FOLIO BIOLOGY TINGKATAN 4 : NUTRITION
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TECHNOLOGY USED IN FOOD PRODUCTION The efforts by Various Agencies to Diversity Food Production ULAM Ulam or vegetable salad consists of fresh leaves , fruits , and other plant parts which are eaten raw . Examples of ulam include : pegaga ( Centella asiatica )
shoots of papaya
petai ( Parkia speciosa )
kemangi ( Ocimum sanctum )
Ulam is rich in mineral ions , vitamins and fibre . some of these plants are used in the preparation of herbal medicines and drinks .
FACTS ABOUT pegaga , jering and pucuk kaduk ! Pegaga is now recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an herb thought to generate intelligence in children than can help blood circulation and improve skin health . Pegaga salads and roots is said to help the recovery of the uterus. Pegaga juice is easily available . Ulam Jering contain a compound that can provide roughage alkaloids stimulus to urinate . Jering can also be an effective cure for diabetic patients if taken continuously with the rate slightly . This is because , the content of alkaloid compounds in it is able to neutralize the sugar in the body . In addition, you need to eat the leaves kaduk . It feels a bit fat and easy to breed in the pot. Kaduk leaves also have a high content of calcium needed by
the body to strengthen bones and prevent osteoporosis disease especially among women .
Duck , as well as most foods , can be included in a nutritionally wellbalanced healthy diet . As any competent nutritionist knows it is the actual intake of nutrients on a daily ( or a period of a few days ) basis that is important . Maintaining an adequate intake of the nutrients we need and avoiding excessive consumption of calories , fat and cholesterol , requires making intelligent choices with regard to the particular foods , and especially the amount of each food consumed . This is true whether duck is a part of one's diet or not . When duck ( or any of a long list of other foods ) is included in the menu , some adjustments in the amounts of other items on the menu may be necessary . The fact that duck is usually consumed
less frequently than meats such as chicken , beef or pork , makes it relatively simple to add duck to a weekly menu and at the same time adhere to the dietary guidelines of nutritional authorities such as the National Research Council , Food and Nutrition Board , which publishes Recommended Dietary Allowances ( RDA's ) , and without exceeding the intake of total calories , total fat , saturated fat and cholesterol recommended by the American Heart Association ( AHA ) . The choice of duck leg or duck breast without skin makes it even easier to meet nutritional standards with minimal sacrifices of other foods included in the weekly menu .
Chicken is a source of protein that can come with or without skin and it can be white or dark meat . When it comes to its nutritional value , chicken also has some other vitamins and minerals . On the average , chicken can be a healthy food . But once it starts getting prepared with high amounts of oil such as in deep frying , it becomes unhealthy . Chicken has approximately 48g of protein per 6-ounce serving . When it comes to fat , the amount varies . Skinless chicken breast has about 3 grams of fat , and chicken breast with skin on it has about 14 grams per 6-ounce serving . Skinless chicken breast has
about 240 calories per 6 ounces and breast with skin has about 340 calories . Chicken also has calcium in It . Four ounces of cooked chicken has about 17 milligrams . Potassium is another nutrient that can be found in chicken . It has about 290 mg per 4 ounces . Chicken has no carbohydrates but this can be changed depending on how it is prepared . Sauces and juices can add some carbohydrates .
Freshwater fish Fish protein is easily digestible and is very much needed by growing children for healthy development . Freshwater fish nutrition is better , especially the eating of plants , not to eat mud and art objects in the water . The cooked fish is not difficult to digest and remove the imbalances of the body . They are low in cholesterol . Examples of freshwater fish are : Tilapia
Methods used to improve the quality and quantity of food production DIRECT SEEDING
Direct seeding spring cereal at Dewald's farm near Davenport , WA
Direct seeding is a method in which the seeds are shown directly into the soil by using special machines . The seeds are covered with soil as they are being sown . This method does not involve the transplanting of seedlings and therefore results in less damage to the roots of the
seedlings . The plants achieve faster growth and this increases crop yield . Less water is also needed to irrigate the fields . This method is widely used in the planting of paddy to obtain higher yields of rice .
Hydrophonics is a commercial technique for growing certain crop plants in culture solutions rather than soil . The roots of the plants are immersed in a solution which contains all the macronutrients and micronutrients in the correct proportions . The culture solution is aerated to provide sufficient oxygen for respiration .
THE HYDROPHONIC METHOD The nutrient solution is pumped into the container for a given period of time . The growing medium absorbs the nutrient solution , and the nutrient solution is then allowed to drain away .
