ere a-ross te road. Tin3in tat te ! o"i-een 2ere tere tryin to e=tort oney #ro te driver, te a--sed to"d te tr-3 driver to !ro-eed. Te tr-3 driver -o!"ied and te a--sed tai"ed a"on. :en te tr-3 and te a--sed rea-ed Densi, Toay, %a Trinidad, (enet, e eard a !o"i-e siren #ro /eind. Iediate"y, a !o"i-e vei-"e overtoo3 te tr-3, anoter !o"i-e vei-"e 2as rnnin a"on side te a--sedVs vei-"e and a tird !o"i-e vei-"e 2as rit /eind te. Ts, te tr-3 and te a--sed ad no re-orse /t to sto!.  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

5 &o""o, !!. 44A. >5

>5 SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED &ivera vs. 'eo!"e Ins!e-tor %eyo a"ited #ro one o# te !o"i-e vei-"es and anri"y ttered so any 2ords at te a--sed. Te !o"i-ean ten e"d te -o""ar o# a--sedVs  a-3et and #or-ed te "atter to et ot o# is vei-"e 2i"e sotin n tias n "o o. Sie, /not 3a. @o are very st//orn. *o aead, dra2 yor n.J Te a--sed e=!"ained tat e ad no n to dra2 2i"e reovin is a-3et and raisin is ands to so2 tat tere 2as no n on is /ody. Ins!e-tor %eyo ten e"d te "e#t and o# te a--sed and tried to !t and-##s on i. Te a--sed tried to resist, !"eadin tat e ad no #a"t and at te sae tie as3in 2at in#ra-tion o# "a2 e -oitted. Ins!e-tor %eyo ans2ered /y tterin ins"tin 2ords and !ointin is "e#t #ore#iner on te a--sedVs #a-e 2i"e is rit and 2as !o3in a n on te a--sed. Te a--sed noti-ed tat te !o"i-ean se""ed o# "iBor.  -ro2d started to ater arond te s-ene. Sensin tat te on"oo3ers 2ere on is side, te a--sed stated tat e 2as oin to et is -aera inside is vei-"e. s e 2as o!enin te door, Ins!e-tor %eyo sdden"y s"a!!ed and /o=ed i in te stoa- -asin te a--sed to #ee" diy. Tis assa"t 2ea3ened i and so e did not resist 2en te !o"i-e !sed i inside te !o"i-e vei-"e. Ins!e-tor %eyo ten ordered is en to /rin te a--sed to te !o"i-e eadBarters. Te a--sed re-onied "#redo $astro aon te on"oo3ers and /e-ase e a--sedJ 3ne2 i to /e one o# te -i-3en dn dea"ers, as3ed i $astroJ to a--o!any i to te !o"i-e eadBarters #or #ear tat soetin it a!!en. t te !o"i-e station, te a--sed sested tat Ins!e-tor %eyo so"d ndero edi-a" e=aination to deterine i# te !o"i-ean 2as !ositive o# a"-oo"i/reat. Te a--sed, o2ever, 2as e=ained aead an d 2as issed a edi-a" -erti#i-ate E=i/it 4J 2i- des-ri/ed is inry as erytea, "i! "e#t side #a-e and -ontsionide!iastri- area. Te ea"in !eriod is #ro > to 5 days. :it i sstainin tis inry, te a--sed no2 2onders 2y tis -are 2as #i"ed aainst i.

#ter 2eiin te !artiesV res!e-tive versions o# te in-ident, te tria" -ort #ond tat o# te 'eo!"e ore -redi/"e. --ordin"y, in its de-ision o# !ri" , 1994, it -onvi-ted  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

 &o""o, !. 40. >5A

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >5A &ivera vs. 'eo!"e !etitioner o# te -rie o# dire-t assa"t and senten-ed i, ts; :HE&E)&E, te i"t o# te a--sed avin /een !roven /eyond reasona/"e do/t, te $ort ere/y renders dent #indin te a--sed EnriBe Totoy &ivera *UI%[email protected] and senten-es i to s##er an indeterinate !ena"ty o# or 4J Monts and )ne 1J Day o# arresto ayor as MINIMUM to )ne 1J @ear, )ne 1J Mont and E"even 11J Days o# !rision -orre--iona" as MCIMUM. He is "i3e2ise ordered to !ay a #ine o# I?E HUND&ED 'ES)S '500.00J and to !ay te -osts. S) )&DE&ED. :it is otion #or re-onsideration avin /een denied /y te tria" -ort, !etitioner ten 2ent on a!!ea" to te $ort o# !!ea"s 2ereat is re-orse 2as do-3eted as $*.&. $& No. 1A84. s stated at te otset ereo#, te a!!e""ate -ort, in its de-isionA o# )-to/er 1, 1998, a##ired in toto tat o# te tria" -ort, to 2it; :HE&E)&E, !reises -onsidered te de-ision a!!ea"ed #ro is ere/y a##ired in toto. S) )&DE&ED. and denied !etitionerVs otion #or re-onsideration in its reso"tion o# !ri" 5, 1999.8 Hen-e, tis !etition #or revie2 on -ertiorari, s/ittin #or or -onsideration te !rin-i!a" isse o# 2eter or not te $ort o# !!ea"s erred in a##irin te  dent o# -onvi-tion rendered /y te tria" -ort. :e I&M.  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

A &o""o, !!. 45>. 8 &o""o, !. 55. >58

>58 SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED &ivera vs. 'eo!"e Dire-t assa"t, a -rie aainst !/"i- order, ay /e -oitted in t2o 2ays; #irst, /y any !erson or !ersons 2o, 2itot a !/"i- !risin, sa"" e!"oy #or-e or intiidation #or te attainent o# any o# te !r!oses enerated in de#inin te -ries o# re/e""ion and sedition< and se-ond, /y any !erson or !ersons 2o, 2itot a !/"i- !risin, sa"" atta-3, e!"oy #or-e, or serios"y intiidate or resist any !erson in atority or any o# is aents, 2i"e enaed in te !er#oran-e o# o##i-ia" dties, or on o--asion o# s- !er#oran-e.9 UnBestiona/"y, !etitionerVs -ase #a""s nder te se-ond ode, 2i- is te ore -oon #or o# assa"t and is aravated 2en; aJ te assa"t is -oitted 2it a 2ea!on< or /J 2en te o##ender is a !/"i- o##i-er or e!"oyee< o r -J 2en te o##ender "ays and !on a !erson in atority.10 In tis re-orse, !etitioner ares tat te a!!e""ate -ort, "i3e te tria" -ort, erred in #indin te testiony o# -o!"ainant %t. %eyo as -"ear and -onvin-in. In an atte!t to i!n te "atterVs -redi/i"ity, !etitioner -ontends tat %t. %eyo 2as /"in 2i"e ivin is testiony, addin tat te "atter #ai"ed to identi#y 2i- o# is !etitionerJ ands 2as sed and te !re-ise distan-e /et2een te 2en e !n-ed te !o"i-e "ietenant. ditted"y, te re-ord so2s tat te tria" de ad to -a"" %t. %e yoVs attention #or testi#yin in s- a "o2 voi-e 2i"e on te 2itness /o=. Evident"y, o2ever, tis did not !revent te tria" -ort into /e"ievin is testiony and #ro a--ordin it #"" #ait and -redit. s it is, te 2itness 2as a/"e to narrate and -oni-ate te events tat trans!ired. (ot te tria" -ort an d te $ort o# !!ea"s #ond te 2itness to ave -"ear"y and adeBate"y re-on ted o2 te in-ident a!!ened, and 2e #ind no va"id reason to dis-redit te trt and vera-ity o# is narration. :e Bote;

 QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

9 rti-"e 148 o# te &evised 'ena" $ode. 10 'eo!"e v. /a"os, >8 'i". 4< 58 S$& 5> 199J, -itin Bino, &. $., Te &evised 'ena" $ode, ?o". II, 198A ed., !. 14. >59

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >59 &ivera vs. 'eo!"e  No2, yo said tat Mr. &ivera #a-ed yo, 2en e #a-ed yo a#ter e reoved is a-3et 2at did yo do  He !ositioned ise"# in a #itin stan-e, sir.  :at do yo ean in te #itin stan-e  He raised is #ist. :itness raised is ands 2it is -"en-ed #ist in #ront o# iJ.  Ho2 a/ot yo, 2at did yo do 2en Mr. &ivera did tat  I in#ored i tat I a arrestin i.  Ho2 #ar 2ere yo 2en e #a-ed yo at #irst  t #irst /e#ore I 2ent near i is a/ot  #eet, sir.  No2, yo said yo a!!roa-ed i, is tat -orre-t  @es, sir.  :at did yo do 2en yo a!!roa-ed i  I to"d i tat I a arrestin i, sir.  nd 2at 2as is res!onse  He !n-ed e at y #a-e, sir.  @o said e !n-ed yo, 2it 2at and did Mr. &ivera !n- yo 

I tin3 it is is "e#t and, sir.11 Nor is %t. %eyoVs -redi/i"ity any "ess diinised /y te -ir-stan-e tat e #ai"ed to -ateori-a""y identi#y 2i- o# ! etitionerVs ands 2as sed in ! n-in i, and te e=a-t distan-e /et2een te at tat tie. In a"" "i3e"iood, tis !o"i-e o##i-er 2as not e=!e-tin a !ysi-a" atta-3 /y te !etitioner as e 2as st -on#rontin te "atter a/ot te !roi/ited n"oadin o# -i-3en dn 2en !etitioner "aid and on i. Under tis s-enario, any !erson, "i3e %t. %eyo, -annot /e e=!e-ted to ree/er every sin"e detai" o# te in-ident 2it !er#e-t re-a"".1 or sre, #ar #ro adverse"y a##e-tin %t. %eyoVs -redi/i"ity, is #ai"re to re-a"" every inte detai" o#  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

11 TSN, Se!te/er 9, 199>, !. 1. 1 'eo!"e vs. Teero, *.&. No. 1>5050, 19 !ri" 00, >81 S$& >8. >0

>0 SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED &ivera vs. 'eo!"e 2at trans!ired even #orti#ies it. :e ave ts e"d tat te #ai"re o# a 2itness to re-a"" ea - and every detai" o# an o--rren-e ay even serve to strenten rater tan 2ea3en is -redi/i"ity /e-ase it erases any ss!i-ion o# a -oa-ed or reearsed testiony.1> :at is vita" in %t. %eyoVs testiony is te #a-t tat !etitioner !n-ed i on is #a-e, a/ot 2i- e 2as stead#ast and n#"in-in. In any event, tis $ort as said tie and aain tat te assessent o# te -redi/i"ity o# 2itnesses and teir testionies is /est nderta3en /y te tria" -ort, 2at 2it rea"ity tat it as te o!!ortnity to o/serve te 2itnesses #irstand and to note teir deeanor, -ond-t, and attitde 2i"e testi#yin. Its #indins on s- atters, a/sent, as ere, o# any ar/itrariness or oversit o# #a-ts or -ir-stan-es o# 2eit and s/stan-e, are #ina" and -on-"sive !on tis $ort and 2i"" not to /e distr/ed on a!!ea".14 'etitioner a"so asserts tat te testionies o# !rose-tion 2itnesses S')1 6ose (an-ado and (renda D!et did not -orro/orate %t. %eyoVs testiony. or, 2i"e S')1 (an-ado ere"y testi#ied drin dire-t e=aination tat !etitioner !n-ed %t. %eyo, tis 2itness #ai"ed to reiterate said testiony drin -ross e=aination. s reards !rose-tion 2itness (renda D!et, !etitioner a""eed tat tis 2itness never testi#ied tat !etitioner /o=ed %t. %eyo. Te i!ted sort-oins in te testionies o# said t2o J !rose-tion 2itnesses are not o# teir o2n a3in.  2itness is s!!osed to -on#ine is ans2ers on"y to Bestions !ro!onded o# i. Here, te de#ense -onse" #o-sed is "ine o# Bestionin on 2at te t2o !rotaonists 2ere doin iediate"y !rior to te !n-in in-ident, and te ans2er -orre-t"y re-eived /y -onse" 2as tat /ot !etitioner and %eyo 2ere !sin ea- oter. Tere is no so2in tat  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

1> Ta!dasan, 6r. vs. 'eo!"e, *.&. No. 141>44, 1 Nov. 00, >9 S$& >>5, -itin 'eo!"e vs. *ariadi, >1A S$& >99 1999J. 14 'eo!"e vs. $iron, 6r., 49 'i". 10< >A9 S$& >A 00J. >1

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >1 &ivera vs. 'eo!"e -onse" as3ed te 2itness as to 2at a!!ened a#ter te !sin in-ident, as 2at te !/"i- !rose-tor did o# S')1 (an-ado drin te "atterVs dire-t e=aination, to 2it; '&)S. ()TEN*N;  nd 2at a!!ened 2en tey #a-ed ea- oter  Totoy &ivera 2as sotin at %t. %eyo, sir.  :at 2as e sotin

 (a3it ninyo a3o tintis, indi a3o -riina". Ma/a/ayad 3ayo rito. Hindi ninyo a3o 3aya, !"is "an 3ayo. nd soe oter 2ords /t I -annot ree/er te a"", sir.  :at e"se, i# any, did e say $)U&T;

He said e -annot ree/er te oter 2ords. :ITNESS;

Tere is one tin ore, sir. I"a"a!aso 3ita. (a/a"ian 3ita n /to. nd oters, sir. '&)S. ()TEN*N;  To 2o 2as Mr. &ivera sayin tis  To %t. %eyo, sir.  :at 2as Mr. &ivera doin 2en e said tese  He 2as !ointin to te #a-e o# %t. %eyo and tey are /e-oin -"oser and -"oser 2it ea- oter, sir.  t tat tie, 2at 2as %t. %eyo doin  :at I sa2 2as tey 2ere !sin to one anoter and a#ter tat Totoy &ivera /o=ed %t. %eyo, sir.  @o said tey 2ere !sin one anoter, 2at !art o# teir /ody 2ere tey o"din  t te /reast, sir.  So ea- one 2as o"din ea- oterVs /reast, is tat 2at yo ean  @es, sir.  Ho2 "on did tey !s ea- oter  Seven to ten se-onds, sir. >

> SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED &ivera vs. 'eo!"e

 nd 2as %t. %eyo sayin anytin  He 2as tryin to arrest Totoy &ivera, sir.  @o said tat e 2as tryin to arrest Totoy &ivera, did yo ear i i# e says an ytin  He 2as -onvin-in Totoy &ivera to o to te Mni-i!a" Ha"", sir.  @o said Totoy &ivera /o=ed %t. %eyo, 2at !art o# te /ody o# %t. %eyo 2as it  His #a-e, sir.  :at !art o# is #a-e  Here, sir. :itness re#errin to is "o2er "i!. :itness is o"din is "o2er "i!J.  :at a!!ened 2en %t. %eyo 2as it  He ordered s to arrest Totoy &ivera, so 2e 2ere a/"e to s/de Totoy &ivera and !"a-ed i in te -ar, sir.15 (t even assin, in ratia arente, tat %t. %eyoVs testiony 2as not -orro/orated /y te t2o J oter !rose-tion 2itnesses drin teir -ross e=ainations, sti"" te day -annot /e save d #or te !etitioner. :e""sett"ed is te r"e in tis risdi-tion tat te testiony o# a sin"e 2itness, i# strait#or2ard and -ateori-a", is s##i-ient to -onvi-t. #ter a"", 2itnesses are 2eied, not n/ered, and eviden-e are assessed in ters o# B a"ity, not Bantity. It is not n-oon, ten, to rea- a -on-"sion o# i"t on te /asis o# te testiony o# a "one 2itness. $orro/orative eviden-e is deeed ne-essary on"y 2en tere are reasons to 2arrant te ss!i-ion tat te 2itness #a"si#ied te trt or tat is o/servations ad /een ina--rate.1 Un#ortnate"y #or te !etitioner, te tria" -ort #ond notin to indi-ate tat %t. %eyo #a"si#ied te trt or tat is o/servations ad /een ina--rate.  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

15 TSN dated Se!te/er 9, 199>, !!. >>>. 1 'eo!"e vs. Mana"ad, *.&. No. 1859>, >8A S$& > 00J, -itin 'eo!"e vs. $a/ote, *.&. No. 1>14>, >9 S$& 5 001J. >>

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >> &ivera vs. 'eo!"e 'etitioner teories tat e -o"d not ave it %t. %eyo, 2at 2it te -ir-stan-e tat is -o!o"i-een 2ere !resent at te s-ene o# te in-ident, and e #inds it nsa" tat none o# te reta"iated i# e rea""y it %t. %eyo . :e are not !ersaded. Te eviden-e on re-ord -"ear"y /ears ot tat it 2as %t. %eyo 2o 2as atta-3ed /y !etitioner, not te oter 2ay arond, as !etitioner 2o"d 2ant s to /e"ieve. (ot te 2itnesses #or te !rose-tion and te de#ense are one in sayin tat it 2as on"y !etitioner 2o 2as in -on#rontation 2it %t. %eyo. Evident"y, !etitionerVs aner started to /rst 2en te tr-3 driver re!orted to i tat %t. %eyo !roi/ited te n "oadin o# te -i-3en dn and ordered i to retrn, s- tat 2en te sae de"ivery tr-3 2as aain inter-e!ted /y %t. %eyoVs ro!, !etitioner Vs aner 2as too - #or i to -ontain. :e Bote 2it a!!rova" 2at te tria" -ort as said in its de-ision; Te a--sed, o2ever, denies tat e ever "aid ands on te -o!. (t te /ier Bestion is, o 2 ten did te !o"i-ean s stain is inries It is i"y i!ro/a/"e, i# not a/srd, #or te !o"i-ean to in#"i-t it on ise"#. It is a"so very n"i3e"y tat is -o!o"i-een 2o"d !n- i st to a3e it a!!ear tat te a--sed did it. Te a--sed adits o# /ein at te !"a-e. He adits avin /een -on#ronted /y te !o"i-ean /t e denies tat e ever "i#ted a #iner aainst te !o"i-ean. @et a"" te 2itnesses /ot #or te !rose-tion and te de #ense are in a--ord in sayin tat it 2as on"y te a--sed 2o 2as in -on#rontation 2it

te !o"i-ean. Te on"y "oi-a" -on-"sion tat -an /e derived #ro tis is tat it is indeed te a--sed 2o !n-ed te !o"i-ean. Eviden-e to /e /e"ieved st not on"y !ro-eed #ro te ot o# te -redi/"e 2itness /t it st /e -redi/"e in itse"#. No /etter test as yet /een #ond to easre te va"e o# te testiony o# a 2itness tan its -on#ority to te 3no2"ede and -oon e=!erien-e o# an3ind 'eo!"e vs. Mas!i", 6r., 18 S$& A51J. Tat te oter !o"i-e o##i-ers did not reta"iate is no /asis #or s to sare !etitionerVs s/ission tat %t. %eyo 2as te aressor. In te natre o# tins, tey natra""y rea-ted te >4

>4 SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED &ivera vs. 'eo!"e 2ay tey so"d, i.e. !"a-ed !etitioner nder arrest 2en ordered /y %t. %eyo. 'etitioner ne=t -ontends tat %t. %eyo 2as not in te !er#oran-e o# is o##i-ia" dties as a !o"i-e o##i-er and as De!ty $ie# o# 'o"i-e #or )!eration and 'atro" at te tie e 2as atta-3ed. ain, :e disaree. It is a atter o# re-ord tat at te tie o# te assa"t, %t. %eyo 2as enaed in te a-ta" !er#oran-e o# is o##i-ia" dties. He 2as 2earin te desinated !o"i-e ni#or and 2as on /oard a !o"i-e -ar -ond-tin a rotinary !atro" 2en e #irst -ae !on te tr-3 n"oadin -i-3en anre. (e-ase te n"oadin o# -i-3en dn 2as a vio"ation o# %a Trinidad Mni-i!a" )rdinan-e No. 191, te "ietenant o rdered te tr-3 driver to retrn #ro 2ere e -ae, /t !etitioner, in de#ian-e o# s- "a2#" order, -oanded te tr-3 driver to retrn to Si"an, te !"a-e 2ere te tr-3 2as #irst inter-e!ted, and on / ein in#ored tat te sae tr-3 ad retrned, te "ietenant ad every reason to asse it did retrn #or te !r!ose o# n"oadin its -aro o# -i-3en dn, ts sto!!ed it #ro doin so. Under te -ir-stan-es, it si!"y de#ies reason to are tat %t. %eyo 2as not in te !er#oran-e o# is "a2#" dties as a !o"i-e o##i-er 2en te assa"t !on i 2as !er!etrated /y te !etitioner. Nor are 2e i!ressed /y !etitioner Vs s/ission tat te !rose-tionVs #ai"re to !resent te do-tor, 2o e=ained %t. %eyo, !roved disastros to te 'eo!"eVs -ase, arin tat te a""eed inry o# %t. %eyo -annot /e !roved 2itot te testiony o# te attendin !ysi-ian. Tat Dr. ntonio T. $arino did not testi#y on te edi-a" -erti#i-ate e issed is o# no oent. I# ever, te edi-a" -erti#i-ate is on"y -orro/orative in -ara-ter and is not an indis!ensa/"e e"eent o# te -rie o# dire-t assa"t #i"ed aainst !etitioner. Te neBivo-a" !ie-e o# eviden-e aainst >5

?)%. 4, 6UNE >0, 005 >5 &ivera vs. 'eo!"e !etitioner is no "ess %t. %eyoVs -redi/"e and -onsistent testiony tat e 2as !n-ed on is #a-e /y te !etitioner. %ast"y, !etitioner !ts te $ort o# !!ea"s to tas3 #or sstainin te tria" -ortVs o/servation tat e e=ded an ara o# arroan-e and de#ian-e o# atorities. :e ave -onsistent"y r"ed tat te tria" -ort de is in te /est o# !osition to see and o/serve te deeanor, a-tation and -ontenan-e o# a 2itness, atters 2i- are not nora""y e=!ressed in te trans-ri!ts o# is testiony. :e see no reason, tere#ore, to distr/ te #o""o2in o/servations o# te tria" -ort in its de-ision; Te deeanor o# te a--sed on te 2itness stand a"so so2s tat e is te 3ind 2o is i!atient 2it atority. His anner o# ans2erin Bestions /es!ea3s o# one 2o as tro/"e a/idin 2it atority. He !ortrayed a very aressive anner and is ans2ers 2ere a"2ays on te d e#ensive as i# e ad every rit in tis 2or"d to do and say 2atever e 2anted to. )ver a"", e e=ded an ara o# arroan-e and de#ian-e o# atority. In -"osin, "et it /e noted tat te attention o# tis $ort as not /een -a""ed to o# any "terior or i!ro!er otive on te !art o# te !rose-tion 2itnesses to #a"se"y testi#y aainst !etitioner. /sen-e s- a otive, te !res!tion is tat tey 2ere not so oved, and teir testionies are entit"ed to #"" #ait and -redit.1A :HE&E)&E, te !etition is ere/y DENIED, and te assai"ed de-ision and reso"tion o# te $ort o# !!ea"s I&MED in toto. $osts aainst !etitioner. S) )&DE&ED. 'anani/an $airanJ, Sandova"*tierre, $orona and $ar!ioMora"es, 66., -on-r.  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

1A 'eo!"e vs. Pniea, *.&. No. 111A, >5 S$& 40> [001]. >

> SU'&EME $)U&T &E')&TS NN)TTED Mrao vs. 'eo!"e 'etition denied, assai"ed de-ision and reso"tion a##ired. Note.+ trtte""in 2itness is not a"2ays e=!e-ted to ive an error#ree testiony, -onsiderin te "a!se o# tie and te trea-ery o# te an eory. 'eo!"e vs. 'ere, 41A S$& 449 [00>]J ++o0o++ &ivera vs. 'eo!"e, 4 S$& >50, *.&. No. 1>855> 6ne >0, 005

THE UNITED STTES, !"ainti## and a!!e""ee, vs. IS$ SM)NTE, de#endant and a!!e""ant. 1.'E$E )I$E&S< &I*HT T) &&EST :ITH)UT :&&NT.+ny o##i-er -ared 2it te !reservation o# te !/"i- !ea-e ay arrest, 2itot a 2arrant, any !erson 2o is -oittin, or as -oitted, a /rea- o# te !ea-e in is !resen-e. > $y-., 881< $aro"ina vs. M-#ee, 10 %. &. ., 0A< $oon2ea"t vs. To/in, 11 . &e!,, >A5< 'eo!"e vs. &onds, >5 N. :., AA< Do"as vs. (ar/er, 8 t"., 805.J 51A

?)%. 1, SE'TEM(E& , 1910. 51A United States vs. Saonte. .ID.< ID.< IN THE '&ESEN$E ) :ITHIN THE ?IE: $)NT&U$TED +n o##ense is -oitted in te !resen-e or 2itin te vie2 o# an o##i-er, 2itin te eanin o# te r"e atoriin an arrest 2itot a 2arrant, 2en te o##i-er sees te o##ense, a"to at a distan-e, or ears te distr/an-e -reated tere/y and !ro-eeds at on-e to te s-ene tereo#< or te o##ense is -ontinin, or as not /een -onsated, at te tie te arrest is ade. > $y-., 88< &asey vs. State, 1A S. E., 1>< Di"er vs. $o., 11 S. :., 51< State vs. M-#ee, 1 S. E., 4>5< State vs. :i""ias, 15 S. E., 554< Ha23ins vs. %tton, A0 N. :., 48>.J >.ID.< &ESISTIN* N )I$E&< TTEM'T *INST THE UTH)&ITIES.+ny !erson 2o atta-3s te atorities o# te *overnent, or teir aents, or e!"oys #or-e aainst te, or rave"y intiidates te, or o##ers an eBa""y rave resistan-e 2i"e tey are dis-arin te #n-tions o# teir o##i-e or on te o--asion tereo#, is i"ty o# an atte!t aainst te atorities. rts. 49, 50, 'ena" $ode.J ''E% #ro a dent o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# Taya/as. Ne!o-eno, 6. Te #a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te -ort. *odo#redo &eyes, #or a!!e""ant. ttorney*enera" ?i""aor, #or a!!e""ee. T&ENT, 6.;

Te de#endant, Isaa- Saonte, 2as tried in te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# te 'rovin-e o# Taya/as on a -are o# -riina" atte!t aainst an a ent o# te atorities, and senten-ed to one year eit onts and t2entyone days o# !risiKn -orre--iona", to !ay a #ine o# '5, in -ase o# inso"ven-y to s##er te -orres!ondin s/sidiary i!risonent, to te a--essory !ena"ties !rovided in arti-"e 1 o# te 'ena" $ode, and to !ay te -osts. He a!!ea"ed to tis -ort. $onse" #or a!!e""ant insists, #irst, tat te !rose-tion as #ai"ed to esta/"is /eyond a reasona/"e do/t tat te !o"i-ean, *reorio *"indo, atte!ted to arrest te a--sed in ?erdades Street, te !"a-e 2ere te tro/"e o--rred< and, se-ond, tat i# said !o"i-ean did atte!t to arrest te de#endant at tis !"a-e e, not avin a di-ia" 2arrant, 2as not, nder te -ir-stan-es, atoried to a3e te arrest 2i- e atte!ted to a3e. 518

518 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Saonte. /ot 8 oG-"o-3 on te nit o# Se!te/er , 1908, te a!!e""ant, Isaa- Saonte, and (asi"io &a/e 2ere toeter in te ose o# one Deetrio 'andeio in te /arrio o# Ma-a"a"on, risdi-tion o# 'itoo, 'rovin-e o# Taya/as. Tey /ot "e#t tis ose and et sort"y a#ter2ards in te street ?erdadesJ in said /arrio. )n

eetin tere tey /e-ae ena ed in a Barre", te a!!e""ant 3no-3in or !sin &a/e do2n, ten !ro-eeded to a"treat i. t tis oent &a/e -a""ed !o"i-eW !o"i-eW *reorio *"indo, a ni-i!a" !o"i-ean o# 'itoo, /ein on !atro" dty tat nit in said /arrio, earin tese 2ords 2ent to te s-ene, arrivin  st as te o##ended !arty 2as ettin !, and atte!ted to arrest te a!!e""ant, sayin to i; In te nae o# te United States, donGt ove. Te a!!e""ant, on seein te !o"i-ean and earin tis -oand, said; DonGt -oe near, /e-ase I 2i"" ta3e yor "i#e. Te !o"i-ean -ontined to2ard te a!!e ""ant and 2en very near i te a!!e""ant str-3 at te !o"i-ean 2it a 3ni#e. )n a--ont o# tis resistan-e te !o"i-ean -o "d not arrest te a!!e""ant at tat tie, so e 2ent iediate"y to te ose o# te -on-i"an o# tat /arrio, Deetrio 'andeio, and re!orted te atter. 'andeio ordered i to arrest te a!!e""ant. He retrned to o/ey tis order, /ein #o""o2ed /y 'andeio. Tey #ond te a!!e""ant in a !"a-e -a""ed Mtin/ayan. Te !o"i-ean atte!ted to ta3e o"d o# te a!!e""ant, /t e resisted, stri3in at te ! o"i-ean aain 2it is 3ni#e. Te -on-i"an ten ordered te a!!e""ant to s/it ise"#, and on re-eivin tis order te a!!e""ant said; I do not re-onie anyone, and str-3 at te -on-i"an 2it te 3ni#e. Te a!!e""ant 2as not arrested on tat nit on a--ont o# tis resistan-e. He did not "ay ands on or to- 2it is 3ni#e eiter te !o"i-ean or te -on-i"an, /t e did re#se to s/it ise"# to te atorities, and resisted arrest. Te !o"i-ean did not see te a!!e""ant 3no-3 te !riest do2n, neiter did e see i 3i-3 te said !riest, /t e eard te -ries o# te !riest -a""in #or e"!, sayin !o"i-eW !o"i-eW and 2en e arrived on te s-ene te 519

?)%. 1, SE'TEM(E& , 1910. 519 United States vs. Saonte. !riest 2as st ettin ! and #reein ise"# #ro te a!!e""ant. :en te !o"i-ean eard tese -ries #or e"! e 2as on"y a very sort distan-e+soe  or 8 /raas+a2ay, and 2en e arrived te tro/"e ad not terinated, a"to no a-tive #itin too3 !"a-e a#ter is arriva". Under tese #a-ts and -ir-stan-es it 2as te dty o# tis !o"i-e o##i-er to sto! tis distr/an-e /y !"a-in te de#endant nder arrest. ny o##i-er -ared 2it te !reservation o# te !/"i- !ea-e ay arrest, 2itot a 2arrant, any !erson 2o is -oittin, or as -oitted, a /rea- o# te !ea-e in is !resen-e. > $y-., 881< $aro"ina vs. M-#ee, 10 %. &. ., 0A< $oon2ea"t vs. To/in, 11 . &e!., >A5< 'eo!"e vs. &onds, >5 N. :., AA< and Do"as vs. (ar/er, 8 t". &e!., 805.J n o##ense is -oitted in te !resen-e or 2itin te vie2 o# an o##i-er, 2itin te eanin o# te r"e atoriin an arrest 2itot a 2arrant, 2en te o##i-er sees te o##ense, a"to at a distan-e, or ears te distr/an-es -reated tere/y and !ro-eeds at on-e to te s-ene tereo#< or te o##ense is -ontinin, or as not /een -onsated, at te tie te arrest is ade. > $y-., 88< &asey vs. State, 1A S. E., 1>< Di"er vs. $o., 11 S. :., 51< State vs. M-#ee, 1 S. E., 4>5< State vs. :i""ias, 15 S. E., 554< and Ha23ins vs. %tton, A0 N. :., 48>.J In te -ase at /ar *reorio *"indo, /ein a !ea-e o##i-er, not on"y ad atority to arrest te de#endant at tat tie, /t it 2as. is dty to do so, e avin eard te !riest -a"" #or e"! and avin arrived on te s-ene /e#ore te distr/an-e ad #ina""y ended. rti-"e 49 o# te 'ena" $ode !rovides tat te #o""o2in -oit -riina" atte!t; L

L

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. Tose 2o atta-3 te atorities or teir aents, or e!"oy #or-e aainst te, or rave"y intiidate te, or o##er an eBa""y rave resistan-e 2i"e tey are dis-arin te # n-tions o# teir o##i-e or on te o--asion tereo#. 50

50 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. Estraa. rti-"e 50 o# te sae -ode #i=es te !ena"ty to /e i!osed #or tose i"ty o# an atte!t aainst te atorities or teir aents, as !rovided in te a/ove arti-"e. Te a--sed in tis -ase, a#ter an atte!t ad /een ade to arrest i /y a d"y atoried !o"i-e o##i-er in te dis-are o# is dty as s-, o##ered rave resistan-e /y re#sin to s/it ise"# to arrest and /y stri3in at te !o"i-ean 2it a 3ni#e, tere/y atte!tin a !ersona" inry. "to te !o"i-ean 2as not 2onded or to-ed /y te a--sed, tese #a-ts do not re"ieve i #ro -riina" res!onsi/i"ity. Te !ena"ty i!osed /y te -ort /e"o2 /ein in a--ordan-e 2it te "a2 and te !roo#s !resented, te sae is ere/y a##ired, 2it -osts aainst te a!!e""ant. So ordered. re""ano, $. 6., Torres, 6onson, and More"and, 66., -on-r. 6dent a##ired.  QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ United States vs. Saonte., 1 'i". 51, No. 549 Se!te/er , 1910

THE 'E)'%E ) THE 'HI%I''INES, !"ainti## and a!!e""ant, vs. E&NND) $&'IP), de#endant and a!!e""ee.

