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FINAL DATE SHEET FIELD WORK 1

PACING ON LEVEL GROUND

DATE: JULY 24, 2012 TIME: 8:00AM β 10:30AM WEATHER: RAINY

GROUP NO.: 4 LOCATION: INTRAMUROS GROUND PROFESSOR: ENGR. CERVANTES

A. PACE FACTOR (P.F.) DETERMINATION

TRIAL

LINE

TAPED DISTANCE

NO. OF PACES

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

1 2 3 4 5

AB BA AB BA AB

50 M 50 M 50 M 50 M 50 M

68.5 68 70.5 67 66

68 paces

0.735 m/pace

B. COMPUTATIONS:

MEAN =

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ

P. F. =

πππππ‘π ππ πππ’ππ π ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

MEAN =

68.5 + 68 + 70.5 + 67 + 66 5

P. F. =

50 π 68 πππππ

MEAN =

340 5

MEAN = 68 steps

P.F. = 0.735 m/pace

C. MEASURING DISTANCE BY PACING

TRIAL

LINE

1 2 3 4 5

CD DC CD DC CD

NO. OF PACES 28 27 26.5 26 26.5

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

26.8 paces

0.735 m/pace

PACED TAPED DISTANCE DISTANCE

19.698 m

D. COMPUTATIONS:

MEAN =

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ

MEAN =

28 + 27 + 26.5 + 26 + 26.5 5

MEAN =

134 5

MEAN = 26.8 steps

π. π·. = (ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ) β (ππππ ππππ‘ππ) π. π·. = (26.8 πππππ ) β (0.735 π/ππππ) π. π·. = 19.698 π |π‘ππππ πππ π‘ππππ β πππππ πππ π‘ππππ| Γ 100% π‘ππππ πππ π‘ππππ |20 π β 19.698 π| ERROR = Γ 100% 20 π ERROR = 0.0151 Γ 100% ERROR =

ERROR = 1.51% or

1 66.23

20 m

ERROR 1 66.23 or 1.51%

FIELD WORK NO. 1 PACING ON LEVEL GROUND

CE120-0F / A1

SUBMITTED BY: NAME:

STUDENT NO.:

GROUP NO. 4 DATE OF FIELD WORK: JULY 24, 2014 DATE OF SUBMITTION: JULY 31, 2014

SUBMITTED TO: PROFESSOR: ENGR. CERVANTES

GRADE

E. SKETCH

This picture was taken while our group was measuring a 50meter course on a level ground with the use of range poles. I was the one who was holding the range pole to keep the measuring tape from moving away to the marked line. While my group mate is marking the ground for us to know where the extent of the course is.

DISCUSSIONS

Distance is the amount of space between two places or things. In measuring a distance, there are many methods to acquire its measurements. Example of these methods includes using an odometer which is a measuring wheel that counts the number of revolutions which is converted to a distance, using a theodolite which is an instrument with a rotating telescope for measuring horizontal and vertical angles, taping which uses a steel tape, pacing, and many more methods to measure distance.

Upon all of these methods, pacing is a reasonably easy and quick method of measuring distance in the field. Pacing is a method used to measure a distance and is often used with a sighting or hand compass. The natural pace of each individual normally varies from 2 Β½ to 3 ft. By determining your own pace, distance can easily be estimated.

In this method, distances can be measured with an accuracy of about 1:100 by pacing. Obviously, there is not much precision in this method and the procedure provides only an approximation of distance. While providing only a crude measurement of distances, pacing has the significant advantage of requiring no equipment. It is a skill every surveyor should have. This is because pacing simply involves counting the steps or paces while walking naturally along the line to be measured. Many factors influence the length of a personβs step when walking. Topography influences the length of a pace because the length of a pace would be shorter walking uphill and longer when walking downhill. When walking in shoes with low hills the length of a step is longer than when walking in shoes with higher hills. In the morning when we are fresh we tend to have a longer stride than in the afternoon when we are tired. When walking in tall vegetation the length of stride will be shorter than when walking in short vegetation. On a hard dry surface we will take longer steps than on a soft or wet one.

The pace factor is determined by getting the product of the sum of steps by the known value of the line or course. From getting the pace factor by pace or one step, or by the stride or double step, you can use your own pace factor to measure a line or a course.

Knowing pace factor is very useful in the field of engineering specifically in civil engineering in the field of surveying when you don't have an instrument in measuring a long distance of course or a line. Different people have their own pace factor so every individual differ on other pace factor.

