Term Papers and Thesis about Defining Filipino Cultural Identity: Philippine Avant Garde Perfoming Arts Theater...
A Thesis Presented Defining the Filipino Cultural Identity: Filipino Avant Garde in Performing Arts Theater A thesis presented to the faculty of the Department of Fine Arts and Interior Design, School of Arts and Sciences St. Scholastica‟s College, Manila
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the course Degree of Bachelor of Science in Interior Design
By: Joanna April De Leon Lumbad BSID4
The thesis attached hereto, entitled “Defining the Filipino Cultural Identity: Filipino Avant Garde in Performing Arts Theater”, prepared and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science Major in Interior Design is hereby accepted.
Sir Don Amorsolo
Ms. Maria Victoria Liboro
Chair, Department of the Fine Arts and
Thesis Writing Adviser
______________________________ Ma. Asuncion Azcuna Dean, School of Arts and Science
Approval Sheet The thesis attatched which is the “Defining the Filipino Cultural Identity: Filipino Avant Garde in Performing Arts Theater” is submitted by Joanna April Lumbad in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science Major in Interior Design is hereby accepted after having been presented in oral defense.
Sir Don Amorsolo
Ms. Evangeline Kuizon
Ms. Helena Sharon B. Malinis
Mrs. Belen Morey
Acknowledgement The researcher acknowledges to all the people who supported and helped in the accomplishment of this thesis project. Thanks To: Renato Rastrollo (Culture and Arts Officer II and Technical Services Division) who helped the researcher to understand the importance of the performing arts theaters here in the Philippines, for checking my floor plans every time I visit to the theater and for answering the interview questions of this thesis. Mark Paulino the tour guide who explained the whole history and gave the standard size and measurements of the Cultural Center of the Philippines and showed the entire theater. Emma Viray (Interior Designer of Philippine International Convention Center) who explained the big role of an interior designer in designing the performing arts theater, for checking my floor plans every time I visit to the theater and for answering the interview questions of this thesis. Aldino Gamba (tour guide, information teller and theater booker of the University of the Philippines Theater) who gave a recap overview of the historical theater inside the UP Diliman campus and he showed everything inside the U.P Theater. Professor Defeo (Head of the University of the Philippines Theater) who showed me some of his works and experiences when he went to four Opera Houses from abroad and he also told me the important details and differences of every theater from other countries.
To all of the Professors in Interior Design who also became our mentors in all of the Interior Design subjects, I want to give my gratitude of saying “thank you very much” for all of your teachings and your guidance from first year to fourth year. The librarians, who allowed us to research, borrow and request for new books. To all of my classmates, thank you for sharing wonderful moments and experiences. To my Family Members, thank you for all the love, support, and for always being there for me. To Vanessa Academia and Mary Joy Lopez thank you for becoming my mentors, for all the help in correcting my thesis grammars, for spending time to teach me, and correcting my mistakes in drafting. To Saint Scholastica’s College Manila thank you for all the things that I have learned. And Last but not the least… To God, Mama Mary and the Angels thank you for listening to my prayers and guiding me all the way.
Abstract Charles Caleb Colton once said, “imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.” That may be so, but to a country that is best known to have a talent for imitation of the original - may it be styles in art, music or fashion, it would seem that this nation is easily flattered by any influences that come its way. This dilemma can be seen in Philippine Performing Arts Theater design styles as the Filipino struggle for identity – a manifestation probably acquired from long periods of colonization from various colonizers. In this study, the researcher proposes to harness the chameleon-like adaptability of Filipinos to influences and use it to make a new form of style. Hopefully, as this new style is formed, a longstanding appreciation to the cultural arts will develop as well. This study also sought to answer these questions: 1) Can the Avant Garde concept marry to the functional aspect of planning a performing arts theater and apply Filipino idea through space? A study of the beginnings of performing arts theatre, the history of Philippine theatre, and articles pertaining to the Avant-garde movement were methodically searched through public libraries and also through visiting the country‟s existing theatres. Qualitative data from interviews from various theatre experts, interior designers and also regular people (who enjoy watching shows in theatres once in a while) are also noted, as well as pictures and observations taken during trips to various performing art theatres. Qualitative results show that most interviewees placed importance on the following: functionality of theatre departments, location, seating capacity, good acoustics, and of
course style. And as history revealed that the theater‟s style evident in architectural structures adapts the
design movement to the period it was built, it is also safe to assume that the Filipino style adapts with the progress of any foreign influences. Thus, identification to a singular Filipino style proved to be difficult as shown in questionnaire results. How will the Avant-garde concept help in defining the Filipino identity? For a country that hosts a melting pot of culture, influences from ex-colonizers can never be disregarded as they were already deeply instilled in who we are as a Filipino. Example, a foreign movement (i.e. Rococo, Baroque, Victorian) coupled with this country‟s natural materials (e.g. narra wood) is the norm (i.e.chairs of Betis Pampanga). However, a concept that pushes the boundaries of what‟s accepted as the norm will theoretically drive Filipino designers into thinking out of the box and thus, making a design style that is uniquely ours.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………….
APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………………………………
JURY‟S APPROVAL SHEET …………………………………………………………..
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………….
CHAPTER 1: The Problem and a Review of Related Literature
Background of the Study ……………………………………………………………
Review of Related Literature (Historical & Empirical - site documentation (image boards/observations, survey/interviews) ………………………………
Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………
Scope and Limitations ……………………………………………………………..
Importance of the Study …………………………………………………………..
Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………………..
Problem Statement ……………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER 2: Methodology
Design Concept ………………………………………………………………………
Data Gathering Procedures ………………………………………………………..
Hypothesis/ Comparison and Contrast …………………………………………..
Design Plan …………………………………………………………………………….
Communication/ Media Strategies……………………………………………………..
CHAPTER 4: Discussion (expounded discussions, guiding philosophies, etc.)
CHAPTER 5: Recommendation (Synthesis/ Evaluation)
CHAPTER I - The Problem and Review of Related Literature The Role of Avant Garde Concept in Defining the Filipino Cultural Identity in Performing Arts Theaters BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY A theater or theatre is a structure where theatrical works or plays are performed or other performances such as musical concerts may be given. It originated in the cultures of primitive societies of the classical Greek and Roman Theater in 4th century BC that evolved up to this generation. The theater serves to define the acting and audience spaces and organize the theater space as well as provide facilities for the performers, and the audience. The first public Opera House invented by a group of wealthy people in the city-state of Florence was the Theatre San Cassiano in Venice Italy opened in 1637 near the Rialto. A time when artists, writers and architects became interested in the cultures of the past, especially the ancient Greeks, whose sculptures, architecture, and plays still exist. The building was made of stone owned by the Venetian Tron family. But the original theater built in 1565 was Andrea Palladio made of wooden structure succumbed to fire in 1629 until they replace the wood structure into a stone. The original Opera house was invented in Italy, but its popularity quickly spread to Germany, France, England, Russia, Spain, Portugal and other countries. The Opera Houses in the 17th and 18th centuries were often financed by nobles, rulers and wealthy people who patronage of the arts to endorse social positions or prestige and political ambitions. The late 17th century in Venice became the opera capital
of the world then followed by the other ten opera houses. The last performances of the Theatre San Cassiano were held in 1807 and it was demolished in 1812, mainly due to recurring fires. In the 19th century, the rise of Bourgeois and capitalist social forms from the European culture moved away from its patronage system to publicity supported system. Modern Opera Houses in the 20th century raise funds from institutional grants, a combination of government, smaller extent, ticket sales and private donations (Wikipedia.org 9-18-09). Obviously, the culture of Opera Houses which is now more appropriately called Performing Arts Theaters is western in influence that reached our country‟s shore through an invasion from our first colonizers: the Spaniards. During those 300 years of colonization, the Spaniards exerted their culture over ours and handed out their love for plays (like senakulo and zarzuela) to us, thus replacing the local natives‟ early form of theatre (e.g. proto-dramas and dance conducted in open area to ensure bountiful harvest, successful hunt, prowess in battle, or the transition to the afterlife). Beyond entertainment, the religious orders were especially aware of the potential of theater to assist their efforts to convert the indigenous population. During the Spanish era, various forms of play, both religious and secular, were introduced and became part of the culture. A popular form of play is the komedya, also known as the moro-moro plays that invariably feature battles between Christian and Muslim adversaries in medieval Europe.