1.$&IMIN% %: ND '&)$EDU&E< SSU%T U')N N *ENT ) UTH)[email protected]< $%E&O IN '&)?IN$I% UDIT)&GS )I$E, N)T 'E&S)N IN UTH)[email protected] )& *ENT ) 'E&S)N IN UTH)[email protected]+ ere -"er3 in te !rovin-ia" aditorGs o##i-e is not a !erson in atority or an aent o# a !erson in atority. .ID.< ID.< ID.< IN)&MTI)N, UN$TI)NS ) %%E*ED *ENT ) 'E&S)N IN UTH)[email protected] T) (E SH):N IN.+Te #n-tions tat /rin an a""eed !erson nder te de#inition o# an aent o# a !erson in atority st /e -"ear"y so2n in te in#oration. Mere"y to say tat a -"er3 is an aent o# a !erson in atority is a -on-"sion o# "a2. 6risdi-tiona" #a-ts st /e a""eed as 2e"" as !roved. $ort risdi-tion is not ade to de!end on 2at it so2 ! in te -orse o# te tria". ''E% #ro an order o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# S". ?i""a"o/os, 6. Te #a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te -ort. ssistant So"i-itor *enera" &!erto Oa!nan, r. and So"i-itor Mane" Toa-r #or a!!e""ant. Diosdado 'ion and 'a"ino 6. Sevi""a #or a!!e""ee. TUS)N, 6.;

Tis is an a!!ea" #ro an order o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# S" disissin an in# oration # or assa"t !on an aent o# atority 2it s"it !ysi-a" inries, on a >5

?)%. 80, E(&U[email protected] 1A, 1948 >5 'eo!"e vs. $ar!io otion to Bas /ased on te rond tat te #a-ts a""eed in te said in#oration do not -onstitte te -rie -ared. Te in#oration re-ites as #o""o2s; Tat on or a/ot te 9t day o# !ri", 194, in te n i-i!a"ity o# 6o"o, 'rovin-e o# S", 'i"i!!ines, and 2itin te risdi-tion o# tis $ort, te said a--sed /ein te s/and o# Mrs. Martina $ar!io, te -reditor o# !rovin-ia" vo-er No. 50, 2i- vo-er is on !readit in te !ossession o# EtiBio de "a ?i-toria, -"er3, d"y a!!ointed in te o##i-e o# te 'rovin-ia" ditor o# S", and 2i"e te said EtiBio de "a ?i-toria 2as in te !oint o# 2ritin on te ty!e2riter te tentative ss!ension o# said vo-er No. 50, #or /ein de#e-tive, did ten and tere 2i"#""y, n"a2#""y and -riina""y atta-3ed te said EtiBio de "a ?i-toria and too3 o"d o# is ne-3 2it is "e#t and and at te sae tie in#"i-ted !on i a #isti- /"o2 on is "e#t -ee3 2i- !rod-ed a -ontsion tereon and s-rat-es on te "e#t ar, 2i- inries ave reBired and 2i"" reBire edi-a" attendan-e #or a !eriod o# #or days and ave in-a!a-itated and 2i"" in-a!a-itate i in te -stoary !er#oran-e o#  is o##i-ia" dties as s- -"er3 #or te sae !eriod o# tie. Te otion to Bas is 2e"" ta3en. Te a""eed vi-ti o# te atta-3, a ere -"er3 in te !rovin-ia" aditorGs o##i-e, is not a !erson in atority or an aent o# a !erson in atority.  !erson in atority, in te 2ords o# arti-"e 15 o# te &evised 'ena" $ode, is any !erson dire-t"y vested 2it risdi-tion, 2eter as an individa" or as a e/er o# soe -ort or overnenta" -or!oration, /oard or -oission9, 2i"e DGrtanan :i""ias, Division S!erintendent o# S-oo"s #or Neros )--identa", 2as 2or3in in is o##i-e, de#endant e"i= (enite, s!e-ia" aent in te o##i-e o# te 'rovin-ia" *overnor, ave te #orer a #ist /"o2 -asin i a -ontsion over te astoid /one on te "e#t ear. Te assa"t a!!eared to ave /een !ro!ted /y te de#endantGs desire to avene a s!!osed a##ront to te 'rovin-ia" *overnor /y te Division S!erintendent in -onne-tion 2it te a!!ointent o# tea-ers. )n an indi-tent #or assa"t !on a !erson in atority, de#endant 2as #ond i"ty and senten-ed to #ro  onts and 1 day to 4 years,  onts and 1 day o# !risiKn -orre--iona" and to !ay a #ine o# '500 2it s/sidXary i!risonent in -ase o# inso"ven-y. Tis  dent is te s/e-t o# revie2 in tis a!!ea". Te so"e Bestion ere !resented is 2eter or not a division s!erintendent o# s-oo"s is a !erson in atority 2itin te eanin o# arti-"e 148, in -onne-tion 2it arti-"e 15, o# te &evised 'ena" $ode. Sin-e, nder te "a2 se-tion 91A o# te &evised dinistrative $odeJ, a division s!erintendent o# s-oo"s is iven te !o2er o# enera" s!erintenden-e over s-oo"s and s-oo" interests in is division, 2it te rit to a!!oint ni-i!a" s-oo" tea-ers and to #i= teir sa"aries, and #rter, sin-e ed-ation is a state #n-tion and !/"i- !o"i-y deands an adeBate !rote-tion o# tose enaed in te !er#oran-e o# tis -oission, 2e /e"ieve and so  o"d tat a division s!erintendent o# s-oo"s so"d /e rearded as a !erson in atority. Te So"i-itor*enera" aintains tat te de#endant is i"ty o# te -o!"e= -rie o# assa"t !on a !erson in atority 2it !ysi-a" inry it a!!earin #ro te eviden-e tat, de to te /"o2 in#"i-ted !on te o##ended !arty, e sstained in te "e#t ear an inry 2i- reBired ore ta n >0 days o# edi-a" treatent. Tis -ase as /een reoved to tis $ort on"y !on a Bestion o# "a2 and 2e are not at "i/erty to revie2 te eviden-e !resented /y te !arties. --ordin"y, te #indin o# te tria" -ort tat no inry o# serios natre 2as -ased !on te o##ended !arty /y te /"o2 o# re-ord, -annot no2 /e distr/ed. Under arti-"e 48 o# te &evised 'ena" $ode, as aend ed /y -t No. 4000, a -o!"e= -rie is -oitted 2en a sin"e a-t -onstittes t2o or ore rave or "ess rave #e"onies. In te instant -ase, te !ysi-a" inry in#"i-ted !on te o##ended !arty does not a!!ear to /e a rave or "ess rave #e"ony and, tere#ore, tere is no -o!"e= -rie. 'eo!"e vs. &e#re, *. &. No. >99>A [n!/"ised], e/rary , 19>4< 'eo!"e vs. -ierto, 5A 'i"., 14.J Te -rie -oitted /y te de#endant is assa"t !on a !erson in atority, 2it te aravatin -ir-stan-e tat te -rie 2as -oitted, in te !"a-e 2ere te !erson in atority 2as enaed in te dis-are o# is dties arti-"e 14, No. 5, &evised 'ena" A

A 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED 'eo!"e vs. (enite $odeJ. Te !ena"ty !rovided /y "a2 is !risiKn -orre--iona" in its edi and a=i !eriods and a #ine not e=-eedin '1,000 to /e i!osed in its a=i deree. 'rsant to te Indeterinate Senten-e %a 2, te a=i o# te indeterinate !ena"ty to /e i!osed sa"" /e 2itin te a=i !eriod o# !risiKn -orre--iona" in its edi and a=i !eriods, and te ini sa"" /e 2itin te rane o# te !ena"ty ne=t "o2er, tat is, arresto ayor in its a=i !eriod to !risiKn -orre--iona" in its ini !eriod 2i- ay /e a!!"ied in any o# its !eriods in te dis-retion o# te -ort a--ordin to te -ir-stan-es o# te -ase. See 'eo!"e vs. *ona"e, *. &. No. 18 9>, !ri" 1, 194.J Te ini !ena"ty i!osed /y te tria" -ort is  onts and 1 day o# !risiKn -orre--iona" and is 2itin te rane o# te !ena"ty !rovided /y "a2. (t te a=i i!osed is 4 years,  onts and 1 day o# !risiKn -orre--iona", /e"o2 te rane !rovided /y "a2 2i- is #ro 4 years, 9 onts and 11 days to  years. 6dent is a--ordin"y odi#ied and te a--sed is ere/y senten-ed to s##er te indeterinate !ena"ty o# #ro  onts and 1 day to 4 years, 9 onts and 11 days o# !risiKn -orre--iona", to !ay a #ine o# '500 2it s/sidXary i!risonent in -ase o# inso"ven-y not e=-eedin onetird o# te !rin-i!a" !ena"ty, 2it -osts.

@"o, $. 6., 'aras, (o-o/o, and *eneroso, 6 6., -on-r. 6dent odi#ied. 'eo!"e vs. (enite, A> 'i"., A1, No. 48>9 Se!te/er 11, 194

De %na et a". vs. %inato-

[No. 4840>. )-to/er 8,194] stin de %na et a"., !etitioners and a!!e""ants, vs. 6ose %inato-, res!ondent and a!!e""ee. 1.!!ea" and Error< InBiry /y S!ree$ort into $on-"sion o# a-t Made /y $ort o# !!ea"s.+Te $ort o# !!ea"s #ond tat no de-eit ad /een -o itted /y a!!e""ee !on a!!e""ants. Tis -on-"sion o# #a-t is dra2n #ro -ertain #a-ts 2i- are eiter ndis!ted or ave /een -"ear"y esta/"ised /y te eviden-e. :en ay te S!ree $ort revie2 or Bestion s- ded-tion o# #a-t /ased on n-ontroverted or !"ain eviden-e )n"y 2en reasona/"e en readi"y aree tat te in#eren-e is ani#est"y ista3en, a/srd or i!ossi/"e. I#, o2ever, #airinded en ay di##er on 2eter or not te ain -on-"sion o# #a-t is rit"y dra2n #ro te ndis!ted eviden-e, te S!ree $ort so"d not, as a r"e, inBire into te dis-retion e=er-ised /y te $ort o# !!ea"s. Te instant -ase is o# te "atter -ateory, /e-ase te #indins o# te $ort o# !!ea"s tat tere as /ee n no de-eit ay or ay not /e !ersasive, a- -ordin to oneGs o2n reasonin a#ter readin te de-ision and reso"tion o# tat -ort. It -annot /e said tat #airinded en 2i"" not .di##er in tis -ase on te e=isten-e o# #rad. He"d; Tat die S!ree $ort -annot e=aine te Bestion o# 2eter or no t te $ort o# !!ea"s 2as rit 2en tat tri/na" -on-"ded #ro te n-ontroverted eviden-e tat tere ad /een no de-eit. .$on#iration, &ati#i-ation and &e-onition Distinised< tority o# :i#e to Se"" 'ro!erty o# te $ona" 'artnersi!.+ -are#" ana"ysis o# E=i/it I revea"s tat te sae is neiter a -on#iration nor a rati#i-ation o# te sa"es ade /y te 2i#e, /t is 2at S!anis rists -a"" a re-ono-iiento or re-onition. $on#iration tends to -re a vi-e o# n""ity, and rati#i-ation is #or te !r !ose o# ivin atority to a !erson 2o !revios"y a-ted in te nae o# anoter 2itot atority. &e-onition, on te oter and, is ere"y to -re a de#e-t o# !roo#. In re-onition, tere is no vi-e to /e reedied, s- as #rad, vio"en-e or. ista3e, so te -ase is distinised #ro -on#iration. In re-onition, te !erson a-tin on /ea"# o# anoter is d"y atoried to do so, so te sitation is di##erent #ro rati#i-ation. Te instant -ase is one o# re-onition /e-a se te s/and 2as not tryin to -"eanse te sa"es o# a"" taint, s- as #rad, vio"en-e or ista3e, nor 2as it is !r!ose to -on#er atority to is 2i#e, /e-ase e stated in E=i/it I; 2en y 2i#e so"d said "ands to 6. %. se did so 2it y 3no2"ede and -onsent. E=i/it I ere"y ade it a!!ear in a deed tat at te tie te sa"es 2ere ade /y te 2i#e, se did so 2it is 3no2"ede and -onsent. Ts te reBireent in te statte o# #rads tat in a sa"e o# rea" !ro!erty te atority o# te aent so"d /e in 2ritin, as /een -o!"ied 2it. Tere#ore, se 2as on"y a-tin as is aent. >.Id.< Id.< I""ea"ity o# 'artition /et2een S!oses Made drin Marriae.+Ho2ever, as s- aent, te 2i#e -o"d not se"" er !ortions o# tose "ands in te nae o# er s/and, /e-ase te !artition 2as i""ea" and void, as it 2as ade drin te arriae and tere 2as no di-ia" order atoriin se!aration o# !ro!erty /et2een te s/and and te 2i#e art. 14>, $ivi" $odeJ. $onseBent"y, te -ara-ter o# tese !ortions o# "ands as -ona" !artnersi! !ro!erty 2as never -aned. Te 2i#e -o"d, tere#ore, se"" and did se"", as aent o# te s/and, tese !ortions as !art o# te -ona" !artnersi! assets. nd te 2i#e ay /ind te -ona" !artnersi! 2it te -onsent o# te s/and, a--ordin to arti-"e 141 o# te $ivi" $ode. 4.Id.< Id.< Id.< Mista3e o# %a2 Does not &ender $ontra-t ?oida/"e.+Mista3e o# "a2 does not a3e a -ontra-t voida/"e, /e -ase inoran-e o# te "a2 does not e=-se anyone #ro its -o!"ian-e art. , $ivi" $ode< 8 Manresa, 4, d ed.J. Tat te !etitioners did not 3no2 te !roi/ition aainst !artition o# te -ona" !artnersi! !ro!erty drin arriae art. 14>, $ivi" $odeJ is n o va"id reason 2y tey so"d as3 #or te ann"ent o# te sa"es ade in E=i/its $ and D and re-onied in E=i/it I. 5.Id.< Id.< Id.< No Man $an Ta3e dvantae o# His )2n :ron.+Moreover, tere is te tieonored "ea" a=i tat no an -an ta3e advantae o# is o2n 2ron. To re!diate te sa"es in Bestion, !etitioners are settin ! teir o2n 2ron#" a-t o# !artitionin teir -ona" !ro!erty, 2i- vio"ated arti-"e 14> o# te $ivi" $ode. 1

1 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED De %na et a". vs. %inatoTe !roi/ition in said arti-"e a##e-ts !/"i- !o"i-y, as it is desined to !rote-t -reditors o# te -ona" !artnersi! and oter tird !ersons. 'etitioners sa"" not, tere#ore, /e a""o2ed ts to rest teir -ase o# a-tion to re-over te "ands so"d, !on te i""ea"ity o# te !artition 2i- tey atte!ted to a3e. )ter2ise, tey 2o"d !ro#it /y teir o2n n"a2#" a-t. .Id.< Id.< Id.< rti-"e 184 o# te $ivi" $ode.+ina""y, te -ontra-ts o# sa"e in E=i/its $ and D and te deed o# re-onition E=i/it I are ss-e!ti/"e o# t2o inter!retations, one o# 2i- "eads to teir inva"idity and i""ea"ity, and te oter to teir va"idity and "ea"ity. Te #orer -onstr-tion is tat tese -ontra-ts re#er to te se!arate !ro!erty o# te 2i#e as a res"t o# te !artition, and te "atter inter!retation is tat tese deeds ave as teir s/e-t atter te -ona" !artnersi! !ro!erty. Tis "atter inter!retation is not on"y !ro!er as a"ready indi-ated /t it is a"so 2arranted /y te r"es o# inter!retation o# -ontra-ts. Tis -onstr-tion is, tere#ore, ado!ted, 2i- re-onies te /indin -ara-ter o# tese tree deeds. Te $ivi" $ode in arti-"e 184 !rovides; I# soe -"ase o# -ontra-ts adits o# varios eanins, it so"d /e nderstood as tat 2i- is ost adeBate to a3e it e##e-tive. 'ETITI)N #or revie2 on -ertiorari. De-ision !enned /y sso-iate 6sti-e 6ore (o-o/o.

$"aro M. &e-to #or !etitioners. 6ose Mayo %i/rea #or res!ondent. De %na et a". vs. %inato-, A4 'i"., 15, No. 4840> )-to/er 8, 194

THE UNITED STTES, !"ainti## and a!!e""ee, vs. 6)SE I. (%[email protected])T, de#endant and a!!e""ant. 1.$&IMIN% %:< MU&DE&< %E?)SY [T&E[email protected]].+Te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa essentia" to te -rie o# rder 2as #on d to /e !resent in te -ase at /ar not on"y /e-ase o# te sdden and ne=!e-ted anner in 2i- te #ata" assa"t 2it a dead"y 2ea!on 2as /en aainst te de#ense"ess vi-ti, /t a"so /e-ase o# te !e-"iar -onditions nder 2i- te o##ense 2as #ina""y -onsated. .ID. < ID. < %E?)SY IN $T ) $)NSUMMTIN* $&IME.+Even to a dead"y atta-3 ay /e /en nder -onditions not e=i/itin te #eatre o# a"evosXa, yet i# te assa"t is -ontined and te -rie -onsated 2it a"evosXa, s- -ir-stan-e ay /e ta3en into -onsideration as a Ba"i#yin #a-tor in te o##ense o# rder. >.ID.< ID.< ID.< $SE T (&.+n assa"t 2as /en sdden"y and ne=!e-ted"y /y te #irin o# a !isto" /y te a--sed at is >8

>8 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. vi-ti, 2o 2as nared. s te "atter atte!ted to #"ee e 2as !rsed /y te a--sed and driven to ta3e re#e in a -"oset, 2ere e -a""ed a"od #or e"!. Te a--sed ten tried to #or-e o!en te door /t 2as na/"e to do so, o2in to te resistan-e o# te de-eased #ro 2itin. Te a--sed, o2ever, din te !osition o# te de-eased #ro te -ries eitted, #ired is !isto" in te dire-tion ts indi-ated. Te /""et !assed tro te !ane" o# te door and, enterin te ead o# te de-eased, !rod-ed deat. He"d; Tat te #ina" atta-3 2as -ara-teried /y a"evosXa and te -rie !er!etrated 2as rder even to te atta-3 ad not /een oriina""y /en 2it a"evosXa. 4.$&IMIN% %:< T:) $&IMES $)MMITTED IN )NE $T< &TI$%E 89 ) THE 'EN% $)DE.+:ere te a--sed entered te o##i-e o# te !rovin-ia" overnor 2ere te "atter 2as enae d in te e=er-ise o# is o##i-ia" #n-tions and s"e2 i nder -onditions -onstittin rder, it is e"d tat t2o -ries 2ere -oitted, nae"y, rder and assa"t !on a !erson in atority, and tat te !ena"ty !res-ri/ed #or rder so"d /e i!osed in its a=i deree, in a--ordan-e 2it se-tion 89 o# te 'ena" $ode. 5.$&IMIN% '&)$EDU&E< ')ST')NEMENT ) T&I%.+ tria" -ort -annot /e ! t in error #or re#sin a -ontinan-e 2ere tere is notin to indi-ate tat te a--sed 2as in #a-t !redi-ed in te a3in o# is de#ense /y te a-tion ta3en. .ID.< 'E&S)N% U%II$TI)N ) T&I% 6UD*E.+Te #a-t tat te de /e#ore 2o te a--sed 2as tried on a -are o# rder ad attended te #nera" o# te rdered an does not render te de in-o!etent to sit. A.ID.< :"THD&:IN* '%E ) N)T *UI%[email protected]< DEMU&&E&.+'erission to 2itdra2 te !"ea o# not i"ty in order to inter!ose a derrer to te -o!"aint in a !rose-tion #or rder is !ro!er"y de nied 2ere te -o!"aint a!!ears to /e s##i-ient. 8.ID.< '&)DU$TI)N ) D)$UMENTS< STTEMENTS ) :ITNESSES (E)&E IS$%.+He"d; Under te -ir-stan-es stated in te o!inion, tat te tria" -ort -oitted no error in denyin te otion o# te a--sed to -o!e" te !rod-tion in -ort o# 2ritten stateents ade /y 2itnesses #or te a--sation 2en e=ained /y te !rovin-ia" #is-a" nder te atority o# se-tion 18A o# te dinistrative. $ode. 9.E?IDEN$E< IM'E$HMENT ) :ITNESS< '&)) ) $)NT&DI$T)[email protected] STTEMENT.+:ere an attorney desires to i!ea- a 2itness o# te adversary /y !roo# o# -ontradi-tory stateents, e so"d, in te -rosse=aination o# s- 2itness, "ay a /asis #or te introd-tion o# te -ontradi-tory !roo# /y as3in te 2itness i# >8A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. >8A United States vs. (a"yot. e did not, at a tie and !"a-e s!e-i#ied, a3e -ertain stateents di##erent #ro tose testi#ied to /y i. 10.$&IMIN% '&)$EDU&E< SSESS)&S< $)NSU%TTI)N ) 6UD*E :ITH SSESS)&S.+"to te re-ord in te -ase at /ar did not so2 tat te assessors 2o too3 !art in earin te -ase ad /een -ons"ted /y te tria" de, it 2as neverte"ess e"d tat te irre"arity 2as iateria". Te statte does not reBire tat te o!inions o # te assessors sa"" /e red-ed to 2ritin e=-e!t 2ere teir -on-"sions di##er #ro tose o# te de< and, 2ere te re-ord is si"ent, it is to /e !resed tat te #n-tions o# te assessors 2ere !ro!er"y !er#ored and tat tey areed 2it te #indins o# te -ort. ''E% #ro a dent o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# (ataan. I!eria", 6. Te # a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te -ort.

i"eon Sotto #or a!!e""ant. ttorney*enera" 'aredes #or a!!e""ee. ST&EET, 6.;

Tis -ase as /een /rot to te S!ree $ort !on an a!!ea" !rose-ted /y 6ose I. (a"yot #ro a dent o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# te 'rovin-e o# (ataan, -onvi-tin i o# te -rie o# rder, -oitted st >, 1918, !on te !erson o# $onrado %era, overno r o# said !rovin-e, and sen ten-in i to ndero te !ena"ty o# deat, to indeni#y te eirs o# te de-eased in te s o# '1,000, and to !ay te -osts. t te enera" e"e-tion 2i- 2as e"d on 6ne , 191, $onrado %era 2as e"e-ted overnor o# te 'rovin-e o# (ataan. )ne o# is -o!etitors !on tis o--asion 2as te a--sed, 6ose I. (a"yot, 2o -ae ot tird in te ra-e. s a res"t o# tis -ontest a #ee"in o# !ersona" ran-or 2as deve"o!ed in te ind o# (a"yot aainst is s--ess#" -o!etitor, and drin te t2o years 2i- #o""o2ed te a--sed /e-ae #""y i/ed 2it te idea tat *overnor %era 2as !erse-tin i. In te year 1918 (a"yot 2as !rose-ted in te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# te -ity o# Mani"a #or te o##ense o# >88

>88 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot, esta#a in -onne-tion 2it a "oan o# oney 2i- ad /een neotiated at te 'iIi!!ine Nationa" (an3. Tis !ro-eedin ad /een tried and in te ear"y days o# st, 1918, 2as !endin de-ision /y te de 2o tried te -ase. U!on te oraniation o# te Nationa" *ard, (a"yot ad /een -oissioned as -a!tain in tat /ody, and o2in !ossi/"y to te !enden-y o# te a--sation #or esta#a and its daain e##e-ts !on is re!tation, e ad /een as3ed to resin #ro te !osition o# -a!tain in te Nationa" *ard< and a"to e ad not resined 2en te a-t 2i- ave o--asion to tis !rose-tion o--rred, e ad a!!arent"y /een te!orari"y re"ieved #ro dty 2it tat oraniation !endin investiation. Te is#ortnes a/ove entioned, as 2e"" as oters o# a inor -a ra-ter, 2ere attri/ted /y (a"yot to te a-inations o# *overnor %era, a"" o# 2i- served to #oent and in-rease is #ee"in o# enity to2ards te "atter. )n st , 1918, te de#endant "e#t te -ity o# Mani"a and 2ent to te to2n o# )rion, in te 'rovin-e o# (ataan, ta3in 2it i a revo"ver. Ear"y on te #o""o2in day, st >, e si!!ed to Mani"a #ro )rion a !iano /e"onin to is 2i#e, and at 8 a. ., 2ent to (a"ana, te -a!ita" o# te 'rovin-e, arrivin at te re-orderGs o##i-e in te !rovin-ia" /i"din at a/ ot 9 oG-"o-3 a. ., 2ere e inBired #or *overnor %era. He 2as to"d tat te overnor ad not arrived, /t 2as e=!e-ted "ater, Te a--sed a--ordin"y deterined to 2ait in te re-orderGs o##i-e, 2i- served as a sort o# anteroo to te o##i-e o# te overnor. t a/ot 11 oG-"o-3 a. . te overnor arrived. He and te a--sed reeted ea- oter in a #riend"y anner /y sa3in ands< and te overnor, !on /ein in#ored, tat (a"yot ad -a""ed to -on#er 2it i, invited (a"yot into is o##i-e, (a"yot esitated, avin noted te !resen-e o# anoter -a""er, and as3ed i# te "atter did not ave a !rior rit to an intervie2. Te overnor said tat (a"yot so"d enter #irst, 2i- te "atter a--ordin"y did. Te overnor >89

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919 >>9 United States vs. (a"yot. te a--sed reained a"one in te #orerGs o##i-e #or > or 4 intes, 2ere!on it o--rred to *overnor %era tat te intervie2 it /e ore e=tended tan e ad e=!e-ted, and e a--ordin"y reBested tat (a"yot so"d 2itdra2 "on eno #or te overnor to -on#er 2it one ntonino rane, te oter -a""er to 2o re#eren-e as a"ready /een ade. (a"yot a--ordin"y 2itdre2 into te re-orderGs o##i-e and to"d rane tat te overnor 2anted to see or ta"3 to i. rane ten 2ent in and ad a -on#eren-e 2it te overnor #or a #e2 intes a/ot te a!!ointent o# te #orer as -ie# o# !o"i-e #or te ni-i!a"ity o# %iay. :en rane -ae ot (a"yot said tat it 2as no2 is trn and aain entered te overnorGs o##i-e. Te eviden-e so2s tat at te tie (a"yot reFntered te overnorGs o##i-e te "atter 2as sittin /eind is des3 in an ordinary o##i-e -air. (a"yot a!!roa-ed te des3 and !on rea-in a !osition dire-t"y in #ront o# te overnor s!o3e -ertain 2ords 2i- 2ere eard, to not distin-t"y, /y !ersons in te re-orderGs o##i-e, ntonino rane ere"y eard te a--sed -a"" ot overnor, 2i"e *reorio de *an nderstood (a"yot to /e as3in te overnor #or is revo"ver. Te a--sed ise"# testi#ied tat is re#eren-e to te revo"ver 2as intended to adonis te overnor to !re!are #or a orta" -o/at and e say, s tat te 2ords s!o3en 2ere tese; (%[email protected])T. It a!!ears to e tat yor revo"ver and ine ave te sae -a"i/re. *)?E&N)& %E&M. No sir< ine is >.

