HOW TO BUILD - FLYING CLOUD
by Sam Rabl Naval Architect
ARDLY were the plans for Buddy off the press than Modern Mechanix boat fans everywhere began to demand a large boat along the th e same general lines. The simple construction of this craft placed her within financial reach o£ every ambitious youngster who could wield a saw and push a plane. Many of the original craft were built with exceptionally fine results; one of them having crossed the Gulf of Mexico. Men who earn their living today must be back at the office or shop Monday morning and of course, require a boat that will not require requ ire hours to dock. dock. Nevertheless, the craft craft mi us t be large enough to provide comforta comfortable ble accommodations for the average family and not cost cost too much muc h to build. With all of of these essential points in mind plans were drawn up for this "ideal" boat and eventually the boat itself was constructed and christened "Flying Cloud" after that famous old American vessel. Somehow we feel that th at the spirit spiri t of old Donald Donald McKay, designer of the original sailor, will down kindly upon our miniature version.
Flying Cloud may be built as cheaply as possible or it may be constructed of expensive material s. The power plant is either a converted auto motor or any inexpensive marine engine. The latter is preferred prefer red due to its efficient cooling system which does away with the problem of heat in the cabin. Toilet facilities have been provided and all other necessities of extended cruising have been incorporated into her make-up. make- up. The builder can either adopt the cabin plan which we have designed for Flying Cloud or fit one of his own to the existing interior. interi or. You may fit the sailing rig or leave it off depending on your own whims. As an out and out motor boat she still has pleasing lines and the draft may be made less than shown by taking three inches of off the depth dept h of the keel. k eel. While it will not be within the scope of this article to go into the detail of laying down the lines and fitting each and every piece of material in the structure we will refer the reader to our How To Build Twenty Boats for this information, Materials used in Flying Cloud construction may be any locally obtained wood suitable for boat building. Buddys were built from as many different materials as are found around the world from New York to Singapore and all are a success. Good solid and well made joints contribute more to the success of any boat than the excellence of the material.
each joint until the surface is wood to wood, This process is repeated each joint of the backbone and after all joints are thus fitted they should be smeared with "Staytite" or other similar cement, or a good roofing cement to exclude water and most of all the destructive toredo foun found d along the seacoast seaco ast The joints are made with drift bolts of 1/2-inch galvanized iron headed up over clinch rings or galvanized iron washer was hers. s. Holes for for the drift bolts are drilled a sixteenth smaller than the bolt and the bolt slightly pointed to enter the hole. This pointing is done done cold cold so as not to harm the galvanizing any more than possible, After the backbone is laid down on a large though bolts with nuts and washers may be After the sheet of building paper the shape o£ the used if the builder so prefers. After various parts are transferred to the wood backbone is assembled the apron of 2"x8" either with a tracing wheel or by driving material is securely fastened to the top of the small brads through the outline, with- keel using cement as before to seal the joint. draw the paper, leaving the brads standing This member is left square until the planking in the wood. wood. The thickness thicknes s of the stem and is fitted. The backbone is now set up in its keel timbers are such that the ordinary small proper position on the ground or shop floor workshop bandsaw will handle them but the being sure to have the proper slope on the easier method is to take the timbers to a mill bottom of the keel and the stem perfectly that has a large bandsaw and let them do the plumb athwartship. job. After the timbers are cut and ready to The main frames are now gotten out along assemble they should be temporarily held to- with the transom as shown on the plans, degether with clamps and a saw run between ducting the plank thickness, and all joints assembled assembled with 1/4" galvanized carria ge bolts, the joints should be well painted with white lead. The notches are cut for for the keel,
FIG.2-!N60Aa0 PROFILE & ARRANGEMENT PLAN
stringers, strin gers, chines and clamps as shown The notches for the stringers being half way between the keel an.d chine or in thirds if two stringers are fitted. The stern knee is set on the keel apron and the transom attached to it. it. This should should be be perfectly plumbed and either fastened to the shop rafters to keep it so, or braced to the ground with good heavy shores shor es to keep it from from moving. moving. The frames are then fastened to the keel, being sure to keep them at perfect right angles to the keel and set perfectly vertical. vertic al. After all frames are set up they are checked for plumb and