There are many uses of the pacing in the field of surveying. Common uses of pacing consist of measuring tree height or measuring the distance between plots and it can also be used with a map. Pacing saves time but is not as accurate as using a tape measure and can be affected by terrain such as steep slopes, rocky areas, streams, and thick brush. A common practice in pacing when an obstacle is encountered is to offset or pace around the obstacle. However, sometimes pacing around an obstacle is not always an option. Good pacing can only be accomplished by practice. Knowing the distance of your pace will help to ensure the accuracy and precision of pacing distances.

CONCLUSION

A pace is the normal length of a step or stride of an individual. The length of pace of an individual should be checked with an accurately measured distance in order to determine the so-called Pace Factor. Pace Factor (P.F.) is defined as the ratio of the measured distance in the number of paces made by an individual to cover the measured distance or it can be expressed as P.F.= (length of course)/(mean number of paces).

Although different people have their own pace factor so every individual differ on other pace factor, based from the field work that we have done, this method can only achieve an accuracy from 1β/50β to 1β/150β. This is because of some certain sources of errors like topography, type of shoes, time of the day, height of the vegetation, and soil surface.

From the results of the field work, it should be better if have walked a distance farther than the 50-meter course to test our computed pace factor thoroughly. Also keep practicing because knowing the distance of your pace will help to ensure the accuracy and precision of pacing distances.

QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. Why is it important to know the individualβs pace factor? a. It is important to know the individualβs pace factor because when you don't have any device (such as tape, stadia, & etc.), you can measure a distance by your own pace factor. 2. Name three most important pointers that an individual must remember to follow in order to make his approximation of the distance of an unknown course to be accurate as possible. a. To keep on the line while pacing, practice to fix your eyes on a distant object. b. A pace is measured from heel to heel or from toe to toe. 1 c. Precision of a pacing distance = , so it should only be used for 300 estimating distances 3. A student tries to measure the perimeter of a small park of his community by pacing around the area for three consecutive times. The no. of paces was tallied at 535, 543 and 539 respectively, for each trial, if the studentβs pace factor is 0.74m/pace, determine the actual perimeter of the land. Given: Trial No.

No. of paces

1

535

2

543

3

539

P.F. = 0.74m/pace Solution: N = mean number of paces =

N=

535+543+539 3

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

=539 paces

ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ

P.F. =

πππππ‘ π ππ πππ’ππ π ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

0.74m/pace =

m/pace

πππππππ‘ππ ππ π‘ππ ππππ 539 ππππ

Perimeter of the land = (0.74 m/pace)*(539 pace) Perimeter of the land = 389.86 m

4. Every morning Joy walks to school from her boarding house and takes only a single route. For five consecutive days, she tries to count the number of paces she makes. Monday morningβs number of paces made by Joy is listed as 345 paces. On Tuesday, 353 paces; Wednesday, 358 paces; Thursday, 348 paces and, lastly, on Friday 355 paces. That Friday afternoon, a surveyor from City Engineerβs Office who is tasked to lay out a new drainage piping system, measured the exact route she took and found out that taped distance is 275m. What is Joyβs pace factor? a. Given: Days

No. of Paces

Monday

345

Tuesday

353

Wednesday

358

Thursday

348

Friday

355

Taped distance = 275m Solution: N = mean number of paces =

N = mean number of paces = N = 351.8 paces

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ 345+353+358+348+355 5

P.F. =

P.F. =

πππππ‘ π ππ πππ’ππ π ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ 275 351.8

m/pace

m/pace

P.F. = 0.782 m/pace

5. The table shown below was taken from Jackβs notes when he tried to determine the perimeter of his newly acquired agricultural piece of land. Knowing that his pace factor is 0.81, determine the perimeter of his lot. Complete the table:

TRIAL

LINE

NO. OF PACES

1 2 3 4 5 6

AB BC CD DE EF FA

125.25 85 79.5 133 185 112

PACED FACTOR

0.81

PACED DISTANCE 101.4524m 68.85m 64.395m 107.73m 149.85m 90.72m

PERIMETER

582.9974m

Pace Factor = 0.81 m/pace π. π·. = (ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ) β (ππππ ππππ‘ππ) π. π·. ππ = 125.25 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 101.4524 π π. π·. ππ = 85 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 68.85 π π. π·. ππ = 79.5 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 64.395 π π. π·. ππ = 133 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 107.73 π π. π·. ππ = 185 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 149.85 π π. π·. ππ = 112 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 90.72 π Perimeter = summation of paced distance Perimeter = 101.4524 m + 68.85 m + 64.395 m + 107.73 m +149.85 m + 90.72 m

