FMCS

May 12, 2018 | Author: Narablues Indonesia | Category: Cockpit, Avionics, Aviation, Aeronautics, Aerospace
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

batavia air...

Description

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FM FMS S

FLIGHT FL IGHT MANAGEMEN MANA GEMENT T COMPUTER COMPUTER  A guide to 737 FMC operation. operation.

First introduced on the series 200 in Feb 1979 as the Performance Data Computer System (PDCS), the Flight Management Computer (FMC) was a huge technological step forward. Smiths Industries (formerly Lear Seigler) has supplied all FMCs installed on the 737. The PDCS was developed jointly by Boeing and Lear Seigler in the late 1970's. It enabled EPR and  ASI bugs to be set by the computer and advise on the optimum flight level, all for best fuel economy. It was trialed on two in-service aircraft, a Continental 727-200 and a Lufthansa 737-200 for nine months in 1978 with regular line crews and a flight data observer. The 737-200 showed  average fuel savings of 2.95% with a 2 minute increase in trip time over an average 71 minute flight. The 727 gave a 3.94% fuel saving because of its longer sector lengths. The PDCS quickly  became standard fit and many were also retrofitted. By 1982 the autothrottle had been devised and  thrust levers could be automatically driven to the values specified by the PDCS. The true FMC was introduced with the 737-300 in 1984 this kept the performance database and  functions but also added a navigation database which interacts with the autopilot & flight director, autothrottle and IRSs. The integrated system is known as the Flight Management System (FMS) of  which the FMC is just one component. Most aircraft have just one FMC, but there is an option to have two this is usually only taken by operators into MNPS airspace eg Oceanic areas. The FMS can be defined as being capable of four dimensional area navigation (latitude, longitude, altitude & time) while optimising performance to achieve the most economical flight possible.

10/11/2006

1

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

The photograph above is of the Control Display Unit (CDU), which is the pilot interface to the FMC. There are normally 2 CDUs but only one FMC. Think of it as having two keyboards connected to the one PC. The CDU in the photograph has a DIR INTC key at the beginning of the second row but some have a MENU key. This key gives access to the subsystems such as FMC, ACARS, DFDMU, etc. In its most basic form, the FMC has a 96k word navigation database, where one word is two bytes (ie a 16 bit processor). This was increased to 192k words in 1988, 288k in 1990, 1 million in 1992 and is now at 4 Mega words for the 737-NG with Update 10.6. The navigation database is used to store route information which the autopilot will fly when in LNAV mode. When given data such as ZFW & MACTOW, it takes inputs from the fuel summation unit to give a gross weight and best speeds for climb, cruise, descent, holding, approach, driftdown etc. These speeds can all be flown directly by the autopilot & autothrottle in VNAV mode. It will also compute the aircrafts position  based upon inputs from the IRSs, GPS and radio position updating. The latest FMC – Model 2907C1, has a Motorola 68040 processor running at 60MHz (30Mhz bus clock speed), with 4Mb static RAM and 32Mb for program & database.

FMC Databases An FMC has three databases: Software options (OP PROGRAM), Model/Engine data base (MEDB) and Navigation data base (NDB), all of which are stored on an EEPROM memory card. These databases can all be updated via the data loader. The Software options database includes the operational program and its update, plus any company specific differences. For a full list of all FMC software updates and their features, please refer to the

 book . The MEDB holds all the performance data for V speeds, min & max speeds in climb, cruise & descent, fuel consumptions, altitude capability etc. The NDB is comprised of Permanent, Supplemental (SUPP) and Temporary (REF). The Permanent database cannot be modified by crew. There are four types of data: Waypoint, Navaid, Airport and  Runway. Runway data is only held in the permanent database.

10/11/2006

2

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

There is capacity in the SUPP and REF databases for up to 40 waypoints, 40 navaids and 6 airports. SUPP data can only be entered on the ground. It is then stored indefinitely but crew may delete individual data or the whole database. Any existing SUPP data should be checked for accuracy  before flight using the SUMMARY option (U6+ only) or DELeted and re-entered, cross-checking any Lat & Longs between both crew members. All Temporary (REF) data is automatically deleted  after flight completion. When entering navaids into either the REF NAV DATA or SUPP NAV DATA database, you will  be box prompted for a four letter “CLASS” classification code. The following table should be used: Navaid Classification Codes

Box Numbers VHF Navaids

1

VOR

V

2

TACAN Ch 17-59, 70-117

T

MILITARY TACAN Ch 1-16, 60-69

M

10/11/2006

3

4

3

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

DME

D

ILS/DME

I

Terminal

T

Low Altitude

L

High Altitude

H

Use unrestricted by range or altitude

U

Scheduled Weather Broadcast

B

 No Voice on Navaid Frequency

W

Automatic Trans Weather Broadcast

A

Eg. To create a new en-route VOR/DME, the Class code would be VDHW.