As theater became a way of life for the Filipinos that time, a need for theater houses emerged to house these plays that the colonizers and the natives both enjoyed. The first theatre, Manila Grand Opera House, which was built during the Spanish colonization, naturally has Spanish influences with regards to its structure, layout, and interior design. Same goes to those theatre houses that follow after it in the same era like the Teatro de Binondo, Teatro Circo de Bilibid, Teatro Circo de Zorilla, Teatro de Porvenir, and Teatro Guinol Chino. In those 300 years of their stay, it is unavoidable that even the architecture and interior design styles would be infused to the colonized by the colonizers. During the American Period, another style came into action. Designed in 1931 by National Artist for Architecture, Juan Arellano, the Metropolitan Theater is a primary example in the Art Deco style prevails during those times. Nationalists may point out that the Art Deco style of the Met was something foreign and forced upon by American colonizers. But Edson Cabalfin, an Architecture scholar, said the Metropolitan (and the other Art Deco buildings) served as expressions of the Filipino struggle for identity – one that would blend Filipino, Asian, Spanish and American influences. “As much as Art Deco is seen as the seeming „infiltration of a foreign agent in another culture, the style can also be read as the means of an „infiltrated‟ culture adapt and responds to an outside power.” Cabalfin explained. Bellevue
Theater and Lyric Theater were also constructed this time and displayed Philippine Art Deco design. And of course, the Tanghalang Pambansa (otherwise known as the Cultural Center of the Philippines Main Building), Meralco Theater, and Folk Arts Theatre that were all built during the late 60s to early 70s, have been done in a mixture of Filipino Contemporary and International Style Movement. As it can be observed from the history of theatre styles and designs in the Philippines, it can be said that the styles and designs adapts itself to the current design movement that is prevalent in the period the theater was built whether it was consciously forced by colonizers or not. In a similar observation, Nicanor Tiongson, the artistic director of the Cultural Center of the Philippines in Manila, describes Filipino performers the same way; but refutes the common compliments that Filipino actors are so versatile they can perform in major production all over the world. He said that instead he envied the Indonesian performers for their strong, unbroken classical tradition: whichever new idea or movement Indonesian performers encountered their tradition effect and assimilated it into their own stylistic structure and ideology. Therefore, everything the Indonesians came in contact became their own, in contrast to the adaptability of Philippine performer whose talent lay in the unconscious imitation of the original. This very talent, according to Tiongson, reveals the Filipino‟s own lack of cultural identity. The same can be also said to Filipino
designers who have been inspired by international influences yet unconsciously imitate the original idea. Of course, as a melting pot of cultural influences, it‟s not really bad to display these influences especially in designs because after all, the culmination of these is what defines us as a Filipino. However, wouldn‟t it be nice to have concocted something of our own? Through the planning/building of this performing arts theater, the researcher wants to apply the avant-garde concept in this theater‟s design by thinking experimental and out of the box ideas in conceptualizing the design of this entertainment venue. Hopefully, in doing so, a prouder Filipino will be able to call something as their own in the interior design world. Innovations and latest technology should also take part during the design process as to enhance the viewing and listening capabilities of all theatergoers. Likewise goes for an appropriate provision of places and facilities needed for suitable venue for training and presentations that can enhance the performers skills and study their craft. Natural materials and resources should also be utilize or creatively done in a way none of the mass-produce products have been done before. Lastly, albeit the design has been given free reign to percolate; the functionality of the theater should never be compromised. After all, a design can never last as the need for it runs out.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this review of the literature for this study, the researcher will expound further all the information that was given in the previous chapter. It will be divided into three categories summing up the essence of this paper: Evidences of the Problem, Theorizing Postcolonial Avant Garde, and Making an Effective Theater.
Evidences of the Problem To course through the problem in this paper, it is important that we know even a bit of the history of this country. In doing so, we will be able to understand certain Filipino behavior and patterns of foreign influences richly imbedded in the country‟s culture. One thing that should be impressed upon in this study is the fact that this country has been colonized for more than 300 years. More importantly, while most people know that June 12, 1898 is the country‟s celebrated Independence Day, it should be noted that it wasn‟t technically the date where we found independence from foreign colonizers.
Guevara, Sulpicio, ed. (2005). The Laws of the First Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library. According to The Laws of the First Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899 which were compiled & edited by Sulpicio Guevara (2005), a public reading, done on
June 12, 1898, of the Act of the Declaration of Independence, Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain, which had been recently defeated at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. The declaration, however, was not recognized by the United States or Spain. The Spanish government later ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War. The United States recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946 in the Treaty of Manila. July 4 was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until August 4, 1964 when, upon the advice of historians and the urging of nationalists, President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day. This goes to show that it was only during 1946 – only a mere 63 years away from today – that we truly became on our own. And yet, since it was just a few decades away compared to more than three centuries of under a colonizer‟s rule, it wasn‟t so surprising that this country has yet to get its bearing to recognize its own uniqueness separate from the influences it has acquired.
Diamond, Catherine. (Spring: MIT Press, 1988-1996, p. 141). Quest for the Elusive Self: The Role of Contemporary Philippine Theatre in the Formation of Cultural Identity. TDR, Vol. 40, No. 1 Catherine Diamond (1996) expressed that “the Philippines more than any other Asian nation seems to have been plagued with doubts about its cultural identity from both Asian and Western perspectives” (p.141), relating to Filipino theatre performances. In 1957, when the Cultural Foundation of the Philippines planned to send a troupe of dancers, singers, and instrumentalists on tour abroad, one member of the council expressed fears that since Philippine performing arts were so different from those in the rest of Asia, their identity and authenticity might be questioned by Asian audiences. Furthermore, western spectators might feel that they weren‟t being offered anything significantly different from what they themselves produced. Eagerly trying to separate from the colonizers rule and influences, wouldn‟t the Filipino design aesthetics come off as hodgepodge and confused? Will a rejection of all the foreign influences that we had be a solution in defining the Filipino cultural identity?
Miyawaki, Atsuko (2004) Contemporary Colonialism - A View from the East. Democracy: Another Tool of the Western Colonialism, Case Study #2. Atsuko Miyawaki (2004) said in her essay called, “ Contemporary Colonialism – A view from the East”, that Colonialism often implies "finished project" in contemporary
world where the colonized has gained illusionary freedom in the discourses of "postcolonialism." In fact, colonialism has never finished. It continues to exist as a cultural phenomenon. This depressing opinion made by Miyawaki was countered by Postcolonial architectural critic Sibel Bozdogan (2001) who, while recognizing that rejection of foreign influences is futile, said that it would be beneficial if we accept it and then adapt to it. She said in her proposal in reconfiguring architectural historiography. She outlines, “The first principle is not to lose sight of the provisional nature of identity politics if it is not to be turned into a new orthodoxy... The second principle is not to lose sight of the absence of any necessary and/or automatic connection between the work of art/architecture and its politics… These principles thus give us the opportunity not to totally reject the western canon and replace it with the marginalized “others,” but rather to demonstrate the interaction, encounters, mediation and transformation between them (p. 208-211).
Bozdogan, Sibel. 2001. Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Bozdogan raises a good case since after all, what makes us Filipinos unique is the fact that we are a melting pot of cultures as compared to our geographical Asian brothers. That we are westernized can‟t be avoided, and that we were seen as lacking in “Asianness” except in location can‟t be helped. A mixture of these unique traits and applying it
through contemporary designs enables us to express the struggle we‟re having in finding our own identity. As we established that we couldn‟t discount centuries of foreign influences in finding our own cultural identity, what we really need now is a vision that will move us beyond adapting and assimilating of other cultures we come across with.