(%[email protected])T. So is ine. (e !re!ared /e-ase one o# s st die. Te a--sed ives a -o"or to tis -onversation 2i- sees to s soe2at nnatra", and is stateent as to 2at o--rred, es!e-ia""y 2it re#eren-e to te "ent o# tie tat e"a!sed a#ter e entered te overnorGs o##i-e nti" te #irst sot 2as #ired, is 2o""y "a-3in in verisii"itde. :at rea""y o--rred, as te "o2er -ort #ond, and as te testiony o# te 2itnesses in te re-orderGs >90

>90 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. o##i-e so2s, is tat te #irst sot 2as #ired 2itin a #e2 se-onds a#ter (a"yot reFntered te overnorGs o##i-e and tat te interva" 2i- e"a!sed 2as s-ar-e"y ore tan s##i-ient to a""o2 (a"yot to rea- te overnorGs des3. Te in#eren-e is -on-"sive tat, iediate"y !on as3in te overnor a/ot is revo"ver, and dis-overin tat e 2as nared, (a"yot dre2 is o2n revo"ver and #ired. In te testiony iven /y (a"yot ise"# a -ir-stan-e is entioned 2i- a!!ears to s i!ortant in tis -onne-tion. He says tat 2i"e e 2as sittin in te re-orderGs o##i-e, a2aitin te arriva" o# *overnor %era, 'a"o ?eneas, a ard atta-ed to te !rovin-ia" ai", -ae ! and a#ter s!ea3in in a "o2 voi-e 2it te re-order, entered te o##i-e o# te overnor and !resent"y eered, /rinin a revo"ver and soe -artrides. (a"yot noti-ed tat te revo"ver 2as dis-ared and rear3ed to te !erson avin it in and tat an n"oaded revo"ver is "ess se#" even tan a -ane. Te ard re!"ied tat e 2as not te !erson -ared 2it "oadin it, /t 2as oin to ta3e it ot to /e -"eaned, 2ere!on e disa!!eared -arryin te revo"ver 2it i. Tis a-t o# -arryin a2ay o# te revo"ver #ro *overnor %eraGs o##i-e 2as es!e-ia""y noti-ed /y (a"yot and natra""y #ro tis e st ave s!!osed tat te revo"ver seen /y i 2as a 2ea!on -oon"y 3e!t in te overnorGs o##i-e. Te sti"" #rter in#eren-e 2as o/vios to (a"yot tat te overnor !on arriva" 2o"d /e nared in is o##i-e, n"ess e so"d !ossi/"y /rin a revo"ver !on. is !erson. Tis -ir-stan-e so2s tat te 2ords 2i- (a"yot dire-ted to *overnor %era iediate"y /e#ore te #ata" atta-3 2ere intended to dis-over 2eter *overnor %era 2as in #a-t nared. U!on dis-overin tat *overnor %era did not ave is revo"ver at and, te a--sed at on-e dre2 is o2n 2ea!on and #ired. (a"yot tere#ore 3ne2 *overnor %era to /e nared and !ra-ti-a""y de#ense"ess, and it is !"ain tat te atta-3 2as not /e n nti" te assai"ant 2as #""y assred !on tis !oint. >91

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. >91 United States vs. (a"yot. Te /""et #irst #ired /y (a"yot entered in te #ronta" reion o# te rit so "der /"ade o# *overnor %era and in#"i-ted a 2ond o# inor i!ortan-e, !assin tro te a#oresaid !art o# te /ody and !enetratin te /a-3 o# te -air in 2i- te overnor 2as sittin. 'assin on #ro te -air, te /a"" entered te 2a"" o# te o##i-e /i"din, /t 2as so #ar s!ent tat it did not !enetrate dee!"y. Instead it ere"y ade a -ir-"ar o"e in te 2a"" o# oderate de!t and re/onded, #a""in on te #"oor. Te "ine o# dire-tion #o""o2ed /y te /a"" indi-ates tat te a--sed dire-ted te sot in soe2at do2n2ard dire-tion and tat *overnor %era 2as in a"" !ro/a/i"ity re-"inin /a-32ards in te -air at te instant te sot str-3 i. Te overnor iediate"y arose. His #ree a-tion 2as i!eded /y te ta/"e in #ront, and /y te 2a""s o# te o##i-e /eind and on eiter side, sin-e is ta/"e 2as in a -orner o# is o##i-e. His e=it 2as #rter o/str-ted /y a sa"" /oo3 stand on is iediate rit. His on"y -on venient dire-tion o# es-a!e 2as, tere#ore, in te dire-tion to is "e#t /y 2ay o# te s!a-e /et2een te "e#t -orner o# is des3 a nd te 2a"" near/y. Tis dire-tion te overnor a--ordin"y too3, dire-tin ise"# to2ards a !assae2ay in te 2a"" a #e2 #eet #ro is des3 "eadin into a -orridor. :en te overnor ad -"eared te des3 so as to "eave a #ree s!a-e /et2een ise"# and is assai"ant, te d istan-e 2i- se!arated te 2as on"y a #e2 #eet. (a"yot ean2i"e trned soe2at to is rit and advan-ed s"it"y in te dire-tion ta3en /y *overnor %era. Te "atter desirin to a3e ood is es-a!e, started to rn in te dire-tion a#oresaid, and (a"yot, raisin is revo"ver, aain #ired. Te /a"" str-3 *overnor %era in te reion o# te rit so"der /"ade and !assed tro te /ody an in- or t2o #ro te 2ond ade /y te #irst sot. Te #irin o# te se-ond sot 2as seen /y ntonino rane, 2ose attention ad /een attra-ted /y te noise o# te #irst sot. (ein te n seated at a des3 in te re-orderGs o##i-e near te door "eadin into te overnorGs o##i-e, tis 2itness iediate"y arose !on earin te #irst sot, and >9

>9 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. avin arrived at a !oint in te overnorGs o##i-e 2ere stood a s-reen, o--"din dire-t vision #ro te door to te overnorGs des3, e !"a-ed ise"# at te side o# te s-reen and 2as ts a/"e to see te s-ene ten /ein transa-ted. It 2as at tis instant tat (a"yot, 2it is ar e=tended, #ired te se-ond sot at is #"eein vi-ti. Te overnor at tis oent ad is rit and raised to is a"ready 2onded so"der and 2as rnnin in a dire-tion a2ay #ro is assai"ant

rater tan to2ards i. Iediate"y !on seein tis sot #ired, rane, instead o# intervenin to ave te overnor, as 2o"d ave /een /e-oin, trned and #"ed to o/tain s--or. (oni#a-io Men-ias, te sanitary o##i-ia", 2o e=ained te 2onds o# *overnor %era, says tat /ot o# te #irst t2o 2onds 2ere ade /y /""ets 2i- entered #ro te #ront. Tis is o/vios"y tre as to te #irst, /t as to te se-ond tere sees to /e roo #or do/t. Te ins!e-tion ade /y te do-tor ay ave /een s!er#i-ia", and is o!inion ay ave /een !art"y a atter o# ere in#eren-e #ro is in#oration as to te enera" #eatres o# te traedy. t any rate e does not state any !arti-"ars # ro 2i- it -o"d -"ear"y /e dis-overed tat te se-ond sot entered #ro te #ront. Te 2itness rane a3es it -"ear tat as te atter !resented itse"# to is eye, te overnor 2as #"eein 2it is rit side, rater tan is #ront, e=!osed to (a"yot. Tis 2itness says tat te overnorGs #a-e 2as trned in te dire-tion o# is #"it, to e tin3s te overnor -o"d ave seen 2at (a"yot 2as doin. In tis vie2 te se-ond sot so"d a!!arent"y ave entered # ro /eind. Te !oint 2e -onsider o# "itt"e i!ortan-e, inas- as it is o/vios tat (a"yot 2as te aressor troot and tat te se-ond sot 2as #ired at an nared an 2ose on"y !r!ose 2as to e##e-t an es-a!e to a !"a-e o# sa#ety. :eter at te instant tis sot 2as #ired *overnor %era ay ave ad is /ody trned so as oentari"y to -on#ront is assai"ant, ovin a2ay side2ise, -an ave no /earin !on te Ba"i#i-ation and -ara-ter o# te -rie. Te testiony o# (a"yot to te e##e-t tat as soon as *overnor >9>

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. >9> United States vs. (a"yot. %era eered # ro /eind te ta/"e te t2o enaed in a and to and str"e is !re!osteros in te e=tree. #ter te se-ond sot 2as #ired, *overnor %e ra -ontined is #"it a"on te -orridor and, instead o# atte!tin to !ass ot to te rit into te re-orderGs o##i-e, 2i- 2o"d ave e=!osed i to te daner o# anoter sot 2i"e !assin tro te o!en s!a-e, e too3 re#e in a -"oset at te end o# te -orridor. )n-e 2itin, e st te door and !"a-ed ise"# in a !ositionG to o/str-t te entran-e o# is !rser, 2o vain"y atte!ted to o!en te door. Te overnor ten /ean to -a"" a"od #or e"!, and (a"yot, din te !osition o# te overnorGs ead #ro te dire-tion o# te sond ts eitted, #ired is revo"ver in te dire-tion indi-ated. Te /""et !assed tro te !ane" o# te,door and str-3 *overnor %era in te #or2ard !art o# te ead near and a/ove te rit te!"e. It !assed do2n2ards and -ae ot tro te "e#t eye, "oosenin te eye/a"" in its so-3et. Tis 2ond 2as ne-essari"y #ata", to not instant"y so< and te overnor evident"y "ost -ons-iosness at on-e. (a"yot, #ee"in te oveent o# te /ody 2itin te -"oset, o!e ned te door 2itot resistan-e. s e did so te /ody o# *overnor %era sot #or2ard ot o# te -"oset, as i# in an attitde to e/ra-e te s"ayer, 2o dre2 /a-32ards, and te /ody #e"" !rone on te #"oor. In tis !osition it reained and 2as #ond !rostrate a #e2 intes "ater /y !ersons 2o -ae !on te s-ene. Deat ensed in a/ot t2o .or tree ors, 2itot re-overy o# -ons-iosness. (a"yot, iediate"y a#ter te traedy, ste!!ed over to a 2indo2 o# te roo over"oo3in te !/"i- sBare an d, -a""in to a sBad o# $onsta/"ary, 2o 2ere dire-tin tese"ves to te !rovin-ia" /i"din, indi-ated tat tey s o"d -oe !. t te sae tie e tre2 is revo"ver to te rond, 2it tree e!ty se""s and oters tat ad not /een dis-ared. U!on te arriva" o# te $onsta/"ary e srrendered 2itot resistan-e. Te o##ense -oitted in tis -ase e=i/its #eatres ar3ed"y sii"ar to tose 2i- -ara-teried te -rie >94

>94 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. 2i- 2as te s/e-t o# !rose-tion in United States vs. *i" 1> 'i". &e!., 5>0J < and te o##ense ere -oitted 2as !ro!er"y Ba"i#ied /y te tria" de as rder, in 2i- 2as !resent te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa. Te !resen-e. o# tis e"eent is easi"y and in or o!inion irre#ta/"y indi-ated in te -onditions and anner /ot o# te oriina" atta-3 and o# te #ina" a-t /y 2i- te o##ense 2as -onsated. :it re#eren-e to te anner in 2i- te atta-3 2as /en, te !roo# so2s tat a--ess 2as ained /y (a"yot, to te overnorGs o##i-e !on te !rete=t tat e desired a #riend"y intervie2< and a "to te strained re"ations e=istin /et2een te t2o, o2in to teir !o"iti-a" antaoniss, 2as a!!re-iated /y /ot, tere 2as notin in te sitation to 2arn te overnor o# i!endin tro/"e. Te #a-t tat (a"yot ad a"ready / een -a""ed into te o##i-e !on te overnorGs #irst arriva" and ad 2itdra2n #or a #e2 oents to !erit anoter !erson to ave an intervie2 2as a"so -a"-"ated to !t te overnor o## is ard at te oent (a"yot reFntered te o##i-e. (ein seated in a re-"inin -air, and eed in /y o/sta-"es 2i- !revented i #ro rea-in is assai"ant, it is !"ain tat te nared overnor -o"d a3e no e##e-ta" de#ense aainst a !erson ared 2it s- a dead"y 2ea!on as a revo"ver. It is o/vios a"so tat te eans and etods ts de"i/erate"y se"e-ted /y te assai"ant 2ere intended to insre te e=e-tion o# te -rie 2itot any ris3 to ise"# arisin #ro te de#ense 2i- te o##ended !arty -o"d a3e. :e need not detain orse"ves to ana"ye te -onditions 2i- e=isted 2en te se-ond sot 2as #ired, and 2e !ass on to te tird, 2it te sin"e o/servation tat te entire assa"t #ro te /einnin st /e -onsidered -ontinos and tat te se-ond sot 2as #ired 2i"e te vi-ti 2as endeavorin to #"ee to a !"a-e o# sa#ety. Te !resen-e o# a"evosXa in te #irin o# te tird sot sees to /e too !atent to !erit o# -ontroversy. Te vi-ti in is e##ort to es-a!e ad /een driven to ta3e re#e in te -"oset, and 2it te door st, it 2as i!ossi/"e #or i to see 2at is assai"ant >95

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. >95 United States vs. (a"yot. 2as doin or to a3e any de#ense 2atever aainst te sot dire-ted tro te !ane" o# te door. It 2as as i# te vi-ti ad /een /ond or /"ind#o"ded, or ad /een trea-eros"y atta-3ed #ro /eind in a !at o/s-red /y te dar3ness o# nit. Even s!!osin tat a"evosXa ad not /een !resent in te /einnin o# te assa"t, it 2o"d /e ne-essary to #ind tis e"eent !resent #ro te anner in 2i- te -rie 2as -onsated. In United States vs. E"i-ana" >5 'i". &e!., 09J 6sti-e More"and said; Tis -ort as e"d re!eated"y tat, even to te /einnin o# an atta-3 res"tin in te deat o# te de-eased is #ree #ro trea-ery o# any sort, neverte"ess it 2i"" /e #ond !resent i#, at te tie te #ata" /"o2 is str-3, te de-ease d is e"!"ess and na/"e to de#end ise"#. :i"e te 2riter o# tis o!inion #orer"y e"d te vie2 tat, 2ere tere is n o trea-ery in te atta-3 2i- res"ts in te deat o# te de-eased, tere -an /e no trea-ery 2i- 2i"" Ba"i#y te -rie as rder not2itstandin te #a-t tat, at te tie te #ata" /"o2 2as str-3, te de-eased 2as nared and de#ense"ess, neve rte"ess, te -ort avin e"d so #reBent"y te -ontrary, te 2riter a--e!ts te do-trine so 2e"" esta/"ised. Tere 2as !resent in te o##ense in Bestion te eneri- aravatin -ir-stan-e tat said o##ense 2as -oitted in a !"a-e 2ere !/"i- atority 2as enaed in te dis-are o# dty. S/se-. 19, art. 10, 'ena" $ode.J Tere is no d is-erni/"e di##eren-e at tis !oint /et2een te !resent -ase and tat o# United States vs. *i" 1> 'i". &e!., 5>0, 5>>J, in 2i- tis aravatin -ir-stan-e 2as de-"ared to /e !resent. Te tria" -ort a"so #ond tat te -rie in Bestion 2as -ara-teried /y te #rter aravatin -ir-stan-e o# evident !reeditation. $ertain ites o# !roo# 2i- tend stron"y to so2 te !resen-e o# tis e"eent ay /e /rie#"y entioned, It 2as testi#ied /y one 'edro Maaes, a #riend o# te a--sed, tat on 6"y 14, 1918, (a"yot in te -orse o# a -onversation 2it Maaes e=i/ited i""#ee"in aainst >9

>9 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. %era and said tat %era 2o"d !ay #or te is#ortnes tat 2ere /e#a""in i (a"yotJ. Doino %inta, -o!adre o# te a--sed, testi#ied tat on te riday in te ont o# st, !rior to te -oission o# te -rie in Bestion, e sa2 te de#endant in )rion< tat 2en e and te de#endant soo3 ands te "atter sBeeed is and tit"y and said, 'are-e ser Be esta es "a Z"tia ve Be vaos a dar "a ano [ay /e tat tis 2i"" /e te "ast tie 2e 2i"" sa3e ands]. Tis rear3 is es!e-ia""y note2orty, sin-e it so2s tat te a--sed -onte!"ated so e o--rren-e 2i- 2o"d ave rave -onseBen-es to i. )n te ornin o# st >, te day on 2i- te -rie 2as -oitted, te a--sed as3ed ore tan one !erson i# tey tot. e 2as in (i"i/id, intiatin tat a #a"se ror to tis e##e-t ad /een a"i-ios"y -ir-"ated /y is ar-eney, *overnor %era. Tis so2s -"ear"y tat te ind o# te a-- sed 2as #i=ed !on %era as te s!!osed ator o# is 2rons. No very satis#a-tory e=!"anation is iven /y te a--sed as to te reason #or is tri! to )rion and es!e-ia""y to (a"ana< and te -on-"sion is irresisti/"e tat e 2as -arried to te "atter !"a-e /y a tirst #or venean-e. rterore, te -ond-t o# te a--sed in te ne=t day or t2o s--eedin te -oission o# te -rie 2as tat o# a !erson sti"ated /y a #ee"in o# rati#i-ation over te s--ess#" a--o!"isent o# a #i=ed !r!ose, not te -ond-t o# one e##e-ted /y rie# over te #ata" res"ts o# a sdden and ne=!e-ted a"ter-ation. t no tie did e e =i/it any sin o# reret #or te a-t -oitted. Te -on-"sion reasona/"y to /e dra2n #ro te eviden-e as a 2o"e is tat te a--sed, #or severa" days !rior to te !er!etration o# tis rder, ad deterined to see3 an intervie2 or en-onter 2it *overnor %era reard"ess o# -onseBen-es. It is i!ossi/"e to say at 2at oent te deterination to ta3e "i#e /e-ae a #i=ed reso"tion. Te desin to 3i"" 2as !ro/a/"y entertained 2en te a--sed 2ent in te ear"y ornin o# st > to te overnorGs o##i-e, and te !ttin o# tis reso"tion into e##e-t 2as at on-e deterined !on >9A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. >9A United States vs. (a"yot. 2en te a--sed #ond tat te overnor 2as nared. In order to -onstitte te e"eent o# 3no2n !reeditation in te -rie o# rder it is not ne-essary tat te s"ayer so"d ave !re#ired in is ind a"" o# te detai"s o# te -rie or deterined !on te e=a-t oent 2en e so"d -arry is !r!ose into e##e-t. It is eno tat te deterination to ta3e "i#e so"d ave /een #ored #or a !eriod s##i-ient"y "on to a""o2 te a-tor tie to re#"e-t -oo""y !on te -ara-ter and te -onseBen-es o# te a-t, te a--o!"isent o# te -rie /ein "e#t to soe sita/"e o!!ortnity s- as -an-e or desin ay !resent. It is ts ani#est tat te -on-"sion o# te tria" -ort tat te o##ense 2as -ara-teried /y 3no2n !reeditation is /y no eans 2itot s!!ort in te eviden-e. Neverte"ess, as an e=!ress r"in on tis !oint is nne-essary to te dis!osition o# te -ase, 2e -on-ede to te a--sed te /ene#it o# te !ossi/"e do/t, and 2e a--ordin"y re#rain #ro a3in any e=!ress #indins as to te !resen-e o# said e"eent. It is -ontended in /ea"# o# te a--sed tat te -rie in Bestion 2as Ba"i#ied /y t2o e=tenatin -ir-stan-es, nae"y, #irst, tat it 2as -oitted nder an i!"se so !o2er#" as natra""y to ave !rod-ed !assion and o/#s-ation art. 9, s/se-. A, 'ena" $odeJ, and, se-ond "y, tat te o##ender ad no intention to

-oit so reat a 2ron as tat -oitted. rt. 9, s/se-. >, 'ena" $odeJ. Tis -ontention rests !on -ertain stateents #ond in te testiony o# te a--sed and 2i-, in or o!inion, are dis-redited /y oter eviden-e. (a"yot states tat e /ean is #irst intervie2 2it *overnor %era on st > /y sayin tat e 2ised Di!tado [de"eate] &eyes o# (ataan -o"d ave /een !resent as tere 2ere -ertain tins 2i- e 2anted to say in te !resen-e o# te /ot. (a"yot ten stated tat tere 2as no do/t tat *overnor %era ad 2on in te !o"iti-a" -ontest and tat it 2as a"so  ndenia/"e tat in a"". is o2n is#ortnes te overnor ad !"ayed an i!ortant and dire-t !art. Te overnor, a--ordin to (a"yot, tere!on re!"ied; viene sted -on "a isa >98

>98 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. Bea, Sr. (a"yot, !ero no soos eneios Si #7raos aios, enos a"< y sted en nestro "ar /iera e-o "o iso -oo sted a e-o -on i -o!adre ?e"e Be a-a/a de ser se!arado de "a *ardia Na-iona". [@o -oe 2it te sae -o!"aint, Mr. (a"yot, /t, are 2e not eneies I# 2e 2ere #riends, not Bite so /ad. I# yo 2ere in or !"a-e yo 2o"d ave done te sae as yo ave done 2it y #riend -o!adreJ ?e"e 2o as st /een dis-ared #ro te Nationa" *ard.] (a"yot says tat in re!"y to tis e !rotested tat e ad notin to do 2it te se!aration o# $a!tain ?e"e #ro te Nationa" *ard. t tis n-tre te overnor sested tat te intervie2 2as  oin to /e soe2at "enty and reBested tat (a"yot so"d yie"d is trn #or a #e2 intes nti" te overnor -o"d ave a sort intervie2 2it rane. Tere!on te intervie2 2as interr!ted in te anner a"ready stated, (a"yot 2itdra2in #or a #e2 oents into te re-orderGs o ##i-e. (a"yot says tat, 2en e 2as readitted into te !resen-e o# te overnor, e seated ise"# in te sae -air in #ront o# te overnorGs des3 2ere e ad /een seated /e#ore, and te -onversation 2as resed. Tis -onversation a--ordin to (a"yot 2as o# te #o""o2in tenor; *)?E&N)& %E&M. :ere do yo say yo are oin to, Mr. (a"yot (%[email protected])T. I a tin3in o# oin to $e/ and residin tere#or soe tie 2it y /roterin"a2. Te *)?E&N)&. (t yo 2i"" not /e a/"e to do so very soon, !era!s nti" a#ter severa" onts. (%[email protected])T. Tat is not tre. )n y retrn to Mani"a, IG"" !re!are #or y tri! and o to $e/. Te *)?E&N)&. I /e"ieve yo 2i"" not /e a/"e to -arry tat ot, /e-ase 6de $on-e!-iKn 2i"" detain yo. (%[email protected])T. :y Te *)?E&N)&. :e"", 6de $on-e!-iKn as senten-ed yo #or esta#a to #or onts, and I donGt 3no2 o2 any days< tr"y tat is a ood idea, to -ane "o-ation, a "o-ation >99

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. >99 United States vs. (a"yot. so #"" o# !eo!"e as $e/ 2ere no/ody 3no2s yo !era!s yo ay /e a/"e to -eat /etter. (a"yot says tat, !on /ein in# ored /y *overnor %era tat 6de $on-e!-iKn ad rendered dent aainst i in te esta#a -ase -ondenin i to !rison, e "ost is ead, as e 2as in i o!es o# /ein a-Bitted in tat !rose-tion. He a--ordin"y, at te -"ose o# te #oreoin 2ords i!ted to *overnor %era, rose #ro is -air and sed te 2ords 2i- 2e ave Boted in a #orer !art o# tis o!inion 2it re#eren-e to te -a"i/re o# *overnor %eraGs revo"ver, at te sae tie n/ttonin is -oat and !rod-in is o2n 2ea!on. Even s!!osin tat te -onversation /et2een te a--sed and *overnor %era 2as e=a-t"y as stated /y (a"yot, te "anae sed /y *overnor %era 2as not s- as -o"d ave !rod-ed !assion and o/#s-ation in (a"yot s##i-ient to -onstitte te itiatin -ir-stan-e de#ined in s/se-tion A o# arti-"e 9 o# te 'ena" $ode. It is to /e noted, o2ever, tat no s- -onversation as tat a/ ove trans-ri/ed -o"d !ossi/"y ave ta3en !"a-e in te interva" /et2een te reFntran-e o# (a"yot into te overnorGs o##i-e and te tie 2en te 2ords a ddressed to te overnor a/ot te revo"ver 2ere eard in te re-orderGs o##i-e. ro te testiony iven /y te 2itnesses 'edro *ona"es, ntonino rane ,and *reorio de *an, 2e -onsider it to /e irre#ta/"y esta/"ised tat te #irst sot 2as #ired 2itin nine or ten se-ond s a#ter (a"yot reFntered te overnorGs o##i-e and tat te interva" 2i- e"a!sed 2as s-a r-e"y ore tan s##i-ient to a""o2 (a"yot to rea- te overno rGs des3. Te ind o# an n/iased !erson st a"so /e i!ressedG 2it te inverisii"itde o# i!tin to *overnor %era 3no2"ede o# a dent rendered /y a -ort in te $ity o# Mani"a aainst (a"yot o# 2i- (a"yot 2as inorant, #or nder se-tion 41 o# te $ode o# $riina" 'ro-edre senten-e in s- a !ro-eedin as tat ten !endin aainst tis a--sed st /e !ronon-ed in te !resen-e o# te -ondened !erson, and i# (a"yot ad in #a-t /een -onvi-ted e ise"# 2o"d ave /een aon te #irst to "earn o# it. 400

400 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. It is i"y i!ro/a/"e tat *overnor %era 2o"d ave /een i"ty o# -ond-t so n/e-oin as to ave enaed in /anterin a !o"iti-a" eney over a atter so de"i-ate, 2en dent ad not in #a-t /een !ronon-ed. )r -on-"sion is tat (a"yotGs a--ont o# te 2ords 2i- !assed /et2een i and *overnor %era iediate"y !rior to te #irin o# te #irst sot st /e ree-ted as #a"se. Te -ontention tat te a--sed ad no intention to -oit so reat a 2ron as tat -oitted rests !on te stateent o# (a"yot tat te tird sot 2as a--identa""y dis-ared #ro is revo"ver 2i"e e 2as atte!tin to !s o!en te door o# te -"oset in 2i- te *overnor ad ta3en re#e. Tis !retension is ard"y deservin o# serios noti-e, as it is re#ted not on"y /y te -ir-stantia" eviden-e /earin !on tis !ase o# te traedy /t a"so /y an adission ade /y (a"yot on st 5 in -onversation 2it Ese/io &eyes, re!orter o# a Mani"a ne2s!a!er. In tis -onversation (a"yot stated tat e !rsed te de-eased to te door o# te -"oset and, avin o/served #ro te -ries eitted /y *overnor %era tat te "atter 2as seated /eind te door, e (a"yotJ dis-ared is !isto" in te dire-tion 2ere e divined te overnor to /e. :e ave no do/t as to te trt o# tis adission, and it is a -o!"ete re#tation o# te sestion tat te dis-are o# te revo"ver 2as a--identa". :at 2e ave ts #ar said s##i-es to deonstrate tat in s"ayin *overnor %era, te a--sed 2as i"ty o# rder 2it at "east one aravatin -ir-stan-e and tat te !ena"ty #or rder 2as !ro!er"y i!osed in its a=i deree. It is, o2ever, #rter insisted in te /rie#G o# te ttorney*enera" tat in rea"ity t2o -ries 2ere -oitted /y te a --sed in te sae a-t, nae"y, rder and assa"t !on a !erson in atority. Under tis -on-e!tion o# te -ase a"so te !ena"ty #or rder so"d /e i!osed in its a=i deree nder arti-"e 89 o# te 'ena" $ode. :e aree 2it te ttorney*enera" !on te !ro!osition tat te sae a-t in #a-t res"ted in tis -ase in te 401

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 401 United States vs. (a"yot. !er!etration o# t2o -ries. Tat te oi-ide is to /e -ara-teried as rder 2e a ve a"ready deterined< and it is ndenia/"e tat, an atta-3 2as in te sae a-t ade !on a !erson in atority 2i"e e=er-isin te dties o# is o##i-e, as -ared in te -o !"aint, sin-e te de-eased 2as, as a !rovin-ia" overnor, an atority 2itin te eanin o# arti-"e 49 o# te 'ena" $ode. Tese -onsiderations in or o!inion s!!"y an additiona" irre#ta/"e /asis #or te i!osition o# te deat !ena"ty /y te tria" de, to is de-ision did not dis-ss tis as!e-t o# te -ase. :at as /een said is s##i-ient to dis!ose o# so - o# te a!!ea" as is -on-erned 2it te -oission o# te o##ense and its "ea" Ba"i#i-ation nder te "a2. )ter Bestions, o2ever, are raised re"ative to te -onditions nder 2i- te -ase 2as -a""ed to tria" and te anner in 2i- te !rose-tion 2as -ond-ted in te $ort o# irst Instan-e. In tis -onne-tion varios errors o# "a2 are i!ted, in se!arate assinents, to te a-tion o# te Hon. $ar"os I!eria", 2o a-ted as de in te -ort /e"o2. In te #irst s!e-i#i-ation o# error te a!!e""ant a""ees tat e 2as not iven a!"e o!!ortnity to de#end ise"#, /e-ase te -ort denied is attorneyGs "ast reBest #or a -ontinan-e. U!on tis rond te a!!e""ant see3s to se-re #ro tis -ort, i# not a reversa" o# te dent, at "east an order #or a ne2 tria". Te assinent o# error is in or o!inion 2itot erit. It a!!ears in eviden-e tat on st >, 1918, te !rovin-ia" #is-a" #i"ed an in#oration in te -ort o# te  sti-e o# te !ea-e -arin te a--sed 2it te -rie o# rder. )n te 5t, e a!!eared and 2aived te rit to /e de#ended /y an attorney and reBested tat te e=!ediente /e sent to te $ort o# irst Instan-e as soon as !ossi/"e. )n te 9t, an in#oration 2as #i"ed in te $ort o# irst Instan-e, 2ere!on Mane" (anon, a re"ar"y aditted e/er o# te /ar, 2as a!!ointed /y te -ort as attorney de o##i-io #or te de#endant !on te "atterGs reBest, and e 2as d"y arrained, enterin a ! "ea o# not i"ty. )n tat date te attorneys #or te *overnent as3ed tat te tria" /e 40