FMC Pages Green: CRT, White: LCD

Pre-Flight Preparation Pages

The intro page. Pages required for the departure are listed on the left hand side. 6R will offer MAINT when on the ground, see below for some of these pages.

10/11/2006

4

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

The NG (U7+) has some extra options available. The OFFSET function is used in-flight to fly parallel to a portion of the route. This may be used to avoid the turbulent wake of the aircraft ahead or to increase separation with opposite direction traffic. 5R will offer MAINT when on the ground, see below for some of these pages.

IDENT: Check aircraft model and engine rating is what you are flying, especially if your airline operates a mixed fleet. Also check the database effectivity and  expiry dates. Software update number is given in  brackets, here U10.5A. U10 was specifically designed  for the 737-NG but can be used on classics. The prompt at 6R leads onto POS INIT

POS INIT is used to enter the aircraft position into the IRS's for alignment. The Lat & Longs of REF AIRPORTS & GATES are held in the database and do not need typing in but should be cross-checked against  published data.

10/11/2006

5

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Routes are usually entered by inputting the CO ROUTE. Eg AMSLPLRPL = Amsterdam to Liverpool Repetitive Flight Plan. If the company route is not recognised the route can be entered manually by filling in the VIA & TO columns.

In-flight the OFFSET option will be available on U7 onwards. See below to use this to access the hidden  NEAREST AIRPORTS and ALTERNATE DESTS  pages.

After the route is entered, press the DEP ARR button on the CDU to access the departures and arrivals for the ends of the route.

10/11/2006

6

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

This is a typical arrivals page and allows selection of  the required SID, Transition and approach. These are denoted by when they have been selected.

The PERF INIT page is completed before fight and  gives the FMC the data to calculate leg times & fuels and the optimum & max altitudes.

In-Flight Pages

Standard take-off page for PF. Speeds & assumed  temperature must be entered manually from  performance tables. TO SHIFT should be entered if  departing from an intersection as this is used to update the FMC position when TOGA is pressed at the start of  the take-off roll.  Notice that the reduced takeoff N1's (90.5/89.6) are different for each engine. This is because when the  photo was taken only one pack (the right) was running.

10/11/2006

7

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Used for entry of de-rates, where allowed.

Provides thrust limit and reduced climb thrust selection. This is usually automatic but manual selections can be made here. The most common use is the selection of  climb thrust 1 or 2 after a full power take-off to reduce engine wear.

One of the most useful pages in the Boeing FMC and  has just been updated to six pages in update 10.6. The fix can be anything in the database ie airfield, beacon or  waypoint. An abeam point can be constructed (as illustrated) or a radial or range circle can be displayed  on the EHSI. Surprisingly, there is no equivalent page on the Airbus.

Climb Pages

10/11/2006

8

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Standard ECON CLB page. 302 (Kts IAS) is highlighted indicating that this is the target speed, this will automatically change over to mach (0.597 in this case) during the climb. Other climb modes are available with keys 5 & 6, L & R. CLB-1 indicates that the autothrottle is commanding a reduced thrust climb power (reduces N1 by approx 3% = 10% thrust reduction). CLB-2 is a reduction of a further 10% ie 20% total. The reduced climb thrust setting gradually increases to full climb power by 15,000ft.

Selecting MAX RATE from a climb page will show this page with the target speed not highlighted and the ERASE option available until the EXEC button is  pressed. If EXEC is pressed you can return to ECON by line selecting it.

Selecting MAX ANGLE from a climb page will show this page with the target speed not highlighted and the ERASE option available until the EXEC button is  pressed. If EXEC is pressed you can return to ECON by line selecting it.

10/11/2006

9

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Selecting ENG OUT on a climb page gives the following choice of LT or RT engines.

When the LT or RT engine has been selected this page shows your MAX ALT (climb or driftdown alt) TGT SPD and max cont N1. This is a useful page to check if  flying over ground above 15,000ft. Remember the altitude penalties for anti-ice. The EXEC light will now be illuminated, if you press it you will lose all VNAV info. Select ERASE to return to the two engine CLB/CRZ pages.