Theorizing Postcolonial Avant-garde IAN CHILVERS. "avant-garde." A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. 1999. Retrieved January 31, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O5-avantgarde.html Referencing encyclopedia.com (2010), avant-garde refers to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics. It represents a pushing of the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm. The notion of the existence of the avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. Many artists have aligned themselves
Cabalfin, Edson (2003). Intersections, Representations and Exoticism: Reconfiguring the Historiography of Philippine Art Deco Architecture” .Bulawan,
Number 8: Journal on Philippine Culture and the Arts, (Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts) Similar doubts and fear are also evident in Philippine architecture and interior design, yet Edson Cabalfin (2004) only puts this as the effect of “intermingling and hybridization of culture” not only between the cultures of both “colonized” and “colonizers”, but also to other culture‟s influences that the Filipino architects and designers tried to learn and absorb. This hybridization resulted to attempts by Filipino designers to appropriate imagery from cultures different from the experience of the Filipinos, thus falling to stereotyping design evident in other bodabil theaters/cinema houses. Cabalfin cited a few examples: the Bellevue Theater, built in the 1930s, distinctively features Mudejar elements, a mixture of Moorish, Spanish and Muslim influences as reflected in the minarets, the harem maiden figures at the lobby, and the domical structure at the top; on the other hand, the Lyric Theater designed by Pablo Antonio in the 30s provides a western Asiatic and Islamic atmosphere through pointed arch windows, pilasters topped with finials and an onion-form pediment located at the middle bay of the façade. with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada through the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the Language poets in the 1980s.
The term also refers to the promotion of radical social reforms. Over time, avant-garde became associated with movements concerned with "art for art's sake", focusing primarily on expanding the frontiers of aesthetic experience, rather than with wider social reform. The confluence of the term “postcolonial” as a cultural discourse and condition and “avant-garde” as an appropriation of western aesthetic position foregrounds the postcolonial avant-garde as a key category in constructing a history of texts, institutional practices, material conditions of aesthetic production, and views on Philippine architecture and interior design. Wherein Filipino contemporary design only adapts and assimilates influences, merging symbolism of Filipino to the Western designs, this study encourages adapting, assimilating AND thinking out of the box. And while Avant-garde movement is usually accompanied by having a social and political edge as vehicle to its inspiration, this study will use the dilemma of “finding the Filipino cultural identity” as its inspiration. Finding the Filipino self includes recognizing the people and tradition pre-colonial time, identifying materials that naturally grow in this country, and noting the foreign influences that we accumulated over the years. Touching on phenomenon that are very current to us might spike on an inspiration that will result in a new design altogether. Plus, taking note and utilizing all the technological advances and design innovation will help the researcher in her goal.
Making an Effective Theater Designing a theater isn‟t just about envisioning its style or encapsulating a particular design movement. Functionality is also important. According to Scarbrough and Campbell (2001), one of the first issues a designer confronts in approaching the design of any performing arts space is the issue of form – that is, the relationship between the audience members in their seats and the performers on stage. Issues of form are influenced by a number of forces, including the type of performance, seating capacity, and historical precedents. It is therefore helpful for the designer to have a basic understanding of the different forms of relationship between audience and performer. The researcher chose the Hanamichi- thrust stage or the T-shaped stage reminiscent of the Kabuki-style Theater of the Japanese (The first performance was in 1603) - that also converts into a proscenium stage when certain stage performances calls for it. This solution came from the idea that as years progress, architectural and interior designs has to also accommodate modern innovation in theater arts performances. There are also technical requirements in performing art spaces that is needed to be followed: Front of house: Lobbies, foyers, circulation, box office, restrooms and other spaces serving the theater-going public. House: the audience chamber Stage: Where the action happens
Backstage or back-of-house: dressing rooms, green rooms, performer and crew lounges, shops, storage rooms, and other support spaces for the stage, performers, and technical crew. The quantity, size, location, and features associated with space in each of these categories will vary depending on the unique requirements of the companies, ensembles, producers, or presenters that use a particular performance room. These requirements are most directly influenced by the types of performances and seating capacity. A good lighting plan should also follow, since as Robert Dorsey (n.d.) described, “Lighting is the powerful key to the unlocking of a bottomless treasury of dramatic visual effects. Good choice of color should also be considered as it functions to attract attention to the theater and create in the theatergoer a mood of expansiveness and readiness to enjoy the show. Soundproofing materials are also vital in a theater to provide good acoustics. Summary In this review of related literature, the researcher is able to explain further the problem, her vision to the problem, and the technical aspects in making a functional performing arts theater. That, in the hopes of defining a more definite Filipino cultural identity through a visionary and experimental movement like the (Postcolonial) Avant-garde style, a functional and effective theater will emerge for the Filipino of this generation (and the next) to enjoy.
PROBLEM: Can the “Avant Garde” concept marry to the functional aspect of planning a performing arts theater and apply Filipino idea through space? In order to create a design based on our own idea of style is to learn how to adopt the foreign influences since the Filipino culture is already a mixture of pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial packed in a single identity. We cannot separate the foreign influences since it already became part of us for so many years.
This map shows how the researcher formulated a framework on how to systematically go on with her study. Part of the plan includes a visionary idea on the location of the envisioned theater. Such was chosen for the high rate of people density in the area. Also include in the map is a plan on how to make the place look attractive and functional. And
of course, in the map, it is also included that as the basic needs of a theater is followed and technical aspects are fulfilled, the Avant Garde concept must fall into cohesive mix within Filipino context.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION Scope of the study includes historical background of theater in general and also the Philippine Performing Arts Theater in particular. This study also described the problem of the study which circulates around the idea that the Filipino cultural identity needs defining as it is accused of being an imitation to the culture of its once colonizers. Evident to the history of the performing arts theater in this country, its structure follows the style/ design movement of the period on which the theater was built. A proposal of using an Avant garde style is also included in this paper. A technical basis in building a theater is also included in this paper as stated in the book, “Time Saver Standards for Building Types” by Joseph De Chiara and Michael Crosbie. In this study these areas are researched to provide guidelines to the researcher on how to make the theater functional as well: Lobby setup - It affects the mood of the people, because this would be the initial scenery that the clients would face upon entering the establishment. It serves as an important role in preparing the patron for the performance experience. A lobby space also invites people to socialize and create a sense of arrival and anticipation Backstage - support spaces that include the wide variety of dressing rooms and storage spaces needed to support what happens on stage. Audience seats - affects their focus on how they feel while watching the program. Design factors affecting this area are color and comfortability of the seats.
V.I.P Lounge/ Green Rooms - consist of café bar, living area, and dining area provided for the cast and crew for lounging. It is a formal space that is used by the artist to greet the public after a performance and exclusively considered as their private place to socialize at the backstage. Main Theater - It is designed for performing programs of activities to watch the artists and perform live. In this study, the researcher is hindered by the following limitations: Limited sources of research for Philippine Performing Arts Theater and Philippine Avant garde – although there is a vast literature available for researches in Performing Arts Theater in general, public libraries hold little archive for studies of the subject in Philippine context. The same goes with looking for researches of Avant-garde architecture and interior design in the Philippines. Interviewing experts (theater manager and production design) proved to be challenging since most does not have the time and interest to participate in the interview that the researcher conducted. Budgetary constraint is also a problem since some theater tours are quite expensive.
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to define the voice of the Filipino identity by promoting new styles of interior design for the performing arts theater and to show all the people the importance of bringing up something new and fresh for an entertainment venue. In doing so, it will help promote a culture that is inherently unique, therefore deflecting the initial notion that our culture is just a rehash of other influences. In doing so, a prouder Filipino might also cultivate a popular demand for watching in performing arts theatre. The interior designs will create a new theater culture in the country through promoting the interest of the future to the general public. Another goal of this project is to address the need for learning different aspects of the performing arts theater in the form of showing the history of the theater designs. The researcher is conducting this project hoping to: 1. Adhere to proper theater layout provided by the building codes, comfort guidelines, floor design, and the overall form of a theater space that will play a part in seating arrangements (Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning: De Chiara, et al 2001, page 1402). 2. Successfully fit the design concept for the theater with the constraint of a smallsize floor plan and a limited budget. 3. Be able to properly use the elements of design and art that would harmoniously fit the design concept being promoted.
4. Show different approaches that emphasize modern “Avant-Garde” design in dressing the theatre. 5. Know more about the history of a performing arts theater having significant information about building a theater. Generally, people see Performing Arts Theater as the most appropriate venue for expressing musical and performing arts talents. 6. Educate and remind the Filipino society that we have a culture in performing arts that needs to sustain up to the future generation. 7. Bring education, literature, history, as well as entertainment to the Filipino community brought about by an exceptional and first-rate performing arts theater. 8. Allow future researchers to benefit from this research.