40 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. set #or te 1t, /t te -onse" #or te a--sed reBested tat it /e set #or te 15t, 2i- !etition 2as ranted. #ter te -ase 2as -a""ed #or earin on te 15t, te -ort re-eived a te"era #ro ?i-ente Sotto, ten a e/er o# te /ar in Mani"a, statin tat e ad /een e!"oyed /y te #ai"y o# te a--sed and as3in tat te earin /e !ost!oned nti" te #o""o2in Monday. Te attorneys #or te *overnent o/e-ted to tis reBest /t te -ort, neverte"ess, !ost!oned te earin nti" te #o""o2in day, and Sotto 2as iediate"y noti#ied /y te"era o# tat order. Sotto at on-e de!arted #or (a"ana and 2as !resent in -ort 2en te -ase 2as -a""ed #or tria" te ne=t ornin. (anon 2as atoried /y te -ort to retire #ro te -ase on"y 2it te de#endantGs -onsent and a#ter Sotto ad ade is a!!earan-e and ta3en -are o# te -ase. ro te #oreoin stateent it is seen tat te a--sed 2as at a"" ties re!resented /e#ore te -ort /y a -o!etent attorney, and no #a-t is add-ed 2i- 2o"d ena/"e s to say tat e 2as in any 2ise e/arrassed in te a3in o# is de#ense /y te a-tion o# te -ort in settin te -ase #or tria" on st te si=teent and !ro-eedin 2it it on tat day. It -annot /e !eritted tat a tria" -ort so"d /e !t in error #or re#sin a -ontinan-e 2en tere is notin 2atever to so2 tat te a--sed 2as in #a-t !redi-ed /y te a-tion ta3en. :ere a -ontinan-e is sot on te rond o# 2ant o# !re!aration, an a##idavit so"d ordinari"y /e #i"ed so2in in 2at res!e-t te a!!"i-ant is not ready and tat e as ade reasona/"e e=ertions to !re!are #or tria" 2itot s--ess, or

soe ood reason #or not a3in s- e=ertions. 1> $or. 6r., 18>.J Notin o# te 3ind 2as done in tis -ase< and 2en Sotto a-ta""y a!!eared in -ort and assed te dties o# attorney #or te a--sed, no a!!"i-ation #or a -ontinan-e o# any sort 2as rea""y ade. )n te -ontrary te attorney 2as -ontent ere"y to -ase a note to /e ade in te re-ord to te e##e-t tat e res!e-t#""y !rotested aainst te te"era 2i- te -ort ad sent to i te day /e#ore noti#yin tat te -ase 2as set #or tria" on te 1t. No 40>

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 40> United States vs. (a"yot. stateent 2atever 2as ade so2in 2y #rter de"ay 2as ne-essary. Te a-tion ta3en /y te -ort 2as in or o!inion in no 2ise !redi-ia" and 2as tere#ore not erroneos. In United States vs. %ao $e-o >A 'i". &e!., 5>J, it 2as e"d tat 2en an a--sed is o/"ied to -oe to tria" 2itot avin te o!! ortnity to -ite is 2itnesses it -annot /e said tat e is iven te o!!ortnity to /e tried -o!"ete"y, #""y and i!artia""y as te "a2 !res-ri/es, and a ne 2 tria" 2i"" /e ordered. (t in tat -ase te a--sed 2as de!rived o# te o!!ortnity to s/!na is 2itnesses, 2ereas in .te -ase at /ar neiter te a--sed nor is attorney in#ored te -ort tat tere 2as any 2itness tat tey 2anted to /e -ited. It does not a!!ear even no2 tat tere 2as any essentia" 2itness 2o e -o"d ave !resented ad not te -ase /een tried on st 1t.. :en te a--sed 2as arrained on st 9 te -ort to"d i tat, i# e ad any 2itness tat e 2anted te -ort to s/!na, e so"d so in#or te -ort as soon as !ossi/"e in order tat te tria" o# te -ase it not /e de"ayed. Te se-ond assinent o# error raises a Bestion 2i- is add ressed to te !ersona" Ba"i#i-ation o# is Honor, $ar"os . I!eria", to !reside at te earin o# tis -ase. Te e=-e!tion to te tria" de 2as /ased on te #a-t tat te "atter ad attended te #nera" o/seBies o# *overnor %era, 2i- ad /een -ara-teried /y ar3ed ani#esta estations o# !/"i- rie# and sy!aty. Tis #a-t 2as re"ied !on as so2in tat 6de I!eria" 2as /iased and -o"d no t /e re"ied on to try te a--sed 2it re-titde, sti-e, and i!artia"ity. Te de, o2ever, did not a--ede to tis sestion and !ro-eeded 2it te tria" as a"ready stated. Tere is in or o!inion no erit in te assinent. No !redi-e on te !art o# te de is in #a-t so2n, and te re-ord /y no eans /ears ot te ass!tion tat te de 2as in #a-t in any 2ise /iased. rterore, te o/e-tion raised is not /a sed !on any o# te ronds o# disBa"i#i-ation stated in se-tion 8 o# -t No. 190. Tis se-tion e=!ress"y enerates 2itot 404

404 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. a/iity te ases in 2i- a de or sti-e o# te !ea-e is disBa"i#ied #ro a-tin as s-, and te e=!ress eneration o# tese -ases e=-"des oters. S- is te tenor o# te de-isions o# tis -ort in te -ases o# 'er#e-to vs. $ontreras 8 'i". &e!., 5>8J, and 6oaBin vs. (arretto 5 'i". &e!., 81J. In te -ase "ast -ited it 2as e"d Gtat e=tree de"i-a-y 2as no rond #or disBa"i#yin a de #ro tryin a -ase. Te de-isions st -ited are -ivi" -ases /t in te a/sen-e o# e=!ress !rovision in te $ode o# $riina" 'ro-edre, te ana"oy is o# va"e. In te tird assinent it is i!ted a s error tat te -ort at te earin denied a otion o# te attorney o# te a--sed to 2itdra2 te !"ea o# not i"ty !revios"y entered /y i in order to !erit a derrer to /e #i"ed to te in#oration. Te attorney did not dis-"ose to te -ort te rond on 2i- e !ro!osed to /ase is derrer, and as te in#oration a!!ears to /e s##i-ient, it is evident tat tis otion 2as ere"y di"atory, and te -ort -oitted no error in re#sin to a--ede tereto. Te a-tion o# te tria" -ort in !assin ! on an a!!"i-ation o# tis -ara-ter is "are"y dis-retionary and is not s/e-t to revie2 e=-e!t 2ere te di-ia" dis-retion a!!ears to ave /een a/sed. Te #ort s!e-i#i-ation is addressed to te s!!osed error o# te -ort in re#sin to -o!e" te !rovin-ia" #is-a" to !rod-e in -ort at te reBest o# te attorney #or te a--sed -ertain 2ritten stateents 2i- ad /een ade /y te 2itnesses 'edro *ona"es, *reorio de *an, and ntonio rane in a !re"iinary inBiry -ond-ted /y te #is-a" !re!aratory to tis !rose-tion. It a!!ears tat a#ter te 2itnesses a/ ove entioned ad /een e=ained in -ort #or te !rose-tion, tey 2ere trned over to te attorney #or te a--sed and 2ere /y i #""y -rosse=ained. %ater, 2en te  ivin o# testiony #or te !rose-tion ad /een -on-"ded, te de#ense !ro-eeded to introd-e sndry 2itnesses 2o 2ere e=ained in de -orse. #ter #or ad ts testi#ied, and iediate"y ./e#ore te a--sed 2as !"a-ed !on te stand in is o2n 405

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 405 United States vs. (a"yot. /ea"#, is attorney ade te reBest tat te de-"arations or stateents a/ove re#erred to so"d /e !rod-ed. Te attorney #or te !rose-tion o/e-ted on te rond tat one !arty -annot /e -o!e""ed to !rod-ed eviden-e in #avor o# te oter. Te -ort 2as o# te o!inion tat te 2ritten de-"arations te !rod-tion o# 2i- 2as sot 2ere o# a !rivi"eed natre and a--ordin"y overr"ed te otion. :e are o# te o!inion tat te -ort 2as not in error in

re#sin to -o!e" te !rod-tion o# te do-ents in Bestion. Tey 2ere not oriina" or inde!endent eviden-e o# s- a -ara-ter as to ive te a--sed an nBa"i#ied rit to -o!e" teir !rod-tion, and no !ro!er /asis 2as "aid in te -rosse=aination o# te 2itnesses 2o ad ade tose stateents to sti#y teir !rod-tion 2it a vie2 to te i!ea-ent o# te de-"arants. Te reBest 2as o# -orse /ased !on te s!!osition or e=!e-tation tat i# te stateents o# te 2itnesses /e#ore te #is-a" 2ere !rod-ed, tey it /e #ond to -ontain soetin di##erent #ro 2at 2as -ontained in teir testiony iven in -ort. :e 3no2 o# no r"e o# !ra-ti-e 2i- sstains te -ontention o# te a!!e""antG Te stateents in Bestion 2ere not te s2orn de-"arations o# 2itnesses ta3en in -on# ority 2it te reBireents o# se-tion 1> o# *enera" )rders, N) 58, and 2i- are -oon"y atta-ed to te e=!ediente transitted /y te -oittin aistrate to te $ort o# irst Instan-e. In te -ase at /ar te !re"iinary e=aination /e#ore te -oittin aistrate 2as 2aived /y te a--sed, and te de-"arations o# te 2itnesses #or te !rose-tion 2ere tere#ore not ta3en /e#ore te aistrate. Te de-"arations re#erred to 2ere, on te -ontrary, ta3en in an investiation -ond-ted /y te #is-a" nder te atority o# se-tion 18A o# te dinistrative $ode. Tis se-tion atories te #is-a", i# e dees it 2ise, to -ond-t an investiation into te atter o# any -rie or isdeeanor #or te !r!ose o# instittin or -arryin on a -riina" !rose-tion It is e=!ress"y de-"ared tat tis se-tion sa"" not /e -onstred to atorie a !rovin-ia" #is-a" to a-t as a sti-e o# te !ea-e in any !re"iinary investiation. Te 40

40 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. !ro-eedin ere -onte!"ated is o# an adinistrative -ara-ter, and te in#oration tere/y a-Bired is intended #or te se o# te #is-a" in te -ond-t o# te !rose-tion. S- de-"arations tere#ore !ertain to te o##i-ia" #i"e in te o##i-e o# te !/"i- !rose-tor and are not s/e-t to !rod-tion at te ere reBest o# te attorney #or te a--sed 2ere no rond tere#or ad /een "aid. In order tat 2e ay not /e isnderstood, as 2e"" as #or te !r!ose o# -"ari#yin te !ra-ti-e in s- atters, a #e2 2ords ay ere /e !ro!er"y said in res!e-t to te !ro!er ode o# !ro-eedin in a -ase 2ere a !arty 2ises to et /e#ore te -ort -ontradi-tory stateents ade /y a 2itness 2o is testi#yin #or te adversary !arty. or instan-e, i# te attorney #or te a--sed ad in#oration tat a -ertain 2itness, say 'edro *ona"es, ad ade and sined a s2orn stateent /e#ore te #is-a" ateria""y di##erent #ro tat iven in is testiony /e#ore te -ort, it 2as in-/ent !on te attorney 2en -rosse=ainin said 2itness to dire-t is attention to te dis-re!an-y and to as3 i i# e did not a3e s- and s- stateent /e#ore te #is-a" or i# e did not tere a3e a stateent di##erent #ro tat de"ivered in -ort. I# te 2itness adits te a3in o# s- -ontradi-tory stateent, te a--sed as te /ene#it o# te adission, 2i"e te 2itness as te o!!ortnity to e=!"ain te dis-re!an-y, i# e -an. )n te oter and, i# te 2itness denies a3in any s- -ontradi-tory stateent, te a--sed as te rit to !rove tat te 2itness did a3e s- stateent< and i# te #is-a" so"d re#se !on de noti-e to !rod-e te do-ent, se-ondary eviden-e o# te -ontents tereo# 2o"d /e adissi/"e. Tis !ro-ess o# -rosse=ainin a 2itness !on te !oint o# !rior -ontradi-tory stateents is -a""ed in te !ra-ti-e o# te eri-an -orts "ayin a !redi-ate #or te introd-tion o# -ontradi-tory stateents. It is. a"ost niversa""y a--e!ted .tat n"ess a rond is ts "aid !on -rosse=aination, eviden-e o# -ontradi-tory stateents are not adissi/"e to i!ea- a 2itness< to ndo/ted"y 40A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 40A United States vs. (a"yot. te atter is to a "are e=tent in te dis-retion o# te -ort. :e 2is to add tat in a -ase o# tis 3ind, i# te a--sed ad, /y a##idavit or oter2ise, ade it a!!ear to te satis# a-tion o# te -ort tat te 2itnesses naed ad ade stateents in teir de-"arations /e#ore te #is-a" ateria""y at varian-e 2it teir stateents in -ort and tat te !rod-tion o# said de-"arations 2as ne-essary or even desira/"e, in te interests o# sti-e, te -ort 2o"d ave ad a!"e !o2er to order teir !rod-tion. No s- so2in, or intiation, 2as ade in tis -ase< and te attorney 2o ade te otion 2as ere"y an"in at rando to dis-over soetin tat it !rove to /e #avora/"e to is -"ient. To !t a -ort in error #or re#sin to entertain s- a otion 2o"d en-orae #rivo"os de"ays and tend to e/arrass te s!eedy and !ro!er adinistration o#  sti-e. Te "ast assinent dire-ted to s!!o sed error o# "a2 in te a-tion o# te tria" -ort is to te e##e-t tat te de ade is de-ision 2itot earin te assessors 2o a-ted at te tria". In tis -onne-tion it a!!ears tat at te reBest o# te a--sed t2o assessors 2ere a!!ointed in a--ordan-e 2it te !rovisions o# se-tions 15>11 o# -t No. 190, 2i- !rovisions 2ere e=tended to -riina" -ases /y -t No. >9 o# te 'i"i!!ine %eis"atre. Te re-ord does not so2 tat te assessors in te -ase /e#ore s 2ere in #a-t -ons"ted /y te de, and te de-ision o# te -ort a3es no ention o# te. :e are o# te o!inion tat, te irre"arity, i# s- it /e, is iateria". Te #n-tions o# te assessor are !re"y advisory, and te res!onsi/i"ity # or te de-ision rests e=-"sive"y 2it te de. Te statte does not reBire tat te o!inions o# te assessors sa"" /e re-orded e=-e!t 2ere t2o or ore assessors are o# te o!inion tat te -ortGs #indins o# #a-t are 2ron. In te si"en-e o# te re-ord it is to /e !resed not on"y tat te # n-tions o# te assessors 2ere !ro!er"y !er# ored /t tat tey areed 2it te #indins o# te -ort. Tis !res!tion is /orne ot in te -ase /e#ore s /y te -ir 408

408 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED

United States vs. (a"yot. -stan-e tat a#ter te re-ords o# te -ase ad /een sent ! to tis -ort, te -"er3 o# -ort o# (ataan #or2arded as !art o# said re-ords -erti#i-ations sined /y te assessors 2o ad sat in te -ase, statin tat tey ad read te de-ision rendered /y te -ort and tat tey -on-rred in te #indins o# #a-t ade terein. It is not ne-essary tat te re-ord so"d a##irative"y so2 tat te de -ons"ted te assessors /e#ore a3in is de-ision, as in te a/sen-e o# a so2in to te -ontrary it is to /e !resed tat e did so. ro te !re-edin dis-ssion it is a!!arent tat, in te vie2 sstained / y te aority o# te e/ers o# tis -ort, no ateria" error 2as -oitted /y te tria"  de eiter in te ode o# -ond-tin te tria" or in te Ba"i#i-ation o# te -rie and #i=in te !ena"ty attendant tere!on. Ho2ever, as one o# te 6sti-es o# tis -ort is not in a--ord 2it te aority 2it reard to te !ro!riety o# te i!osition o# te deat !ena"ty, te !ena"ty i!osed st, in -on#ority 2it te reBireents o# -t No. A o# te 'i"i!!ine %eis"atre, /e red-ed #ro deat to -adena !er!eta 2it te a--essory !ena"ties !res-ri/ed in arti-"e 54 o# te 'ena" $ode. s ts odi#ied te dent a!!ea"ed #ro is a##ired, 2it -osts aainst te a!!e""ant. So ordered. re""ano, $. 6., Torres, 6onson, and van-ea, 66., -on-r. Ma"-o", 6., 2as not !resent at te arent, and did not ta3e !art in te dis!osition o# te -ase. Moir, 6., voted 2it te aority o# te -ort #or te a##iran-e o# te dent, /t on a--ont o# is a/sen-e at te tie o# .te !ro"ation o# tis o!inion is nae does not a!!ear sined tereto. Sd.J $. S. &E%%N). &U%%), 6., dissentin;

I dissent #ro te #oreoin o!inion o # te 6sti-es in reard to te -"assi#i-ation o# te -rie -oitted /y te a--sed 6ose I. (a"yot and te !ena"ty 2i- ot to /e i!osed !on i. 409

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 409 United States vs. (a"yot. #ter a -are#" stdy o# te -ase, in y o!inion te deat o# *overnor $onrado %era o# te 'rovin-e o# (ataan -ased /y (a"yot in te ornin o# st >, 1918, -annot /e Ba"i#ied /y a"evosXa trea-eryJ, and -onseBent"y te -rie -oitted /y said a--sed is tat o# oi-ide. :ere#ore, te !ena"ty -orres!ondin to said -rie so"d ave /een i!osed. Tere is trea-ery a"evosXaJ 2en te o##ender -oits any o# te -ries aainst te !erson, e!"oyin eans, etods, or #ors in te e=e-tion tereo# 2i- tend dire-t"y and s!e-ia""y to insre its e=e-tion 2itot ris3 to ise"# arisin #ro te de#ense te o##ended !arty it a3e. rt. 10, !ar. , o# te 'ena" $ode.J It is a do-trine !e"d re!eated"y /y te -orts tat te -ir-stan-es 2i- Ba"i#y te oi-ide, -onvertin sae into rder, ot to /e !roven /y te !rose-tion "i3e te oi-ide itse"#, to 2it, /eyond a reasona/"e do/t, /e# ore te sae ay /e Ba"i#ied as rder and te -orres!ondin !ena"ty i!osed< tat in order tat te G-rie o# rder ay /e -onsidered esta/"ised, it is reBisite tat tere a!!ear !roved in a anner evident and ndis!ta/"e one o# te -ir-stan-es enerated in arti-"e 40> o# te 'ena" $ode< tat ere !res!tions and y!oteti-a" ded-tions do not s##i-e #or teir a!!raisa" and  sti#i-ation. It as a"so /een e"d re!eated"y tat /e# ore trea-ery -an /e -onsidered as a Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# te -rie o# oi-ide, it is reBisite tat tere a!!ear as -"ear"y !roven tat reardin it no do/t 2atever !resents itse"#, arisin #ro s!!ositions #onded on #a-ts 2i- ay ave /een te s/e-t atter o# te eviden-e at te tria". It 2as !roven; irst, tat te a--sed 6ose I. (a"yot, /et2een 10 and 11 a. . o# st >, 1918, #indin ise"# in te roo or o##i-e o# te !rovin-ia" overnor o# (ataan, $onrado %era, a"one 2it te "atter, 2it a revo"ver 2i- e 2as -arryin #ired, #irst, t2o sots at sort interva"s at said overnor+te #irst sot 2i"e te overnor 2as seated in #ront o# is 2ritin des3, te se-ond 2i"e e, avin stood !, 2as in te a-t o# /eta3in ise"# to a "itt"e 410

410 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. !assae2ay "eadin to a -orridor adoinin te o##i-e,+and a#ter2ards a tird, te said %era ten /ein /eind te door o# a -"oset, 2erein e too3 re#e, #"eein #ro is !rser 2o aied sa id tird sot tro said door< se-ond, tat te !roe-ti"e o# te #irst sot e ntered te #ronta" reion o# %eraGs rit so"der /"ade, tat is to say as Dr. Men-ias, 2o e=ained i #ive intes a#ter te in-ident as statedJ, te reion /e"o2 te !!er rit -"avi-"e, !assin tro te said !art o# te /ody, te /a-3 o# te -air in 2i- %era 2as sittin and "odin itse"# in te 2a"" o# te roo /eind te -air< tird, tat te !roe-ti"e o# te se-ond sot a"so entered te sae !art o# %eraGs /ody /t a/ot one or t2o in-es #ro te #irst, !assed tro te /ody and, "i3e te #irst, -ae ot o# te so"der /"ade on te sae side+said 2onds not /ein ne-essari"y orta" e=-e!t in -ase o# -o!"i-ations< and #ort, tat te !roe-ti"e o# te tird sot !enetrated te !ane" o# te door /eind 2i- te de-ease ad ta3en re#e, str-3 i in te rit te!ora" reion, -oin ot o# te "e#t eye and destroyin sae, tis 2ond /ein ne-essari"y orta" and serios #or te -ere/r 2as !enetrated, te res"t /ein tat te 2onded %era, 2itot /ein a/"e to say a 2ord and 2itot re-overin -on-iosness, died at ;>5 !. . o# tat sae day, or a!!ro=iate"y tree ors a#ter avin /een 2onded.

*overnor %era and te a--sed (a"yot /ein a"one in te overnorGs o##i-e 2en (a"yot, a3in se o# te revo"ver 2i- e 2as -arryin, /ean te atta-3< and no/ody avin 2itnessed 2at o--rred /et2een te /e#ore te one /ean te atta-3 !on te oter or drin te sae< and te one atta-3ed avin died 2itot /ein a/"e to say a 2ord, on a--ont o# te ravity o# te 2ond -ased /y te "ast sot< it is ndenia/"e tat no one, 2it te e=-e!tion o# te a--sed ise"#, as /een in a !osition to re"ate 2at too3 !"a-e ten /et2een i and te de-eased. It is said in te aority de-ision tat te a--sed, in te ornin o# te tird day o# st a#oresaid, 2as a2aitin *overnor %era in te re-orderGs o##i-e, a sort o# 411

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 411 United States vs. (a"yot. anteroo to te overnorGs o##i-e< tat on te overnorGs arriva" a/ot 11 oG-"o-3 a. . a#ter an e=-ane o# #riend"y reetin and andsa3in te a--sed 2as invited #irst /y te overnor into said o##i-e, in !re#eren-e to anoter -a""er -a""ed rane 2o 2as a"so 2aitin< tat te a--sed entered and, te t2o reained a"one in said o##i-e #or > or 4 intes, /t as it a!!eared to te overnor tat te intervie2 2o"d /e "oner, e reBested te a--sed to o ot a inte in order to -on#er 2it said ntonino rane. Te a--sed did so, rane entered te overnorGs o##i-e and ad a #e2 intes -on#eren-e. s soon as tis 2as over, te a--sed reFntered te overnorGs o##i-e and tat 2as 2en te a#oreentioned tree sots #ired s--essive"y /y te a--sed, 2ere eard. &e#errin to 2at too3 !"a-e ten /et2een i and *overnor %era, te a--sed said tat e -ae tat ornin #ro )rion to (a"ana 2ere e ad /een drin te #irst ors o# te sae ornin o--!ied in si!!in is 2i#eGs !iano to Mani"a, is !r!ose /ein to ave an intervie2 2it te &e!resentative o# said !rovin-e, &eyes, and *overnor %era, to ta"3 over -ertain tins 2it te and to /id te ood/ye /e#ore "eavin #or $e/ as e intended to do, /t as &e!resentative &eyes 2as not in to2n ten, is intervie2 2as on"y 2it te overnor< tat te #irst tie e et te overnor in is o##i-e te""in i te o/e-t o# is visit, %era said; I -an a"ost ess 2at yo 2ant to say to e0 se-onds. Tere#ore, in y dent, te a#oreentioned -on-"sion -annot /e rea-ed /y eans o# te testiony o# te 2itnesses 2o 2ere in te se-retaryGs o##i-e, i. e., o# te tree 2itnesses a/ove naed< nor -an it /e -on-"sive"y ded-ed #ro sae, as is a"so stated in te sae de-ision, tat, iediate"y !on as3in te overnor a/ot is revo"ver, and dis-overin tat e 2as de#ense"ess, (a"yot dre2 is o2n revo"ver and #ired. Ho2ever, in order to arrive at said -on-"sion, te aority as ad nder -onsideration varios #a-ts and -ir-stan-es 2i- are re"ated in te sae de-ision indi-ative o# te !r!ose ten -on-eived, a--ordin to te aority, /y te a--sed to 3i"" trea-eros"y *overnor %e ra. In #a-t it is said in te aority de-ision tat te overnor, !on /ein in#ored tat (a"yot ad one tere to ave an intervie2 2it i, invited (a"yot to !ass into is o##i-e< /t (a"yot esitated, avin noted te !resen-e o# anoter -a""er, and as3ed i# te "atter did not ave a !rior rit to an intervie2 2it te overnor. :at #o""o2s #ro te eviden-e reardin tis !arti-"ar is tat; irst, a--ordin to te re-order, 'edro *ona"e, 2o 2as ten in is o##i-e, 2en *overnor %era arrived and sa2 (a"yot e reeted te "atter and invited i to !ass into is o##i-e and tat (a"yot 2ent in< se-ond, a--ordin to ntonino rane, 2en te overnor arrived in te re-orderGs o##i-e, e reeted every/ody, sayin ood ornin, tat tey, in trn, reeted i, tat (a"yot soo3 ands 2it te overnor 2o ten invited (a"yot to enter is o##i-e sayin; $oe ere, #riend, !ass in, and ten (a"yot as3ed; :i- o# s t2o, Mr. rane or yse"#, is te one 2o ot to enter #irst and te overnor ans2ered; @o ot to enter #irst, and, in #a-t, te overnor an d (a"yot entered into te #orerGs o##i-e< and tird, a--ordin to te sae a--sed, (a"yot, in tat ornin e 2as in te re-orderGs o##i-e 2ere e #o nd an e!"oyee 41

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 41 United States vs. (a"yot. ty!e2ritin< tat te re-order *ona"e and rane arrived a#ter e did< tat 2en te overnor arrived a"" reeted ea- oter as sa"< tat te overnor avin invited i, sayin; $oe in, e te a--sedJ, /e#ore enterin te overnorGs o##i-e, as3ed te re-order 2o o# tose 2aitin #or te overnor ad te !rior rit to enter, tat te re-order said; He 2o ad arrived #irst ot to enter #irst, ten e te a--sedJ entered te overnorGs o##i-e< te a--sed added #rterore, in is testiony re-., >J tat te !rovin-ia" assessor, *reorio de *an, avin entered te re-orderGs o##i-e 2i"e rane 2as in te overnorGs o##i-e, e te a--sedJ said to te re-order te #o""o2in; Mr. *ona"e, I ive yo noti-e tat te ne=t trn is ine and not Mr. *reorio de

*an, 2o as st -oe, and De *an ans2ered; @es, I ive y trn to yo, and tat a#ter ntonino rane ad -oe ot o# te sae e te a--sedJ ten entered te overnorGs o##i-e. s it a!!ears #ro te #oreoin #a-ts, te a--sed did not esitate to enter into te overnorGs o##i-e /e-ase e ad noted te !resen-e o# anoter -a""er. Te trt is tat, !on avin /een invited /y te overnor into is o##i-e, te a--sed 2ent in /t /e#ore enterin, e so2ed ise"# dis!osed to enter a#ter rane i# is trn 2as not !rior, avin #irst as3ed te re-order 2ose trn it 2as o# tose 2o 2ere 2aitin #or te overnor. $ertain"y, it -annot /e said # ro tis tat te a--sed so"d ave so2n esitation ten /e-ase e so"d 2ant to /e a"one 2it te overnor in is o##i-e, as it sees to /e iven to in#er in te aority de-ision. nd it is so - te ore -ertain tat te a--sed did n ot esitate to enter te overnorGs o##i-e inas- as 2en *reorio de *an 2as a"so in te o##i-e, e reinded te re-order, tat e ad a !rior rit to enter te overnorGs o##i-e tan De *an, 2o ad on"y re-ent"y arrived. In y dent, te -on-"sion in te aority de-ision tat Te #a-t tat (a"yot ad a"ready /een -a""ed into te 4

4 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. o##i-e !on te overnorGs #irst arriva" and a d 2itdra2n #or a #e2 oents to !erit anoter !erson to ave an intervie2 2as a"so -a"-"ated to !t te overnor o## is ard at te oent (a"yot reFntered te o##i-e st a"so /e re-ti#ied. ro te eviden-e, it does not a!!ear tat te initiative or te idea o# 2itdra2in #ro *overnor %eraGs o##i-e at tat oent ad -oe #ro (a"yot /t, on te -ontrary, it 2as te overnor ise"#, as te aority de-ision says ver/ati, 2o reBested (a"yot to 2itdra2 "on.eno #or te overnor to -on#er 2it ntonino rane, te oter -a""er to 2o re#eren-e as /een ade, in vie2 o# its avin o--rred to te overnor tat te intervie2 2i- e 2as ten avin 2it te a--sed it /e ore e=tended tan e ad e=!e-ted. Moreover, in is testiony re-. 15J re"ative to tis in-ident, te a--sed said tat, in is #irst intervie2 2it te overnor a#ter avin !rotested tat e ad notin to do 2it $a!tain ?e"eG se!aration #ro te Nationa" *ard, te overnor as3ed i; Is or intervie2 oin to /e very "on, Mr. (a"yot Do yo 2is to ive yor trn to Mr. rane 2o as a sort intervie2 and e ans2ered e ad no o/e-tion to tis< tat in vie2 o# te o vernorGs sestion, e 2ent ot o# te o##i-e to say so to rane a"ost at te sae tie tat te overnor 2as -a""in i< and tat e !assed into te re-orderGs o##i-e. (a"yot did not ten o# is o2n #ree 2i"" 2itdra2 #ro te overnorGs o##i-e in order tat in te ean2i"e ntonino rane so"d enter in said o##i-e and ave a sort intervie2 2it te overnor. Nor -an it /e in#erred tat te overnor 2as o## is ard te oent te a--sed reFntered is o##i-e #ro te #a-t tat said a--sed ad 2itdra2n #ro te sae o##i-e #or a #e2 oent. Te in#eren-e is e=a-t"y te -ontrary /e-ase, te overnor 3no2in te a--sed 2as 2aitin in te re-orderGs o##i-e so tat rane so"d #inis is intervie2, e st ave /een a2are tat te a--sed 2as o in to retrn in is o##i-e as soon as rane so"d o ot. In a 2ord, te overnor 4>