THE NEW DESIGN OF HYDROPHONIC GARDEN
Aeroponics is a modified technique of hydroponics . The plants are placed in holes through a panel ( plastic or polystyrene ) and are grown with the roots suspended in mid-air within an enclosed growing chamber beneath the panel . The roots are sprayed with a a mist of nutrient solutions from spraying nozzles at short intervals . This enables the plant roots to absorb more oxygen in between the periods of spraying . Plants achieve faster growth
because the culture solutions provide nutrients in a form that can be readily absorbed by the roots .
THE AEROPONICS SYSTEM
TISSUE CULTURE Tissue culture is a technique in which an entire plant can be regenerated from the cells or tissues of a parent plant . The cells or tissues taken from a parent plant are grown in a sterile culture medium or culture solution which contains the necessary nutrients and growth hormones . Plantlets which are produced can then be transplanted to nurseries . Tissue culture of a plant tissues enable commercial propagation of clones which have all the useful characteristics of the parent plants or which have undergone manipulation via genetic engineering . This method helps increase the agricultural yield of many crop plants like : Papayas Starfruits
GENETIC ENGINEERING Genetic engineering is a technique that can increase the quality and quantity of food production tremendously . This technique enables the characteristics of an organism to be altered by changing the genetic composition of the organism . It involves the transfer of a segment of DNA which carries the genetic information or beneficial genes from one organism to another . For example , genes from plants can be inserted into the DNA of animal cells and vice versa . A genetically modified organism ( GMO ) is called a transgenic organism . Developments in genetic engineering have enabled transgenic crop plants such as wheat , paddy , tomatoes , legumes , soya beans and potatoes to be cultivated commercially . These crop plants contain genes from other organisms to enhance their growth or nutritional properties . For example : Golden rice
Golden rice is a transgenic rice in which the gene that codes for the synthesis of beta-carotene has been transferred from the daffodil plant . As a result , Golden rice has a higher content of beta-carotene and is orange in
colour . Beta-carotene is needed for the synthesis of vitamin A which is essential in a balanced diet .
Another method of increasing productivity is to practise proper soil management . Soil should be cultivated in a controlled manner so that not all minerals are removed from it at any one time . Proper soil management includes the following : • Regular addition of organic or inorganic fertilisers to return nutrients to the soil . • Ploughing , which helps increase aeration in the soil . • Practising crop rotation . • Reducing soil erosion and leaching of nutrients from the soil. • Addition of organic matter which promotes humus formation and improves soil structure .
Crop rotation is to maintain and improve soil fertility and prevent the build-up of pests peculiar to any crop species . Crop rotation involves cultivation of different plants in succession on the same plot of land over a period of time . For example , legumes , leafy plants , plant that bear fruits like watermelons and root plants like onion and garlic can be planted in a typical four-stage rotation .
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Biological control is the control of pests through the use of natural predators . Biological control is beneficial as it reduces the use of chemicals ( in pesticides ) and is environment friendly . Some examples of biological control are as follows : Owls and Snakes have been used successfully to control the rat population on oil palm plantations.
The population of the prickly pear cactus ( Opuntia sp. ) is controlled by introducing the cactus moth
TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOOD PROCESSING THE NECESSITY FOR FOOD PROCESSING
CORRELATING THE FOOD PROCESSING METHODS WITH FACTORS CAUSING FOOD SPOILAGE COOKING
Cooking is the process of preparing food by applying heat , selecting , measuring , and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible food .The process encompasses a vast range method of methods , tools and combination of ingredients to alter the flavour , appearance , texture or digestibility of food . Factors affecting the final outcome include the variability of ingredients , ambient conditions , tools and the skill of the individual doing the actual cooking . Applying heat to food usually , though not always , chemically transform it , thus changing its flavour , texture , consistency , appearance and nutritional properties . Methods of cooking that involve the boiling of liquid in a reacceptance have been practiced at least since the 10th millennium BC , with the introduction of pottery .
PRESERVATION USING SALT OR SUGAR Salt Salting is the preservation of food with dry salt. It is related to pickling ( preparing food with brine , e.g : salty water ) . It is one of the oldest methods of preserving food , and two historically significant such foods are dried and salted cod ( usually referred to as salt fish ) and salt-cured meat . Salting is used because most bacteria , fungi and other potentially pathogenic organisms cannot survive in a highly salty environment ,
due to the hypertonic nature of salt . Any living cell in such an environment will become dehydrated trough osmosis and die or become temporarily inactivated .
SUGAR Sugaring is a food preservation method similar to pickling. Sugaring is the process of desiccating a food by first dehydrating it , then packing it with pure sugar . This sugar can be crystalline in the form of table or raw sugar , or it can be a high sugar density liquid such as honey , syrup or molasses . The purpose of sugaring is to create an environment hostile to microbial life and prevent food spoilage . Sugaring is commonly used to preserve fruits as well as vegetables such as ginger . From time to time sugaring also has been used for non-food preservations . A risk in sugaring is that sugar itself attracts moisture . Once a sufficient moisture level is reached , native yeast in the environment will come out of dormancy and begin to ferment the sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide . This leads to the process of fermentation. Although fermentation can be used as a food preservation method , it must be intentionally controlled , or the results will tend to be unpleasant .