DEFINITION OF TERMS Here are some definitions of terms that are used from this chapter: Acoustics- In a room: it defines some factors that determine its character with respect to the quality of the received sound. Adopt- to choose as a standard or required in a course; to take and follow by choice or assent. Albeit- Although; even if. Art Deco- It is a characterized geographical patterns, stylized motif often depicted by sunburst patterns and pyramidal shapes. Avant Garde- Means "advance guard" or "vanguard” to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.
Balance- means a harmonious proportion, as in the design or arrangement of parts.
Balcony- a seating area raised entirely above the ground level in a theater. Benefit- It means that a theatrical performance or other public entertainment to raise money for a charitable organization or cause. Character- Is the combination of qualities or features that distinguishes things from another. Concept- An idea of something formed by mentally combining all its characteristics or particulars; a construct.
Concoct- Means to digest; to cook; to plot; to invent. Contemporary- Modern style or designs applied within the performing arts theater. Cultivate- Means to improve, to refine, to study. Culminate- Means to reach the highest point. Culture- is defined with beliefs, customs, practices and social behavior of a particular nation or people through arts, music, literature, and intellectual activities. Dilemma- It‟s a choice of unpleasant alternatives. Features- Something offered as a special attraction; a prominent or conspicuous part. Functions- The kind of action or activity proper to a person, thing or institution, the purpose for which something is designed or exists; role. Form- Is a specific structure, condition, appearance, style, and counterpart of space. Green Room- it‟s a formal space area (V.I.P lounge area) that is used by the artist to greet the public after a performance. House- refers to the performance experience that is fundamentally about the relationship between the performers and the audience. Identity- To make prove, or considered as the same; identifying. Ideology- The body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture. Innovative- Is to make alterations or changes in something already established.
Illustration- The comparison or examples that explain or collaborate; picture to elucidate or adorn text. Norm- Is a rule; standard; type; model; average score. Opera- consists of songs, music, action/ acting, singing, dancing, and spectacle on a live stage. Perspective- The art of representing objects on a plane surface as they appear to the eye. Practicability- Is a theater designed or constructed for actual use; capable of being done, effected, or put into practice, with the available means; feasible. Prevalent- It means “wide-spread”. Percolate- Is to pass through small spaces. Proscenium stage/s- It is a stage configuration in which the viewers watch a certain play through a rectangular opening (the proscenium arch) that resembles a picture frame it is arrange differently compared to Arena and Open/ Thrust stage. Rationale- The fundamental reason or reasons serving to account for something. Revive- To bring back to life; to restore the use, currency, activity or notice (validity or effectiveness). Senakulo- It is a Philippine traditional process every holy week from the month of March-April, when a person who is sinful would do the same as what Jesus Christ did when he was crucified on the cross. Spacious- Occupying much space of great extent area; containing much space as a house and room.
Theater- a setting for a plays or a wide room for dramatic presentations are performed inside the building. Tradition- The handing down of statements, beliefs, legends, customs, information, etc. from generation to generation, especially by practice. Zarsuela- Is a spread to Spanish colonies and many Hispanic countries. (Has two main forms: Baroque Zarsuela and Romantic Zarsuela).
PROBLEM STATEMENT Mimicry and imitation might have been second nature to the Filipinos that even during the time of American colonialism, Maj. Frank S. Bourns of the US colonial army declares: “They are natural imitators; it is a racial characteristic.” Whether this is an absolute truth or not, this Filipino talent for mimicry and imitation might be seen by foreigners and fellow Asian brothers that we are a nation that is confused about their own cultural identity. Such characteristics can be also attributed to the fact that the Philippines have been colonized for more than 300 years and have only been truly independent for just a mere 63 years. Thus, Filipinos may have been unconsciously imbibing the colonizers influences and gradually adapting to it through the years. This case is seen throughout the Philippine history of architectural and interior design, specifically in Performing Art Theaters‟ history of structural design. It can be noted that the Philippine‟s performing arts theatre structures were designed following the design movement of the period it was built. In this study, the researcher is aiming to not only understand the true meaning of being a Filipino, but also to help define a definite Filipino cultural identity. In the end, the researcher also hopes to create a new design (using the Philippine Performing Arts Theatre as a medium) that we Filipinos can truly call uniquely ours. “Hopefully, at the end of this study, this specific question will be answered: 1. Can the “Avant Garde” concept marry to the functional aspect of planning a performing arts theater and apply Filipino idea through space?
CHAPTER II- Methodology DESIGN CONCEPT The research design is finding out on how will the researcher will introduce the Avant Garde design and apply the Filipino identity with the ideal space through the performing Arts Theater: The concept of avant-garde refers exclusively to marginalized artists, writers, composers and thinkers whose work is not only opposed to mainstream commercial values, but often has an abrasive social or political edge, to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics. Avant-garde represents a pushing of the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm. The notion of the existence of the avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. For this study, the researcher decided on finding the voice of the Filipino identity as the social edge that this application of concept should hold on to. Also, this concept, if applied in Philippine setting, promotes finding a way to utilize and apply this country‟s natural resources and materials (like bamboo, narra, abaca, rattan) in a new and innovative way other than what is produced for mass consumption. The researcher, while likewise proposing concept that is highly experimental and encourages thinking out of the box, will still take in consideration of the past influences in the history of Philippine‟s theater designs. After all, they are part of what created the Filipino identity.
And of course, the researcher will also take in consideration the important elements a performing arts theater should have like having complete facilities and departments, functional allocation of space, adequate seating capacity, and most importantly, good acoustics. A structure built for function cannot stand with just a theme and a style after all.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES To test the validity of the study, the researcher plans to create an “Avant Garde” design concept that will be used for this performing arts theater and present it through the use of visual aids. A study may be conducted by the researcher to come up with a solution to of how the implementation and construction of a performing arts theater in the Philippines will be financially supported by the government and NGO stakeholders. Through this, the researcher may use the results of the ocular inspection, tour, and interview of the professionals and experts of historical performing arts theater in form of convenience sampling. The following are the methods performed: 1) Research Design- The researcher used the method of researching the importance of having a performing arts theatre in the Philippines through the procedure of finding the answers that could bring the final results of the thesis studies. 1.1 Archival Data- The researcher gathers all data that are used in different forms of literature such as books, journals, magazines, newspapers, chronicles, records of local and foreign performing arts theaters and a trusted website. These references are used to understand clearly the purpose needed for this project. 1.1.1 Library research: 126.96.36.199 Saint Scholastica‟s College Manila: 2560 Leon Guinto St. Malate Manila, Philippines 188.8.131.52 Cultural center of the Philippines: CCP Complex, 1300 Roxas Blvd. Pasay City, Manila, Philippines 184.108.40.206 Central library: University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd., Manila, Philippines 220.127.116.11 The National Library: T.M. Kalaw St. Manila, Philippines 18.104.22.168 De La Salle College of Saint Benilde: Taft Manila, Philippines 1.1.2 Other Sources of Literature
22.214.171.124 Material sources from personal collections 126.96.36.199 World Wide Websites 1.2 Site Visits- The researcher used the process of making a request letter of having permission to the representative to make an ocular inspection of the site with a documented approval.
1.3 Observation- The process whereby the researcher observes a certain situation, behavioral patterns
apparent in the theatre environment, and patrons‟ interaction
toward the theater.