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4> United States vs. (a"yot. st ave /een 2aitin # or (a"yot in is o##i-e, iediate"y a#ter rane de!arted tere#ro. In te sae de-ision it is said tat in te testiony iven /y (a"yot, ention is ade o# a -ir-stan-e seein"y to te aority o# i!ortan-e reardin *overnor %eraGs de#ense"essness 2en (a"yot, a#ter as3in  i #or is revo"ver, dre2 is o2n and #ired. --ordin to te de-ision, (a"yot said, Tat 2i"e e 2as sittin in te re-orderGs o##i-e, a2aitin te arriva" o# *overnor %era, 'a"o ?eneas, a ard atta-ed to te !rovin-ia" ai", -ae ! and a#ter s!ea3in in a "o2 voi-e 2it te re-order, entered te overnorGs o##i-e and !resent"y eered /rinin a revo"ver and soe -artrides. (a"yot noti-ed tat te revo"ver 2as dis-ared and rear3ed to te !erson avin it in and tat an n"oaded revo"ver is "ess se#" even tan a -ane. Te ard re!"ied tat e 2as not te !erson -ared 2it "oadin it, /t 2as oin to ta3e it ot to /e -"eaned, 2ere!on e disa!!eared -arryin te revo"ver 2it i. nd te aority in#er tat, natra""y, #ro te #oreoin #a-t (a"yot st ave s!!osed tat te revo"ver seen /y i 2as a 2ea!on -oon"y 3e!t in te overnorGs o##i-e and tat te "atter !on arriva" 2o"d /e nared in is o##i-e, n"ess e so"d !ossi/"y /rin a revo"ver !on is !erson, and tey -on-"ded tat tis -ir-stan-e so2ed tat te 2ord dire-ted to *overnor %era iediate"y /e#ore te #ata" atta-3 aainst i 2ere intended to dis-over 2eter *overnor %era 2as in #a-t nared, and tat, !on dis-overin tat *overnor %era did not ave is 2ea!on at and, te a--sed at on-e dre2 is o2n 2ea!on and #ired, and tat (a"yot tere#ore 3ne2 *overnor %era to /e nared and !ra-ti-a""y de#ense"ess, and it is !"ain tat atta-3 2as not /en nti" te assai"ant 2as #""y assred !on tis !oint. In #a-t, it a!!ears in eviden-e, #ro te testiony o# te a--sed, tat a#ter narratin te -onversation 2i- too3 !"a-e /et2een i, te re-order, and te oter !eo!"e in te o##i-e o# te "atter and 2at e sa2 and o/served at 44

44 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot.

tat oent 2i"e e 2as in said o##i-e and /e#ore *overnor %eraGs arriva", e said tat 'a"o ?eneas, te 2arden o# te !rovin-ia" ai", entered te a#oresaid o##i-e 2ere tey 2ere, and a#ter 2is!erin soe 2ords to te re-order, te "atter 2ent into te overnorGs o##i-e retrnin tere#ro 2it a revo"ver and soe -artrides 2i- e de"ivered to said 2arden< tat as te "atter stayed #or a 2i"e near te, !""in te trier o# te revo"ver 2i- 2as dis-ared, e rear3ed to te 2arden tat an n"oaded revo"ver is "ess se#" even tan a -ane, and te 2arden re!"ied tat e 2as oin to ta3e ot said 2ea!on to /e -"eaned. (t. in is testiony as 2itness #or te !rose-tion, and /e#ore te a--sed ad testi#ied in tese ters in is o2n /ea"#, #or e testi#ied 2en te de#ense o##ered teir eviden-eJ te re-order *ona"e ise"# said re-., 8>J tat in tat ornin te 2arden o# te ai" too3 #ro i a revo"ver, /e#ore te a--sed #irst et or intervie2ed te overnor< and tat te a--sed 2as !resent 2en e de"ivered te revo"ver to te 2arden< and in ans2er to a Bestion !ro!onded !on i /y te -ortJ tat said revo"ver /e"oned to te 2arden, /e-ase 2en te "atter and te overnor retrned #ro Mani"a, it 2as "e#t in is -are. It #o""o2s, tere#ore, tat, i# te a--sed sa2 or /e"ieved to ave seen te re-order ta3in te revo"ver # ro te overnorGs o##i-e /e#ore de"iverin it to te 2arden, te trt 2as tat te re-order ad in is -are te revo"ver 2i- did not /e"on to te overnor /t to te 2arden, 2o too3 it 2it i !on "eavin te re-orderGs o##i-e to ave it -"eaned, as te 2arden ise"# as testi#ied. ro te #a-t tat te 2arden, !on "eavin te re-orderGs o##i-e, too3 2it i said revo"ver, 2i- e ad re-eived #ro te #orer as said 2arden testi#ied tat it 2as iven to iJ e ven i# te a--sed st ave s!!osed tat said revo"ver 2as a 2ea!on -oon"y 3e!t in te overnorGs o##i-e, it -annot /e said tat sae a--sed it ave a"so s!!osed tat te overnor !on arriva" 2o"d /e nared in is o##i-e< /e-ase, as te sae de-ision says te overnor -o"d ave !ossi/"y /rot a revo"ver !on is !erson, and (a 45

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 45 United States vs. (a"yot. "yot -o"d ave very 2e"" /e"ieved tis sin-e e 2as a"so -arryin is. Moreover, 2at st /e in#erred #ro te very #a-t tat te a--sed ad entioned in is testiony tis -ir-stan-e tat e ad seen a revo"ver iven /y te re-order toG te 2arden 2i-, a--ordin to te a--sed ise"#, te re-order too3 #ro te overnorGs o##i-eJ 2itot avin /een Bestioned !on tis #a-t /t 2i- e s!ontaneos"y ave 2en e re#erred, aon oter tins, to te -onversation 2i- too3 !"a-e /et2een i and te !eo!"e in te re-orderGs o##i-e and to te tins e sa2 terein 2i"e 2aitin #or te overno r, a!!ears to /e tat te a--sed did not ta3e advantae nor tried to ta3e advantae o# 2at e ad seen< i. e., tat te revo"ver, 2i- te 2arden too3 ot 2it i 2as not in te overnorGs o##i-e at te tie e atta-3ed te "atter< /e-ase, i# it ad /een so, e 2o"d not ave ade ention o# said revo"ver in is testiony, nor tat te re-order too3 it #ro te overnorGs o##i-e and ave it to te 2arden, as e 2as not e=ained !on tis !oint 2en e 2as testi#yin. Said stateent 2as s!ontaneos"y and vo"ntari"y ade /y i, and it is natra" and even -oon sense tat, i# e 2anted to ta3e advantae o# 2at e ad seen and e 2as sre tat said revo"ver 2as no "oner in te overnorGs o##i-e, e 2o"d not ave as3ed te overnor any ore o# is revo"ver as te 2itness *reorio de *an as saidJ /e#ore #irin is o2n revo"ver at i. Tis so2s tat e ad not /een a2are o# tat #a-t, oter2ise e 2o"d ave idden and denied it in is testiony even i# e ad /een e=ained a/ot it, instead o# re#errin to it s!ontaneos"y and vo"ntari"y as e did. In narratin te #a-ts 2i- too3 !"a-e /et2een te overnor and te a--sed 2i"e tey 2ere a"one in te o##i-e o# te #orer 2en said a--sed #ired is revo"ver at said overnor, a"ready entioned, te aority de-ision says tat te se-ond sot so"d a!!arent"y ave entered #ro /eind te vi-ti. nd a"to sae de-ision oes on to say tat tis !oint is o# "itt"e i!ortan-e, inas- as it is o/vios tat (a"yot 2as te aressor troot and 4

4 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. tat te se-ond sot 2as #ired at an nared an 2ose on"y !r!ose 2as to e##e-t an es-a!e to a !"a-e o# sa#ety, te -onsideration o# s- a -ir-stan-e as ndo/ted"y in#"en-ed te ind o# te aority as te oter -ir-stan-es entioned in said de-isionJ in deterinin tat te eans and etods e!"oyed /y te a--sed in atta-3in and 3i""in *overnor %era 2ere trea-eros. It is /eyond a"" do/t tat *overnor %era 2as sittin in te -air 2i- 2as in #ront o# is des3 ar3ed 2it te n/er  in te !"an E=i/it (J soe2at re-"inin /a-32ards in said -air, and tat 2en te a--sed #ired te #irst sot e 2as in # ront o# te overnor 2o st ave a"so iediate"y stood ! #ro is seat, dire-tin ise"# to2ards te -orridor 2i- 2as on te "e#t side o# te seat or -air 2ere e 2as sittin. Te #irst sot str-3 te s!er-"avi-"ar reion or te #ronta" reion o# te rit so"der /"ade o# te vi-ti, !assin tro te a#oresaid !art o# te /ody as te aority de-ision saysJ, and !enetratin te /a-3 o# te -air in 2i- te overnor 2as sittin. --ordin to ntonino rane 2o, !on earin te #irst sot, entered te overnorGs o##i-e, !"a-in ise"# at te side o# a s-reen 2i- 2as /e#ore te door o# said o##i-e, ar3ed 2it te "etter  in te !"an E=i/it (J #ro said !"a-e e sa2 te a--sed #ire te se-ond sot 2it is revo"ver at te overnor 2o 2as at tis oent #"eein to2ards te -o rridor, and 2as at te !oint ar3ed 2it te "etter n in said !"an, 2it is rit and raised to is rit so"der, te a--sed /ein ten at te !oint ar3ed 2it te "etter  in sae !"an, and te overnorGs #a-e 2as trned in te dire-tion o# is #"it, to2ards te -orridor or te soteastern !art o# te /i"din, st /y and to2ards te rit side o# te a--sed 2o 2as in #ront o# te overnor, and e raneJ tot tat te overnor -o"d ave seen 2at (a"yot 2as doin. Te aority de-ision says, reardin tis !arti-"ar, tat te 2itness rane a3es it -"ear tat as te atter !resented itse"# to is eye, te overnor 2as #"eein 2it is rit side, rater tan is #ront, e=!osed to (a"yot. 4A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919.

4A United States vs. (a"yot. Dr. (oni#a-io Men-ias, te sanitary o##i-ia" o# (ataan, 2o e=ained te overnorGs 2onds #ive intes a#ter tey 2ere in#"i-ted .and 2i"e te vi-ti 2as yet "ivin, says, in te edi-a" -erti#i-ate 2i- e ave on tat sae day, st >, tat e #ond in *overnor %eraGs /ody te #o""o2in 2ond; T2o 2onds in#"i-ted 2it a #irear in te reion o# te !!errit -"avi-"e -oin ot o# te reion o# te rit so"der/"ade a 2ond -oin ot J in te reion o# te rit te!"e. Te #irst t2o 2onds are not orta", /t te tird 2as orta", it avin !enetrated te -ere/r. t te earin sae Do-tor Men-ias, testi#yin #or te !rose-tion, said tat $onrado %era ad tree !er#oratin 2onds and 2ere "o-ated; one in te ead enterin te rit te!"e and -oin ot o# te "e#t side, and te oter in te rit so"der -oin ot o# te so"der/"ade o# te sae side. In tis sae testiony e 2ent on to say tat *overnor %eraGs t2o 2onds in te rit so"der ad entered #ro in #ront and ad -oe ot #ro te reion o# te so"der/"ade re-., 19J < tat in is dent te sots 2i- te overnor re-eived in is rit so"der 2ere #ired in #ront o# i re-., AJ < tat one o# said 2onds st ave /een re-eived /y te overnor 2i"e e 2as sittin< tat one o# said 2onds 2as one and onea"# in-es #ro te oter re-., 8J. In e=!"ainin 2y tere 2as /t one o"e at te /a-3 o# te -air -J o# te !"an E=i/it (, 2ere te overnor 2as sittin in s!ite o# te #a-t tat near te overnorGs rit so"der tere 2ere t2o 2onds 2it #or o"es t2o e=it 2onds and t2o entran-e 2ondsJ, te sae Do-tor Men-ias said tat e /e"ieved tat one o# te 2onds in te rit so"der st ave /een in#"i-ted !on te overnor 2en e arose #ro is -air. nd 2en e 2as as3ed /y te -ort @o testi#ied tat tose t2o 2onds in te rit so"der -o"d ave /een in#"i-ted #ro te overnorGs #ront, 2at do yo ean in sin te 2ord #ront e ans2ered; I ean to say tat e re-eived te 2onds 2i"e e 2as in #ront o# te assai"ant re-., 9J. ro an e=aination o# te !"an E=i/it (, it a!!ears 48

48 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. tat i# te a--sed 2as at te !oint ar3ed 2it te "etter J and *overnor %era 2as oin to2ards te -orridor /ein at te ! oint ar3ed 2it te "etter nJ 2en te #orer #ired te se-ond sot at te "atter, as it as /een said rane ad seen itJ, te !roe-ti"e o# te se-ond sot -o"d not ave entered in te reion o# te !!errit -"avi-"e or te reion in #ront o# te rit so"der/"ade and -oin ot o# te reion o# te so"der/"ade s-a!"aJ or te vi-tiGs /a-3 o# te sae side, /t st te reverse, #or a--ordin to te !osition in 2i- te overnor 2as at tat oent #a-in te -orridor to2ards 2i-  e 2as oin, as it 2as stated /y raneJ, a strait "ine dra2n #ro te !oint J, 2ere te a--sed 2as, a--ordin to rane ise"#J to te !oint nJ 2ere te overnor 2as a--ordin to sae 2itnessJ, st terinate, not in #ront or in te #ront ! art o# te vi-ti, /t !re-ise"y in te rit side o# is /a-3 or te /a-3 !art, and tere#ore te /""et o# te #irst sot st ave entered ere and st ave -oe ot o# te reion o# te !!errit -"avi-"e or te #ront !art o# te /ody o# said vi-ti. Moreover, ea- o# te o"es 2ere te !roe-ti"es entered, a--ordin to an e=!ress testiony o# Do-tor Men-ias, 2as in te reion o# te !!errit -"avi-"e or te reion in #ront o# te rit so"der/"ade, near te rit so"der, in #ront o# te vi-ti< and ea- one o# te o"es 2ere said !roe-ti"es !assed ot 2as in te rear !art o# sae so"der or te reion o# te rit s o"der/"ade, 2it te -ir-stan-e, #rterore, tat /et2een te t2o 2onds in said reion o# te !!errit -"avi-"e, or te reion in #ront o# te rit so "der/"ade, tere 2as a distan-e o# one or t2o in-es a--ordin to te aority de-ision, 2en it entioned te 2ond !rod-ed /y te se-ond sotJ. Tese are very evident !roo#s tat te #irst t2o sots 2ere #ired /y te a--sed 2en *overnor %era 2as in #ront o# i. Ho2ever, te aority de-ision says tat te ins!e-tion ade /y tis do-tor ay ave /een s!er#i-ia", and is o!inion ay ave /een !art"y a atter o# ere in#eren-e #ro is in#oration as to te  enera" #eatres o# te 49

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 49 United States vs. (a"yot. traedy, and tat at any rate e does not state any !arti-"ar #ro 2i- it -o"d -"ear"y /e dis-overed tat te se-ond sot entered te #ront. I do not /e"ieve tat ore detai"s are ne-essary, nor tat tereG are -"earer detai"s tan tose iven /y Do-tor Men-ias in tis ins!e-tion re-., J and in is stateents #ond and -an /e seen in te -ited !aes o# is testiony. It is a"so evident tat te ins!e-tion o# te do-tor a#oresaid as not /een s!er#i-ia"< nor is tere any reason to /e"ieve tat it as /een so< nor is tere any eviden-e to s!!ort s- a s!!osition< and it -annot /e s!!osed tat is o!inion ay ave /een !art"y a atter o# ere in#eren-e #ro is in#oration as to te enera" #eatres o# te traedy, /e-ase, as as a"ready /een said, said o!inion as /een te res"t o# a ateria" ins!e-tion o# te vi-tiGs /ody and te 2onds tese"ves -ond-ted /y said do-tor< i. e., 2at is eyes ave seen. Tis in#eren-e or s!!osition -o"d ave /etter /een a!!"ied to raneG testiony /e-ase sae 2as in o!en -ontradi-tion 2it te rea"ity and re#erred to an instan-e 2en said !erson 2as not in !ossession o# a serene s!irit s##i-ient to nderstand tat 2i- is eyes sa2. In #ine, te #o""o2in is te testiony o# rane in ans2er to te Bestions o# te $ort res!e-tin te !arti-"ar in !oint, as it a !!ears in te stenora!i- notes re-., 1J ; $)U&T. (t, at te oent te se-ond sot 2as #ired, 2at !art o# te /ody o# te a--sed 2as #a-in to2ards *overnor %era and 2at !art o# te /ody o# te "atter 2as #a-in to2ards te a--sed :"TNESS. I sa2 *overnor %era rnnin to2ards te -orridor in tis !osition. Te 2itness arises #ro is seat, "oo3s to2ards te soteastern !art o# te /i"din or te -ort roo and -ontines sayinJ :en te a--sed #ired te se-ond sot at te overnor e 2as "oo3in at i, so tat te a--sed 2as #a-in te overnor.

$)U&T. :at te -ort 2ants to say and 2ants to 3no2 is; 2en te a--sed #ired te se-ond sot at te overnor, in 2at !osition 2as te "atter in re"ation 2it te #orer+2as e in #ront, side2ays or at te /a-3 4>0

4>0 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. :"TNESS. He 2as a"ost side2ays and e 2as o n $a!tain (a"yotGs rit side 2i- 2as #a-in te overnor. So ntonino rane #irst said tat 2en te a--sed #ired te se-ond sot, e 2as #a-in and "oo3 in at te overnor, /t a#ter2ards, 2en te -ort as3ed i te se-ond Bestion in a very -"ear and !re-ise ter, as it a!!ears, e ans2ered 2at as a"ready /een said, nae"y tat te overnor 2as a"ost side2ays and over te rit side o# te a--sed 2i- 2as #a-in te overnor. Tese -ontradi-tory ans2ers ive te easre o# -redit 2i- s- a 2itness #or te !rose-tion deserves. nd it is very -"ear tat #ro is testiony it -annot /e in#erred tat te se-ond sot st ave ani#est"y entered #ro te overnorGs /a-3, as it is stated in te aority de-ision, /t tat it st a ve entered in a--ordan-e 2it te res"t o# te e=aination -ond-ted /y Do-tor Men-ias and 2at te "atter ad -"ear"y and e=!"i-it"y testi#ied to at te earin, nae"y, tat te se-ond sot e ntered #ro te #ront o# te vi-ti a/ot one or t2o in-es #ro te 2ond in#"i-ted /y te #irst. E=!ressin ise"# 2y e 2anted to a ve an intervie2 in te ornin o# te a#oreentioned day, st >, 2it &e!resentative &eyes and *overnor %era, te a--sed said tat e 2anted to ta3e "eave 2it te and to te"" te tat e as iven ! te #it /et2een te and to !ray te tat, i# !ossi/"e, tey so"d "eave i in !ea-e and sto! !erse-tin i 2en e sa"" ave sett"ed in $e/. --ordin to te a--sed 2en e #irst et *overnor % era tat ornin, te #irst Bestion e as3ed te "atter 2as 2eter &e!resentative &eyes 2as in (ataan, to 2i- te overnor ans2ered tat e did not tin3 so< tat e 2anted to avai" ise"# o# te !resen-e o# &e!resentative &eyes in order to ta3e "eave # ro te at te sae tie< tat te overnor as3ed i 2y e intended to "eave and e ans2ered tat e 2as !"annin to ave a tri! /t tat a/ove a"" e 2anted to te"" te soe 2ords, and ten te overnor said tat 2i- as. a"ready /een entioned /e#ore, I -an a"ost ess 2at yo 2ant to say to e, and te dia"oe 4>1

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4>1 United States vs. (a"yot. -ontined /et2een te t2o nti" at te reBest o# te overnor, 2o tot tat te -on#eren-e /et2een te 2o"d -ontine "oner tan 2at e as e=!e-ted, e te a--sedJ retired /a-3 to te re-orderGs o##i-e in order tat ntonino rane -o"d -on#er 2it te overnor, and to res e te -onversation /et2een te a#ter rane so"d ave #inised. Te 2i#e o# te a--sed as 2e"" as te a--sed ise"# st ave 3no2"ede o# te !roe-ts o# te "atter to-in !on 2at 2as -onvenient #or te -oon interest and #or te !arti-"ar interest o# ea- o# te. In No. 15 o# te dai"y ne2s!a!er, %a ?anardia, dated st At, 1918, 2i- 2as !resented at te earin as E=i/it  #or te de#ense, one o# te re!orters o# said !a!er, Ese/io &eyes te sae an, 2o avin /een in te ai" at (a"ana at te #irst ors o# st 5, !/"ised. in Nos. 150 and 151 o# said !a!er, -orres!ondin to Monday, te 5t, and Tesday, te t, o# te a#oreentioned ont, 2i- ave /een !resented as eviden-e #or te de#ense, a re!ort o# te di##erent detai"s o# te -rie o# 2i- *overnor %era 2as te vi-tiJ a!"i#yin said re!ort, entioned te -onversation e ad 2it te 2i#e o# te a--sed (a"yot in te ose 2ere se 2as "ivin in tis -a!ita" -on-ernin te in-ident and, aon oter tins, a--ordin to said re!ort, said 2i#e to"d i, as it a!!ears on te 4t !ae o# said !a!er, te # o""o2in; His tri! (a"yotGsJ to (ataan 2o"d ave /een te "ast at !resent nti" a#ter a "on tie, #or 2e ad /een !"annin to reside in $e/ 2it y /roter. :en (a"yotGs 2i#e e=!ressed erse"# in tese ters to te re!orter &eyes, se as not seen er s/and a#ter te "aenta/"e in-ident a!!ened and te a--sed as /een arrested and i!risoned in te !rovin-ia" ai" at (ataan, #or a--ordin to er o2n stateent to te re!orter a#oreentioned se ad on"y 3no2n 2at a!!ened /et2een er s/and and *overnor %era tr te re!ort !/"ised /e#ore in te sa e ne2s!a!er %a ?anardia and se 2anted 2i"e se 2as ta"3in 2it te re!orterJ to /e at 4>

4> 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. te side o# er s/and so tat se -o"d ive i a /ed, #ood, and 2atever e needed to te end tat te "onesoe ors o# is i!risonent it not /e very /itter to i, es!e-ia""y 2en se eard tat er s/andGs ands and #eet 2ere -ained as i# e 2ere a -oon # e"on and tat e 2as not a""o2ed to ta"3 to any/ody. Tis is an evident !roo# o# te trt o# te stateent o# te a--sed reardin is !ro!osed tri! to $e/, 2i- i!e""ed is desire to ave an intervie2 2it &e!resentative &eyes and *overnor %era in te ornin o# st >, /e-ase 2en te 2i#e o# te a--sed ade tat stateent to te re!orter &eyes, se as not yet /een in -oni-ation 2it te a--sed, nor as se ta"3ed 2it i. nd i# te re!ort iven in Nos. 150 and 151 o# te ne2s!a!er %a ?anardia, /y te re!orter Ese/io &eyes, as a res"t o# is intervie2 2it te a--sed in te ai" at (a"ana and 2it te re-order *ona"e and

oters 2o 2ere a#ter2ards -a""ed as 2itness #or te !rose-tionJ as /een !resented /y te "atter in eviden-e, it is not reasona/"e nor st to disreard 2at a!!ears in te stateent ade /y te 2i#e o# said a--sed to te sae re!orter, &eyes and 2i- a!!ears in No. 15 o# te a#oresaid !a!er, !resented as eviden-e #or te de#enseJ, -on-ernin teir !ro!osed tri! to $e/+a # a-t 2i-, on te oter and, as not /een -ontradi-ted at te earin. It -annot, tere#ore, /e a##ired, as te aority de-ision does, tat no very satis#a-tory e=!"anation as /een iven /y te a--sed as to te reason #or is tri! to )rion and es!e-ia""y to (a"ana tat ornin. nd even s!!osin it as tre tat te a--sed st ave /een entertainin a tirst #or venean-e and resentent to2ards te overnor #or te otives entioned in te aority de-ision, and #or 2i- te a--sed as iven a s##i-ient idea 2en e re#erred to te dia"oe 2i- too3 !"a-e /et2een i and te overnor at te tie e #irst entered te o##i-e o# te "atter, neverte"ess #ro said otives it -annot /e in#erred tat te -on-"sion is irresisti/"e tat e 2as -arried to (a"ana /y a tirst # or venean-e or tat e as deterined to 3i"" 4>>

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4>> United States vs. (a"yot. te overnor, as is stated in te aority de-isionJ, 2en e 2ent into said o##i-e in tat ornin. In order to arrive at s- a -on-"sion te aority ave a"so ta3en into -onsideration te #a-t tat on 6"y 14, 1918, /ein, says te aority de-ision, #""y i/ed 2it te idea tat *overnor % era 2as !erse-tin i and attri/tin to te a-inations o# said overnor is !rose-tion #or te -rie o# esta#a in te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# te -ity o# Mani"a and is avin /een reBested to resin #ro te !osition o# -a!tain in te Nationa" *ard, te a--sed in te -orse o# a -onversation 2it one 'edro Maaes, a #riend o# is, ad said to te "atter tat *overnor %era 2o"d !ay #or te is#ortnes ortnes tat 2ere /e# a""in i (a"yotJ < and tat a"so, on a riday in, te ont o# st, !rior to te -oission o# te -rie, te a--sed et is -o!adre, -a""ed Doino %inta, and !on sa3in ands e te a--sedJ sBeeed is and tit"y and said; May /e tis is te "ast tie tat 2e 2o"d sa3e ands. U!on testi#yin, 'edro Maaes in #a-t said tat, 2en e et te a--sed on te a#oreentioned day, 6"y 14, in te rai"road -ar 2i- 2as /ond #ro Mani"a to *aa 2it te o/e-t o# a#ter2ards oin to (a"ana, e as3ed te a--sed 2at ad /e-oe o# te -are o# te Nationa" (an3 aainst i #or te -rie o# esta#a, and te a--sed to"d i tat it 2as oin on 2e"" and tat e adired te -ond-t o# %era, Sr., or o# te overnorGs #aterJ, and tat e detested te -ond-t o# %era, 6r., or o# said overnorJ < tat te overnor did not 3no2 tat e te a--sedJ 2as sti"" 2ort soetin in (ataan, and tat soe day said overnor 2o"d !ay #or te tins tat ave /e#a""en !o n i. Moreover, 2en te #is-a" e=ained said 2itness e ans2ered te #o""o2in; . :o is sti"" 2ort soetin in (ataan+. Sr. (a"yot. . nd 2o 2i"" !ay soe day+. --ordin to y /e"ie#, it is Mr. $onrado %era. 4>4

4>4 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. . nd 2y 2o"d Mr. $onrado %era !ay+. I tot it 2as a !o"iti-a" Bestion and tat te a--sed 2o"d 2or3 aainst *overnor %era, /e-ase sa id a--sed said, G*overnor %era does not 3no2 o2 - I a sti"" 2ort in (ataan and # or te tins tat e is doin aainst e e 2i"" !ay soe day5

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4>5 United States vs. (a"yot. . To 2at Bestions do yo re#er+. Tat I donGt 3no2 anytin ore tan 2at I ave said. TatGs a"". &e-., !. 18J. ro te # oreoin, te a--sed, in is -onversation 2it 'edro Maaes on te o--asion re#erred to /y te "atter in is testiony, did not tter any treat o# deat nor o# any !ersona" inry !on *overnor %era, /t tat, 2en e said tat soe day *overnor %era 2o"d ave to !ay #or te tins tat ave /een /e#a""en !on i, e eant, as said 2itness nderstood it, tat tere 2ere !o"iti-a" Bestions /et2een i te a--sedJ and said overnor and tat e te a--sedJ 2o"d 2or3 aainst te "atter /e-a se e 2as sti"" 2ort soetin in, (ataan. $ertain"y, 2at te a--sed ten said in -onne-tion 2it te overnor -an not /e iven oter inter!retation or di##erent eanin tan tat iven /y te 2itness a#oreentioned. $on-ernin te oter 2itness, Doino %inta, e as /een very e=!"i-it and de#inite !on ans2erin te additiona" -rossBestion o# te -onse" #or te a--sed and te ne2 Bestions o# te #is-a" !ro!onded, on i at te end o# is testiony and inserted a/ove. irst, e ans2ered in te a##irative to te Bestion 2eter o r not it is tre tat 2en e 2ent do2n #ro te 2itness stand e to"d said -onse" !on !assin /y is side in taa"o, In #a-t I donGt 3no2 anytin. nd a#ter2ards 2en te #is-a" tried to a3e -"ear said ans2er, e said tat e did no t 3no2 a"" te Bestions !ro!onded on i, tat it is a"ost nne-essary to dea" 2it, nor to ive an y i!ortan-e o#, 2at e ise"# as testi#ied to, to te e##e-t tat te a--se d to"d i tat !era!s re#errin to te date 2en e et te a--sed in )rionJ it 2as te "ast tie tat tey 2o"d sa3e ands. ro te testiony o# tis 2itness, notin in rea"ity -an /e in#erred 2i- ay /e se#" #or te o/e-t o# te !rose-tion and #or te o/e-t e as /een !resented, /e-ase te #is-a" ise"# did not se-re #ro said 2itness an ans2er oter tan tat e did not 3no2 anytin ore tan 2at e ad said, in s!ite o# te e##ort on is #is-a"GsJ !art to ne tra"ie te e##e-t o# te ans2er iven to te "ast -rossBestion o# te 4>

4> 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. -onse" #or te a--sed and to te "astentioned Bestion o# te #is-a", 2erein said 2itness so2ed inoran-e o# everytin. (t even adittin tat in #a-t te a--sed, sBeein tit"y is and, said to te a#oresaid Doino %inta, on te o--asion entioned /y te "atter, tat !era!s tat 2as te "ast tie tat tey 2o"d sa3e ands, and tat, a--ordin to te aority, it so2ed tat te a--sed -onte!"ated soe o--rren-e 2i- 2o"d ave rave -onseBen-es to i, neverte"ess it is -"ear tat it -an a"so /e inter!reted 2it reater reason in te sense tat avin !ro!osed to o to $e/ and /e-ase in tat sae ornin e 2as oin to ta3e "eave #ro *overnor %era and &e!resentative &eyes, te a--sed 2as a"so ta3in "eave 2it is -o!adre, Doino %inta. In -on-"sion, #ro 2at as /een stated /y said 2itness notin de#inite and -on-"sive -an /e in#erred #or te !r!ose o# -onsiderin as !roven tat in tat ornin te a--sed ad -on-eived te idea, o# 3i""in *overnor %era 2en e 2ent into te "atterGs o##i-e. Tere is not a sin"e eviden-e to so2 tat te a--sed as te aority de-ision saysJ, #or severa" days !rior to te !er!etration o# tis rder, ad deterined to see3 an intervie2 or en-onter 2it *overnor %era reard"ess o# -onseBen-es. Tis -on-"sion as no oter /asis tan ere in#eren-es #ro te testionies /e#ore entioned and #ro te #a-t, a"so entioned in te aority de-ision, tat te a--sed as3ed ore tan one !erson 2it 2o e ad et tat ornin and severa" days /e#ore i# tey tot e 2as in (i"i/id intiatin a"so tat s- a ror ad /een -ir-"ated /y *overnor %era. May /e te ind o# te a--sed, as te.aority say, 2as #i=ed !on *overnor %era as te s !!osed ator o# is 2rons. (t te #a-t is tat /e#ore st > te a --sed ad not to"d any/ody tat e 2anted or ad de-ided to ave an intervie2 2it te overnor, and on"y on said day did e -oni-ate s- idea to te !eo!"e 2o 2ere in te re-orderGs o##i-e tat ornin. I# severa" days /e#ore e ad intended to eet te overnor, te a--sed did not so2 any e=terior sin o# 4>A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4>A United States vs. (a"yot. tat intention, - "ess 2as e deterined to see3 tat intervie2 reard"ess o# -onseBen-es. )n te -ontrary, a--ordin to te re-order, 2i"e e te a--sedJ 2as 2aitin #or *overnor %era in te re-orderGs o##i-e, e 2as in ood or, and a--ordin to sae re-order and, ntonino rane, 2o 2ere a"so in said o##i-e 2i"e te a--sed 2as 2it te, e -ontined to /e in ood or /e#ore is #irst intervie2 2it te overnor as 2e"" as a#ter it, 2en e retired to a""o2 rane to enter and ave a sort intervie2 2it said overnor and /e#ore e reFntered said o##i-e. U!on te overnorGs arriva" in te re-orderGs o##i-e tat ornin e and te a--sed reeted ea- oter in a #riend"y anner /y sa3in ands. No one noted any -ane nor a"teration in te #a-e or attitde o# te a--sed ten< and drin te t2o ors, a !!ro=iate"y, tat e 2as in te re-orderGs o##i-e, #ro is arriva" nti" e reFntered *overnor %eraGs o##i-e, te a--sed so2ed no i!atien-e eiter /e-ase e 2anted to stay 2it te overnor in is o##i-e or /e-ase e 2anted to ave 2it te "atter te intervie2 e desired< #or, as as /een said. /e#ore, e areed to yie"d is trn #or a oent to ntonino rane at te reBest o# te overnor ise"#.

