FM 31-35 Jungle Operations (1969) (1-2)

September 4, 2017 | Author: Sven Weißenberger | Category: Physical Geography, Earth & Life Sciences, Plants, Conservation, Agriculture
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US Army Jungle Warfare Manual, 1969 Edition, Part 1...










No, 81--36


,.... (~lIAI"TJl(



JOtU;LI': ;.>.wul If. J"'''I/l,· ...w\trnlmN'I1 Ill. AInH,~... n 1unrl~. IV. Ar,."a v. O~"'ntJlI jlmltl"" VI. Ml1ttAr), uj'II!rb vn. M"V ..IMM And dlwt..nI1" knnwn 1I" ttl(' AmpriC"llll, thr A(ricAfI, lind Ow Orh'ntu\ jungl(,C'I. FiJrurl' 2·1 vivrll.. ~n. ~'rttl \'l;'W lJf tho:> jlll)f,('lp tI~aB af thr wodd,

2-3, fJriMipol Jungl. Area. (t,

Tllr AmrTIHf!I hll/fllt'/!,

i I)


Formoo by the extended

Anlh.toll ba"in Ilnd 1t.'I major tributarirll,. the Am. IlJl;!)lIillll i~ the world'" laTaMt junvle aN-A, It in. l'IUltell the Guinnll.ll aljd lIfluthern VeIUI%UelA, t'x· lNltlill:IC if) thi' And('J< Ojj the WMt. lind 38 fAr ~!!!lth !l~ thl' {;rllll ChtlJ"1 of BoliYla, PllragUAY lu,d Arj(f'lllilll\. Thr Tllp! Forest is a uparatE' j,lnlClt' aTN, WIthin lhill subdivision and 11K alonfl' the t!1\!\lerl! 1'X),a~t ltthl"~ or junlllt' urt' fouu!!!!' tht> I....... "ltlludl' vAlitYII fll"nl( the I'Oftlltlil I'toVI!>jj nf Tam,/lIli1l lind M()%ltmbiqllt', while hl.M'h~ IflllO 11.10)'(11'1> mn 1)(' found f)1) ":lllon, Kell,V1t And l":iHmll.njflTn. AI!'!) inrlllrlt>d in ,hi!' Junlllt> !',ub mountain", au (If ten !lOtne ptlrt~ (If

thF tr.'l,k" {ht'll' ill Il true dry liIE'a~il!, Jaatinw from thtl'!' , ~1" mnllth~. with almuMt IIfl Ilrt'f'ljlllation . .\101lt uf thl' lfilt'll in this .r~.. nre dl'i'iduo\lA, thAt Ill, tlwy Ithl'd tht'ir lea\'M (Ilr Ii ml'lllh nr InOr\'. Althoul(h tb(' !l'fIIVf'M bellin tn fnl! ,l!rndllalh: d,l !hF bl'j.(innin" of thr dry 1\1'k., bllr. rIel' to nlOW'fllf!!lt Usually Ih,' IiI"OIHU:l 1,\ rovf'rlNl Ill' >I\,,";\1111t vm(~'l'. Tn;' ..1A'f'ply llrehinl( rnntll hnllll"'T hHT\'IJlIltal vi~ib'lhl)' Mnd ttf'1ite lin e);~ lremt:ly .~hIlP('ry >1111'(*"", Ou the inland periphery wherl' thl' wuh'r ill Jellll 1Ola usually :lA&Oeiated with red mangrove . ""amp., m ftkil1J: mrwenlt!l1l t'mllier than in .....m p.'8 or "ed ma ntro\,. (lig, 2-8). Wh it.e ma7lgToV~. Of all mangrove species, the white mangrove, which actually lIppears gray in color, presents the fewest barrier3 to (e)

(2 ) PM M I WlUll p. Palm t;wlI.m p i, i'll1er3l1y cliar utr r it.ed b,. Il(.Kwil..'11 gl'Ol.uld and a «PUle ta nopy of overha nging trees. The most common pinllt IUII\o!K'jlllion I~ Manicaria palm and a hnj::e fern of the gen us Gerosllchum, Usually found ~ith othel' kinds of junR"le ~g('tation but also 0(:cu ri~ i n dellll() sta l\d~, Manic::ill'ia plLlm J(ro\~a in rHIIOnallly tn vCI'lIi!,lc shalloW water. Th~ Manicaria J)/'Irn h~ a "hart, thu::k bolt. which hILS been known to hllllK up tr:,,·kcd \'chiclell. ACTOI< t it' hum, whi ch ie II beautiful fern, nonna,II)' stands alone 10 deepel' water because of its tendeney to choke oul other plants (fig. 2-10). (3) Ca/ i1Jo./ .'IW(l.m.p. Catival swamp derives

ItII n~rne from the Latin Amer lCl'l n cativt. or CAt!val tree. Foond in !lome JLl Il ~de are;(\,;, the eativa! trL'tl prt'Ntut.I.'II fl high, dosed eaoopy of brilnehes whil'h iII huls out l hl' Ilu nlilcht alld relardl'l the ~row tb of oth"!' VIlIi'l::t.tH>b, The ati ,,:!1 jlrowth is oftell dry: howt. ver, ..... }wn upo&ed to l\oOOln,l[, the ara is commonly referred to al'l c"Uval s,,",smp . (4.) C(l(,,~tol tlliek(>1. Coastal thicket is found alun~ sandy belC.h,..s a t or nellr ~ level. Dense and diffieult to traverse, t he thicket ill a nlixture of t,cn tl('red COl,allul IlItlnl trtt!i and Aalt.. tolcrallt IIhrubli (fi!,\', 2-11 land 2-}2) .