1.4 Interview- The researcher gathers data through series of questions addressed to experts on the field who can discuss about some issues regarding the theatre. They are the following: Renato S. Rastrollo (Culture and Arts Officer II and Technical Services Division) Mark Paulino (tour guide of the Cultural Center of the Philippines) Emma Viray (Interior Designer of Philippine International Convention Center) Aldino Gamba (tour guide, information teller & theater booker of the U.P. Diliman theater) Professor Defeo (Head of the U.P. Diliman theater)
2. Research Instruments- The researcher used some tools for collecting and gathering data needed for materials that will support the use of method to make possible for this topic. 2.1 Photo Documentary taken from the visited sites 2.2 Hardbound books, journals, articles, and magazines
Site documentations during the site visits from July 30, 2009 - September 26, 2009
CULTURAL CENTER OF THE PHILIPPINES
The researcher got this from Google images
BUILDING STRUCTURE OF THE CCP DURING DAY TIME AND NIGHT TIME
Exhibit Hall 2
Tanghalang Nicanor Abelardo (Main Theater) Theater)
Tanghalang Manuel Conde (Dream Theater)
Tanghalang Aurelio V. Tolentino (Little
DURING THE TOUR FROM THE MAIN THEATER
Site documentations during the site visits from July 25, 2009 – August 29, 2009
Philippine International Convention Center
Building Structure of PICC
THE MAIN THEATER
RECEPTION/ LOBBY AREA
University of the Philippines Diliman (UP Theater)
LOBBY AND EXHIBIT HALL/ ART GALLERIES
Theater Seats from UP Theater
National Library(T.M. Kalaw, Manila Philippines) During Research of Related Topics to Performing Arts Theater
EMPIRICAL: Site documentations with evidence based on the observations and interviews of the visited sites in Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines CCP is located to Roxas Boulevard Pasay City Metro Manila. The guided tour provided a lecture on how a theater works during inspections of the theater departments and rooms. Also provided are copies of floor plans which will aid to the study of the traffic flow in a theater, and a souvenir source booklet. After the tour, the researcher made an interview with Sir. Renato S. Rastrollo, who is the Culture and Arts Officer II in the Technical Services Division of the Theater Operation Department (TOD) in CCP. In his interview, he lectured on certain theater structures, and design principles that should be followed to make a functional theater. He even mentioned that a color scheme will make a favorable impact to theatergoers. Although preferring earthen colors to depict the feel of nature, Sit Rastrollo also reminded the researcher that for technical reasons, the colors black and white should be considered to lessen distraction for both viewers and the performers. In connection to the Filipino culture and identity, Rastrollo said that the Filipino culture is rich enough (“to provide a source of natural pattern as design”) and that the Philippines have ample natural resources for materials. Its how one utilizes these culture, materials, and creativity that will enable the Filipinos to create a design of their own, he said. Based from the observations, so far this theater looks more presentable compared from other theaters in Manila.
Philippine International Convention Center PICC is also part of CCP. The researcher interviewed one of the interior designers in PICC, Ms. Emma Viray. She discussed the history of the PICC, and the measurement/dimensions of the theater. Ms. Emma showed the researcher their main theater and explained how interior designers should design a theater; that a designer should take the location, seating capacity, good acoustics, style, materials, and budget in consideration. While having an ocular inspection, the researcher had also observed that most of the theaters inside the PICC are uniformly designed with almost no design motif/details. Nevertheless, they were designed with practicality and functionality as its primary motive. University of the Philippines Theater The researcher made an ocular inspection inside the UP Theater and interviewed the Head of UP Theater professor Defeo. Based from the interview, professor Defeo shared his experience with the researcher about his visits from other countries to see Opera Houses like Broadway, Royal Opera House, NNT Tokyo, and Grand Theatre. His relayed experiences gave an idea to the researcher about the different design styles of these various theaters, thus exposing her to design influences abroad.
HYPOTHESIS/ COMPARISON AND CONTRAST The Philippines more than any other Asian nation seems to have been plagued with doubts about its cultural identity from both Asian and Western perspectives. In the previous chapters, it was explained how being under long periods of western colonization took a major part in influencing the Filipino identity as manifested in arts, music, fashion and most especially in architecture and interior design. However, even today‟s postcolonial times, we still lack a homogenized identity.
This paper discusses how the Avant-garde concept in the Philippine contemporary setting may help define what makes up a Filipino cultural identity by pushing through the boundaries of design norms and applying it to a dying structure called the performing arts theater. This paper will attempt to map historical evidences of identity confusion through the study of theater building design and subsequently prove on how avant-garde can help define the Filipino identity and make a design uniquely our own. Compared to the idea introduced that the Philippine-ness is a confused mix of all colonial influences thus reflected in past and even today‟s design, avant garde done in Philippine setting will articulate aesthetic newness and innovation foregrounded within the condition of postcoloniality or past foreign (western) influences. Possible results will create a design
“internationalism”. Contrast to following the contemporary design, avant-garde concept roguishly veers outside the boundaries of what is currently “in” and mainstream.
Hopefully, through this study, an end result should not only be that of finding a uniquely Filipino voice in terms of design/interior design, but to also help cultivate an appreciation of the performing arts and the theater culture as well.
CHAPTER III – The Creative Design DESIGN PLAN The researcher applied the Post-Modern Avant Garde style to all of the six floors in the Performing Arts Theater and the design plan includes: 1. 6 Floor Plans (Furniture Layout) with Floor Pattern Layout 2. 3 Rendered Perspectives- Major Areas 3. 1 Elevation- Four walls of the theater from 2nd-5th Floors 4. 6 Reflected Ceiling Plans 5. Itemized Drawings- Major Furniture 6. Construction Detailing 7. Image/ Swatch Boards 8. Scale Model- Final Exhibit (showing 2nd floor-5th floors)
First Floor of Filipino Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater
Lobby/ Reception Area
Art Galleries/ Exhibit Hall
Cafeteria with Kitchen Area
Female and Male Restrooms
As you will enter the Performing Arts Theater, first thing you will see is the Reception Area designed as new style of chameleon-like which originally came from Filipino influences that we already adopted. (A Chameleon design means it‟s like adopting the colors to its environment and blends within.) Then a Cafeteria is placed behind the Reception Area, it provides a public eating area not just for the theatergoers but also for everyone coming inside theater. On the right side of the Reception Area, you will see the Art Gallery or Exhibit Hall were paintings are the most commonly displayed art objects however, sculpture, decorative arts, furniture, textiles, costume, drawings, pastels, watercolors, collages, prints, books of artist‟s, photographs, and installation art are also regularly shown. The Souvenir Shop display window most likely in the malls designs because of the Avant Garde concept. The materials that are used more on tapered glass and up lights and down lights. The walls are more silver leaf accent design. While the Business Office and Manager‟s Office is connected area, the front desk with window counter design before entering the Business Office. The designs are
individual modern partition to give enough privacy to their staff. The flooring used is wall to wall carpet because of acoustic purposes (Less noise, warm feeling and continuous pattern design). The last room you will find is the AHU (for Air conditioner control area) just a plain but safe stock room to provide supply of air-conditioning of all area. The ceiling provides centralized air-con installed.
Second Floor of Filipino Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater
2nd -3rd Floor Theater
Female and Male Dressing Rooms
Female (with Powder Room) and Male Restrooms
The Main Theater starts on the second floor up to the fifth floor containing all the amenities needed for the Main Theater like: dressing rooms for the artists, costume area available only in the theater, Music room for the opera singers/ players for the orchestra, Dance Hall for all kinds of performers that would be for ballet/ acting/ dancing, and technical equipment area for sound and lights also for the control of everything including the curtains and the stage.
Third Floor of Filipino Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater
Costume Area for Men and Women
Female (with Powder Room) and Male Restrooms
3rd Floor and 4th Floor Upper-box Balcony
Starting from second to fifth floor, the flooring used outside the theater (the hallway) would be square shaped tiles with octagon pattern at the center of each tile. Then the red carpet was used as the flooring for the whole theater. Every floor has a cutting line which means “the half of the theater is a continuation from another floor”, and then the “x” sign shows that it is open below or extended to fifth floor. The material used from wall treatment, all furniture piece, floor treatment and the ceiling designs came from Philippine natural resources (made of: abaca, narra wood, and bamboo finishes). Avant Garde is also applied through Interior Designs).
Fourth Floor of Filipino Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater
Dance Studio/ Rehearsal Hall
Female (with Powder Room) and Male Restrooms
4th-5th Floor Upper-box Balconies
Same design were used from second to fifth floor but the only differences is per floor the dressing rooms, costume area, music room, dance hall, technical booth and equipment area are located according to technical requirements in design issues and for the people safety that should also be taken in consideration especially in performing art spaces that needs to be followed. The Interior designs and Architectural structures is a combination of Pre-Colonial, Colonial and Post-Colonial Period (adaptation of foreign influences like Spanish, American and Japanese Period) transformed into modern designs of PostModern Filipino Avant-Garde theater design per floors.
Fifth Floor of Filipino Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater
5th floor Balcony
Female (with Powder Room) and Male Restrooms
Equipment Area Sound System Area Lighting Projection Room
In this floor, every control rooms are placed on the top floor of the main theater. The control rooms must be located on the top floor for some purpose or reason in making the
theater effective. Most of the lights and sound system attached from the ceiling to wall acoustics and it is very important for the technical booth to see everything projecting from below while on top.