In #ine, tere is notin in te re-ord to so2 or to !oint ot tat te a--sed even adittin tat is ind 2as #i=ed !on te overnor as te s!!osed ator o# is 2rons, as it is stated in te aority de-isionJ 2as intendin at tose oents to e=e-te any aressive a-t aainst said overnor. #ter dea"in 2it te assertions and -on-"sions 2i- as a"ready /een entioned, te aority de-ision says tat te -on-"sion o# te tria" -ort tat te o## ense 2as -ara-teried /y 3no2n !reeditation is /y no eans 2itot s!!ort in te eviden-e. Ho2ever, sae de-ision states.tat, as an e=!ress r"in on tis !oint is nne-essary to te dis!osition o# te -ase, te 6sti-es s/s-ri/in said de-ision -on-ede to te a--sed te /ene#it o# te !ossi/"e do/t, and a--ordin"y tey re#rain #ro a3in any e=!ress #indin as to te !resen-e o# said e"eent. S!!orted /y te evi 4>8

4>8 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. den-e in te -ase, it -an /e a##ired in tis dissentin o!inion, #or te reasons a"ready entioned, tat te o##ense is not -ara-teried /y 3no2n !reeditation and, to te 2riterGs reret, te a/sen-e o# an e=!ress #indin as to te !resen-e o# said e"eent in te -rie and te aorityGs -on-ession to te a--sed o# te /ene#it o# te !ossi/"e do/t as to te !resen-e o# said e"eent, in s!ite o# te assertions and -on-"sions assined in said de-ision re"ative to tis !arti-"ar, -onstittes anoter reason #or not -onsiderinG tat in te -oission o# te -rie tere as /een !resent te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa trea-eryJ. nd te reason is o/vios. I# te a--sed as /een entertainin a rooted ran-or and resentent in is ind aainst *overnor %era, and #or severa" days !rior to te !er!etration o# tis rder, as /een d eterined, a--ordin to te aority, to see3 an intervie2 or en-onter 2it i reard"ess o# -onseBen-es, !on is intervie2 in te ornin o# st > 2en e ten 3i""ed said overnor, te natra" and "oi-a" tin 2as or so"d /e tat e 2o"d ave e!"oyed eans, etods, or # ors tat 2ere intended to insre te e=e-tion o# said o/e-t 2itot any ris3 to ise"# arisin #ro te . de#ense 2i- *overnor %era -o"d a3e in tat intervie2. I# te !re-on-eived, de"i/erate, and !reeditated desin #or te !er!etration o# tis rder at said intervie2 is not -onsidered as !roven, or, at "east, i# te /ene#it o# a !ossi/"e do/t as to te !resen-e o# said desin is -on-eded to te a--sed, ne-essari"y it as to /e re-onied tat it is a"so do/t#" tat te a--sed ad intended to insre /y any eans te e=e-tion o# is -riina" desin 2itot any ris3 to ise"# arisin #ro te de#ense 2i- te o##ended !arty -o"d a3e. In te estiation .o# te e=isten-e o# te aravatin -ir-stan-es o# 3no2n G!reeditation and a"evosXa trea-eryJ in te instant -ase, tere is s- a re"ation in te #a-ts add-ed in eviden-e at te earin #or te deterination 2eter or not said -ir-stan-es 2ere !resent in te -oission o# te -rie i!ted !on te a--sed, and it is so -"ear"y atered #ro a"" tat as /een said and ared in te aority de-ision !on dea"in 2it 4>9

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4>9 United States vs. (a"yot. said #a-ts, tat it is di##i-"t, i# not i!ossi/"e, to -on-eive tat te a--sed ad a-ted trea-eros"y in 3i""in *overnor %era, 2itot avin !reeditated, de"i/erated and re#"e-ted !on said a-t /e# ore its e=e-tion. I# tere 2as ten no 3no2n !reeditation, tere -o"d not /e a"evosXa. Tis does not ean tat in a"" -ases 2ere te #irst o# said, -ir-stan-es is not !resent in te -oission o# te -rie, te se-ond so"d n ot or -annot /e -onsidered as !resent< /t it is ndenia/"e tat tere are -ases 2ere, te #orer not /ein !resent, te "atter -annot /e -onsidered as !resent. S- as /een re-onied /y tis -ort in its de-ision in te -ase o# United States vs. (a"atas and 6aie 19 'i". &e!., 14J, o"din te #o""o2in; MU&DE&< ESSENTI% E%EMENTS ) G%E?)SI.G+:en te re-ord -ontains no eviden-e so2in tat te a--sed ad, !rior to te oent o# te 3i""in, reso"ved to -oit te -rie, or any !roo# tat te deat o# te vi-ti 2as te res"t o# editation, -a"-"ation or re#"e-tion, te a""eed Ba "i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa -an not /e -onsidered. Tis o"din is e=a-t"y a!!"i-a/"e to te instant -ase. Te #irst eetin /et2een te overnor and te a--sed avin /een ss!ended, not /y te "atterGs 2i"" /t /y te reBest o# te # orer to 2o it o--rred tat te intervie2 /et2een te it /e ore e=tended tan e ad e=!e-ted, it is natra" tat, !on seein ea- oter aain in te o##i-e, tey 2o"d ave resed te -onversation 2i- 2as interr!ted oents /e#ore. Tere#ore, it is !ro/a/"e tat te overnor it ave /enas3in (a"yot 2ere e said e 2o"d o, and tat te dia"oe entioned /y te a--sed in is testiony it ave ta3en !"a-e /et2een te, a dia"oe 2i-, as it -an /e tested 2it a 2at- on and, -o"d not ave "asted one inte or ore. )n te -ontrary, it is i!ro/a/"e tat 2en te a--sed reFntered te overnorGs o##i-e and as soon as e rea-ed te overnorGs des3 -oin #ro te re-orderGs o##i-e, -overin in t2o se-onds te distan-e o# 10 !a-es o# /et2een said o##i-es, as te re-order *ona"e as saidJ and 2itot sayin any 2ord to 440

440 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot.

said overnor, e #ired te #irst sot at i, a #a-t 2i- as /een -ontradi-ted /y ntonino rane and *reorio de *an, 2o 2ere ten 2it said *ona"e in is o##i-e and eard (a"yot -a"" ot to te overnor /e#ore te #irst sot+one o# te eard (a"yot -a"" ot overnor, and oter, overnor, ay I see yor revo"ver. Te testiony o# tese t2o 2itnesses, es!e-ia""y tat o# te "ast, is anoter reason #or /e"ievin 2it soe #ondation tat te overnor and te a--sed ten ta"3ed o# soetin, or, 2at is aont to te sae tin, tat tere it ave /een /et2een te a sort dia"oe, and tat in vie2 or as a -onseBen-e o# it, tat sad and n#ortnate event too3 !"a-e. Tat rane, De *an and *ona"e, 2o 2ere in te "atterGs o##i-e ad not eard said dia"oe, or ad not eard 2at te overnor and te a--sed 2ere ta"3in a/ot, is no !roo# tat sae ad not ta3en !"a-e, /e-ase as it -an /e seen on te !"an E=i/it (, #ro te door o# te re-orderGs o##i-e to te !"a-e 2ere *overnor %era and te a--sed 2ere, tere 2as a distan-e o# 8 eters and >0 -entieters, or a"" te "ent o# te overnorGs o##i-e< #ro te !"a-e 2ere ntonino rane 2as, or tat ar3ed 2it te "etter @ in te !"an, to te !"a-e 2ere *overnor %era and te a--sed 2ere, tere 2as distan-e eBa" to te "ent o# te overnorGs o##i-e, 8 eters and >0 -entieters !"s te "ent o# te re-orderGs o##i-e, 5 eters and 9 -entieters, a--ordin to sae !"an, 2i-, to /e sre, as /een tra-ed /y te !rovin-ia" assessor ise"#, *reorio de *an, a3in a tota" o# 14 eters and  -entieters. nd tat, a--ordin to tis sae 2itness, 2en e eard te a --sed -a"" ot to te overnor May I see yor revo"ver e 2as ta3in "eave 2it te re-order and 2as "eavin te "atterGs des3 /ond #or is o##i-e, and as e 2as oin to2ards te door to "eave te o##i-e, e did not nderstand te oter 2ords o# te a--sed, 2o 2as ten s!ea3in in a natra" voi-e, 2i- so2ed no sin o# a"teration, addin tat e eard tose 2ords 2en e 2as oin ot to2ards te -orridor and #or tis reason e -o"d not te"" 2eter te overnor ans2ered te a--sed or not. :it a"" tese it so"d /e added tat #ro 2at 441

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 441 United States vs. (a"yot. as /een said /y te re-order in is testiony, re-., !. 8J 2en e eard te #irst sot, te door /et2een is o##i-e and tat o# te overnor 2as a"ost -"osed, /e-ase onea"# o# it 2as -"osed, a -ir-stan-e 2i- so"d /e ta3en into -onsideration in deterinin 2eter or not tose 2o 2ere at tat oent in te re-orderGs o##i-e te re-order, rane, and De *anJ 2ere in s- a -ondition as to ave /een a/"e to ear 2at te overnor and te a--sed 2ere ta"3in a/ot. Te one 2o 2as in a /etter -ondition #or said !r!ose 2as !re-ise"y te re-order *ona"e, /e-ase e 2as sittin /y te des3 in is o##i-e near te door o# te overnorGs o##i-e, and #ro tere e did not ove nti" e eard, as e said, te #irst sot. Neverte"ess, n"i3e rane and De *an, 2o said tat tey ave eard te a--sed tter te 2ords a"ready entioned, *ona"e did not a3e any ention a/ot tis, statin, on te -ontrary, tat on"y t2o se-onds e"a!sed #ro te oent tat te a--sed rea-ed te overnorGs des3 -oin #ro is o##i-e nti" e eard te #irst sot. So tat, a --ordin to said 2i#ness, tere 2as no s##i-ient tie 2ere/y tere -o"d  ave /een an e=-ane o# 2ords /et2een te overnor and te a--sed. Ne-essari"y, te re-order, *ona"e, as not to"d te trt. His oter t2o #riends ave -ontradi-ted i and tere are s##i-ient reasons to /e"ieve tat te #orer in trn, /ein a/"e to te"" te trt, ave not said a"" tat tey 3ne2, or tat, /e-ase o# te distan-e o# te !"a-e 2ere tey 2ere #ro tat 2ere te overnor a nd te a--sed 2ere ta"3in, and /e-ase onea"# o# te door o# te overnorGs o##i-e 2as -"osed, tey -o"d not ear oter 2ords tan 2at, a--ordin to te, 2as ttered. /y te a--sed. In any 2ay it -annot /e denied tat 2en te a--sed, /ein near *overnor %era, -a""ed ot overnor, as ntonino rane eard it, and -a""ed ot overnor, ay I see yor revo"ver, a--ordin to De *an, te overnor and said a--sed st ave /een ta"3in a/ot soetin re"ated to 2at tey ave /een ta"3in a/ot oents /e#ore, or at te #irst intervie2. Te 2ord overnor, s!o3en /y te a--sed in a i and dry tone, ay ean, or 44

44 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. -o"d ave /een, an e=-"aation o# te a--sed, as 2e"" as a -a"" o# te attention !on te overnor to te"" i soetin. It a!!ears tat te 2ords overnor, ay I see yor revo"ver, 2i- De *an eard, st not ave /een s!o3en /y te a--sed iediate"y a#ter e as a!!roa-ed te overnorGs des3 and !rior to an e=-ane o# 2ords /et2een te /e#ore, /e-ase te -onversation 2i- tey st ave ten 2as a -ontination o# te #orer one 2i- ave /een interr!ted a#ter te a--sed ad !rotested tat e ad notin to do 2it te se!aration o# $a!tain ?e"e #ro te Nationa" *ard, 2i- 2as attri/ted to i /y te overnor. Tose 2ords -o"d ave a"so /een s!o3en /y te a--sed as a res"t or /y reason o# 2at e and te overnor -ontined to ta"3 a/ot, nae"y, te overnorGs intervention !on te is#ortnes o# te a--sed as a""eed /y i and soetin -onne-ted tereto. or it is in-on-eiva/"e 2y te a--sed 2o"d ave /een 2i""in to see te overnorGs revo"ver, n"ess it is /e-ase e te a--sedJ 2anted to -a""ene te overnor, /e"ievin tat te "atter as o##ended i. --ordin to te a--sed, 2en e rose #ro is -air as soon as e 2as o##ended /y te overnor, 2o said tat e -o "d -eat /etter in $e/, e to"d te overnor; May /e yor revo"ver and ine ave te sae -a"i/re. Tese 2ords are, in soe res!e-ts, sii"ar to tose 2i- te 2itness De *an nderstood or eard s!o3en /y te a--sed e=!ressin is desire to see te overnorGs revo"ver. (t, in any anner, 2at is -ertain and !ositive is tat te a--sed,, /e#ore #irin te #irst sot at te overnor, ave te "atter a int tat e intended to do soetin 2i- it ave -ased i overnorJ soe !ersona" ar, and te overnor st ave a"so nderstood it in tis anner, #or e 3ne2 tat tey, te t2o, 2ere eneies, as e ise"# ad said to te a--sed oents /e#ore and tat e ad /e#ore i one 2o e -onsidered is eney and 2it 2o e ad a"so /eaved as an eney. Tere#ore, te sitation in 2i- tey 2ere # #ond at tat oent 2as very -"ear to te overnor as 2e"" as to te a--sed. I# te a--sed 2as entertainin an i"" #ee"in to2ards $onrado %era /e-ase te "atter 44>

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 44>

United States vs. (a"yot. ad /een one o# is -o!etitors #or overnorsi! at te 191 enera" e"e-tions and /e-ase e 2as ten de#eated /y said %era, as 2e"" as /e-ase e tot tat said %era 2as instiator o# te -riina" !ro-eedins #or esta#a aainst i, %era in trn 2o"d not #oret tat te a--sed 2as one o# is -o!etitors in said e"e-tion and, avin /een de#eated /y i, 2as a !erson dissatis#ied to i in te !rovin-e nder is -ontro", and as s- -o"d ave soe day !"anned to dis-redit or to -ase i soe daae. s a atter o# #a-t e %eraJ 2as attri/tin to te a--sed te se!aration o# is -o!adre ?e"e #ro te Nationa" *ard, #or 2i- reason e /e"ieved, as e ade it a!!ear to te a--sed, tat everytin e -o"d ave done aainst te "atter 2as sti#ia/"e. T2o eneies 2ere #a-e to #a-e on tat o--asion, a"to so-ia""y tey treated ea- oter as #riends+one, te vanBised, te i"iated (a"yot, and te oter, te vi-tor, *overnor %era, te -ie# o# te !rovin-e, e=er-isin atority in te !"a-e 2ere tey 2ere and to 2o, "i3e &e!resentative &eyes, te a--sed ad -oe to i!"ore tat, i# !ossi/"e, tey so"d "eave i in !ea-e and so"d not !erse-te i+2i- is -ertain"y !ro/a/"e+and to /id te #are2e"" #or e 2as oin to $e/. ro tose -ir-stan-es, it is !er#e-t"y -on-eiva/"e tat a estre, a "oo3, any a-tion 2atever o# *overnor %era 2i- te a--sed 2o"d ave -onsidered de!re-iatory and i"iatin to i, 2o"d ave /een s##i-ient to !rovo3e te aner o# said a--sed and to i!e" i to atta-3 te #orer, /e-ase it so"d not /e ove r"oo3ed tat te a--sed. in is testiony re-., 5J as said te #o""o2in; :en I 2arned i to !re!are, e 2as sittin, s!ea3in in tat anner o# is and "ain at e. Tere is notin strane in tat te a--sed, -onsiderin ise"# o##ended and i"iated /y *overnor %era !on seein te attitde o# te "atter, is anner o# s!ea3in and tat e 2as /ein "aed at, 2o"d endeavor to avene on tat sae oent an o##en-e 2i- 2as /ein -oitted. !on i. :en te a--sed,  !on enterin #or te #irst tie *overnor %eraGs o##i-e, to"d te "atter tat e 2as oin to ta3e "eave #ro i and 444

444 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. &e!resentative &eyes #or e 2as oin to $e/ and to i!"ore te tat, i# !ossi/"e, tey so"d "eave i in !ea-e and so"d not !erse-te i in said !rovin-e, *overnor %era as e=!ressed ise"# in te sense tat, tey /ein eneies, e %eraJ 2as sti#ied in is -ond-t to2ards i, tere/y so2in tat te a--sed -o"d not o!e #or te !ea-e and tranBi"ity 2i- e 2as desirin. Tis e=!ression so2s tat te overnor 2as not a--e!tin te reBest o# te a--sed 2it /enevo"en-e, /t tat, on te -ontrary, e 2as re#sin to a3e !ea-e 2it te a--sed. nd 2at as /een said /y te a--sed on tis !arti-"ar is verosii". No one as -ontradi-ted it at te earin, tere /ein, instead, s##i-ient ronds #or /e"ievin tat it 2as tre, /e-ase it 2as te -ase o# te interr!tion o# te #irst intervie2 /et2een te o vernor and te a--sed at te reBest o# te #orer, to /e resed a#ter2ards, as in #a-t it 2as resed, and it 2as a /einnin o# 2at st ave ta3en !"a-e /et2een te at te se-ond intervie2. Te ters sed /y *overnor %era in is -onversation 2it te a--sed, even adittin tat it 2as not tre tat e said to te "atter tat e -o"d -eat /etter in $e/, ay /e -onsidered not o# s- a -ara-ter as to sti#y tat te. a--sed as a-ted !on an i!"se so !o2er#" as natra""y to ave !rod-ed !assion and o/#s-ation. (t it is indis!ta/"e tat tey it ave /een s- as to !rovo3e te a--sed to e=e-te an o##ensive a-t or an a-t o# !ersona" aression aainst te overnor. Te t2o 2ere on tat o--asion, -oon"y s!ea3in, !"ayin 2it #ire ando -on #eoJ, and a s!ar3 -oin #ro any one o# te 2as s##i-ient to -ase a -on#"aration. )# tis -on#"aration not on"y te a--sed st /e /"aed. His testiony, iven at te earin  nder oat 2en testi#yin as a 2itness, as as - va"e as tat o# any 2itness, and sae st /e ta3en into -onsideration in -onne-tion 2it te oter eviden-e add-ed at said earin. Te on"y !ersons 2o ave testi#ied to 2at too3 !"a-e /et2een te a--sed and te overnor at te tie 2en te t2o 2ere a"one in te o##i-e o# te "atter, are te re-order *ona"e, ntonino rane, 445

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 445 United States vs. (a"yot. and te !rovin-ia" assessor, *reorio de *an. :e are a "ready a-Bainted 2it teir testionies "iited, as as /een seen, to te tie, a--ordin to te, tat e"a!sed /et2een te oent te a--sed entered into te overnorGs o##i-e and tat 2en tey  eard te #irst sot+testionies in 2i- t2o o# te said tat tey ave eard te a--sed -a"" ot to te overnor and in 2i- rane said tat e as seen te a--sed and overnorJ 2en e !ee!ed into te overnorGs o##i-e a#ter te #irst sot. In rea"ity, te testionies o# te said tree individa"s ave not /een se#" in any anner 2atever, as as /ee n a"ready so2n, to !rove tat /e#ore te #irst sot 2as #ired /y te a--sed te -onversation entioned /y te "atter did not ta3e !"a-e /et2een i and te overnor. "" tat said 2itnesses testi#ied to, -on-ernin tis !arti-"ar, as /een /ased on"y !on a -o!tation, as as a"ready /een said, ade /y ea- o# te o# te tie intervenin /et2een one oent and anoter, a -o!tation 2i- is in-on-eiva/"e to serve as a /asis #or esta/"isin te -on-"sion tat te a--sed ne=!e-ted"y, sdden"y, and instantaneos"y atta-3ed *overnor %era as soon as e a!!roa-ed i in is o##i-e, as3ed #or is revo"ver and sa2 tat e 2as de#ense"ess, #irin at i te #irst sot, i. e., tat te a--sed ade te atta-3 trea-eros"y. Te aority de-ision says tat te o##ense -oitted in tis -ase e=i/its #eatres ar3ed"y sii"ar to tose 2i- -ara-teried te -rie 2i- 2as te s/e-t o# !rose-tion in United States vs. *i" 1> 'i". &e!., 5>0J and, in te # o""o2in "ines, tat te o##ense ere -oitted 2as !ro!er"y Ba"i#ied /y te tria"  de as rder, in 2i- 2as !resent te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa. :it tis stateent said de-ision as ade it nderstood tat 2at as /een said and e"d /y tis Hi $ort in tat -ase is a!! "i-a/"e to te !resent -ase on a--ont o# teir sii"arity. Te sii"arity /et2een tese t2o -ases "ies in tat in one and te oter te vi-ti ad /een a !rovin-ia" overnor and te -rie ad /een -oitted in a !rovin-ia" /i"din or in te !"a-e 2ere said !rovin-ia" atorities 2ere e=er-isin

44

44 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. teir #n-tions. (t in te -ase, U. S. vs. *i", te "atter, or te a--sed, a""eed in is de#ense tat, 2itot te "east !rovo-ation on is !art, *overnor %o!e, 2o e as3ed #or te #avor o# a "i-ense #or te revo"ver e 2as -arryin 2it i, ans2ered i in an ins"tin anner, !/raidin i #or is teerity in see3in a #avor o# a an 2o e ad denon-ed to ier atority and tat te overnor avin rea-ed #or te revo"ver, a str"e /et2een te ensed drin 2i- te sots tat 2onded te overnor 2ere #ired. Not avin iediate"y died as a -onseBen-e o# said 2onds /t a#ter 4 days, *overnor %o!e ad te o!!ortnity to -ontradi-t and did #"at"y -ontradi-t te a--sed, denyin tat e !rovo3ed and ins"ted te "atter. Tis stateent 2as ade /y te overnor 2en a/ot to /reate is "ast. nd tis dyin de-"aration o# te 2onded an 2as ta3en into a--ont /y tis Hi $ort, in -onne-tion 2it te oter eviden-e add-ed in te -ase, in order not to ive -redit to 2atever te a--sed ad to say #or is e=oneration o# a"" tat a!!ened /et2een i and te overnor 2en tey 2ere a"one in te o##i-e o# te "atter and 2en said overnor 2as atta-3ed /y said a--sed, *i". In te de-ision o# tis Hi $ort in te a#oreentioned -ase, te #o""o2in is said; I# te a--ont o# 2at o--rred in te o##i-e o# te de-eased overnor on te ornin o# te At o# De-e/er, 190A, as to"d /y te a--sed 2en testi#yin in is o2n /ea"#, /e a--e!ted as tre, tis testiony, ta3en toeter 2it te oter eviden-e o# re-ord not in -on#"i-t tere2it, 2o"d "eave no roo #or do/t o# is i"t o# te -rie o# n"a2#""y ta3in te "i#e o# (enito %o!e, de-eased, te -oission o# te -rie /ein ar3ed 2it -ertain e=tenatin -ir-stan-es, /t nar3ed eiter /y Gtrea-eryG a"evosXaJ or Gde"i/erate !reeditationG !reedita-iKn -ono-idaJ as -ared in te in#oration< and as te s"ayer 2as a"one 2it is vi-ti 2en te #ata" sots 2ere #ired no eye2itness -o"d /e -a""ed to te stand to -ontradi-t te testiony o# te a--sed as to 2at o--rred in te o##i-e #ro te tie e entered nti" te e=!"osion o# te !isto" 44A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 44A United States vs. (a"yot. sots attra-ted te attention o# te oter o--!ants o# te /i"din. In or o!inion, o2ever, te anteorte stateent o# te de-eased, ta3en toeter 2it te oter eviden-e o# re-ord, -on-"sive"y esta/"ises not on"y te #a"sity in a"" its essentia" detai"s o# te a--ont o# te traedy iven /y te a--sed, /t a"so te #a-t tat te -rie 2as -oitted 2it trea-ery a"evosXaJ and de"i/erate !reeditation !reedita-iKn -ono-idaJ. 'ae 5>>.J No2 ten, in te instant -ase *overnor %era died a!!ro=iate"y tree ors a#ter e as /een 2onded /y te tird sot #ired /y te a--sed, 2itot avin /een a/"e to reain -ons-iosness /e#ore is deat nor to arti-"ate any 2ord< i. e., e te overnorJ did not -ontradi-t te a--sed (a"yot nor did e -ontradi-t te "atterGs a--ont o# 2at o--rred /et2een te in tat ornin drin te sort !eriod o# tie tat tey 2ere a"one toeter in te o##i-e o# said overnor. Tere /ein ten in tis -ase no anteorte stateent o# te de-eased *overnor %era, 2i- ay /e ta3en toeter 2it te oter eviden-e o# re-ord, and i# te testiony o# te a--sed in is o2n /ea"#, ta3en toeter 2it said eviden-e, /e a--e!ted i# in te !resent -ase 2e a!!"y, as it so"d /e, te r"in entioned /y tis Hi $ort in te -ase U. S. vs. *i"J, a--e!tin at te sae tie, as 2e so"d, te a--ont o# 2at o--rred in te o##i-e o# *overnor %era in te ornin o# te >d o# st, 1918, as to"d / y te a--sed (a"yot, te i"t o # te "atter, as ator o# te -rie o# n"a2#""y ta3in te "i#e o# $onrado %era, de-eased, "eaves no roo #or do/t, /t nar3ed eiter /y trea-ery a"evosXaJ or !reeditation !reedita-iKnJ as -ared in te in#oration. Tere#ore, /eside te #a-t tat tere is no -o!"ete sii"arity /et2een te -ase o# U. S. vs. *i" and te !resent -ase, and a!!"yin in tis -ase te do-trine "aid do2n /y tis -ort -on-ernin te Bestion o# eviden-e in tat -ase, it -annot /e a--e!ted as !roved tat te a--sed (a"yot a-ted trea-eros"y and 2it de"i/erate !reeditation in ta3in a2ay *overnor %eraGs "i#e. 448

448 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. Ho2ever, te a--sed (a"yot as /een -ared 2it soe adissions a""eed to ave /een ade to te re!orter o# %a ?anardia, Ese/io &eyes, 2en te "atter ad an intervie2 2it te #orer in te !rovin-ia" ai" o# (ataan in te ornin o# st 5t an in#oration 2i- 2as !/"ised in te -orres!ondin isses o# said ne2s!a!er, ar3ed E=i/its D and E o# te !rose-tionJ and to te "ietenant o# te $onsta/"ary, te -oandin o##i-er o# (ataan 'rovin-e, ne" %a/ayan, in te a#ternoon o# te sae day, st >d, in order to !rove tat said a--sed atta-3ed *overnor %era 3no2in te "atter to /e disared and de#ense"ess. Te re!orter, &eyes, a##ired tat e as !/"ised in said ne2s!a!er, %a ?anardia, te in#oration or ne2s a!!earin in said t2o isses, a#ter e ad a -onversation 2it te a--sed in te ornin o# te 5t o# st< and tat, aon oter tins as it -an /e seen in te isse o# te t o# stJ, te a--sed to"d i te #o""o2in; I as3ed $onrado a/ot is revo"ver, /t it is not tre tat e 2as readin 2en I #ired at i, no. nd tat -annot /e tre /e-ase I to"d i; G*overnor, de#end yorse"# as yo  ay. I -oe to 3i"" yo.G nd I #ired te #irst sot, ten te se-o nd, one a#ter te oter. %ietenant %a/ayan, in trn, testi#ied tat in a -onversation e ad 2it te a--sed in te !rovin-ia" ai", in te a#ternoon o# st >d, te "atter re"ated to i a"" tat o--rred, and, aon oter tins, tat a#ter te a--sed to"d te overnor @o are ta3in advantae o# a"" te o!!ortnities to render e -o!"ete"y se"ess, to 2i- te overnor ans2ered, :ere yo, yorse"#, in or !"a-e, yo 2o"d ta3e advantae o# a"" te o!!ortnities to render an eney se"ess, te a--sed,

!on earin tis !rase, ot ad and as3ed te overnor; :at -a"i/re as yor revo"ver to 2i- te overnor ans2ered tat e did not /rin is revo"ver, and ten te a--sed, 2o 2as in an attitde o# dra2in ot is revo"ver, said to te overnor, I 2i"" 3i"" yo no2d, #or e a!!ened to 3no2 i on"y on tat day and 2en e ad 2it i a -onversation in te a#ternoon o#. sae day in te !rovin-ia" ai" o# (ataan, -onversation re#erred to /y i in is testionyJ te a--sed 2o"d ave ade a reve"ation 2i- is so -o!roisin aainst i as tat e 3ne2 /e#ore e #ired te #irst sot at te overnor tat te "atter 2as not /rinin 2it i is revo"ver. It so"d a"so /e ta3en into -onsideration tat 2en te re!orter &eyes ad an intervie2 2it te 450

450 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. a--sed in te ornin o# st 5t, tere 2ere !resent ten, a--ordin to i, te %ietenant o# te $onsta/"ary, 'edro Navarro, te !rovin-ia" 2arden and one -onsta/"ary so"dier< and tat 2en said %ietenant Navarro 2as -a""ed to testi#y #or te !rose-tion, e 2as not !rod-ed, as 2e"" as te oter t2o individa"s 2o 2itnessed te a#oresaid -onversation /et2een te a--sed and te a#oreentioned re!orter, and 2o -o"d ave testi#ied to 2at tey ave. ten eard. In re#errin to tat in-ident te a--sed said, as it 2i"" /e ree/ered, tat e to"d te o vernor, It a!!ears to e tat yor revo"ver and ine ave te sae -a"i/re, and te overnor ans2ered, No Sir, ine is >, and tat to tis e re!"ied, It is te sae and !re!are yorse"# /e-ase one o# s 2i"" ave to die. Te a--sed did not say tat te overnor ans2ered i ten tat e 2as not /rinin 2it i is revo"ver. nd it a!!ears ore !ro!er tat 2en te a--sed as3ed te overnor a/ot te -a"i/re o# is revo"ver, as %ietenant %a/ayan as said re#errin to te a--sed ise"#, te overnor so"d ave ans2ered 2at te -a"i/re o# is revo"ver 2as, nae"y, tat it 2as > -a"i/re, #or te Bestion o# te a--sed re#erred to tis. Te ans2er tat te overnor 2as not /rinin 2it i is revo"ver 2o"d ave /een ore a!!ro!riate to te Bestion 2i-, a--ordin to te re!orter &eyes, re#errin to te a--sed, te "atter as3ed to te overnor, /e-ase it 2as re#errin on"y to te overnorGs revo"ver. In s!ite o# tis #a-t, te re!orter &eyes, did not say tat te a--sed ad stated to i tat te overnor ad iven any ans2er to said Bestion nor tat te overnor ad said tat e 2as not /rinin is revo"ver. %ietenant %a/ayan is ten te on"y 2itness 2o testi#ied re#errin ise"# to te -onversation /et2een i and te a--sed in te !rovin-ia" ai" in te a#ternoon o# te >d o# stJ, tat te overnor to"d te a--sed tat e 2as not ten /rinin is revo"ver. (y tis testiony, said 2itness ade it nderstood tat te a--sed, /e#ore #irin te #irst sot at te overnor, 3ne2 tat at tat oent te "atter 2as 2itot said 2ea!on 2it 2i- to 451

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 451 United States vs. (a"yot. de#end ise"#. Ho2ever, ta3en toeter 2it tat o# te oter 2itnesses 2o testi#ied to sa id !arti-"ar, is testiony is not s##i-ient to !rove, /eyond any do/t, tat *overnor %era ans2ered te a--sed tat e 2as not ten /rinin 2it i is revo"ver. (t, ta3in de -onsideration to te testiony o# te re!orter &eyes as 2e"" as tat o# %ietenant %a/ayan and tat o# te !rovin-ia" assessor, *reorio de *an, in -onne-tion 2it 2at te a--sed testi#ied to a/ot te revo"ver, it is indis!ta/"e tat 2at in rea"ity -an /e in#erred and -onsidered !roven tere#ro is tat avin as3ed te overnor a/ot is revo"ver and avin ten to"d i is desire to 3no2 te -a"i/re o# is revo"ver, te a--sed 2arned said overnor, /e#ore #irin te #irst sot, to !re!are and de#end ise"# as - as e -o"d /e-ase one o# te 2i"" ave to die. In a 2ord, /e#ore re-eivin te #irst sot #ired at i /y te a--sed, *overnor %era 2as a/"e to "oo3 #or is de#ense, ad te o!!ortnity to a3e ood is de#ense #ro te daner tat 2as treatenin i /e-ase te a--sed ise"# ad 2arned i.