FERMENTATION Fermentation in food processing typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast , bacteria or a combination thereof , under anaerobic conditions . More general definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols or acids . When fermentation stops prior to complete conversion of sugar to alcohol , a stuck fermentation is said to have occurred . The science of fermentation is known as zymology . Fermentation usually implies that the action of the microorganisms is desirable and the process is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine , beer , and cider . Fermentation is also employed in preservation to create lactic acid in sour foods such as pickled cucumbers , kimchi and yogurts . The main purpose of food fermentation are : · Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, Aromas , and textures in food substrates . · Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid , alcohol , acetic acid and alkaline fermentations . · Biological enrichment of food substrates with protein , essential amino acids , essential fatty acids and vitamins . · Detoxification during food-fermentation processing . · A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements .
DRYING Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food , which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay . Drying food using the sun and wind to prevent spoilage has been known since ancient times . Water is usually removed by evaporation ( air drying , sun drying , smoking or wind drying ) but , in the case of freeze-drying , food is first dried and then water is removed by sublimation . Bacteria and micro-organisms within the food and from the air need the water in the food to grow . Drying effectively prevents them from surviving in the food . It also creates a hard outer-layer , helping to stop micro-organisms from entering the food . Many different foods are prepared by dehydration . Good examples are meat such as prosciutto ( a.k.a. Parma ham ) , bresaola , and beef jerky . Dried and salted reindeer meat is a traditional Sami food . First the meat is soaked or pickled in saltwater for a couple of days to guarantee the conservation of the meat . Then the meat is dried in the sun in spring when the air temperature is below zero . The dried meat can be further processed to make soup . Fruits change character completely when dried . example : the plum becomes a prune , the grape a raisin , figs and dates are also transformed . Drying is rarely used for vegetables for use in the household however dehydrated vegetables are often found in commercially packaged meals as well as meals made for backpackers , hunters , military , etc . The exceptions to this rule are bulbs , such as garlic and onion , which are often dried . Also chilies are frequently dried . Edible and psilocybin mushrooms , as well as other fungi , are also sometimes dried for preservation purposes , to affect the potency of chemical components , or so they can be used as seasonings . For centuries , much of the European diet depended on dried cod , known as salt cod or bacalhau ( with salt ) or stockfish ( without ) . It formed the main protein source for the slaves on the West Indian plantations , and was a major economic force within the triangular trade . Dried shark meat , known as Hákarl , is a delicacy in Iceland .
PASTEURIZATION Pasteurization is a process which slows microbial growth in food . The process was named after its creator , French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur . The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April , 1862 . The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring . Unlike sterilization , inventor Nicolas Appert , pasteurization is not intended to kill all pathogenic micro-organisms in the food or liquid . Instead , pasteurization aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease ( assuming the pasteurization product is refrigerated and consumed before its expiration date ) . Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and quality of the product . Certain food products are processed to achieve the state of commercial sterility . Pasteurization typically uses temperatures below boiling since at temperatures above the boiling point for milk , casein , micelles will irreversibly aggregate ( or " curdle " ) . There are two main types of pasteurization used today : High temperature / short time HTST and Extended Shelf Life ( ESL ) treatment . Ultra High Temperature ( UHT or ultra-heat treated ) is also used for milk treatment . Pasteurisation methods are usually standardized and controlled by national food safety agencies. These agencies require milk to be HTST pasteurized in order to qualify for the “pasteurization" label . There are different standards for different dairy products , depending on the fat content and the intended usage. For example , the pasteurization standards for cream differ from the standards for fluid milk and the standards for pasteurizing cheese are designed to preserve the phosphates enzyme , which aids in cutting .
Products that can be pasteurized are : a) Cheese b) Water c) Milk d) Beer e) Eggs f) Almonds g) Juice
CANNING Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food is processed and sealed in an airtight container . The process was first developed as a French military discovery by Nicolas Appert . The packaging prevents microorganisms from entering and proliferating inside . From a public safety point of view , foods with low acidity ( a pH more than 4.6 ) need sterilization under high temperature ( 116-130°C ) . To achieve temperatures above the boiling point requires the use of a pressure canner . Foods that must be pressure canned include most vegetables, meats , seafood , poultry , and dairy products . The only foods that may be safely canned in an ordinary boiling water bath are highly acidic ones with a pH below 4.6 , such as fruits , pickled vegetables , or other foods to which acidic additives have been added .