Cruise Pages

Standard PF in-flight cruise page. The fuel at EGLL figure is blank because either it is being recalculated or  there is a route discontinuity.

10/11/2006

10

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Selecting ENG OUT on the cruise page will give this  page which asks you to select which engine is inop.

After selecting the appropriate engine, the FMC will calculate your driftdown target speed and stabilisation altitude. It is worthwhile making this check before crossing over areas of high terrain. Do not press EXEC at any stage otherwise you will lose VNAV information, these actions can be undone by selecting ERASE.

Long Range Cruise speed can be found on this page.

Descent Pages

10/11/2006

11

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

FPA is the actual flight path angle of the aircraft, it is zero in this example because the aircraft is in level flight. It is typically 3 to 4 degrees in a descent. V/B is the required vertical bearing to reach the WPT/ALT ie TIGER/16000. This would be an a ltitude restriction in the LEGS page that you could enter (or  delete) manually or with the ALT INTV button on the MCP if fitted. V/S is the required vertical speed to make good the V/B. As you approach your ToD the FPA will remain at zero (because the aircraft is in level flight), but the V/B and  V/S will both increase until the V/B is at about 3 to 4 degrees, or whatever the FMC has calculated is the optimum value. If VNAV is engaged the aircraft will descend with a FPA equal to the V/B. The actual V/S will however be slightly different to the computed V/S  because V/S changes during the descent.

FMC position can be forced to any of the other   positions at this page.

10/11/2006

12

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

You can either select a waypoint from the legs page or  use PPOS (Present POSition) on which to base the hold. The database will give the turn direction & inbound  course. Leg time will be that appropriate to your  altitude . Target speed will default to the best speed  which will be that for max endurance. Hold avail is calculated from the present fuel, fuel flow and reserves figure entered into the PERF INIT page.

Very rarely used. Sets min & max speed limits for  climb, cruise & descent.

Very useful howgozit page, but don't trust the fuel summation unit! it always overreads by approx 1200kgs. For an accurate arrival fuel subtract 2-300kgs to allow for this and the drag of flying slower than the optimum speed whilst on the approach.

10/11/2006

13

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Very rarely used but can be used to try to reach a waypoint at a specific time.

PROGRESS 3/3: Standard landing page for PF. Especially useful for giving crosswind component and  SAT in icing conditions. Confusingly this page has now been moved to 2/4 on U10.7, so instead of selecting Progress-Prev Page you now have to select Progress-Next Page.

APPROACH REF: Standard landing page for PNF. Vref is calculated from the current gross weight,  pedants may wish to overwrite the GROSS WT with the predicted GW for landing. Vref is "hardened" by line-selecting it over itself which will cause it to be displayed on the speed tape.

IRS Navigation Pages (If installed) The following pages are only available on ANS equipped aircraft.

10/11/2006

14

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Similar to ACT RTE LEGS.

Similar to PROGRESS.

Similar to ACT RTE DATA.

Maintenance Pages Caution do not access these pages without engineering supervision.

10/11/2006

15

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

10/11/2006

16

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

Hidden Pages These are various pages hidden away in most FMC's that are not always immediately available to the pilots, I suspect because there would be a surcharge to their airlines to use them. There are some ingenious ways of  getting to these pages by careful use of simultaneous CDU entries.

This is not a hidden page, but it is the way into them. You can bring up this OFFSET page either from RTE or INIT/REF INDEX. 1. Have this page displayed on both CDU's. 2. Enter any offset but do not execute. 3. Simultaneously press ERASE on both CDU's. These steps will bring ALTERNATE DESTS. (See  below)

You can enter up to 5 alternates here, selecting 1R to 5R against any entered alternate will show the info  below...

10/11/2006

17

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

All the diversion data is now shown based on you flying direct to this alternate from present position (VIA DIRECT). Selecting MISSED APP will show the same data but calculated from the missed approach point. Selecting nearest airports will give...

This extremely useful page takes a couple of minutes to calculate but will list the nearest airports in the database in order of DTG. Once again, line selection of 1R to 5R will give more useful diversion information as shown below.

All the diversion data is now shown based on you flying direct to this airport from present position (VIA DIRECT). Selecting MISSED APP will show the same data but calculated from the missed approach point. Selecting INDEX to return to the normal pages.

10/11/2006

18

B737-300 #3 Flight Simulator  Cockpit / Avionics - FMS

10/11/2006

19

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.