Anociflt"r{ Terr( a7ld Vt'!1tl.lJ/_ion.

(1) MO ">l/L Marshes g'l!nerally are found in areas where the ....'ater is not brackish for ma ngrove, yet too wet for most forest trees. T ropical marshes contain tough thick reeds



31-35 fM 31-35



FM 31-35

which t:row to (I h ei~ h t M 16 feef fi r more.. Wh ile the,.. offe r leA n.hltan~ to Jle,,"ration thll n l rCfl g r"wth:\, ma,rllh. n!liilrk t obsel'utloJl I\ t I!'l'Ound I~,·cl to II feo\\. 't"I'l In m(lll CaMI, lb. f ootlnt la mlIraMI ia ~. tecUN: than ift other Jllnlk> lI rtJ1I'tt\a tf1¥. 2-2). (2 ) 'l till the ht nd in Il rela ti"d y !Sim ilar man ne r. Sever.1 1II'.ru of tret'll nre cut during the r ainy st:I!tI W.D be . dva.nta, Itl"'JiI~ , extreme '",=i811y medi-, 2-10.

Natives Tn.. f1"~ 1V eS of an an':. f an pro\'ide valuable ast h.e trop ical rain forest only lizards, grubs, terand lInl\f';8, which fall$ out from t he Atlantic Cf)&$t til the And~ :~. The AmaUln a nd its tributarIes nre bQrdc reu by a n elCtenaiv. flood plain SOllletim es varYIng in width [rom GO to 60 lnilM. Because of lo w e levation and poor draina ge, the plain is frequently fl ooded , forming numerous swamps. calted paranas, that sometime s cover

thoo sand>! of aquBre miles of land. Upc.ou ntry, aoo l'(! t he :ll\)Ulb o( the Ri n .:r X illfU, lItdioJl!! oC the Am:,1.on n ()/~ pillin arc inll nda tt-d for us l on~ tall ~V4!n mOl '"'" IL \'car·, The io wer Am;l7.0 n flood pla il1 I ~ uaUy u nd ~ ,. W;\l!Lr from :ioV(:.rnber thr ough Septembe r. Borderi ng t he Amazon flood plain are river hl uffs allerRgi ng (rom l rlO to 200 feel high. Th e remainde r of the unsin con tainillit abou t 90 p' ll· cent of th ~ Amazon l·eRio n consist..s t)f :1 low 1' o f I"vllinlJ 1l.tld 70 inchell; but {)II thl' l""utt II rnpid chanl'e QCCurll from north til ~nuth_from 400 irl\'heA at tht' foot H( CamNTI!;n Mt.unWin tn ao illrh~a nl thE" mouth nf the COIllfO River. and dwindling tu 10 ilK'hel at Hen;ru~ljO (An~o!j.j). The hulk of tnt" rain iii Mnvedlonlll, and ;wl'r much of the Conl(O bMln .ftunoon and t'Yenlnlr thundentorm.t are a daily oct:u~fi('f! during the rainy liP/bUll and even durinx the so.('.nl'd dry ftelUlOn. whkh m.y \.w all Ihort AI one to two montlul. (The dry !ledOn/1lflAllOnl! 6{Tur durin(( June.July and/or Deceftl~r-Jahuary, depeudina upon the particu. lar area,) c. VfDlltnliOl'l. In IIpitl' (If the po.... rty oC the !lOibl, the cumulative I'tff!(:t of hilh tempe:ratul'U. humidity, and precipitation ill 8, dense, tuah veplatlo'" with treM .pproximately 120 foot hi;rh .nd & canopy of thick leavell, Unlike the Amuoe jungle, which in ofttm described .. extl'ell'lely ((Ioomy wUh Iittit or 00 underarowth, the floor of the Equatorial rain ftr....t fa. mat of almoat Impenetrable underrrawth _tid hu conaid4lr.b}e I!!Iwamp ....... Often there I.a an undentory of .mall trees. and in th& more open patti there Ia a thitk jTOwth of htthl on the fore floor, Woody ellmben. or ItulUl, aN UJlu&1i7 abundant, and many of tIM t:nII .... auppot'ted by buttJ1JB6ea, A IfN&t va~ I'Mb' t41l*_ ot lrMt (lUI many lUI 2(0) can ~ found hi a 'mill arg, In the hnrt 01 the buln the riveta form a jumbl* o( branche. link~ with OM I.MiMr. Tbeae river. on.n ftow through a de... fortlt whieh la anaonally lnundl:ted. Throurhout ibt rain foteat the' aTOund in thoft ..... aNded from the dll'fllet ra". 01 the eun ia molal, if not wet. durhlJ the antln year, VarU-· titm& in thie p,tturn ot veptatlon are to be found akn\a the COMal N.lona wbilrf' m.nllTOfli frltlP th& .tuart.. and laJO(>k Towarda th. outer rim 01 the buin WheN lb, dry MUOn beeomu marked, the number of al*l.,. of