squareness and then securely braced to 'the 'th e shop rafters or the ground so that they will not go out of line while the boat is being constructe d. If the str uctu re is erected out in the weather it will be well to give it a coat of good paint to protect it. This This should be the pr ocedure even if the boat is built under cover as wood will last a lot longer if properly protected. The best paint to use is one of the new aluminum primers, now on the market either purchased ready mixed or mixed by yourself. With the frames and transom properly
braced, the chines and clamps clamps are bent in, thus th us tying the structur stru cturee together rigidly. In bendbend ing the chines and clamps the best procedure to follow is to bend them in pairs, thus equalizing the strain on the two sides of the boat. They are best pulled together with a block and fall fastening them to the stem and working aft. aft. They should be procured in in one piece if possible, and if this is not possible a butt joined should be made with a reinforcing piece at least three feet long backing up the joint. The intermediate interme diate frames frames are now fitted starting from the transom and working forward. Forward Forwa rd of main frame
number four they will begin to take curva- ; ture and the shape of these frames is obtained by bending thin strips of wood between frame three and the stem and picking up the shape from from these strips or rib-bands rib-b ands,, The stem stem ra bbit is cut by the same same method. method. The upper uppe r frames are now fitted by making patterns at the main frames and fitting the upper frames at these thes e points. The upper clamps are now bent in. and the intermediate upper frames set to match the lower lower ones. Tops of the main frames frames should be well braced to take the strain of bending the upper clamps. A pattern of the deck beams is now made
to the curvature shown on the plans and the upper clamp trimmed off to suit this curvatur e. The top frames are also sawed of off to suit this th is crown. The beams are now gotten gotten out and dovetailed dovetailed into the upper clamps. clamps. Fit all beams all the way across the boat and cut them out for for the th e companionway later. later . Now is also a good time to fit all cockpit and cabin floor beams before the planking is in place as securing good fits is easier at this time as well as having the beams in to take planking strains. Mast Mast pardners as well as base blocks blocks for bits and cleats will be much easier to fit now and these should be attended to before the planking and decking goes on. The whole of the structure should now be thoroughly painted, The chines and apron should be beveled to suit the bottom planking by laying e straight edge between the chine and keel, and drain holes should be cut in all of the bottom timbers to allow the free passage of bilge water to the pum p. Now is also also a good good time to fit the gas tank and the fresh water tanks as well as motor control rods and electric wiring that will be difficult to get to later. The side planking is now fitted and may be run in parallel strakes or evenly divided between chine and sheer as the owner so desires. If run in parallel strake s, stealer planks will have to be run in at the sheer and chine to fill out the additional girth forward. These should not end in sharp points but be
nibbed into the plank directly below them. The edges of the planks should be outgaged so that they are an eighth inch open on the outside for for caulking. No side plank should exceed exceed eight eight inches in width. The planks should be screwed to the stem and transom but nails may be used to attach them to the frames. frames. Butts of the side planks should be be spaced well apart to preserve the strength. The bottom planks are laid athwartship at about forty-five degrees to the keel and treated the same as the side planks. A strip of flannel or old woolen cloth should be inserted between the chine and planking as well as the apron and the bottom. This flannel flannel or wool should be smeared with Staytite reduced a little with linseed oil to about the consistency of thick molasses. The cement ceme nt should be just thin enough to squeeze out when the planks are set up if a good tight joint is desired. Black Staytite is recommended recommended for work below the water line and the gray for work above, Never Neve r use the black cement where whe re white paint will be used over it. The planking on the raised sheer is fitted similar to the side planking, and if a classy job is desired should be of mahogany and an d finished finished natur al. The decking decking in the bow bow well will be easier to fit if the planking of the upper sheer is delayed until this job is finished. Now is a good time to get in the motor beds and install the motor. The exhaust piping as well as all fuel and water lines will be a lot