Sixth Floor of the Filipino Avant Garde PerformingArts Theater
Vice President‟s Office
Main Office 2 Drawing tables for Draftsman and Layout 2 desks for Writers 2 desks for computers
Female and Male Restrooms
Pantry- for the Employees
On the sixth floor, the Library Area is more on American federal design. The furniture designs are Scandinavian chairs, a Swan chair design, and the tables are Ghost glass table by Philip Stark. The bookshelves design more on wenge finish edging and light mahogany varnish finish that makes two tone color scheme (Complementary Color Scheme). Design itself adora concept with a little carvings accent. For the center area bookshelves are circular design with dark brown and wenge combination finish. The pendant light used are circular with wrought iron wrapped shaped. The flooring used is carpet tile with abstract design two color combination dark and light beige. The windows are octagonal design as an Art Deco concept with a roll-up window treatment. The walltreatments are painted with pastel color. (The library is designed for public and private people). Next is the Boardroom Area design with high-end materials like the projector screen and the window treatment is remote control mechanism for the heavy drapes curtain attached block-out materials. The long oval table is made of tanguile wood with veneer laminated. The chairs are high-back light upholstery material. Finally the Main Office consists of staff, President, and Vice President‟s office. Then the concept designs are Post-modern Filipino Avant Garde table‟s combination of steel and
glass. The staff office chairs are made of fiber glass, the table‟s combination of wood and stainless bar. The flooring is bamboo strips laminated flooring for the Main Office area. While the flooring used inside the President‟s and Vice President‟s office are loop pile wall to wall carpet with dainty design. The President‟s table L-shaped design with back working table that makes very important person area. The visitor‟s chairs are made of fiber glass material transparent color. The walls combination of wall paper and glass material most likely the same as the Vice President‟s office. The small Pantry Area is the stock room (used by the staff) of food and coffee drinking and eating area with a modular cabinet and glass door. The flooring used is decorative tiles. The Hallway area is clean and neat octagonal design flooring blended with white and cream color scheme that makes continuous pattern to make it look wider and bigger.
Filipino Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater
Lobby/ Reception Area
Materials used: wall acoustics wood cork-“Wenge”, Stage Frame-Bone Inlay: TangilePintados Ifugao (Philippine Mahogany), Curtains-Suade fabric (Blur color-remote control mechanism), Stage-Poly Uratain Finish: Engineer Wood, Theater seats: Belvie fabric and Catfile carpet.
Reflected Ceiling Plans
FIRST FLOOR It has geometrical patterns in the recessed ceiling areas with centralized air-conditioner, heat detector, sprinklers, and air-ventilation in the hallway.
Lights included: pin lights, fluorescent light, chandeliers, halogen lights, and spot lights.
SECOND FLOOR Same in the second floor up to the fifth floor, inside and outside the theater room and the hallway has centralized air-conditioner, air-ventilation, sprinklers, and heat detectors.
Fluorescent lights, pin-lights, and halogen lights are applied in this floor.
THIRD FLOOR Lights included: pin-lights, halogen lights, and fluorescent lights.
This floor has centralized air-conditioner, air-ventilation, heat detector and sprinklers.
Lights included: pin-lights, halogen lights, and fluorescent lights.
It also has centralized air-conditioner, air-ventilation, heat detector and sprinklers.
SIXTH FLOOR Lights included inside the theater room: (lighting instruments) strand patt, etc source, selection, spot lights, frensel spots, and dimmers.
The theater ceiling has: floods and batten type-shape “E”, cyclorama, par lanterns, and scene /effects projector. Has warm mesh for sound absorption.
Lights used in the hallway and rooms: fluorescent lights, pin-lights and halogen lights.
It also has: centralized air-conditioner, air ventilation, sprinklers and heat detector.
Actual Furniture Design Used
Sofa used in Art Gallery
L-Shaped Sofa used in Lobby
Lights w/Ceiling Design
Chairs used inside the Cafeteria
Dining Tables used inside the Cafeteria
Manager‟s chair and desk
Business Office Chair
Art Gallery/ Exhibit Hall
SECOND-FIFTH FLOOR Theater Lightings
ETC Source Light
PAR 64 WFL
(Silver Color) Theater Seats
Theater Seat Design
Dance Hall/ Rehearsal Studio
Control Area/ Equipment Room
SIXTH FLOOR Theater Library
Bookshelves inside the Library
Chairs and Tables used inside the library
Main Office and Boardroom Area
President‟s/ Vice President‟s office
Main Office Area
DESIGN OBJECTIVES It is possible and effective for the theater to create new designs of Avant Garde style with a mixture of Filipino cultural identity that will show the different kinds of influences came from the Spanish, American and a little bit of the Japanese Period (packed in a single identity) that we have already adopted in our culture and apply this through interior designs. The furniture mostly used inside the theater is post-modern Avant Garde, the designs applied in the floor plans hasn‟t done before in any Performing Arts Theaters in the Philippines. It is uniquely fresh since there are various elements that haven‟t been thought of to be put together in design history. The designs that would be brought up to the theater could maximize the effect of experimental and innovative designs that could upgrade the audience participation and interaction. Avant Garde style could also be seen not just in the choice of materials used in the furniture but in colors as well can build up an atmosphere that attracts attention from the people creating theatergoer or inviting mood to the people.
DESIGN STRATEGY The researcher focused on what designs were used before during Spanish, American and Japanese Period which it already became part of the Philippine culture, art and politics by transforming the designs into modern style. The theme used in the theater is Avant Garde but to make it Filipino in style, the researcher will use a mixture of different designs of the colonizers like roman style (from Spain), art deco, art noveau (from America), and minimalist (from Japan). It would be like eclectic but since the Filipino cultural identity is unknown because of what happened 300 years ago during the colonization period and we‟ve been independent for 64 years only, the researcher searched that it is possible to combine the Spanish, American Japanese style since the Filipino‟s experienced to be part of colonization rule for so long we cannot separate foreign influences from our culture it already became part of us. The final design applied in the theater is Post Modern-Filipino Avant Garde theme, it will show the Spanish, American and Japanese style packed in a single identity which defines the Filipino cultural identity that could be seen in interior designs of the theater. Inside the building, you could see the main areas like in the first floor: Exhibit Hall/ Art Galleries, Reception Area, and Cafeteria. These areas will provide something they would need in order to have satisfaction, amusement, and comfortability before and after watching inside the theater room. Same goes to the sixth floor: Theater Library, Board Room Area, and The Main Office Rooms. The office rooms are mainly exclusive for the
employees and for the president together with the vice president. But for the library, it is open for the public everyone can use the library for research purposes.
THE BIG IDEA Defining the Filipino Identity: Filipino Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater is a design concept creating a Filipino identity by thinking new ideas of designs and change it into our own style without imitating or copying all the time like in: music, fashion, movies, and etc. But since the Filipinos has been colonized for more than 300 year by the Spaniards, Americans and the Japanese the Filipino identity is already a mixture of these influences packed in a single identity would bring up different kinds of trends and styles to design the Performing Arts Theater. But not just in style and trends, it will also consider how to make an effective theater in spaces, accessibility, color scheme, and lighting issues inside the theater. Designs that were used can be a national landmark someday and instill a culture and appreciation of theater in this country. Parameters that needed to consider while putting Avant Garde concept in Filipino design context: 1. Recognizing the people and tradition pre-colonial time 2. Identifying materials that naturally grow in this country 3. Noting the foreign influences that we accumulated over the years is also part of our own self.
To promote the Filipino Post-Modern Avant Garde Concept of the Performing Arts Theater to the people and take considerations of the past influences that already became the Filipino identity by showing the new innovative and experimental designs of the theater. Filipino style adapts as foreign influences progress or change. This is a result incurred by being colonized for so long and through adaptation it can be seen as “hybridization” of culture. People who would benefit the theater are the theatergoers and by creating an ambiance that would look different and unique which gives a positive energy to encourage more people to come.
DESIGN TOOLS The researcher used some of these materials for finishing the Floor Plans, Reflected Ceiling Plans, Perspectives, Elevations, Itemized Drawings, and Swatch Boards: 1. 0.2 Tech. Pen (Staedtler)- It is used for the furniture, accessories, lightings and flooring. 2. 0.4 Tech. Pen (Staedtler)- - This was used for lining the walls and some of the architectural structures in the elevations, ceiling, and floor plans. 3. 0.6 Tech. Pen (Staedtler)- - The 0.6 is for shading the walls, lining the boarders of the 20x30 tracing papers and for writing the names. 4.