v~rgreen tr«t!1I

Ihminilhell, tht' proportion o( defl,lld therv are pakhe& of .II:rmlH.!uwl On lhl!' htl(hllllldll of C"meroon ill Ilrt'jUI ubl)\t, :J.onH fe{'t, the dt'llllily "f Uw Junille d(>('I"I'H"!':< MId {'vntUlI\II ('xtcmuve b>tmboo thirxrt/l llnd hroud !!.reall of open p;r!!.I!~landx. a rondition whi!'h III 11111/' f!llllld In the };lI$t Afril'lHl mounluin ure'I"'· ff P"p.iln/mj/ (lluf Tnnl~pnrl.1\I!. lhan ont' per~on per IIquarc mllc) II;l1tl tU!1\ low IWi! {;;ortlllly whkh di"""urajtcA np;ti· ('uJt\lI'ul "rnduehon (when the hmd is clcared of forellt, Ih!' Mlil L~ rapidly l(la{'hed by the hbVY rfiinf~l1, and ft lung tim" i,~ tf'ijllired f(lf reeov('ryL llt'\'I'llljlmt'nt of ,.ny kinll in thp nin /nti'At ftteH~ III impt>t:I( the narrow belt or mangrove woodlandl and und-bank Ifr.1UI forest with ((),Ir8(l gragell and acr«W pineA, ManiCrovell Cringe moat of the eatu· ariell and tOll.lltal!!.wamps within lidld lImit.ll. The I.arJil1h't!lldy dIM'1l1Vlf!d, The popniH I' "onct'llt or II. )IIII)(lc t'xt·mplU\ed by that r"UI'ul :11 Hn everywhere-eapecl.lly on the roKdll .nd Yilla~ aUtMa. Bird&, the n.tur.1 tnnabit.antA of tbe for. eat, llbound in artat numbert and [email protected] In the Congo ballln aJone, BOme 1.2U equator &nd the iropieal d(lt!idUOlUl fOFl' ..tlt (monsoon fOrlnda) 'reBlI of seA8(lnal drooKht, Trop-icttl r.ln fortatll in Allia are extN'mt'ly rienMe, ulluaHy O('eurin, in thJ'ee layen. with the talleltt. trf!elt j(rowinK to 156 tNt, The R:round iUI>Jt ill thickly carpeted with a wide range of plantll and ehTubM-, The denAt' undergJ'owtb ill further (:amplieated by liana (thick tN!t!j)l?Ml) and palm rattan, making moYffl'Ient very difficult. C10lle!y IIpaced Mmboo commonly II'rOW4 between lID t6 40 fl!t!t and at timt!'fl reaches tbe heiKht of 18(1 feet or more. Prey"hlnt 111110 in vlr stln junglefl ill a .tron, odor emanaUnlf trom deeayln.. ve~tion. Tropical deciduoua (mOlWlXln) foreau are found .t lower altitude., mainly In IOUtheaatern lndorutlia .nd on the mainland north of 7fj where thll annual rainfall dON not ex~d 80 lu(li-ea. The trUII monllOOn foNtt 11: . . in winter .nd tbe underirowth I. fairly thick; tlwl main trMl .,.. more widely .paced. and haV& leu folia .. than th.e ill tlwl tl"Opleal raiD fone\. AlonJ tIM! eoutal utual"lee of South. .t Aala are be!iA of maqroye tAea, varyil'l.f" in width tOO y.rde to two mil.. or mOl'll. Bayond thla .... fr.h water aw.mptl are fTCIQuently found, Thie kind of terrain covt,. IU'IlM of Malay., ...t. ern SumAtra, and aouth __ t 80.,.." Tb. orlrinal eharactariatka of oriental junr!" haft been aI· \fted either by bell'll" e_ted p*mtanently for cultiv.Uon or by belni' deane! by .luh-and-burn cultivation which ha& eJ'Uted • NI'!Ondary r!'OW\h juni'&' that ia not all taU ... thouib far IrION tantried th.n, primaQ Il"Owtb. Monsover. once the land fa cleated. the "verdon to the orirtnal Jun. i'le may take .. Ionr 8.1 100 yurs.. Be loft.... ahU·Un.. cultivation eontinue&, rtVfton to the }un..le annot oec:\lr, at trlbBl cultb.ton: rarely leave an ar.- tallow for mo" than US ,........ .pita the den.. veptation of th. IMICOndary j'l'O'III'th jl,ln,l.. mOIl of tM «In 1n Southtut MI. ie not fertn •. Furthe~ portlo_ at tbt hliblanda In Su.mat.... ~. New GulMl& and







