FM 31-30 Jungle Training and Operations (1965) (3-5)

September 4, 2017 | Author: Sven Wei├čenberger | Category: Coconut, Trees, Crops, Fruit, Domesticated Plants
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US Army Jungle Warfare Manual, 1965 Edition, Part 3...


Figure 42.


of Mango are native to md today are I wild state in rId. They are t differ in size, ,ill weigh from und and vary sh, yellowish, It is possible ination of colrith a yellow / a very large taste that sugfhe thick peele it contains a. orne people to lition, peelings ,in a purgative TAGO MBA

A box fall trap . Photo(}raph shows details of triy(}er 4 device.

agent. The mango tree grows to a height of about 35 feet. It has dark green, somewhat leathery leaves, from 4 to 6 inches long. Figure 54 shows a type mango. 1,'11 Papaya. The Papaya (Carica Papaya) grows on a tree-like plant which is softstemmed and unbranched. The tree grows to a height of from 6 to 20 feet. The large, dark green, many fingered, rough edged leaves are clustered at the top of the plant. The fruit grows on the stem clustered under the leaves. There are several varieties which differ in size, shape, and flavor. The most common are similar in shape to a small watermelon. The fruit averages from two to eight pounds, but some species grow much larger. The skin varies from a greenish to a yellow color. The meat or pulp can be orange or red when ripe, and can

be eaten raw but should be cooked like a vegetable when green. The center of the fruit is hollow with many black, rough seeds clinging to the inside wall of the pulp. The papaya is found cultivated and wild . The wild variety usually has very small fruits measuring about 2 to 3 inches in diameter. Although the papaya is native to the New World tropics, in recent years it has spread throughout the tropics. Soldiers should be extremely careful while picking or preparing papaya. The slightest cut wiiJ cause a milky sap to flow from the rind as well as the plant itself. The commercial meat tenderizer and digestive enzime (Papain) is derived from the milky sap. If this sap should get into the eyes, it could cause temporary or permanent blindness. Some natives wrap meat in the 51

Fig ure 43. Wild sweet orange . This fmit, in common with must wild fmits, hfls a thick skin.

leaves of the papaya taking advantage of its tenderizing qualities. The papaya is appreciated as a dessert, a salad, and specifically for its digestive and laxative qualities. Figure 55 shows the papaya fruit. (6) Guava. The Guava (Psidium Guajava) is famous for the jelly made from the fruit. It is a yellow, tough skinned fruit with a whitish or pinkish meat containing an abundance of seeds. It grows on a large spreading shrub or small tree. The tree attains a height from 10 to 20 feet. The fruit is about the size and shape of a large crab apple. The fruit can be eaten raw when ripe if one ignores the musky odor. When the guava is green it should be cooked. The tree is easily recognized by


Figure 44.

Tangerine .

the pale brown bark that is smooth and peels off in thin sheets like paper. Its leaves are light green with fine hairs underneath . The venation is deep on top and raised to prominent veins underneath. Some natives claim that a tea made from the leaves of the guava tree is a good cure for dysentery (fig 56) . (7) Sour Sop. The Sour Sop (Annona Muricata) is a very curious looking fruit. It is green in color, very spiny and grows as large as a man's head. It may weigh up to 12 pounds. When ripe the sour BOp can be eaten raw. The chief use is for making a beverage by crushing the pulp and then adding water or milk and sugar. The sour sop is a good water substitute. The leaves TAGO MilA


57). (8) Su'eet mosa small a fru pinec( scales when seeds colore is alw mann' TAOO UIIA

Figure 4.5. Sour orange.

s smooth and :e paper. Its ,e hairs underp on top and underneath. ea made from is a good cure

tnnona Muring fruit. It is lnd grows as Jay weigh up sour sop can is for making 'ulp and then ;ar. The sour ) The leaves TAGO

of the tall, sparse tree are smooth, dark green, and approximately 4 to 6 inches long growing opposite each other. The leaves have a strong scent when crushed. Some natives brew a tea made from the leaves as a cure for an upset stomach (fig 57). (8) Sweet Sop. The Sweet Sop (Annona Squamosa) is a cousin to the sour sop. This small tree with simple, oblong leaves has a fruit shaped roughly like a long, blunt pinecone with thick grey-green or yellow scales. The fruit is easily split or broken when ripe, exposing numerous dark brown seeds which are imbedded in the cream colored, very sweet pulp. The sweet sop is always eaten raw and is used in the same manner as the sour sop. The sweet sop,

Figure 46.


like the sour sop, is a native to the American tropics and can be found from Florida in the United States to the northern and eastern South American tropics. It has been introduced into many places in the Old World tropics. (9) Other sops. There are two other fruits that are kin to the sops. They are the Cherimoya (Annona Cherimola) and the Custard Apple (Annona Reticulata) . The Chcrillloya, native to the mountain valleys of Peru, looks similar to the sour sop, but the skin is much smoother. The pulp is less cottony, and more creamy in consistency when it is ripe. It has fewer seeds than the sour sop. The fruit varies in weight from 4 to 16 pounds. It is the best tasting fruit of the Sour Sop family . The




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Custard Apple is an excellent and substantial fruit of a small tree native to the 'Vest Indies, Mexico, and Northern South America. It may be called under the local name "bullocks heart" suggesting its shape and appearance. When ripe it begiils (0 discolor and blacken like the sour sop. At this stage the white or cream colored flesh becomes sweet and aromatic. It has numerous large brown seeds and is always eaten raw. There are ma.ny hybrids and varieties derived from the custard apple. (10) Nispero. The Nispero or Sapodilla (Manilkara Sapodill a-Arches Sapota) is one of the most common of the tropical American fruits. It originally came from the Yucatan Valley where the wild trees are tarped for their white sap which gives Chicle for chewing gum. Cultivated fruits vary in size, but are usually shaped like a ball about 2 inches in diameter. There are from 3 to 6 glossy, blackish-brown seeds im54

Wild lemon ..

bedded in a brownish, granular pulp. The grayish or brownish skin is smooth and slightly rough in texture. The tree grows up to 60 feet tall and has dark green leaves. The sap is milky but not poisonous. The sap of the nispero is not a good substitute for water. The nispero fruit is eaten fresh only. (11) lee Cream Bean. The Ice Cream Bean (Inga Spectobilis, Inga Ingridea) is often referred to as Inga. It is quite common in wet tropics . The leaves are 6 to 8 inches long, are dark green underneath and light green and hairy on top . The leaves grow opposite each other. The fruit is a bean type pod, about 15 inches long, greenish brown in color. When the pod is broken open numerous sections of whitish soft pulp covering the large seeds can be seen. The white pulp is eaten raw and tastes like watered down vanilla ice cream. TAGO 55l1A


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lIar pulp. The s smooth and 'he tree grows ,s dark green not poisonous. a good substifruit is eaten

Cream Bean idea) is often 'te common in 6 to 8 inches :at.h and light e leaves grow uit is a bean ong, greenish lod is broken itish soft pulp be seen. The d tastes like am. TAGO

Figure 48. Stalk oj cultivated banana.s. Th e purple terminal at the end oj the stalk is edible.


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.1.9. The plantain. The la rye size of this .
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