(t, oreover, a--ordin to te testiony o# te a--sed re-., 19J, 2i"e *overnor %era 2as ta"3in 2it i drin te se-ond intervie2, te #orer ad is "e#t and on te ta/"e and 2it it e 2as !"ayin a /rass 3n-3"e ""ave in"esaJ. Tis /rass 3n-3"e 2as seen on te overnorGs ta/"e /y %ietenant Navarro o# te $onsta/"ary 2o 2as ten in -are o# said #or-e in te a/sen-e o# te !rovin-ia" -oanderJ 2en, iediate"y a#ter te a--sed 2as arrested and i!risoned 2o e #ond /et2een te door o# te o##i-e o# te re-order and tat o# te overnorJ, e retrned !stairs in order to "earn soetin o# te in-ident and to see 2at a!!ened to te overnor. Said /rass 3n-3"e 2as 3e!t /y %ietenant Navarro and !resented at te earin 2en e testi#ied to te !arti-"ar a#oresaid, and ar3ed as E=i/it 1 o# te de#ense. "to te re-order, 'edro *ona"e, did not ive a satis#a-tory e=!"anation o# te e=isten-e o# said /rass 3n-3"e on te overnorGs ta/"e, avin said, oreover, tat e ad 45

45 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. never seen te overnor se it, and it is said in te ttorney*enera"Gs /rie# tat said 2ea!on it ave /een !"a-ed on te overnorGs ta/"e /y te a--sed ise"# as !art o# is !"an #or de#ense, te #a-t is tat tere is no !roo# a/ot tis a""eation o# te ttorney*enera" and tat te /rass 3n-3"e 2as on te overnorGs ta/"e 2en %ietenant Navarro 2o arrested te a--sed /rinin i to te !rison and 2ose vera-ity tere is no reason to do/tJ iediate"y retrned to te overnorGs o##i-e in order to see te "atter and to "earn 2at a!!ened ten re-., 19>194J. It a"so a!!ears #ro te eviden-e tat 2en te traedy o--rred tere 2as a "on -ris daerJ on te to! o# te /oo3-ase 2i- 2as on te rit side o# te overnorGs ta/"e and o# te -air in 2i- te "atter 2as sittin, a /oo3-ase ar3ed 2it te No. > in te !"an E=i/it (. %ietenant Navarro o# te $onsta/"ary so testi#ied as 2e"" as te re-order *ona"e, 2o said, oreover, re-., 5J tat said -ris 2i- 2as !resented /y te de#ense at te earin as E=i/it 4J /e"oned to *overnor %era< tat e te 2itnessJ 3ne2 it and re-onied it very 2e"" /e-ase it 2as !"a-ed on te overnorGs /oo3-ase at te tie e too3 !ossession o# is o##i-e. Te a--sed said in is testiony re-., 19J tat !on seein i n/ottonin is -oat and ta3in ot is revo"ver a#ter e to"d te overnor as as /een entioned a"readyJ to !re!are /e-ase one o# te 2i"" ave to die, said overnor raised ! is rit and !"a-in it on te /oo3-ase 2ere te -ris 2as, /t tat 2en e sa2 tat te -ase o# is te a--sedJ revo"ver 2as o!ened, e -ried ot inR 3o !o y oterJ ardia ardJ and ten e te a--sedJ #ired te #irst sot. U!on /ein as3ed 2eter in tat ornin, 2en e sa2 te -ris on to! o# te overnorGs /oo3-ase, said -ris 2as 2itin te rea- o# te "atter, %ietenant Navarro, in trn, ans2ered, I /e"ieve tat te -ort as /een tere and -an te"" /y sittin in te -air 2eter it 2as 2itin is rea- or not, an ans2er 2it 2i- te 2itness tried to so2 tat e ad no interest in e=!ressin is o2n 45>

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 45> United States vs. (a"yot. o!inion a/ot te Bestion !ro!onded !on i. Moreover, !on /ein as3ed aain L L L (t as yo #ond te G-risG in tat ornin, sae 2as 2itin te overnorGs rea-, i# te overnor 2ere sittin in is -air, Navarro ans2ered, It sees so. nd, #ina""y, !on /ein as3ed I# *overnor %era 2ere in  is -air 2ere e sed to sit, -o"d e rea- te -ris  te re-order *ona"e ans2ered, Sittin, e -o"d not rea- it, /t standin, e -o"d, addin, #rterore, tat e did not 3no2 *overnor %eraGs o/e-t in avin said -ris in is o##i-e on to! o# is /oo3-ase, /t tat e 3ne2 tat e ad it tere at te tie e too3 !ossession o# is o##i-e and tat e never sa2 te overnor se said 2ea!on< and tat, "ast"y, te overnor ad a revo"ver 2i- e te 2itnessJ ad seen, /t e did not 3no2 2ere tis 2ea!on 2as on tat date, or 2en te in-ident too3 !"a-e, and tat e overnorJ se"do sed it, /rinin it 2it i on"y 2en a3in soe ins!e-tion in soe n i-i!a"ities. No2 ten, it /ein not !roven, /eyond a"" do/t tat tere is !resent in te -oission o# te -rie in Bestion te aravatin -ir-stan-e o# 3no2n !reeditation, #or -on-ernin tis te aority tese"ves -on-ede to te a--sed te /ene#it o# a do/t and tey ave re#rained #ro a3in any o"din a/ot it< it /ein not a"so !roven /eyond a"" do/t tat te a--sed ad ade ! is ind to 3i"" *overnor %era 2en e 2ent into te o##i-e o# te "atter in te ornin in Bestion< on te oter and, it /ein !roven, 2itot te sado2 o# a do/t, #or s- is te res"t o# te testiony not on"y o# te a--sed /t a"so o# te re!orter &eyes, a 2itness #or te !rose-tionJ tat /e#ore #irin te #irst sot 2it is revo"ver #o""o2ed iediate"y /y te se-ond sot, te a--sed 2arned te overnor to /e !re!ared, to de#end ise"# as - as e -o"d /e-ase e te a--sedJ 2as oin to 3i"" i< and, #ina""y, te overnor avin eans and o!!ortnity to de#end ise"# in any anner or to resist te atta-3 #or on te /oo3-ase /y is side tere 2as a -ris, 2i- -an not /e -onsidered as an o/e-t #or ere ostentation on tat /oo3-ase, /e 454

454 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. -ase, i# it 2as so, it so"d ave /een !"a-ed in te !ano!"y in said o##i-eJ, and avin /een a/"e to ta3e said 2ea!on, even i# e 2ere stoo!in a "itt"e or standin /y is seat, and #or 2i- e ad a"so eno tie inas- as te a--sed n/ottoned is -oat, too3 ot is revo"ver # ro is. /e"t and #ro te -ase 2ere it 2as /e#ore #irin te #irst sot, it is evident tat it -annot /e a##ired tat te a--sed e!"oyed eans, etods or #ors in te e=e-tion o# te -rie 2i- ad tended dire-t"y to insre its e=e-tion 2itot ris3 to ise"# arisin #ro te de#ense 2i- te o##ended !arty -o"d ave ad e. )n te

-ontrary, a"" o# te a-ts e=e-ted /y te a--sed /e#ore #irin te #irst t2o sots 2it is revo"ver at te overnor 2i"e te "atter 2as in #ront o# i, ta3en toeter 2it te strained re"ation /et2een te entioned in te aority de-ision, or teir enity, and 2it teir -onversation in te #irst as 2e"" as in te se-ond intervie2J are in-o!ati/"e 2it te "a2#" e=isten-e o# te -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa trea-eryJ. (t even adittin tat *overnor %era 2as de#ense"ess and tat e did not ss!e-t tat e 2as oin to /e atta-3ed /y te a--sed in te anner tat e 2as atta-3ed, neverte"ess it -annot /e said tat te -rie 2as -oitted 2it a"evosXa as a Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e, /e-ase, /eside te #a-t tat said -ir-stan-e is o# a s/e-tive -ara-ter, or tat it is e=-"sive"y re"ated to te a--sed and not to te -ondition o# te o##ended !arty, tere avin /een, in te #irst as 2e"" as in te se-ond intervie2 /et2een te overnor and te a--sed, an e=-ane o# 2ords 2i- so2ed tat tere 2as an i"" #ee"in /et2een te t2o s- tat 2o"d ave iven rise to a !ersona" atta-3 /y anyone o# te aainst te oter, it is not i!ossi/"e tat te one 2o is atta-3ed 2o"d ave to de# end ise"# /y soe eans. Te s!ree -ort o# S!ain as e"d so in its de-ision o# 6a nary 19, 190A ?o". A8, $riina" 6ris!rden-eJ, in a -ase in 2i- an individa" #ired a sot n at t2o oter individa"s 2o 2ere de#ense"ess and 2o ad no eans to ss!e-t tat tey 2o"d ave /een atta-3ed /y te assai"ant in te anner tey 2ere atta-3ed, tere/y 3i""in te in 455

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 455 United States vs. (a"yot. stantaneos"y. Te -ort /ased its de-ision in tat 1J a"evosXa /ein a -ir-stan-e o# a s/e-tive -ara-ter, in order to -onsider its e =isten-e, it st /e so2n 2eter or not te a--sed e!"oyed eans, etods, or #ors in te e=e-tion o# te -rie 2i- tended dire-t"y and s!e-ia""y to insre its e=e-tion 2itot ris3 to ise"# arisin #ro te de#ense 2i- te o##ended !arty it a3e< and tat J adittin tat te de-eased 2as de#ense"ess and tat tey did not ss!e-t tat tey 2o"d ave /een atta-3ed /y te a--sed in te anner tey 2ere atta-3ed, tis #a-t is not s##i-ient to so2 tat te a-t 2as -oitted 2it a"evosXa 2i- Ba"i#ies te -rie as rder, inas- as te !ersona" a-ts o# te a--sed -onstittin te trea-eros eans e!"oyed are not s!e-i#ied, as 2e"" as it a!!ears #ro te verdi-t tat te sots 2ere !re-eded /y 2ords and estres indi-ative o# te initia" stae o# a Barre" a nd e=-"sory, n"ess tere a!!ears #a-ts to te -ontrary, o# te i!ossi/i"ity tat at any stae o# te atta-3 te o##ended !arty -o"d ave d e#ended tese"ves, - ore in dea"in 2it an atta-3 2i-, a"to not #oreseen, 2as -oitted /y a an 2o, on a!!earin at te !"a-e o# te in-ident to re-riinate !on te de-eased, 2as -arryin a sotn 2it 2i- e a#ter2ards #ired at te. Moreover, in its do/"e as!e-t as aravatin and Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e in te -rie aainst !ersons, a"evosXa reBires #or its ridi-a" interation tat, even i# sae arises at te oents o# te e=e-tion o# te -rie, te e"e-tion o# te eans tendin to insre te a--o!"isent o# te a-t 2itot ris3 to te assai"ant arisin #ro te !ossi/"e de#ense o# te o##ended !arty, /e te !rod-t o# te sond ind o# te i"ty !erson< #or it is on"y 2en, says te S!ree $ort o# S!ain in a de-ision o# 6"y , 1910 ?o". 85, s!raJ, /y an a -t e=-"sive o# te aressor, te o##ended !arty is de!rived o# a"" te natra" eans o# d e#ense, tat te s!e-ia" aravatin -ir-stan-e, a#oreentioned, e=ists. Te # oreoin do-trine 2as a!!"ied /y te S!ree $ort a#oreentioned, in te de-ision s!ra,J o# a -ase in 2i- 45

45 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. te a--sed, sdden"y, ne=!e-ted"y and #ro /eind, str-3 a n individa" 2it a -"/ in te ead #ro 2i- e died, 2itot ris3 to is !erson and 3no2"ede on te !art o# te vi-ti, 2o ad -a""ened te a--sed /e#ore te atta-3. Te s!ree -ort e"d tat tis #a-t tat te o##ended !arty ad -a""ened te a--sed /e#ore te atta-3J a"tered and destroyed te e"eent o# a"evosXa and so2ed, stri-t"y inter!retin te verdi-t, tat #ro te !rovo-ation and -a""ene o# te one, te atta-3 o# te oter #o""o2ed 2itot interr!tion, and tat te e=terna" #or o# said atta-3 on"y eant an a--ident !e-"iar to teir re-i!ro-a" i!etosity at te oent. In te instant -ase it is not !roven tat, 2en e 2ent to see te overnor in tat ornin, te a--sed (a"yot -arried 2it i te revo"ver e=!ress"y and !re-ise"y to a3e se o# said 2ea!on aainst te #orer, in te sae 2ay tat it is not !roven tat e ten ad de"i/erate"y and re#"e=ive"y !reeditated and reso"ved to 3i"" te overnor. )n te oter and, #ro te testiony o# te a--sed ise"#, 2o 2as an o##i-er o# te Nationa" *ard, it a!!ears tat e 2as a--stoed to -arryin 2it i said revo"ver 2enever e sed to "eave te ose to o #ro one !"a-e to anoter. Nor did te a--sed try to avoid a"" !ersona" ris3s arisin #ro te de#ense 2i- te overnor -o"d ave ade. (t, on te -ontrary, 2it te 2arnin e ade to te "atter to /e !re!ared, to de# end ise"# as - as e -o"d /e-ase e 2as oin to 3i"" i, e te a--sedJ ran te ris3 tat te overnor it ave sdden"y ade se #or is de#ense o# te -ris 2i- e ad /y is side a"to, as as /een a"ready .said, e -o"d dis!ose o# a sort tie. nd it is not do/t#" tat on tat o--asion te overnor 2as not de!rived, /y an a-t e=-"sive o# te a--sed, o# a"" te natra" eans #or a de#ense. It is tre tat /et2een te overnor and te a--sed tere 2as no Barre", a"ter-ation, or dis!te /t tere 2as an e=-ane o# 2ords o# s- eanin and sense as -o"d ave !rovo3ed, as as /een a"ready said, te aner o# said a--sed. nd -ertain"y it is not ne-essary tat said 2ords so"d ave 45A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 45A

United States vs. (a"yot. /een s!o3en in a "od voi-e or in an anry tone in order tat sae -o"d ave !rod-ed said e##e-t, #or it is 2e"" 3no2n tat 2ords ent"y s!o3en 2itot any a"teration -an !rod-e, a--ordin to te -ir-stan-es, sae e##e-t as i# s!o3en in a "od voi-e and in an aressive tone. It is ndenia/"e tat a"" o# te #oreoin -ir-stan-es e=-"de te idea tat te a--sed trea-eros"y #ired te #irst t2o sots at te overnor, and as in te -ase de-ided /y te s!ree -ort o# S!ain in te de-ision a#oreentionedJ, te e=terna" #or o# te atta-3 2as on"y an a--ident !e-"iar to te re-i!ro-a" i!etosity o# te overnor and te a--sed at te oent. I# *overnor %era 2as stron"y #ritened as it is natra"J 2en e sa2 te revo"ver in te ands o# te a--sed and eared te 2arnin or te -a""ene o# tis, and ad no s##i-ient 2i"" !o2er to reain -oo" /e#ore te daner tat 2as treatenin i nor s##i-ient strent to de#end ise"# #ro te atta-3 o# 2i- e 2as oin to /e te o/e-t to re!e", or to resist it, a3in se o# te eans o# de#ense 2i- e ad in and or o# te -ris, 2i- 2as on te to! o# te /oo3-ase /y is side, or o# a -air or o# any oter #rnitre 2i- 2as near i, 2ere/y te a--sed, /y eans o# te #irst t2o sots, -ased i t2o 2onds, /e# ore te sae overnor -o"d ta3e re#e in te -"oset to2ard 2i- e sdden"y #"ed, !rsed /y te a--sedJ it -annot /e in#erred tere#ro tat te "atter a-ted trea-eros"y in a3in said atta-3< #or, as as a"ready /een said, a "evosXa trea-eryJ is a -ir-stan-e o# a s/e-tive -ara-ter and in order to deterine its e=isten-e in a -ase, te -ondition o# te !erson atta-3ed and 2at tis 2o"d ave done or "e#t to ave done so"d not /e ta3en into -onsideration, /t te a-ts o# te a--sed ise"#. Tere avin /een, ten, no a"evosXa 2en te a--sed atta-3ed te overnor /y #irin te #irst t2o sots, 2e no2 !ass on to te tird. Tis sot 2as #ired /y te a--sed 2en *overnor %era, #"eein tro te -orridor a#ter te se-ond sot< too3 re#e in te -"oset 2i-, as as /een said, 2as at te 458

458 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. end o# said -orridor. )n-e in te -"oset, te overnor st te door and !"a-ed ise"#, as te aority de-ision says, in a !osition to o/str-t te entran-e o# is !rser, 2o vain"y atte!ted to o!en te door. In te sae de-ision it is #rter said tat te a--se d, din te !osition o# te overnorGs ead #ro te dire-tion o# te sond eitted 2en sae /ean to -a"" a"od #or e"!, #ired is revo"ver in te dire-tion indi-ated, te /""et !assin tro te !ane" o# te door, str-3 te overnor in te #or2ard !art o# is ead near and a/ove te rit te!"e. Te 2ond 2as ne-essari"y #ata" and -ased te overnorGs deat t2o or tree ors a#ter. ro te eviden-e it a!!ears; 1J a--ordin to te re!orter &eyes re-., >9J, tat, re#errin to i 2at a!!ened in -onne-tion 2it te tird sot, te a --sed to"d i tat e te a--sedJ !rsed te overnor /e-ase e tot tat te #irst t2o sots issed i, tat te overnor 2as a/"e to rea- te door o# te -"oset and to sit /eind it and, on-e 2itin, -a""ed a"od, and #ro te sond ts eitted, e te a--sedJ 2as a/"e to de 2ere te overnor 2as and e ten #ired and o/served a oveent at te door, tat e o!ened it and as e did so te /ody o# te overnor sot to2ards i as i# in an attitde to e/ra-e i, and e ran a2ay #ro te /ody and it #e""< J a--ordin to %ietenant %a/ayan re-., 15J tat in an intervie2 ad /et2een te in te a#ternoon o# te sae day o# st >d, te a--sed to"d i tat te overnor #"ed tro te -orridor and 2as a/"e to enter in it and -"ose te door o# te -"oset, tat ten tere 2as a str"e /et2een te t2o in order to o!en te door and as te overnor 2as -a""in a"od #or a ard, e te a--sedJ 3ne2 #ro te overnorGs voi-e tat te "atter 2as sittin and, din #ro said voi-e, e #ired aain, an d a#ter tis sot te door 2as o!ened and te overnor #e"" to2ards te 2indo2 o# te -orridor. 'era!s, it as /een in#erred #ro tese t2o testionies tat /e#ore dis-arin te tird sot, te a--sed ad ded te !osition o# te overnorGs ead, as stated in te 459

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 459 United States vs. (a"yot. aority de-ision. (t, in rea"ity, 2at te a--sed eant /y said testionies 2as tat e 3ne2 te overnorGs !osition /eind te door. :atever it ay /e, it is evident tat 2en te a--sed #ired te tird sot, is o/e-t 2as to in#"i-t a 2ond !on and -onseBent"y 3i"" te overnor. It is a"so tre, as sae de-ision says, tat te vi-ti in is e##ort to es-a!e ad /een driven to ta3e re#e in te -"oset, and 2it te door -"osed it 2as i!ossi/"e #or i to see 2at is assai"ant 2as doin, or to a3e any de#ense 2atever aainst te sot dire-ted tro te !ane" o# te door. (t, in s!ite o# a"" tese and o# te #a-t tat, a--ordin to te aorityo!inion, te !resen-e o# a"evosXa in #irin te tird sot sees to /e too !atent o# -ontroversy tat it reBires no dis-ssion 2atever, in y dent, dissentin #ro s- a res!e-ta/"e o!inion, te !resen-e o# said Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e so"d not /e ta3en into a--ont in te a-ts a#oresaid. nd te reason is very -"ear. Te a--sed did not ta3e advantae o# te #a-t tat te overnor 2as /eind te door o# te -"oset and e 2as in #ront o# it, or otside o# said door< nor did e se"e-t tis sitation in order to !revent said overnor #ro de#end in ise"#, so tat 2itot ris3 to is !erson arisin #ro said de#ense, e it insre te e=e-tion o# is -riina" o/e-t. )n te -ontrary, said sitation 2as an o/sta-"e aa inst te rea"iation o# te o/e-t o# te a--sed< 2as a eans e!"oyed /y te overnor, nder te des!erate and sorro2#" -ondition in 2i- e 2as #ond, #or is de#ense aainst te atta-3 o# 2i- e 2as te o/e-t< 2as a di##i-"ty en-ontered /y te a--sed #ro -ontinin is atta-3 !on te overnor and a3in sre is ai at i 2it is revo"ver. Te a--sed, a#ter a"", did not avai" ise"# o# tese eans or sitation tat te do or o# te -"oset /ein -"osedJ in order to a3e is vi-ti a /etter and ore a--rate taret, as is so2n /y te #a-t tat on"y /y din te overnorGs !osition /eind te door 2as e a/"e to it i 2it te tird sot. nd it is ere/y -onvenient to re-ti#y 2at a!!ears in te de-ision o# te "o2er -ort, nae"y, tat one o# te adissions ade

40

40 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. /y te a--sed to te re!orter &eyes and %ietenant %a/ayan at te intervie2 tey ad in te ai" 2it i re"ative to te tird sotJ 2as tat 2en te a--sed 3ne2 te overnorGs !osition #ro te sond eitted 2en te "atter -a""ed #or e"!, e #ired te tird sot, ! "a-in te "e o# is revo"ver aainst te door and at te !"a-e 2ere e tot te overnorGs ead 2as. Tis is a/so"te"y ina--rate. Neiter %ietenant %a /ayan nor re!orter &eyes as said tis. nd it is not strane tat s- an adission /ein #ond in te dent o# te tria" -ort, 2i- 2as re!rod-ed /y te ttorney*enera" in is /rie#, -o!yin te 2o"e o# te res!e-tive !arara! o # te dent a!!ea"ed #roJ te ttorney*enera" as invo3ed in is /rie#, as a!!"i-a/"e in te instant -ase, te de-ision o# te S!ree $ort o# S!ain o# De-e/er 10, 1884, -ited in I ?iadaGs -oentaries 0, in order to aintain tat te Ba"i#yinG -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa 2as !resent 2en te tird sot 2as #ired. s it a!!ears in te de-ision o# te S!ree $ort o# S!ain a#oreentioned, te -ase d e-ided terein 2as; tat a #it too3 !"a-e /et2een te a--sed and te inates o# a ose< tat a#ter te a--sed ad /een ee-ted #ro said ose and its door -"osed /y tose 2itin, said a--sed #ired is !isto", 2i- e 2as -arryin, tro te -revi-e o# te door< and tat one o# te !ersons inside te ose 2as tere/y 3i""ed. I# in te !resent -ase as as /een ina--rate"y asserted in, te dent a!!ea"ed #ro, re#errin to 2at as /een testi#ied /y te re!orter &eyes, an assertion a--e!ted /y te ttorney*enera" in is /rie#J (a"yot ad !"a-ed te "e o# is revo"ver aainst te door /e ind 2i- 2as *overnor %era and at te !"a-e or s!ot 2ere e tot te overnorGs ead 2as, or ad, !on #irin te tird sot, !revios"y !"a-ed said revo"ver aainst te 2a"", o# te doo r as is a"so ina--rate"y entioned in said dent re#errin to %ietenant %a/ayanJ, ten te o"din o # te S!ree $ort o# S!ain in its de-ision a#oreentioned 2o"d /e in soe 2ay a!!"i-a/"e, a"to not -"ose"y< #or in te -ase a#oreentioned te aent or aressor #ired is re 41

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 41 United States vs. (a"yot. vo"ver tro te -revi-e o# te door, i. e. e -o"d easi"y ai at sae o# te !ersons /eind te door, one o# 2o e 2onded. (t in te !resent -ase te a--sed (a"yot #ired te tird sot at te s!ot 2ere te ead o# te de-eased st ave /een ere"y a--ordin to is dent o# te vi-tiGs !osition, or is /ein seated, and o# te sond eitted /y i 2en e -a""ed ot #or e"!. s a -onseBen-e o# said sot, e in#"i-ted te orta" 2ond e ad intended. Tere#ore, te di##eren-e /et2een tis -ase and te oter one is very -"ear. Moreover, it st /e a"so ta3en into -onsideration tat te tird sot 2as #ired /y te a--sed a#ter te #irst t2o sots as a ere -ontination o# is atta-3 !on te overnor, and 2en e, /ein a"ready e=-ited and in te eat o# aner, -o"d not, natra""y, /e in a !osition to sto! to ai is revo"ver 2it te ne-essary a--ra-y at e=a-t"y te ead o# te de-eased+- ore "ess /e-ase, #ro te testiony o# te a--sed ise"#, te overnor 2as -a""in ot #or ?eneas, rane and a ard. It is tre, a--ordin to te aority de-ision, tat te vi-ti in is e##ort to es-a!e ad /een driven to ta3e re#e in te -"oset, and 2it te do or -"osed it 2as i!ossi/"e # or i to see 2at is aressor 2as doin, or to a3e any de#ense 2atever aainst te sot dire-ted tro te !ane" o# te door+te -ase /ein te sae, a--ordin to te aority, as i# te vi-ti ad /een /ond or /"ind#o"ded, or ad /een trea-eros"y atta-3ed #ro /eind in a !at o/s-red /y te dar3ness o# te nit. It is indis!ta/"e tat *overnor %era 2as -o!"ete"y de#ense"ess 2i"e ta3in re#e in te -"oset even i# te door -o"d ave very 2e"" served to i, in any anner, as a eans o# de#ense and e st ave so nderstood 2en e !sed or e"d it #ro 2itin to !revent te a--sed #ro enterin said -"oset.J (t in order to deterine 2eter te eans e!"oyed /y te a--sed 2en e #ired te tird sot 2ere trea-eros or not, te -ondition and sitation in 2i- te vi-ti 2as #ond st not /e ta3en a"one. *reat -onsideration st a"so /e ad o# te a-ts e=e-ted /y te a--sed as -onstittin is n"a2#" aression, /e-ase te B a"i 4