Felt tip (Uni-Pin)- It is for making an outlines for the perspectives, it can also be erased easily if the researcher commit a mistake in making the 3 perspectives. (water proof).
5. Tracing papers (Best Buy)- To draft all of the elevations, perspectives, itemized drawings, ceiling and floor plans. 6. Drafting table- Used for placing all of the plans and to start drafting all of the requirements needed for this project. 7. 1:100 m Furniture template (Rotring)- To use it for scratch using mechanical pencils and finalizing all of the plans by using ink pens. 8. Circular Templates (Rotring)- Used for the lights, curved accessories and etc. 9. T-square (Rotring)- For guiding and to make sure that everything is aligned. 10. 60 and 30 degree Triangles- To make the right angles.
11. Metric Scale (Rotring)- It is used for measuring every detailed drawings of 1:100m interiors, walls, windows, doors and spaces. 12. Tape Measure- To measure the actual size of real furniture, ceiling, floors and etc. 13. Markers/ Water Color pencils (Faber Castle)- It used for coloring the perspectives.
COMMUNICATION/ MEDIA PLANS (STRATEGIES) The researcher presents all of the finished works of Filipino Post-Modern Avant Garde Performing Arts Theater through: 1) Power point Presentation -Summarized recap of the history presented last December 2009 on Mock Defense -Solutions on making the theater effective -Discussions 2) Image/ Swatch Boards -Samples used for designing the theater 3) Scale Model- on the exhibit event -Presentation of exhibit will be held at Mall of Asia south wing
CHAPTER IV- DISCUSSION (expounded discussions, guiding philosophies, etc.) History of Architecture and Interior Design
Post-modernism is applied in designing the theater which means by combining Spanish and American style through accessories and designs. Art Deco is characterized by straight lines, right angles, geometric and stylized patterns. It can be seen through the windows and floor designs.
Furniture Design Most of the Furniture used came from the Twentieth Century furniture designs like: De Stijl- Geritt Reitveld “zigzag chairs” was used in the library and cafeteria, Scandinavian Designer- Arne Jacobsen “egg chair” was used inside the office rooms, American Designers- Charles Eames “calf skin laminated plywood chairs” was used for waiting areas inside the office rooms, Verner Panton- “panton chair” was also used inside the library, and Philipp Stark- “ghost table”. This furniture designs mostly came from the influences of the American Period.
Color Theory Earth tones are applied from exterior and interior wall treatment. This colors combining light and dark combination with a mixture of white and dark brown is something that creates a nature type of “Filipino-ness” which makes modernity, and it give a positive out-look in bringing up the Avant Garde style into the theater. With this color it will
create something that would look more spacious, interesting, and fresh in the eyes of the people coming inside the theater. The color will create minimalism inside the theater that will show continuity and makes the room look bigger (“Minimalist” originally came from influences of the Japanese colonizers).
Materials of Decor Considerations in selecting materials used for the main theater room: The Carpet will create beauty or aesthetic in relation to a tremendous choice of color, texture and design, applying sound absorption to prevent acoustical floor covering lessening airborne and impact noise, lastly by making the carpet comfortable for reduction of floor fatigue. The theater carpet construction for the main theater room used is cut-pile and it has a sculptured textures combination of carving and multi-level embossing. The velvet texture of carpet will make it more elegant and luxurious look. The Wall Coverings gives a feeling of extraordinary because if it‟s texture and design. The materials used for the theater room is more on natural materials like cork and moiré finish similar with water silk or taffeta silk equivalent look of Avant Garde concept. The Ceiling Treatment are raised with acoustic function, lights are more on task lights, strand patt, etc source, selection, spot lights, frensel spots and direct lighting with dimmers. The theater seats used soft fully upholstered materials fabric are hand woven material combination of molded metal frame and floor mounted.
Heavy drapes used for theater curtains, designs are balloon shades with remote control mechanism. And the second layer drapes are French pleats designs that draw side by side. Fabrics are velvet materials with lining sophisticated appearance.
CHAPTER V – Recommendation (Synthesis/ Evaluation) This is a recommendation for the people who would benefit this study: Through understanding our culture is a way to preserve historically and show educational aspects of the Filipino designs in every art form. Therefore in this thesis project, the researcher will recommend this study for the people who will benefit this Post-Modern Filipino Avant Garde Theater especially for the students who will be reading this in the future. It will help them learn and understand how different ideas could be possible to bring up everything that will make the theater effective. The researcher studied the ancient theaters and historical Opera Houses from other countries to compare the differences between the theaters from western countries, Asian countries and the Performing Arts Theaters here in the Philippines. Then through discoveries of Avant Garde plus Post-Modernism is something different that hasn‟t used in any other theaters in the Philippines. By finding ways and solution in making the theater lively according to the interview questions that answered the papers from CCP, PICC, and UP Theater seems that most of the Performing Arts Theaters are already dying all because most of the people prefer to watch in the cinema for movies rather than watching a cultural live performance. The researcher explored latest trends and styles on how to design a theater with a combination of Spanish, American and Japanese influences that are packed in a single identity and create a futuristic theater to introduce here in the Philippines that will attract and encourage the people to come.
REFERENCES I. Books De Chiara, Joseph and Crosby, Micheal. (January 1992, p. 713) published by Hill, McGraw: Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. New York Society of Architects, Book list (April 9, 2001) De Chiara, Joseph; Panero, Julius and Zelnik, Martin (1992) published by Hill, McGraw: Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning. New York American Reference Book Annual, 1992 (June 13, 2001). Dorsey, Robert T: Engineering Division, Lamp Department, General Electric Company and Cook, Richard K: Chief, Sound Section, National Bureau of Standards (USA, General Electric Company, 1973): Theater Catalogue Book. (No specific date and author, publisher and place published). J.G Ferguson Encyclopedic Edition publishing company; Editor in Chief: Landau, Sidney I. (1982-1988). Webster Illustrated Contemporary Dictionary. Chicago Illinois. Lexicon Publications (1992). Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia, Inc., New York. Garber, Robert C Professional Trade Publishing Wiley, John & Sons. Inc. (Theater Design Criteria, Theater Sightlines and Auditorium Seating by Frank, Peter H. and Beuchat; Architects; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), (Stage Lighting Systems by Dachs, Joshua; Fisher, Jules Associates Inc., Theater Consultants; New York). Architectural Graphic Standards (APA and John Wiley and Sons Team for New Reference Book). Steele, James (1996): Theater Builders Book. Academy editions.
Yanagisawa, Takahiko (1995): Theaters and Halls (New concepts in architecture and designs). Representative, and TAK Associated Architects Inc. Meisei publications. Kliment, Stephen: Series Founder and Editor (Ibid. 2006, p.720): Building Type Basic for Performing Arts Theater. Hugh Hardy Collabotation Architecture. Theater Operations Department (2005): Cultural Center of the Philippines Source Book by T.O.D-CCP Roxas Boulevard Metro Manila, Philippines. UP Diliman Landmarks (2000): Sites and Symbols, by Office of the Chancellor, UP Theater. Baroque Period Louis XIV, 1643-1700: The Historical Environment Mehrabia, Albert (1976): Public Spaces and Private Spaces- The Psychology of Work, Play, and Living Environments, USA Rodell, Paul A. (Connecticut: Greenwood Press 2002, p. 149): Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Nguyen, Viet Thanh (New York: Oxford University Press Inc 2002, p. 132). “Race and Resistance: Literature & Politics in Asian America”.