I'M 11'"

1M I1-IJ nmli')uud A~il' hll'-(' b.'Ph :«] Hl'Yel"ely erodf'd by "1",,I'Hlfld_hul'n mllivatlHl! that ullly walltch.nd 1 II 1Iub· ~lnntl!ill'Oa .. tul plRill, mn!lt exlen"lVe Of! the north ltid\" >!urro!wdR 1m lIpJltll(\ 1H'lt Thl' moun!1I1/I;>1I." l'elltrul n'gl(!J! il' th" MII/rn' of I':mafl riv. 1'1"11 fI",,..lllii tn thl' ",,",,(. 1\1,,1'\ of thl' 1Ij)!lthwe~t Ft'1(111 1;< l\j(rknltuml, hUl'illg o.'t'l' dlumed (rom Ih(, .I ling!.' jf"Wf'Vl'r, III Ihf' llorth ulld CAl':e l'JIl!lh*IIIHI.hurll nlltivatwn ill HiiH prll.f'tu:OO and (f\m\I' whlrh ('an ol1ly be< /off'o{'rllhzt'd in view f.f the prcY"iHlllf vl\riatlon in phYRi('l\1 relif'r. rllinfJdl, And tt'mper'ltturr, Among the iHIIIUd..., 11.11 lypt'.~ of t"Tralll ION: f'1l('otmtl'rRd, fNlm illlrt('n Al'ClVO with rock~ and /Ulud to areaM with deu!'!!" vegetAtion.

2-26. A\lmalia In the Darwin uf the oorth Alld down the l'lOst ('OJI.!'!t III Briabane therl~ iR ~'ejletaijon RPproAchillj( that the jungle. Ip thi!\ hot. wet reo jtlnl\, tropical dl~eaMe-l\ hav(' !.wen /llmost eliminated and the condltionM and l':iandatdS of JiVltlK are as ,IroOd . . thoae of the tempEtate parts of AUl'ltralia, tMliimony that Caura~ianfl can remain healthy in the iroplrs, in thi!l are/l; most snake.. Ire poiMMUe..


kctloft VI, MILITARY ASPECTS Military operations jn a junllie nnvironment are influeneed chie6y by the tropkal dim.ate .and tht! forCfl~ vesetation whi ...h limit movement. ob~t'vatlon and fields of fire, communicationa. con· (I.


trel, battlefl:eld auryeillanL~ and tatset aequillJ. tion. Those timit.ationll apply, in varyinr derrees, to all illnd combat forcea and flUpport clemente whether they bt: diamoullted, mountmi or airtno· bite, Excellent rover And (onl'"ealmcnt art' avalla •

bw III JUllg!t' If'rrlHn; thl'r(lfort", It ill W>lenliHI that t'"mnl'lmh'l"" !ll 11.1/ l('vel1'. ('"mploy ndeqllHt., He-'urlt)' nln.~!ln'~ l" prl'\'l'ot RIll"prill!" IUld to prott"!'t thf' ('llml'llllltill1l all typ.,,,, l,f jlPNhtHlrIH, It. Tht· "rlOrnty or ""I'!d". trldllt, and railr{)lld netwlfI'k!l 1/I\'N:tl\~f' ("omvl'!t 1I('r\'ire 5ullporl prnb!('ml< and inNralt(' rnjlint't'r wUPPOl"t rrlliliremen!!. h, mlltntnin Hnl'~ of l"t,mmltl1ieatiohll. rommnndf'r~ mUI'Il t'xpl'at all mt'lin" of S\'N.llnd. air, .lind wstcr tNl.I1~lj()rtal.i()1t ill the movement of lIupplie!l lIlld tI'fIfiP!'!_ The trnpieaJ dim.aie ot the juna:jt' mul1iplir ... thr maintenance requirementft for an wt'ap(>/1M and equipment. f)ally de.nillM' and in8pl'rtion of equipment are mand.tory, pve)) for weapPieu:L decidvolI.l fr;rtl#A. AVf'raee rate lit about 500 metera per hour. (S) 51&14111:1'1, Aver.1! rate la about 100 to 600 m.eten per hoLir. Durinl the rainy ....on .....mpa btIeome ImpaaMble beuuH of UM


depth of the watl'r, Uli'.refo!"e relL b. U.S. Rifltl, 5.6tm1t. Thil extrflmely lil'ht and compad weapon ill id_lly auited to juna1e combat Ita ahort length and the Ulbt welght at the ammunition it n,.. make the wfIf.POn ..., to emp»oy rapidly. The earlrldllt la a hiP velocitY round with aood bam.He characti4tiea; the bullet t.nda to tumble whan defteet.d, "vina' aood wound tlfrod.. The abort la~ maba it Moa)' to U&II by men of amall atatuf\I!. Precaution. with m&lraainea apply u with tM 7.82mm rile, 'f'lM light weight of the ammuoitJon toe...... the tl-.