easier to fit at this time. With these in place the cockpit floor should be laid and canvassed. The steering gear installed and then the two ends of the cockpit built up of tongue and grooved staving with joints joint s painted. painte d. The bridge bridg e deck is now laid and canvassed. The cockpit canvas turns up under the trim around the floor so that it can be easily renewed. rene wed. The bridge deck canvas is turned down over the forward cockpit end and up under the cabin end bulkhead to make a weather-tight job. A generous application of gray Stayt ite cement will insure watertightness. The cabin end bulkhead is now completed and trimmed off flush with the th e top of the beam. beam . Door posts are installed and the cabin top is ready to be laid. This is laid up using tongue and grooved material with a vee edge, or beaded edge as the builder desires. It will be found that the vee edge edge is much easier to paint. The plankpla nking o£ the raised sheer should be left an inch and a half high forward of the cabin and the cabin top material worked to a thin edge along the raised sheer at the bow to allow the cover board to finish out as a rail cap forward. When the cabin top material is close enough to the eompanionway to support the beams, they are cut and the headers for the companion hatch fitted. The cabin top material is then continued across to the side of the boat. The top is coveted covete d with number numb er ten ten canvas with the material laid up with either
a seam down the center, or across the hull if narrower narr ower material is used. In event tha t the material is laid across the boat all seams should lap aft. All of the canvas througho thro ughout ut the boat is either laid in marine glue or white lead thinned thin ned with varnish. varnis h. Seams and edges of the canvas are secured with 1/2" copper or galvanized tacks spaced on no more than three-quarter i n c h centers. centers. The canvas canvas should be wet down immediately after laying and painted with a priming coat when partially dry. The forward forward and aft aft decks deck s are laid up in narrow strips of edge grain material and the seams caulked. They can can either be finished nat ura l or painted as the buil der desires. desires . The seams of these decks are filled filled with deck seam composition or gray Staytite, Sufficient material should be allowed around all deck openings when the canvas is laid to turn up inside the framing of these openings to keep the th e water wate r out. After the canvas is primed the cover boards may be laid in thin white lead. The cabin interior as laid out, is one which has given much satisfaction over a period of years yea rs in all small motor boats. It is very much similar to a very popular standard small cruiser now on the market which shows tremendous sales. You may prefer another arrangement and you may suit yourself on this matter, keeping only in mind that the weights should be similarly disposed. The eompanionway, of which details are shown,
is located on the port side. In the cabin cabin proper the galley is located outboard of the companion companionway way steps. Inboard of the steps the toilet bulkhead is constructed on centerline,andline,and- a small buffet buffet covers as much of the motor as will project toward the steps. This buffet should be removable so as to get at the carburet car buretor or side side of the th e motor. motor. Ton Tongue gue and groove ceiling three-eighths thick should be used on the toilet bulkhead, or it may be constructed of 1/4" masonite as will be explained later. late r. The galley panels are also constructed of masonite or waterproof plywood as shown. The toilet door panels should be pierced with a jigsawed design of some sort to allow air to enter the toilet at all times. The toilet is a small marine bowl
of the pump type and should be installed with the proper seacocks on intake and outlet with strainer intake to prevent cloggin clogging. g. Lead pipe pipe should be be used for all connections. While it will be impossible to stand upright in the toilet, it is still possible to install a wash basin should should the builder builde r desire desir e one. one. This should be of the folding type, and located on the forward bulkhead in such a position that it may be used when the bowl is used as a seat. The generator side of the motor is exex posed in the toilet allowing free examination of all the many parts located on this side of the motor. motor. The toilet should should be provided with a port light facing the cockpit for ventilation, and this port of course should be fitted with a curtain. curtai n. Should Should the builder dede sire, a vent can be fitted through the eabin top to aid in venting the toilet, but this will form a stumbling block in going forward on a dark night night if not properly located. The interior of the toilet should be finished in white above the sheer line and a light green below.