II. Electronic Sources Opera House. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opera_House Defunct Theater and Movie Houses in the Philippines from (http://en.wikipilipinas.org) History of Opera from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab36 DICTIONARY ONLINE from http;//dictionary.referrence.com Teatro San Cassiano from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teatro_San_Cassiano Manila Grand Opera House from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manila_Grand_Opera_House Cultural Center of the Philippines from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Center_of_the_Philippines Guidelines on writing a research proposal from http://www2.hawaii.edu/~matt/proposal.html
Theater (structure) from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theater_%28structure%29
Theatre from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre
Philippine International Convention Center from (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_International_Convention_Center) Avant Garde from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avant-garde Ayazuki Miyawaki, “Contemporary Colonialism - A View from the East” Democracy: Another Tool of Western Colonialism from (http://www.hemisphericinstitute.org/cuaderno/politicalperformance2004/colonialis m/atsuko.html) Cabalfin, Edson. Intersections, Representations & Exoticism: National Commission for Culture and Arts 2004 March 01 (http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts)
III. Articles Diamond, Catherine. (Spring: MIT Press, 1988-1996, p. 141) from Quest for the Elusive Self: The Role of Contemporary Philippine Theatre in the Formation of Cultural Identity. TDR, Vol. 40, No. 1 Santos, Tina. (August 15-16 2008), Philippine Daily Inquirer newspaper. (One Historical… Hysterical Landmark) The Manila Grand Opera House is the stage for a new hotel. Pakendorff J, Lindgren M. (On-line Thesis Article: Performing Arts Theater) Database: Emerald Management Review: PERFORMING ARTS AND THE ART OF PERFORMING ON COCONSTRUCTION OF PROJECT WORK AND PROFESSIONAL IDENTITIES IN THEATERS Journal: International Journal of Project Management (UK); http: // www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=4C17
JOANNA APRIL LUMBAD #40 Geneva Street B.F. Homes Phase 3, corner Dallas Parañaque Metro Manila 825-0524; (0906) 574-4267 [email protected]
To work on a business company related to Interior Design and obtain a position where I can demonstrate and develop my skills in design.
EDUCATION 2006 – 2010
ST. SCHOLASTICA’S COLLEGE MANILA Bachelor of Science degree in Interior Design,
March 2010 2002-2006
ST. PAUL COLLEGE PARAÑAQUE High School Diploma, March 2006
WORK EXPERIENCE April- August 2008 FURNITURE
PRACTICUM TRAINEE, SVA HOME & OFFICE Work as assistant to senior interior designer, acquired the knowledge of drafting, attendance to the clients, purchasing materials and supervising quality furniture (production dept.)
April – May 2009 ARCHITECTS
Going to the job site, practicing Intericad, drafting floor plans and perspectives.
EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 2007 – 2010
Philippine Institute of Interior Designers, Student Auxiliary Body Brainstorming how to arrange and fix the interior booths, and practicing how to draw free hand perspectives. 2006 – 2010
MEMBER, ARTSOC Participating with the team building and joining the acquaintance party of the art society.
SEMINARS ATTENDED February 2009
CAREER ORIENTATION Career and Placement Office, St. Scholastica’s College Manila
INTERICAD 6000 FAID Department, St. Scholastica’s College Manila
BOYSEN PAINTS Brgy. Hugo Perez, Trece Martires City, Cavite 4109.
URATEX Km. 23 East Service Road, South Superhighway, Muntinlupa City THIRD PIID-SAB CONGRESS PRISM: “Design Spectrum of Light, Color and
Culture” RL Interior Depot, HK Sunplaza, Macapagal Avenue, Pasay City August 2007
INTERICAD FAID Department, St. Scholastica’s College Manila
SECOND PIID-SAB CONGRESS “Acoustics Analysis, LED Lighting and Rendering” University Hotel, UP Diliman, Quezon City
RESEARCH PAPERS PREPARED
March 2009 - February 2010 DEFINING ТHE FILIPINO IDENТIТY: FILIPINO AVANТ GARDE IN PERFORMING ARTS THEATER Thesis research (Method of Research in Interior Design) and Interior Design 7-8 studied the performing arts theater in its eloquent design for modern style, modern day performing arts theater in its stimulating qualities.
EXHIBITS HELD February 2009
SIT&FLAIR Furniture Exhibit inspired by the ever changing
fashion trends. MC Home Depot Fort Bonifacio Global City Taguig COMPETITIONS JOINED January 2008
WILCON BUILDERS COMPETITION Interior Design Creativity in the 21st Century 90 E. Rodriguez Jr. Ave., Ugong Norte Libis, Q.C.
PERSONAL BACKGROUND Born on April 1, 1989 in Mandaluyong City. Knowledgeable in computer background (AutoCAD). Better in manual perspective & drafting, hardworking and fashion oriented. REFERENCES
Available upon request.
Date: To: Attention: Quantity No: 09The JODI INTERIORS proposes the articles described and specified herein below to the above mention clients who accepted bided to the specifications of the materials with terms and conditions herein offered: Qty: ITEM DESCRIPTION: U/PRICE AMOUNT Note: VA T exclusive Delivery: thirty (30) to forty five (45) working days upon receipt payment & P.O. Terms: fifty percent (50%) down payment balance upon final inspection. Conditions: 1) Goods will remain the property of JODi INTERIORS until the total payment of invoice. 2) Cancellation of the order for customized or made to order will not be accepted. 3) Any claim or not contestation must be communicated in writing within 7 days from receipt orders. 4) Any modification in designs and specifications automatically extend the delivery. 5) JODI INTERIORS shall not be liable for any loss or damage of the items ordered that have been turned over to the owner or his representative project manager.
Should not meet with your approval, please indicate your acceptance by signing and returning to us one copy, which will serve as our contact with you. Very truly yours, Ms. Dina Lazam and Joanna April Lumbad Proprietor Approved and accepted: By:_____________________ Date: ___________________
Date: To: Attention: Quantity No: 09The JODI INTERIORS proposes the articles described and specified herein below to the above mention clients who accepted bided to the specifications of the materials with terms and conditions herein offered: Qty: ITEM DESCRIPTION: U/PRICE AMOUNT
OPTION 1: 1 unitCONFERENCE TABLE- size: 1mx2m 23,000.00 P23,000.00 x.740mm Ht. laminated top, same specs as existing conference table. OPTION 2: 1 unit CONFERENCE TABLE- size: 1mx4mx P85,000.00 .740mm Ht. ¾ thk glass top, wooden base in solid tanguile & Narra ply wood combination in lacquer varnih finish & ½ diameter pipe in epoxy black finish.
Note: VA T exclusive Delivery: thirty (30) to forty five (45) working days upon receipt payment & P.O. Terms: fifty percent (50%) down payment balance upon final inspection. Conditions: 1) Goods will remain the property of JODi INTERIORS until the total payment of invoice. 2) Cancellation of the order for customized or made to order will not be accepted. 3) Any claim or not contestation must be communicated in writing within 7 days from receipt orders. 4) Any modification in designs and specifications automatically extend the delivery. 5) JODI INTERIORS shall not be liable for any loss or damage of the items ordered that have been turned over to the owner or his representative project manager.
Should not meet with your approval, please indicate your acceptance by signing and returning to us one copy, which will serve as our contact with you. Very truly yours, Ms. Dina Lazam and Joanna April Lumbad Proprietor Approved and accepted: By:_____________________ Date: ___________________ /mrc
JODI INTERIORS STATEMENT
INCOME For the month ending (Aug.31 2008 and
Oct. 31 2009) REVENUE Sales revenue (Less sales return and allowances) Service revenue Interest revenue Other revenue Total revenues
Advertising Bad debt Commissions Cost of goods sold Depreciation Employee benefits Furniture & equipments Insurance Interest expense Maintenance & repairs Office supplies Payroll taxes Rent Research & development Salaries & wages Software Travel Utilities Web hosting & domains Others
Total expenses Net income before taxes Income tax expense Income from continuing operations 14,880.00
P142,660.00 37,340.00 14,936.00
24,800.00 9,920.00 22,404.00
Below-the-line items Income from discontinues operations Effect of accounting changes Extraordinary items Net income
DESIGNER’S PROFILE April, giving a chance to know her she has a very deep personality, simple, hardworking, creative, and has a good potential to be a good interior designer. After four years in college being an interior design student, she never missed any single moment of doing creative design to her studies. She loves new innovation, new trends in today‟s design. April is someone proven to herself that she has an “IT” to become a good designer and good stylist when it comes to art. In her stayed in design course paying tribute to great artist personal inspiration and creative affiances. After all she discovers that she has a lot of interest of cultivating her knowledge being an interior designer, because her personality is fashionable and good student. The best thing about her she is God fearing person never leaved bitterness to her heart being a good designer her determination, in work makes her unique and sensible designer. That‟s “Joanna April “you can rely on her ability in her interior design with out second thought.