number (If r-ound~ a IIflldler ('lID cerry and the rapid rate (If fire providea In~rMtlId ftMpower to unibl enRaged in r1nlle·in "tthtlng, c. Mn.chifH'gun, r.8Im,", Thu. weapon II! an ideal automl.tlc arm for jungle ('ombat. Its compt.(:t del!i.l{Tl. li,ht welsht and exceUent eI!lhte enable it to be nroo fMm the "tandin,. 1Iittinl' or squatti nK ~ltl01Ul and effective hip tire ea.n btl delivered it e lI!illlf aopport ill uMd, BaU and tra.cer linked ammunition (1 trattr to 4 ball I ahould be ulted and the 1'1111 I1red In burata (If IS to 8 rounda; fire can then be obaer'ved In aubdued light alonK the line (If tr.eer tlre_ The blpod IIhould be folded except when the opportunity to I1re from the prone »Mltion ex!. d .•Omm G~ LAuIMhfr. Thla We&pOn, al~ though ahoulder !Ired, ia a J,t.rre bore wupon and it ill extremely effective for junale fllfhtln&, It la I:ompect, HgM. and can be fired u.ln. the ume ))OIIitiona aa the Mrvlce rltle. It can be UMd for reduction of point tarpt4, a,ainat rroupa of onemy SQldiara and for firo into the kltlll'J: SOnfla of ambuM6!I. Great eart! muat be taken \0 prnent ItA flrea from being muked b)' tree Umbl, Al~ though the individual round I. lilht. caNtul a.. lec:tlOn Of tarntl III neceuary, to reduea Nlupply problem", nenBe' >rentatlon wlit l'tIdue. ita normal eft'ecU.,. bumin. radiul. When uainl: the 40mm multiahot antiperaoonnel round., the We&pOn 1a highly effecti.,. a,alnlt Kl'ouped peMIOnnel cut to a ranllt of 86 to SO mtU:1'Il. It I. Ideal u a toUlIterambuah weapon, and I. often emplo,-ed with the point durinjl movammt_ f. GrMWI41', Gr.nadea mut be uNd cattfu1ty in the jun.]a. The limitation on diatante they can be thrown and dllftculty {If observation m.., Nrault in biJe. with .uperlor oornmunkationll end lIubatantlal firepower, these unitt an r~adily adaplable to tbt c.v.lry minion in the Junde environment, b, Sp' toJUid.enJ.tiORl. Sped by and Mndbat'lt which may e-..tend for !lfl:veral milv. from themouth of the rlvl"r into the ea. Thla auppart eRn be either dlrwt firf', where the tarKet ill villihle frOm the IIhip, or indired rire directed by aIr or ground obl!erveMl. heeaulA! of their mobility, IIhlpill ran be uJltd t4 provide !'Ire lIupport over It wide aru with !lUle time klet Oflween miuionll:. Their IH/.pJH>rt i'lhould be UM!d whenever condi~ t.ionl permit b. R~qUt"1 (fir Hal/ttl Gun/b'iI), The reqUNt for naval gunfire IIUpport (NGFS) ill tranllmltted through normal fire IUpPOrt channell to the n..r~ eRt rire IIUpport ¢(II)rdination center (NCe) wheTf' a naval gunfl~ lI"illOn oiftter (NOLO) 11'1 loc.ted, or the nHrf'lIt coaAtalliurveillan('e eenter (esC). The esc or NGLO will eomplltte pYOCelll\ing of the rt'QUNt. Tnt ~GLO will .bo er. r.npment,a for the neuaaary ob&ervera or llpot~ lo",. e. CO!tri:tl:nditm«. When a unit ia eonduet1nK combat oper.tionll within ranp tJf naval .runftre .!IupptJrt, a n.v.llpothnlir team IIhoold ~c!)mpany the maneuvering unit Oblervat\(!n from the ground II very I'ftltrleted and augmentation by .lr o'\lat.!on ill nee....ry. When nltVll e:pottttrll have no available ai~rafl, an artllklry (orward 1)b6erver may baw, t.Q adJullt navlIl .runftre, See FM 6-40 and PM 81-12 for a detalltd diaculUlion of nav.1 gunftre1:O(N"dinaUon.

3-27. T _ I AI, I).


Doe,""!!. T.ctical air ,*upporl Ineludu close

air .uppon. tactieal air r«ounal&aAnce and tac:ti~ ('1.1 aIrlift. ~uiremenlil .nd proeedure for reQllfttlng dOk air and tactical air reo:::onnatuance IIlIpport are outlined in FM 61-100. ProeeduRft f1)r ~ueatinJC .nd directing t&etlc.1 airlift aup. port.reoutllntd in FM 100-21. b. Clou AiT Suppnrt. CtOlle air .upport ill air action ag.lnllt hostile tarlfllta which are in dOlle proxlm!ty to friendly lorCH and which require detailed in\egr.Uol'\ f}f eaeh air million with the 1Irt; and movement of tno.. fOTCM.