4 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. #yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa is s/e-tive in -ara-ter, as as /een re!eated"y said, or is s!e-ia""y -onne -ted 2it te aressor. nd it is evident tat i# *overnor %era -o"d /e -o!ared to a !erson /ond and in de#ense"ess -onditions a#oreentioned, #or te reason tat te door /ein -"osed e -o"d not see 2at is aressor 2as doin, or a3e any de#ense 2atever aainst te sot dire-ted tro te !ane" o# te door, it 2as not de to any a-t o# te a--sed /e-ase te "atter 2as not te one 2o -"osed te door, or !revented it to /e o!ened. )n te -ontrary, it 2as te a--sed 2o tried to o!en it /y !sin it !ersistent"y in order to -ontine is assa"t !on te n#ortnate overnor. nd i# (a"yot #ired te tird sot tro te door, it is a"so indis!ta/"e tat e did not ta3e advantae o# te door /ein -"osed, nor did e -oose to #ire said sot 2i"e it 2as ts -"osed in order to insre ise"# aainst any de#ense o# resistan-e 2i- -o"d /e ade /y te !erson atta-3ed, or to insre te -onsation o# te -riina" a-t e 2as e=e-tin, #or te sae reason tat #ro is o2n a-tions e !re#erred to ave te door o!ened /e#ore #irin te tird sot at is vi-ti. Ho2ever, s!!osin, /t not adittin as tre, tat te tird sot, 2i- -ased *overnor %eraGs deat, 2as #ired /y te a--sed nder s- -ir-stan-es as 2o"d sti#y te o"din tat te !ro-edre ten e!"oyed /y said a--sed 2as trea-eros, it -annot a"so /e -onsidered tat te -oission o# te -rie 2as attended /y te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa 2i- raises it to te deree o# rder. It is a #a-t re-onied in te aority de-ision tat te entire

assa"t !on *overnor %era #ro te /einnin st /e -onsidered -ontinos, i. e., tere 2as no /rea3 o# -ontinity in ea- o# te tree sots #ired /y te a--sed at te overnor. So tat said tree sots -onstitted, in rea"ity, one sin"e atta-3 or one sin"e a-t. Sin-e it -ann ot /e -onsidered as d"y !roven, /eyond reasona/"e do/t or in any anner 2atever as it is not in te dent o# te ndersined, as as a"ready /een saidJ, tat te a--sed a-ted trea-eros"y 2en e #ired te #irst t2o s ots 4>

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4> United States vs. (a"yot. at te overnor 2i- -ased te t2o 2onds in te reion o# te rit s!ra-"avi-"eJ or 2en e -oen-ed to e=e-te te -riina" a-t, tere is no "ea" terino"oy 2ere/y te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa -an /e -onsidered !resent a#ter te assa"t as /een -oen-ed< /e-ase a"evosXa st ne-essari"y e/ra-e te entire assa"t -onstittin te -rie. S- as /een te o"din o# te S!ree $ort o# S!ain in its de-ision o# Se!te/er 9, 1901, ?o". A., 6ris!rden-ia, $riina"\, in a -ase in 2i- te a--sed #ired t2o n sots at is vi-ti, 2o tere/y re-eived #or 2onds, and 2en said vi-ti 2as a"ready "yin on te rond te a--sed aain de"ivered severa" /"o2s 2it te /tt o# is n on te vi-tiGs ead, tere/y in#"i-tin !on te "atter severa" oter 2onds o# 2i- e died sort"y a#ter2ards. It a!!ears #ro te verdi-t tat te #irst t2o sots 2ere not #ired /y te assai"ant #ro /eind is vi-ti in order to insre in tat anner te e=e-tion o# te -rie 2itot any ris3 to ise"# arisin #ro te de#ense 2i- te de-eased -o"d ave ade, /t tat, in de"iverin te severa" /"o2s 2it te /tt o# is n in te ead o# te de-eased 2i"e "yin on te rond, te assai"ant e!"oyed eans, etods or #ors es!e-ia""y and dire-t"y tendin to insre te vi-tiGs deat 2itot any ris3 to is !erson arisin #ro any de#ense te de-eased -o"d ave ade< I. e., te assai"ant did not e!"oy trea-eros eans at te /einnin o# te assa"t /t on"y to2ards its end 2en e 3i""ed te vi-ti. In reversin te de-ision o# te dien-ia 'rovin-ia" de *erona Ba"i#yin te -rie as rder and -ondenin te a--sed to deat !ena"ty, te S!ree $ort a#oreentioned e"d te # o""o2in; Tat trea-ery ne-essari"y e/ra-es te entire a ssa"t -onstittin te -rie, so tat trea-ery -annot /e -onsidered !resent 2en it 2as not !resent at te /einnin o# te n"a2#" assa"t, not2itstandin tat said a ssa"t 2as -onsated on a--ont o# te vi-tiGs ina/i"ity to re!e" it< tat, tere#ore, te 6ry avin #ond ot tat tere 2as no trea-ery 2en te a--sed #ired te t2o sots 44

44 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. at te vi-ti, and tat, 2en te "atter #e"" on te rond as a -onseBen-e o# said sots, said a--sed de"ivered severa" /"o2s 2it te /tt o# is n in is ead, trea-ery -annot /e -onsidered !resent, even i# te a-t o# de"iverin said /"o2s 2ere trea-eros, as te vi-ti 2as 3i""ed 2it te /tt o# te n 2en e 2as a"ready "yin e"!"ess on te rond. Te -ase de-ided in te #oreoin de-ision, as it a!!ears, is identi-a" to te instant -ase, and te #ndaenta" reason add-ed terein /y te S!ree $ort a#oreentioned, -onsists Gin tat, te assa"t /ein -onsidered as indivisi/"e and on"y one -riina" a-t !nisa/"e /y "a2, even i# it 2as e=e-ted at di##erent and s--essive staes, it -annot /e -on sidered tat in te e=e-tion o# said a-t tere are !resent se!arate and distin-t -ir-stan-es in -onne-tion 2it ea- o# te #a-ts e/ra-in said a-t 2i- -on stitte /t one -rie. Ho2ever, te aority de-ision aintains, /y -itin te de-ision o# tis -ort in te -ase o# U. S. vs. E"i-ana" >5 'i". &e!., 09J, tat even s!!osin tat trea-ery a"evosXaJ ad not /een !resented at te /einnin o# te assa"t, it 2o"d /e ne-essary to #ind tis e"eent !resent #ro te anner and srrondin -ir-stan-es nder 2i- te -rie 2as -onsated. Te #oreoin de-ision o# tis -ort -ontains tis sy""a/s; It is te do-trine o# tis -ort tat 2ere te !erson 3i""ed 2as in a e"!"ess and de#ense"ess -ondition at te tie te #ata" /"o2 2as iven, te oi-ide 2as -oitted 2it a"evosXa not2itstandin tat in te atta-3, 2i- 2as -ontinos, and 2i- #ina""y res"ted in te deat tere 2as no a"evosXa. Te #a-ts in te #oreoin -ase 2ere; Tat 2i"e te sai"/oat $ata"a nder te -oand o# er -a!tain 6an Noo, 2as on er tri! a"on te -oast o# I"oi"o, te -ie# ate o# said sai"/oat naed *i""ero *i"oresa to"d Edardo E"i-ana", te a--sed, and one o# te e/ers o# te -re2, tat e 2as oin to 3i"" te -a!tain 45

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 45 United States vs. (a"yot. /e-ase e 2as very anry 2it i and as3ed i to assist i. (t E"i-ana" !aid no attention to tis !ro!osa" /e-ase e tot tat it 2as a o3e< tat te #o""o2in day 2i"e te -re2 2ere enaed in teir dai"y o--!ation, te sae -ie# ate *i""eroJ, #indin te -a!tain in is -a/in, assa"ted i atte!tin to seie and o"d is ands and at te sae tie -a""in te -re2 to -oe #or2ard and e"! i. Te -re2, 2it te e=-e!tion o# te a--sed, astened to te

s!ot 2ere *i""ero 2as enaed in a and to and #it 2it te -a!tain. t te reBest o# *i""ero te -re2 seied te -a!tain and tied i 2it ro!e. #ter e ad /een rendered e"!"ess, *i""ero str-3 te de-eased -a!tain in te /a-3 o# is ne-3 2it an iron /ar, and ten de"iverin te 2ea!on to te a--sed, ordered i to -oe #or2ard and assist in dis!osin o# is vi-ti. Te a--sed tere!on seied te /ar and, 2i"e te -a!tain 2as sti"" Gstr"in #or is "i#e, str-3 i te #ata" /"o2 in te ead, 2i- -ased is deat. #ter a toro -onsideration o# te B a"i#yin -ir-stan-es tat so"d /e ta3en into a--ont in te -oission o# te -rie, aon 2i- is tat o# a"evosXa, 2i- te -ort too3 into -onsideration in Ba"i#yin te o##ense as rder and in senten-in te a--sed E"i-ana" to deat !ena"ty, in order to o"d tat in te -ase ten at /ar te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa 2as !resent, te 2riter o# te aority o!inion, 6sti-e More"and, said; Tis -ort as e"d re!eated"y tat, even to te /einnin o# an atta-3 res"tin in te deat o# te de-eased is #ree #ro trea-ery o# any sort, neverte"ess it 2i"" /e #ond !resent i#, at te tie te #ata" /"o2 is str-3, te de-ease d is e"!"ess and na/"e to de#end ise"#. :i"e te 2riter o# tis o!inion o"d te vie2 tat, 2ere tere is not trea-ery in te atta-3 2i- res"ts in te deat o# te de-eased, tere -an /e no trea-ery 2i- 2i"" Ba"i#y te -rie as rder not2itstandin te #a-t tat, at te tie te #ata" /"o2 2as str-3, te de-eased 2as nared and de#ense"ess, /t, te -ort avin e"d so #reBent"y 4

4 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. te -ontrary, te 2riter a--e!ts te do-trine so 2e"" esta/"ised. In a-3no2"edin in te # oreoin de-ision tat te do-trine esta/"ised in te -ase, U. S. vs. (a"atas and 6aie 19 'i". &e!., 1A4 invo3ed /y -onse" #or te de#ense to aintain tat te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa -o"d not /e ta3en into a--ont in te -oission o# te -rie inas- as it 2as not !resent at te /einnin o# te assa"t !on te -a!tain o# te vesse"J 2as Bite di##erent #ro, i# not dire-t"y o!!osed to, tat a"ready stated as, tere#ore, te ni#or o"din o# tis -ort in #orer -ases, te 2riter o# said de-ision, 6sti-e More"and, aain said tat, inas- as te aority o# te -ort /ein o# te o!inion tat it 2as not te intention o# te -ort in te -ase U. S. vs. (a"aas .and 6aie to reverse te !revios de-ision o# tis -ort and to set do2n a ne2 do-trine, e a--e!ted tat vie2 !arti-"ar"y in te #a-e o# te a"ost n/ro3en "ine o# de-isions on te s/e-t no2 to /e re#erred to. Ten in te #o""o2in "ines 6sti-e More"and -ited varios -ases de-ided /y tis -ort o"din, as as /een a"ready stated, a ni#or do -trine Bite di##erent #ro, i# not o!!osed to, tat esta/"ised in te (a"atas and 6aie -ase a#oreentioned. Te #irst o# said -ases 2as tat o# U. S. vs. De %eon 1 'i". &e!., 1>J 2erein it a!!eared, says sae de-ision, tat te a--sed entered te ose o# te de-eased, dre2 teir /o"os and -o!e""ed i to #o""o2 i. )n arrivin at a !"a-e -a""ed ("ton, te de-eased 2as /ond and in tat -ondition rdered. It 2as e"d tat te #a-t tat te de-eased 2as /ond at te tie e 2as 3i""ed a"to tere 2as no trea-ery at te /einnin o# te assa"t res"tin in is deat, te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e 2as !resent. Te -ort said; ro te eviden-e tere a!!ears te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# trea-ery. To so2 tis it is on"y ne-essary to ention te #a-t tat te de-eased 2as /ond.  GTe ead note to tat -ase says;  GTe #a-t tat te de-eased 2as /ond 2i"e 3i""ed -on 4A

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 4A United States vs. (a"yot. stitte te Ba"i#i-ative -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa and raises te -rie to te deree o# rder, L L L G  Te varios -ases, #i#teen in n/er, entioned /y 6sti-e More"and in te a#oresaid de-ision, /eside tat o# U. S. vs. De %eon, a#oreentioned, are -ited in sae de-ision >5 'i". &e!., 18J, #o""o2ed /y, or tese reasons 2e are o# te o!inion tat te -rie 2as -oitted 2it trea-ery and tat it 2as !ro!er"y denoinated rder instead o# oi-ide. No2 ten, as it a!!eared in te De %eon -ase, te a--sed /ean te atta-3 /y enterin te ose o# te de-eased, dra2in teir /o"os and -o!e""in i to #o""o2 te, and, on arrivin at a -ertain !"a-e, te de-eased 2as /ond and in tat -ondition rdered. U!on an e=aination o# te #i#teen -ases -ited in te sae de-ision, it a!!ears tat te #a-ts, "eadin to te !rose-tion o# te res!e-tive a--sed and te -"assi#i-ation o# te -rie as rder /e-ase o# te !resen-e o# te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa, 2ere identi-a" to tose in te De %eon -ase, or, 2at aonts to te sae tin, 2ere, 2it soe a"terations, tat a#ter te o##ended !arties ad /een 3idna!!ed #ro teir res!e-tive oes or seBestered and -arried to anoter !"a-e and tere /ond /y teir aressors, tey 2ere !t to deat 2i"e a/so"te"y de#ense"ess. Te #a-ts in one o# te -ases -ited in te a#oreentioned de-ision, tat o# U. S. vs. Na"a and $aday > 'i". &e!., 1J, 2ere; t2o !ersons sdden"y and ne=!e-ted"y "ea!ed !on a tird, and 2i"e one o# te o"ds te vi-tiGs ands te oter sta/s i to deat. :at 2as ten ain"y ta3en into a--ont /y tis -ort in o"din, in te -ase U. S. vs. E"i-ana", tat in te -oission o# te -rie tere is !resent te Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa, 2as tat te -a!tain o# te sai"/oat $ata"a 2as tied 2it ro!e 2en te a--sed, /y order o# te -ie# ate, too3 te iron /ar and 2it it str-3 a /"o2 in te ead o# te de-eased res"tin in is deat. 48

48 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. Te s!e-ia" -ir-stan-e tat, 2en te de-eased -a!tain 2as 3i""ed /y E"i-ana", e 2as tied 2it ro!e and 2as -onseBent"y e"!"ess and de#ense"ess is 2at, -o!arin said -ase 2it tat o# De %eon and te oter -ases -ited terein, 2as ta3en into -onsideration /y tis $ort in te a#oreentioned de-ision in o"din tat trea-ery 2as !resent :en E"i-ana" 3i""ed te -a!tain even to tere 2as no trea-ery at te /einnin o# te str"e. S- 2as d"y and toro"y so2n /y te arents in te sae de-ision o"din -"ear"y tat 2ere te !erson 3i""ed is /ond and and #oot 2en te aressor 3i""ed i, te -rie 2as -oitted 2it a"evosXa, even to te a-ts o# te aressor !rior to te 3i""in 2ere not trea-eros, or tat in s- a -ase any oter -onsideration re"ated to te #orer a-ts o# te o##ender st /e e=-"ded and te a-t o# said o##ender in 3i""in te de-eased st /e -o nsidered trea-eros. I# in o"din 2at it did in te E"i-ana" -ase te !r!ose o# tis -ort ad /een oter2ise, se"ess 2o"d ave /een a"" tat as /een said /y 6sti-e More"and in te de-ision o# said -ase, -itin as te rond #or is -on-rren-e 2it te aority not2itstandin is o"din a di##erent o!inion and te do-trine esta/"ised in te (a"atas and 6aie -aseJ te -ases a"ready entioned te De %eon -ase and te oter 15 -ases -ited in sae de-isionJ and #ina""y a--e!tin te vie2 o# te aority in te sense tat it 2as not te intention o# te -ort in te (a"atas and 6aie -ase to reverse te !revios de-isions o# tis -ort and to set do2n a ne2 do-trine in vie2 o# te ni#or o"din o# tis -ort !on te s/e-t in Bestion< i. e., tose o"dins in te a#oreentioned -ase o# De %eon and te oter #i#teen. Te -ase at /ar, as it -"ear"y a!!ears, as no ana"oy or sii"arity 2atever 2it te -ases -ited a/ove nor 2it te E"i-ana" -ase. In a"" tese -ases te a-ts -o!"ained o# 2ere tat te vi-tis ad /een tied /y teir res!e-tive rderers /e#ore tey 2ere 3i""ed. In te E"i-ana" -ase tere 2as at te /einnin o# te atta-3 a and to and 49

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& , 1919. 49 United States vs. (a"yot. #it in te -orse o# 2i- te -ie# ate *i""ero 2it an iron /ar de a"t a /"o2 in te /a-3 o# te ne-3 o# te de-eased -a!tain 2i"e te "atter 2as tied 2it ro!e, /e#ore anoter /"o2 2as d e"ivered /y te a--sed E"i-ana" at te reBest o# said *i""ero. Trea-ery 2as, tere#ore, !resent 2en *i""ero dea"t te #irst /"o2 and /e#ore E"i-ana" de"ivered te #ata" one on -a!tain Noo, de-eased. In te De %eon -ase and te oter #i#teen -ases -ited in te de-ision aainst E"i-ana", te !r!ose, te !rin-i!a" o/e-t, o# te o##enders /ein to !t to deat te vi-tis /y te seBestered or 3idna!!ed #ro teir oes, teir a-ts o# tyin said vi-tis 2ere si!"y !re"iinaries or !re!aratory to te !rin-i!a" a-t -oitted /y te at te tie te o##ended !arties 2ere a"ready /ond and rendered -o!"ete"y de#ense"ess. Trea-ery, tere#ore, -annot /e !resent in te said !re"iinary a-ts, it /ein !resent on"y 2en te a--sed e=e-ted teir !rin-i!a" o/e-t, or teir intended !r!ose at te tie tey seBestered te o##ended !arties. )n te oter and, te -ase at /ar 2i- is rater nne-essary to re!eatJ 2as tat te a--sed (a"yot /ean atta-3in *overnor %era /y #irin t2o !isto" sots 2i"e said overnor 2as in # ront o# i tere/y -asin i t2o 2onds< and tat te de-eased avin ta3en re#e into te -"oset ne=t to te -orridor adoinin is o##i-e, te a--sed -ontined is atte!t /y #irin anoter !isto" sot 2i- -ased te deat o# te vi-ti. It is, tere#ore, evident tat te -ase at /ar as no a!!"i-ation to te do-trine esta/"ised in te E"i-ana" -ase and in tose -ases -ited in te /ody o# sae -ase /y te 2riter, 6sti-e More"and, and invo3ed in te o!inion o# te aority in order to o"d tat, even s!!osin tat at te /einnin o# te assa"t !o n *overnor %era trea-ery 2as not !resent, it 2o"d /e ne-essary to -onsider its !resen-e in vie2 o# te #or /y 2i- te -rie 2as -oitted. )n te -ontrary, te !resent -ase as an e=a-t a!! "i-ation to te do-trine esta/"ised /y te S!ree $ort o# S!ain in its de-ision o# Se!te/er 9, 1901, a"ready 4A0

4A0 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED United States vs. (a"yot. entioned a/ove, and e=!ressive o# te #a-t tat trea-ery st ne-essari"y /e !resent trot te assa"t -onstittin, te -rie, /e-ase te !resent -ase is identi-a" to tat de-ided /y said S!ree $ort in te a#oreentioned de-ision 2ere te #oreoin do-trine 2as esta/"ised. Te -ase ,at /ar as a"so an e=a-t a!!"i-ation to te do-trine esta/"ised in te (a"atas and 6aie -ase s!raJ, to 2it; In order tat a"evosXa ay /e -onsidered as a Ba"i#yin -ir-stan-e to raise te -"assi#i-ation o# te -rie, or as an aravatin -ir-stan-e to aent te !ena"ty, it st /e so2n tat te trea-eros a-ts 2ere !resen t and !re-eded te -oen-eent o# te atta-3 2i- -ase te inry -o!"ained o#. #ter te -oen-eent o# s- an atta-3, an d /e#ore its terination, an a--sed ay ave e!"oyed eans or etods 2i- are o# a trea-eros -ara-ter, and yet s- eans and etods 2o"d not -onstitte te -ir-stan-e o# a"evosXa. )ne -ontinos atta-3 -annot /e /ro3en ! into t2o or ore !arts and ade to -onstitte se!arate, distin-t, and inde!endent atta-3s so tat trea-ery ay /e ine-ted terein and -onsidered as a Ba"i#yin or a ravatin -ir-stan-e. 19 'i". &e!., 14.J Te #oreoin do-trine st /e -onsidered s/sistin, and it is, in y o2n dent, s/sistin not2itstandin 2at as /een said /y tis -ort in te -ases a"ready -ited< to 2it, U. S. vs. De %eon, U. S. vs. E"i-ana", and te #i#teen -ases entioned in te "ast one. or te #oreoin reasons and 2it de res!e-t to te o!inion o# te aority o# tis -ort, I ere/y dissent #ro sae and a o# te o!inion tat te -rie -oitted /y te a--sed, a--ordin to te eviden-e add-ed at te earin and teir erits, is not rder /t oi-ide, de#ined and !nised nder arti-"e

404 o# te 'ena" $ode< and tat te #a-t tat it 2as -oitted at te !"a-e 2ere te de-eased $onrado %era, *overnor o# (ataan, 2as e=er-isin te !ro!er #n-tions o# is o##i-e as s- overno r, a eneri- -ir-stan-e odi#yin te -riina" res!onsi/i"ity in-rred 4A1

?)%. 40, N)?EM(E& 8, 1919. 4A1 'i"!otts vs. 'i"i!!ine Man#a-trin $o. an d (erry. /y te a--sed in te sense o# aravatin sae 2itot te !resen-e o# any e=tenatin -ir-stan-e to -o!ensate it, te a--sed st /e senten-ed to s##er te edi o# te a=i deree o# te -orres!ondin !ena"ty, i. e., 18 years  onts and 1 days o# re-"siKn te!ora" 2it te a--essories o# arti-"e 59 o# te sae $ode< /t tat i# it /e -on sidered, as it 2as nderstood /y te aority in teir de-ision, tat sae -riina" a-t e=e-ted /y te a--sed in #a-t res"ted in te !er!etration o# t2o -ries, one o# te /ein te assa"t !on !ersons in atority de#ined in arti-"e 49 No.  o# said $ode, te a--sed st tere#ore /e senten-ed to s##er te !ena"ty -orres!ondin to te ore serios -rie, i. e., tat o# oi-ide in its a=i deree, as !rovided #or in arti-"e 89, or 0 years o# re-"siKn te!ora" and te sae a--essories o# arti-"e 59. 6dent odi#ied.  QQQQQQQQQQQ United States vs. (a"yot., 40 'i". >85, No. 144A Nove/er , 1919

'eo!"e vs. $an oo3 !ea"ed to tis -ort, and atte!ts to so2, aon oter tins, tat said "ots Nos. 1 and 1>J so"d not /e s/e-ted to te said easeent in #avor o# "ot No. 14, and tat te eviden-e add-ed drin te tria" 2as s##i-ient to so2 tat e 2as te o2ner in #ee si!"e o# said "ots. #ter earin te eviden-e add-ed drin te tria" o# te -ase, te "o2er -ort ade an o-"ar ins!e-tion o# te e=isten-e o# te easeent in Bestion, and /e-ae toro"y -onvin-ed, not on"y #ro te eviden-e add-ed drin te tria" o# te -ase, /t #ro said o-"ar ins!e-tion, tat tere e=isted te easeent in Bestion in #avor o# sa id "ot No. 14. :it re#eren-e to te s##i-ien-y o# te eviden-e to so2 tat ado %. Santos 2as te o2ner in #ee si!"e o# said "ots Nos. 1 and 1>J and entit"ed to ave te sae reistered in is nae, it ay /e said aJ tat te eviden-e add-ed drin te tria" o# te -ase is not s##i-ient to sstain is -ontention, and /J tat in is arent in s!!ort o# tat assinent o# error, e -ites no !roo# nor any !art o# te re-ord in s!!ort o# is -ontention. #ter a -are#" e=aination o# te entire re-ord 2e are #or-ed to te -on-"sion tat te dent o# te "o2er -ort so"d /e, and is ere/y, a##ired, 2it -osts. So ordered. ra""o, Street, and van-ea, 66., -on-r.

6dent a##ired. ++++++++++

[No. 198. )-to/er , 191] Te 'eo!"e o# te 'i"i!!ine Is"ands, !"ainti## and a!!e""ee, vs. $an oo3, de#endant an d a!!e""ant. Sear- o# oreiners in $stoose< &esistan-e and Diso/edien-e to '/"i- tority.+Se-tion 1>>8 o# te dinistrative $ode !rovidin tat a"" !ersons -oin into te 'i"i!!ine Is"ands #ro #orein -ontries sa"" /e "ia/"e to detention and sear- / y te -stos atorities, does not a torie te said atorities to sear- a #oreiner 2o, avin /een !eritted /y te to "and at te !ort o# is destination, as entered and >1

?)%. 4, )$T)(E& , 191 >1 'eo!"e vs. $an oo3 /en to reside in tese Is"ands.  -stos o##i-er 2o atte!ts to sear- said #oreiner e=-eeds is !o2er, and te "atter ay resist s- a sear- and even a3e se o# te eans reasona/"y ne-essary to !revent it. S- a resistan-e does not -onstitte te -rie o# resistan-e and diso/edien-e to te !/"iatority denned and !nised /y arti-"e 5 o# te 'ena" $ode, /e-ase as te !ro!osed sear- is i""ea", te o##i-er 2o atte!ts to !er#or it does not a-t as an aent o# te atority.

''E% #ro a dent o# te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# Mani"a. Harvey, 6. Te #a-ts are stated in te o!inion o# te -ort. Hart#ord (eaont #or a!!e""ant. No a!!earan-e #or a!!e""ee. ?i"" aor, 6.; Te a!!e""ant $an oo3 2as !rose-ted #or te -rie o# resistan-e and diso/edien-e to te !/"i- atority, and senten-ed /y te $ort o# irst Instan-e o# Mani"a to t2o onts and one day o# arresto ayor and to !ay a #ine o# 1,>01 !esetas and te -osts o# te a-tion, 2it s/sidiary i!risonent in -ase o# inso"ven-y. ro te re-ord it a!!ears tat te a--sed, a $inese s/e-t, 2as a !assener o# te United States Mi"itary Trans!ort Sot (end, 2i- arrived in Mani"a on !ri" , 190. Havin /een a""o2ed /y te iiration atorities to "and, e "e#t te /oat on te sae day, !ri" . t a/ot > or 4 oG-"o-3 in te a#ternoon o# te #o""o2in day, e 2ent to !ier No. 1 to et is /aae. #ter te sear- o# te /aae in 2i- !ost-ards o# an inde-ent -ara-ter 2ere #ond, a - stos aent, Eenio M. $r, atte!ted to sear- te /ody o# te a--sed, to 2i- te "atter a!!arent"y o/e-ted.  dis!te too3 !"a-e /et2een te t2o, 2i- terinated in te se-ret aent seiin te $inaan /y te ar 2it intent to sear- is /ody, a#ter so2in i is !o"i-e /ade. Te a--sed resisted and str-3 te se-ret aent on te stoa-. Te "atter in trn str-3 i o n te ne-3. Here te -stos ins!e-tor, nasta-io 6a-into, intervened, and e=!"ained to te a--sed >

> 'HI%I''INE &E')&TS NN)TTED 'eo!"e vs. $an oo3 tat $r 2as a -stos se-ret servi-e aent and ad te rit to sear- i in order to #ind 2eter e ad on is !erson any -ontra/and. Ten te a!!e""ant ade no #rter resistan-e and a""o2ed ise"# to /e sear-ed. Under s- -ir-stan-es, as te a--sed -oitted te -rie o# resistan-e and diso/edien-e to te !/"i- atority as a""eed in te in#oration To de-ide tis Bestion, it is #irst ne-essary to deterine 2eter te aent, $r, 2as atoried to sear- te !erson o# te a--sed. Te !rose-tion a""ees tat nder se-tion 1>>8 o# te dinistrative $ode a"" !ersons -oin into te 'i"i!!ine Is"ands #ro orein -ontries sa"" /e "ia/"e to detention and sear- /y te -stos atorities nder s- re"ations as ay /e !res-ri/ed re"ative tereto. Te de#ense, o2ever, -ontends tat on-e te a--sed as arrived at te !oint o# is destination /y /ein a""o2ed to "eave te /oat and to "and e 2as /eyond te risdi-tion o# te -stos atorities, and, tere#ore, not "ia/"e to sear- 2itot di-ia" 2arrant. Se-tion 1>>8 o# te dinistrative $ode !rovides; Se-. 1>>8. Sear- o# !ersons arrivin #ro #orein -ontries.+"" !ersons -oin into te 'i"i!!ine Is"ands #ro #orein -ontries sa"" /e "ia/"e to detention and sear- /y te -stos atorities nder s- re"ations as ay /e !res-ri/ed re"ative tereto. ea"e ins!e-tors ay /e e!"oyed #or te e=aination and sear- o# !ersons o# teir o2n se=. Havin in ind te ai o# te "a2 in atoriin te sear- o# !ersons -oin #ro #orein -ontries, 2i- is to avoid te -"andestine introd-tion into te 'i"i!!ine Is"ands o# oods s/e-t to te !ayent o# -stos dties, or te i!ortation o# arti-"es !roi/ited /y "a2, or te entran-e o# !ersons 2o ave no rit to reside in tese Is"ands, 2e are o# te o!inion tat a#ter te -stos atorities ave !eritted te a--sed to "and in Mani"a, te terins o# is voyae, e -eased to /e a !assener 2itin te eanin o# said se-tion 1>>8 o# te dinistrative $ode. >>

?)%. 4, )$T)(E& , 191 >> 'eo!"e vs. $an oo3 Te #a-t tat te a--sed retrned to !ier No. 1 to et te /aae tat e ad "e#t tere te day /e#ore does not s/e-t i to te o!eration o# said se-tion. He -o"d ave one /a-3 tere severa" 2ee3s or onts a#ter is arriva", and in s- -ase, i# te -ontention o# te !rose-tion is sstained, a"" #oreiners arrivin in te 'i"i!!ines 2o"d /e in te i"y anoa"os sitation o# /ein "ia/"e to detention and sear- #or an inde#inite tie, 2i- is a vio"ation o# te rit to /e se-red aainst reasona/"e sear-es aranteed /y se-tion > o# te -t o# $onress o# st 9, 191, 3no2n as 6ones %a2, 2i- !rovides; Tat te rit to /e se-red aainst nreasona/"e sear-es and seires sa"" not /e vio"ated. It is red tat te o/e-t o# sear-in te !erson o# te a--sed 2as to #ind 2eter e ad 2it i any -ontra/and. It 2as too "ate to "oo3 #or any -ontra/and. He ad a"ready /een sear-ed 2en e "e#t te /oat. Te a--sed ad rea-ed is destination, s!endin te nit in te ose 2ere e ad ta3en "odin. It is not, tere#ore, reasona/"e to /e"ieve tat 2en e retrned to !ier No. 1 te ne=t day, e ad a/ot is /ody any -ontra/and. Ts te sear- ade /y te aent $r a!!ears to /e nreasona/"e.

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