On the forward side of the toilet bulkhead a shelf should be built to hold books and the many other what-nots that collect aboard a boat bo at The berths are ar e of the conventi conventiona onall type and may be either fitted with plain cushions or those of the box spring type as will be dictated by the builder's pocketbookForward of the berths is located another shelf as shown shown on the plans. Stowage space is provided on the starboard side beneath the shel shelf. f. Should the builder desire, this space space may be enclosed by bulkheads reaching to the deck, thus forming a locker in which shore clothes may be hung without fear of their getting mussed. mussed. The shel shelff forward also also provides space for a radio which, if fitted, should be provided with an antenna. On station five a bulkhead is constructed extending between keel and deck and clear across the boat. A door should be provided in this bulkhead below the level of the gas tank so as to give access to the bow of the boat and the chains which will be stowed beneath the tank.
and sink may be of monel meta l or galvanized iron but in either case it should be neatly applied and all joints made watertig ht. A On the interior all trim may be of ma- small galley pump should be fitted at the sink hogany and varnished as here it will not be to draw fresh water from tanks located under exposed to the weather, weathe r, All panel work may the cockpit floor. A small spirit stove or be very easily made from masonite or ply- one using canned heat is located aft of the dish rack is built on the aft aft cabin wood by simply routing a groove of the re- sink. A dish quire d size size in the rails and styles of the panels bulkhead to carry the ship's crockery. Be and setting the plywood in this groove as the neath the galley platform there will be room panels are assembled. assembled. Panel Pan el work will will be a for cupboards to stow canned goods, and distinctive advantage due to its ability of should the builder desire, there will still be loose being easily removed for perodically paint- room to install a small icebox. All loose cushions should be of the life preserve type ing the inside of the planking and for inspection and repa ir if necessary. necessar y. All paneling to avoid carrying these very necessary adshould be installed insta lled with screws. The ceiling juncts as requir ed by law. I would strongly of the cabin should be In all cases finished recommend a two and a half gallon fire exa brigh t color color to to improve the lighting. The tinguisher of the foam type be installed rather underside of the beams may be champferred than the ordinary one-quart liquid type, or fitted with mahogany caps that can be re- Many a beautiful cruiser has burned to the water's edge because a quart of liquid was moved when the ceiling is painted. The flooring of the cabin should have a just a little shy of being able to quell a fire. A bell and whistle are also required by removable section so that the bilges may be inspected and painted. Linoleum on the the floor law as well as sailing lights which will conwill be a big aid to keeping the cabin clean, sist of a red light to port and a green light star board. rd. A bow light must be fitted fitted be and curtains at the ports will give the in- to starboa terior a homey appearance. The drainb oard tween the skeen chocks and a stern light high.