(1) Alr.drih mllilllon~ IIr(' th .. bIld~bfHle ot dUIIe IIiI' Hlipport, Hfil'iIIYlill'med titctiCttl fhthteNI

t'Xe(ult- thelle mll "'orWMl!1 Air Controtklr (FAC) and th(' .ttm:kllllf' aircr.ft exchanae in. (Ormation on the tadjull\iluation, the pro~imity of tlUl taJ'g\!t to friendly position&, and tnt degree of r,"k the g-round force comm.nder is willing to acoopt. In junIl!' Ol)(!rationl it ill ulluaUy beIll it the .'AC I. airborne HQ tbat he tan have vi.ual contJCt with both lhe tarJtet and the .ttaeking alreraft, All available me.nlJ must be UKed to marit both friendly and enemy ptl#itlon•. ('2) The foUowina factora mUAt be ('onlid. ered betON requeetlnf( dose air iluppor\ in the Jungle: (a.) The atturaey with which the tarpt e.n be located, both from thf JP'Ound and trom (b) The- dlrtall which the targtll ean be dellcribed. (t) The deaired effeet on the tarpt to be produeed by .ir action. (d) The j)oIitlOn of friendly torcel! in ,.... laUon to the targ-et. {e) The deaired timing and durlltion ot the air attack, (I) The eommunications and control mea.Iluretl ( •. g, IlmoW panel., ete.) available to con. trol the air attack. (S) Column coyer ill !!OYer ot a column Of ground foteell by .ireraft wh!eb provide protef t'OfI"!muni('ulilm (ALOr:) m"y be l'Mllloyed to I"t~(hlet' the problem. of dHllt'ult lCl'rttln, ladt ..r "dt'qHate 1111eterA il particularly elfeclivE' in tbill type operation. {IS) Th, imPAct 01 airmobile operatlonll may provide important pllychoWaica! warfal'e matert.l in internal defen"e o~rationl, Airmobile torcell with their model'n, IOphitUcated equipment are e.IIpeciany etr~etlve aa a demonltraUoh force. The number and type ot alrcraN: In an all'mobile torce art impreaawe wMn they are ma~ neullered in Junll:le BreD wMre aitrl'art al'e not r-ommonpl&«!. Aviation uniu may alllo pl'ollide alllhilUtlN! to the pllyr-homieal opel'atlonl i PSYOPB) effort by transportinl' PSYOPS ~r­ IItlnnel to hamletll lorat.d in remote aNM ot the jUngie. LoudapeaKe'" can be mounted on altuaft and UBed to di..emlna~ prop,tLKAnda and Inform.tion to villarera, 'Lea!'letl can be dlapel'Md from Army lir(',..ft !'Iyinl' over the u!"i'et area. l. /ntrrnal DMidopmr."t OptroliMU, {1) Army avlatinn unitll. In addition to tur-

lIiKhlnlt lIul\l}tlrl to h(>~l rOllntry and u.s, forceR, ml IADIOlOOICAL (Cia' OORATIONS

J.-.U. GeMral a. Joint doclrlne


the employment of c.heml·

cal lind bioloirlcal (CB) &itent3 #nd f'lldance tOt planning the employml"nt of tbete apnt./muni.




tions Is contained in FM 3-10, General policy M'uldance ill conteined In FM 101-40. /1. Doctrinal M'uldance in chemical. bioloil'lcal, and nuclear defense is contained in FM 21-40, while FM 21-41 provides the soldier with procedures for individual defenlle measures ail'ainst these allt'!nts and weapons. t. Employment o( C8 agent/munition systems in junil'le terrain will not differ siRnificantly (rom techniques employed in other typea o( terrain. However, because such (actors as met.eoroloRkal conditions, ierraln, and veretatlon do Influence the behavior and effeclivenesa o( C8 arents, these (actors must be taken in consideration (or junl'le ierrain. FM 8--10 and TM 8--240 discull mlcrometeoroloa'ical (actors in detail. Thus, In reneral, the key to predldillil' the behavior and effectiveness o( G8 al'ents il! II correct micrometeor_ 010a'ic81 (oreC8St.

3-34. Chemkal


a. Lethal Clumicnl AgM'!S, Nerve agents GB and VX and blister ail'ent HD are the current antlperlOnnel chemical al'ents considered (or employment in chemical operations. Tht!llle ail'enta may be delivered on target by such delivery meanM as mortars, artillery, rockets, missiles, bombs, or aircraft spray tanks. (]) Nerve agent GB is employed as a nonpersistent vapor to cause casualtit!lll upon Inhalation, or to harass enemy troops. (2) Nerve aa'ent VX is ulled to contaminate troops, terrain and materiel and Is extremely e((ective In junl'le when used al'alnst troops who are not wearinl' complete protective dothlna' and equipment. (3) BUster arent HD is used to contaminate trooPB, terrain and materiel. It Is extremely ef(ective in the junl'le when used al'alnat troops who are not wearina' complete protective clothln, and equipment. Meteorolo,lcal conditions In tile juna'la are (avorable (or tbe production and maintenanee of a hll'h vapor concentration o( tIIle apnt and droplets o( HD on (oliap and tile ITOUnd present a relatively persistent huard to troopaln the area. (4) See FM 3-10 and TM 8--240 (or detalla on the employment o( chemical aaenta and the ef(ecta of weather and terrain on the behavior o( chemical agent.. b. NOftutlaal Claemiea.l Agnes. The curNnt Incapacltatinl' &rent la BZ while the family o( riot control agenta (RCA) Includt!lll ca, CS1, CS2, CN, CN1, OM and CMl. AI with the lethal chemical