REFRIGERATION Refrigeration slows bacterial growth. Bacteria exist everywhere in nature . They are in the soil , air , water and the foods we eat . When they have nutrients ( food ) ,
moisture , and favorable temperature , they grow rapidly , increasing in numbers to the point where some types of bacteria can cause illness . Bacteria grow most rapidly in the range of temperatures between 40° and 140°F , the “Danger Zone” , some doubling in number in as little as 20 minutes . A refrigerator set at 40°F or below will protect most foods . For safety it is important to verify the temperature of the refrigerator . Refrigerators should be set to maintain a temperature of 40°F or below .
BREEDING OF PLANT In the breeding of plants , different plant species with certain beneficial characteristics are selectively bred . The resulting varieties of plants inherit the beneficial characteristics of both parent plants . These plant may have increased nutritional value , shorter maturity time , higher yields , greater resistance to disease and climatic changes and better adaptations to local environmental conditions . In Malaysia , the most widely planted variety of oil palm is the Tenera sp. It is a variety produced by crossing the parents varieties of Dura sp. and Pisifera sp. Tenera sp. posseses the beneficial characteristics of both Dura sp. and Pisifera sp.
The Tenera sp. variety has the best characteristics of both parents . It has a big kernel , a thick mesocarp and a thin endocarp . The fruit also has less fibre , a higher oil content and does not drop off easily from the bunch .
Animal breeding involves the cross-breeding of two different breeds of animals . Animals have been selectively bred to increase the yields of milk , meat and other farm products . In Malaysia , the hybrid cattle called Mafriwal is bred in farms for its milk . Mafriwal is a a cross between a Friesian cow and Sahiwal bull . Mafriwal produces more milk with low fat content . Many varieties of goats , sheep , chickens and ducks have also been cross-bred in Malaysia .
TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOOD PROCESSING THE NECESSITY FOR FOOD PROCESSING Food processing includes the activities involved in the preparation of food which ensure that food , whether eaten immediately or at a later time , is safe . One of the main purposes of food processing is to preserve food by overcoming the factors that cause food spoilage . Foods have to be processed : To extend their lifespan so that they can be stored for future use . • To avoid wastage • To prevent the spread of diseases due to contamination of food , which can cause food poisoning . •
• To ensure there will be a continuous supply of food for the population . • To increase their commercial value . • To prevent bacterial and fungal decay • So that they can withstand long periods of transportation and storage . • So that food products can be supplied to the local or global market all year round in good condition . • To diversify the uses of food substances . For example , milk can be processed to produce a variety of dairy products such as cheese , yoghurt , ice cream , butter and chocolates .
INTRODUCTION 800 million people - one sixth of the developing world's population - suffer from hunger and the fear of starvation . In a world where the richest fifth eat 45 per cent of all meat and fish , while the poorest fifth consume just five per cent , and where four out of five malnourished children live in countries with food surpluses , there are clear problems in distribution . This means that any effort to improve agricultural productivity must go hand-in-hand with measures that address inequality . The technology options appropriate to rural food producers and herders includes direct seeding , hydroponic , aeroponic and many other techniques appropriate to their circumstances . “ You'll come to learn a great deal if you study the Insignificant in depth ” -Odysseus Elytis – We never knew the truth of about something if we ourselves does not have the initiative to look for it . This topic is one of the most important topic not just in the syllabus but also in our daily life . it is about food that is
something that we eat . We must know how make it better so that we will produce best generations for the future . I did this folio 80 % of it I used SUCCESS Oxford Fajar as my main sources . other than that , I surf the net so that I can get more information with deeper explanation . Some of the net that I surf are : http://www.duckhealth.com http://nutritiondata.self.com http://ehow.com http://www.sciencedirect.com www.wikipedia.com
EXPLANATION OF CONTENT This folio is about nutrition . It covers two main topics . First topic is concern more in Technology Used in Food Production which stress on The efforts by Various Agencies to Diversify Production and also the method used to improve the quality and quantity of food production . While second topic is about Technological Development in Food Processing which describe the necessity for food processing and correlating the food processing methods with factors causing food spoilage . In conclusion , nutritious food is essential in order to gain a healthy and best quality of life . So , we have to hold hand working on this matters so that we can share the profits together .
CONTENTS Introduction Explanation of Content Subtopic 6.14 : Technology Used in Food Production - The efforts by Various Agencies to Diversify Food Production - Methods used to improve the quality and quantity of food production
Subtopic 6.15 : Technological Development in Food Processing - The necessity for food processing - Correlating the food processing methods with factors causing food spoilage “ The true science and study of man is man . ”
MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE , MERBOK
FOLIO BIOLOGY : NUTRITION NAME: Nur Hadirah binti Abdul Haiyi
COLLEGE NO. : 10766
I/C NO . : 940707-08-5168 TEACHERS NAME : Mr. Mior Amrin Shah
CLASS : 4 Ibn Qayyim