enough to show over all other sailing lights on the boat will be fitted aft All of these the se lights should be combination oil oil and electric. When proceeding under sail alone only the red and green lights should show. When under sail and power a boat is considered a power boat and as such must carry all lights listed before. The cabin lights should be of the dome type and all lights must be double contact as there is no convenient steel chassis to ground to as in a car. Ail wiring should be inin -
stalled in neat moulding so as to be readily accessible in case of short circuit. The cabin dome lights may be of the regulation auto type which are just as good as most marine mari ne lights light s and cost about half half as much. Outlets for the sailing lights should be made through watertight fittings sold for this purpose. purpo se. While on the subject of lights, an old auto headlight may be installed on the spreaders aft to form an efficient flood light to light up the deck when going aboard at night or when an emergency arises to give proper pro per light to work the boat. This light will also be found handy for night fishing where a landing net might be requir ed. All wires should be of the lead covered waterproof type. On the after deck the re should be fitted two small bitts securely fastened for towing a dinghy or a disabled disabled boat if necessary. A small ventilated hatch should also be fitted on the deck over the tiller or quadrant with
hatch cover to fit over wood ventilator. A standard type boom jack should be made to take the main boom when the mainsail is furled. furled. A ring buoy attached attach ed to this so as to be readily removale has often been an instrumen to which many people owe their lives. This buoy may be dolled up with the boat's name and the owner's and club flags to look real yachty. A binnacle may be fitted fitted in the cockpit ahead of the wheel box if desired or
the ordinary box compass may be used in any position position convenient convenient to the helmsman. helmsman. If the compass be of the box type it should be installed so as to set in a series of strips on the deck so that it will always he placed in the same position. position. In this way only only is it possible possible to log the courses and follow them at all times. While it was felt that topping lifts on such small booms would be a nuisance, they may be fitte fitted d if if the builder so desires. The toptop ping lift should be bearded in the way of the gaff to prevent chafing and to give the boat a real go-to-sea look. Well constructed and well found Flying Cloud will be able to do coastwise cruising almost anywhere. To consider an ocean crossing in this boat would be folly even though boats smaller than she have done these kind of voyages. This boat was designed designed as as a comfortable cruiser and should be considered as such. Her cockpi cockpitt is much much too too large to to take to sea and her bottom is not strong enough to withstand the sort of punishment which such a voyage voyage entails. entail s. There is no way way to to adapt this boat to such work but at some later date we will publish an enlarged edition of Buddy which will be specifically designed to follow the track of the Hawkshaw, a Buddy that poked her nose into such far places as Cuba and saw the coast of Yucatan over her taffra taffrail. il. This boat will will be the answer to the many letters of readers who had the yen to go of off shore just ju st as Flying Cloud is the answer to those desiring comfort to the more adventurous type of cruising.
With the major parts of the hull complete, the fitti fittings ngs may be installed. The. chain plates to take the shrouds must be installed before the sheer moulding is in place. The freezing port in the bow well should be cut in and covered with a door of the same material as the raised sheer planking and arranged to swing out so that it will spill water wate r should should a wave com comee over the bow. The companion slide and cover can next be fitted as sho shown wn on the plans. A strip of copper copper should be used to cover the joint on the forward end, or many of popular weather-strip sections on the market may be used at this point. Before Before the interior interi or woodwork woodwork is fitted the drains from the cabin top should be constructed of one-inch lead pipe set as close to the cover board corners at the after end of the cabin cabin as space space will permit. The cockpit cockpit drains should be made from the same material with a leather flap tacked over their overboard ends to prevent a wave from working back into the cockpit. The rudder is constructed of steel or brass plate with the stock stock of of the same same material. If the rudder is of brass, its thickness should be 1/4" 1/4" and the stock of 1-3/4" 1-3/4" dia. dia. material. materi al. The rudder stock is slotted and brazed to the plate as is also the short stub at the bottom of the rudder which forms a pivot through a hole bored in the returned end of the rudder shoe which should be of 1/2" brass, three inches inches wide. wide. If the rudder is to be of steel steel plate, the stock will be of cold rolled steel bar electrically electrically weld welded ed to the blade. The
shoe will then be of steel also and the whoJe assembly galvanized after welding. The rudder stock is carried through the hull, inside of a piece of brass pipe or galvanized galvanized pipe to correspond with rudder metal, screwed screwed into a proper size hole in the stern knee. At the top of the stock there should be fitted a tiller or quadrant, which in turn is connected to the drum of the steering wheel with