8Rentll. dclivery means include mortan, artillery, bombM and aircraft rockets and spray tanks. Riot cuntrol allt'!nts are alau dillperlled by dispensers. fo'M 3-10 and TC 3-16 contain details on employment o( these aa'ents. c. /And Mincll. VX-filled and HD-fllled land mines can be uaed effectively, when authorized by appropriate commanders, to mine and boobytrap trails ulled by the enemy or leadina' into (rlendly de(enslve positionll. The mint!lll need to be pro. tected trom rUlt and (uzell and detonators must be protected (rom mollture and mildew. Care mUlll be taken that trip wirea are not (ouled by rapid I'rowth o( junl'le (oliaa"e. d. Tozic Chemical Age'ltll. Artillery projectilee and aerial bombl! with delay (uzes are the mOlt effective meanll o( deliverinl' toxic chemical agenta in the jungle. Artillery projectile. burating more than 40 (eet in the air reault in 10l1li o( the al'l'nt; the averal'e 10M o( chemical arent when delay fuzea are not used is about 25 percent. Aerial spray o( chemical apnts VX and HD il not very effective due to the juna'ie canopy. e. Troop Sa/N.II. When toxic chemlcsl apnt. are employed in jungle, (riendly troop safety Is an Important conllideration not only al'ainst con_ taminated terrain but al'alnst downwind vapor hazards. (Chemical munition requirement. can be (ound in FM 8--10.) f. Ineapocitating OM Riot Control Agem.. Doctrinal I'ulclance (or the employment o( Ineapacitatinl' uenta and riot control aaenta can be (ound in FM 8--10. (1) Incapacitatina' apnt BZ can be employed aa'ainat enemy troops when It III militarily or politically Imprudent to employ toxic chemical agenta. (2) Riot control arenta may be used In counter-I'uerrilla operationa, in controllina' rebellioua prilOnera o( war, and In subclulna' Tiotln, civilians. See TC 8--16 (or details On employment, g. CS PO"UUT. CS powder due to Ita IncruMd perslatance over a period o( !leveral months Is a iood arent to use In renderln, enemy ".plder holea," trenchee, and tunnela uninhabitable where time or capability doea not permit deatruction o( theae enemy poaitiona.

3-35, Smob and .lame WMpGft. a.. Smoke may be used for .ll'I1alina', (or mark_ Ina' tarrets and (or provldlnl' Imokeaereens, curtalna, and obscurina' amoke. Colored smoke 1Tenadea and ahellil are useful (or .Imallnl' or markina' pl,lrpoaea. LlmltatloM on vllibllIty In tile

junl{le and color will II'Overn their ulle. For eJ:ampie, IImoke "treamer rifle M'rl'nadell projected above the JUllM'le CMllflpy may not be visible to M'round tr(IO))M, but they can be ulleful lIiil'nalll to air obllerVefM and tu Mpecially located M'round observerll. b. SmokeacreenM and curtains produced by mechanical I'eneratorl!, smoke pots, shells, rockets, or aerial bombll may be ulled to limit air and Rround obllervation when the vegetation and tree top canopy are not dense enough to I'ive concealment. Smoke sprayed (rom airplane .. moke tanks will M'enerally be ineffective in junM'le operations because o( turbulent air current.. above the junRle canopy which rapidly dispefllell the smoke. Smoke curtainll produced by artillery and mortar Ahellll can be emploYed effectively by Ifl'ound troopl! in the atta on unit p~ dUrPlIi to be llsed Ililainat CBR attack and to FM 21-·41 for individual actiunA aJj'81ffil.t CDR ha:-

"TfI~. It IIhOlild be noted that thl:' pr()tf!1Ctiv~ mallk 11M impl'mH~Rblf' pnllt'rtlvt' t'l.)thinp; arc barely lnlt'T/l.ble in jllnp;I{' t"rrAllI Hnd rllmAtl', timita. lionll on Villinl1 imp"lIed h.'" tht· mtlllk «>mbin.d with IH'T!Wnal diM'nmfnrt AA a rt'llult ot wgrinl( prOt('{'I:\'e t'quipm{,llt mil",,, rle dibon bel"aul!«! of the rapid mlldf"W, rot, and t'IlAt 01 the!'e itcmll in junglp ar ••II.


S..lIon Vllt EHOINlE.S

3-40. o.neral Combat engilleer Ilupport is alllX"atea On the buill of anticipated enlflneer work AI> dl'termined by the fadorll of METT, Combat enllineeNl an Uled most effectively and efficiently in junlrk operallofUI w~n IULIllfned a direct aupport mi'l50n. however, independent unit actions orten Nq'l1ir. the attachment of enainMr unlta, To enhance IIpt«I of mOlleffie'nt In tar... lleale iun." opera. tions exterudve enltineer IIUpport wll1 h# required. In np&rly all junSlm .reu, road. art! Tt'lati~ly undeveloped or nonnlatent Theile 6Tt' ulluaUy narrow 'nd windln, And incapable of .uppartlnlt JIlultslned military traffic. All' .upport beromea more Important Major tad. perforwd by engi• neerl'l 'rtI the oonatnlrtjon and malntanance of roIIdl and traill And the coMtrurtlon ot airfteld1, landinlt JOnell and .upportln, fariUtiea. Conltruction operatioM in the jun,~ art! utrmaely vulnerable to enemy activity, Unit .ecurity mUllt be eAtabUllhed at 'WorklliU!!I and often Int.ntr)' units mUl'lt be Alloca«rd to provide nGeeJ!d.t)' le!:urlty.

3-41. ...."n ..... Gnentl, 1n planning for tbe uUlh:aUon of enaiMlft' unlta in junrle operations. consideration I• •I~n to the tapabillti .. and equipment of tbe dMajoMl tiI,lneen or the fotct .nd the tIOUlble "lQuinment for .dditlonal enl1DMr 3'11pport by nondtlljslonal en,ineer unlta. Dependin.- on the t",. and magnitude of the> miMlon, e>nlrinear comhat WylIo", (COJ'pI:), liab! tlQulpment eompanlu, Jand durfna campania or aeveral of Ule teams or the 'TOE ~Mrlee, lIuch u the "W.n DrUllnR'" ot' "FONIfItrT' Teal1lll, may be rtIQulred. 4.


b. _,'pre/at Rt.quirl'ml!"l~, For divilional engi. lleer unitJI. pl.1I11 mUllt be made for the inClusion of additional demolition equipment. eICploaivel. banglilor~ tnrpedoll, gRloJine driwn portable aewa and bla.deJI, all of whkh art' l't:quiHd In the remov~ al Of IUle tree", rullnel deatruttion. eonatruc~ lion of bellpad!! anti IAndinlt fllCilltiel. and ft'moval of denle vegetation, Additionally, eombet M!rv~ ice IUpport unitl muat be informed by the force enSf~neer of ally speda' requirements for enlineer eqUIpment and suppHea tor the olteratlon, In determ.ining, the equipment and luppli.. needed. wnalderAtion must be l"ivetl to the> rapid disintell1'ation And deterioration of mawrfel in Jun.-le



S- lion in Ctlmronance with their capabilitiM-. Patrola and uther amall unit adiortl'l are axtenaively em· ployed to hx:ate enemy unitll. These patrols are O'ften the brat apney for the collection of information ('QnCf!'rnini the terram and the enemy, Lontt-ranie re-connalnance patrols and ambuah p&trolll are employed t& a mu.:h veater extent in jun,ll'le operationA .nd aN! a lJood means for (Olw lectlnllinformatlon. Beeau" radio ill normally ell· sentia' for communieation in junl1e operationa. radio intercept clin be utilized effectively &II a collection means, e"en to lower comba~ tchelona. {:H pratealing. The 8equenCu In proeeulng intormtion inlh intelli,rent:e d~ndll upon the nature and the urgency of the Information. Alw thou.h recordin, of information is usually the tint step, thertl are many hatan«le in junlle combat when recordln, may occur aimultaneouiay With evaluation and inwrpretatkm or even "ter. Thla: ia Mpedally t.rue ()f inlormatloo coneerning enemy tarpta. A time la, !n the prott!!lfling of Informatlon may mean diaalpaUon of the tarret. (") DiuemiMtimi OM we. The timely cH... aemmat!on or Avanable In~llI~nee and lte lmtnfl_ diate UR 1ft of vital importance 1n junllk opera~ tiona. In ord.r to &t:compUah this it may be neeu· auy to ~t.abuh and maintain additional «H'OmunltAtlon mean! to expedite tM diauml1llltion of In~lI,enCf!. 'Thla would 1.»0 Hrve to upedite the J1:JlQrtina of information, ,f).

COtiKterillittliUgenc:e. Counterlntelu.ette4! in

Junile opratwne of meanl to dlllCt'ive the enemy. deny the enemy informaUon, &nd detect and elI:poIe, or neutrallae. the etHlm,. eaplon.....

aubvenion and ..botare effort. Counterintel-

lIjlt!nee wHl allllume Kreuter importan~t' when friendly unlta Mort' {1p~'ratinlf In junglt' grehll eontiauouOl lo I)OpulatMl gre&ll. S.r:tlon


e R",'flllIl!IIK,{'HI(t' ami ,...·!rn"·iUlltUt'. ReconIlniMnn.-e gnd 1
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