flexible steel cable. cable. Should the builder so desire a hand tiller may be fitted, in which case the stock is carried up through the after deck. deck. As there will will be a reversing gear fitted to the motor, some means will have to be arranged to positively stop the rudder from turning any further than thirty-five degrees each side of the centerline. The spars may now be constructed from Oregon pine or spruce. They are first worked square with all the proper tapers incorporated incorporated.. After the spars are squared and all humps worked off of their surface they are again worked to an an octagon octagon shape. The corners corn ers of the octagon are again worked off, and finally the spars are rounded. A hollow hollow sparplane will be a lot of assistance in this operation if one can can be procured. At least five coats of hot linseed oil should be painted on each spar and after being sandpapered they should be give given n three thr ee coats of good good spar varnish. varnis h. If bright work is eliminated in the construction the spars may may be be painted. This of course excepts the foremast as far as the gaff will travel. travel . This section section should should be oiled oiled and given given
a coat coat of mastine grease. The bands and withes should be purchased before the spars are made and the spar worked to a diameter a little littl e larger than the band at the point where the band is to be located. On the masts it is good practice to allow a shoulder at least an eighth inch larger than the band so that the band will not slip down the mast when the turnbuckles are set up. At points where the blocks or stays are looped around the mast, shoulder cleats of hardwood should be fitted. These cleats should be slightly mortised in the mast so that they will not put all of the load on the screws attaching them to the masts. The fore foremas mastt should should have a thin brass plate attached at the point where the gaff will swing so as to eliminate wear on the spar at this point. point. This plate shoul should d be carried at least three-quarters around the mast and fastened fastened with escutcheon escutcheon pins. The centerline of the plate will face aft. The wire rope rigging should now be made with all ends aloft spliced or looped as required. qui red. Splicing Splicing is highly recommended recommended as it will give give the rigging rigging a professional professional look. look. In event of the builder being unable to splice wire rope it may be turned back on itself and served and soldered as shown. All loops loops wherever fitted should be served with Italian yacht marline to prevent wear on the metal and improve its appearance. After After the spars are stepped the lower ends of the shrouds and stays are spliced to the correct length, to fit the turnbuckles turnbuckles when when they are three-quarters. th ree-quarters.
open. This allows allows them to be set up properly. No wire should be tightened beyond the point at which it is reasonably taut so as not to set up undue strains in the hull and and spars. Be sure that all manila ropes are rove and all blocks shackled or set in their proper places before the spars are sent aloft. aloft. Ail ends of manila line on the boat should be securely served with sail twine waxed with beeswax so that they will not fray o u t Here the builder will be able to show his marline-spike seamanship by producing work that the old sailors loved to term "ship-shape and Bristol fashion." The sails should be of six-ounce canvas and provided with sail covers as the foresail will not be convenient to remove after every ,;run. Khaki Khak i sails sails look look well on this type of yacht, especially so if the hull is finished in a dar k shade. The sails sails should be thoroughly thoroughly
reinforced in all corners and the mainsail should be fitted with sail battens batt ens.. As the sails are in this case auxiliary to the motor they need not be constructed with the precision that is required of racing sails. sails. Streng th rathe ra the r than shape should be the rule. The sails are laced to both main and fore boom with lacing eyes as shown. shown. All halya rds and sheets should be led to the end of the raised deck and belayed on cleats as shown on the deck plan. The locations of these leads should be memorized so that even on the darkest night, in sailors' lingo, you will "know the ropes." While While ordering order ing the running rigging it may be well to include two mooring lines of 120 120
3/4" manila, 20 feet long, which should be neatly eye-spliced eye-splice d on one end. The free end should be seized or served. With the exterior finished we can turn our attention to its painting and finish- There isn't a prettier job afloat than those whose woodwork is of mahogany finished natural. In connection with this also there are none which occasions more work to keep them looking looking this way. For the man who has plenty of time and likes to fuss around cleaning varnish and scraping down whenever it is needed, the bright work will have a lot of appeal, but to the man who really wants pleasure afloat I would strongly recommend fisherman erm an finish with all woodwork painted. My own preferences would be a green bottom, black hull and buff decks, with all trim painted painte d white. In any event secure good good marine paints which are the cheapest in the long run. Every coat applied to the hull should be sanded and nil seams of the planking puttied flush with a good seam compound. Completed, "Flying Cloud" will furnish its builder with endless hours of enjoyment such as only only the deep blue water can offe offer. r. Ca re ful construction will result in a truly beautiful craft that can be looked upon with pride.