Perimeter = 582.9974 m β 583 m 6. The length of the basketball court from MITβs Gym was paced by a CE student whose pace factor is 0.78. How many paces accurate to ΒΌ of a pace do you think the student make? Given: Length of basketball court = 28m P.F. = 0.78m/pace Solution: P.F. = 1 4

πππππ‘ π ππ πππ’ππ π ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

X 0.78 =

m/pace

28 π

N = number of paces = 143.59 paces

View more...
PACING ON LEVEL GROUND

DATE: JULY 24, 2012 TIME: 8:00AM β 10:30AM WEATHER: RAINY

GROUP NO.: 4 LOCATION: INTRAMUROS GROUND PROFESSOR: ENGR. CERVANTES

A. PACE FACTOR (P.F.) DETERMINATION

TRIAL

LINE

TAPED DISTANCE

NO. OF PACES

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

1 2 3 4 5

AB BA AB BA AB

50 M 50 M 50 M 50 M 50 M

68.5 68 70.5 67 66

68 paces

0.735 m/pace

B. COMPUTATIONS:

MEAN =

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ

P. F. =

πππππ‘π ππ πππ’ππ π ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

MEAN =

68.5 + 68 + 70.5 + 67 + 66 5

P. F. =

50 π 68 πππππ

MEAN =

340 5

MEAN = 68 steps

P.F. = 0.735 m/pace

C. MEASURING DISTANCE BY PACING

TRIAL

LINE

1 2 3 4 5

CD DC CD DC CD

NO. OF PACES 28 27 26.5 26 26.5

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

26.8 paces

0.735 m/pace

PACED TAPED DISTANCE DISTANCE

19.698 m

D. COMPUTATIONS:

MEAN =

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ

MEAN =

28 + 27 + 26.5 + 26 + 26.5 5

MEAN =

134 5

MEAN = 26.8 steps

π. π·. = (ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ) β (ππππ ππππ‘ππ) π. π·. = (26.8 πππππ ) β (0.735 π/ππππ) π. π·. = 19.698 π |π‘ππππ πππ π‘ππππ β πππππ πππ π‘ππππ| Γ 100% π‘ππππ πππ π‘ππππ |20 π β 19.698 π| ERROR = Γ 100% 20 π ERROR = 0.0151 Γ 100% ERROR =

ERROR = 1.51% or

1 66.23

20 m

ERROR 1 66.23 or 1.51%

FIELD WORK NO. 1 PACING ON LEVEL GROUND

CE120-0F / A1

SUBMITTED BY: NAME:

STUDENT NO.:

GROUP NO. 4 DATE OF FIELD WORK: JULY 24, 2014 DATE OF SUBMITTION: JULY 31, 2014

SUBMITTED TO: PROFESSOR: ENGR. CERVANTES

GRADE

E. SKETCH

This picture was taken while our group was measuring a 50meter course on a level ground with the use of range poles. I was the one who was holding the range pole to keep the measuring tape from moving away to the marked line. While my group mate is marking the ground for us to know where the extent of the course is.

DISCUSSIONS

Distance is the amount of space between two places or things. In measuring a distance, there are many methods to acquire its measurements. Example of these methods includes using an odometer which is a measuring wheel that counts the number of revolutions which is converted to a distance, using a theodolite which is an instrument with a rotating telescope for measuring horizontal and vertical angles, taping which uses a steel tape, pacing, and many more methods to measure distance.

Upon all of these methods, pacing is a reasonably easy and quick method of measuring distance in the field. Pacing is a method used to measure a distance and is often used with a sighting or hand compass. The natural pace of each individual normally varies from 2 Β½ to 3 ft. By determining your own pace, distance can easily be estimated.

In this method, distances can be measured with an accuracy of about 1:100 by pacing. Obviously, there is not much precision in this method and the procedure provides only an approximation of distance. While providing only a crude measurement of distances, pacing has the significant advantage of requiring no equipment. It is a skill every surveyor should have. This is because pacing simply involves counting the steps or paces while walking naturally along the line to be measured. Many factors influence the length of a personβs step when walking. Topography influences the length of a pace because the length of a pace would be shorter walking uphill and longer when walking downhill. When walking in shoes with low hills the length of a step is longer than when walking in shoes with higher hills. In the morning when we are fresh we tend to have a longer stride than in the afternoon when we are tired. When walking in tall vegetation the length of stride will be shorter than when walking in short vegetation. On a hard dry surface we will take longer steps than on a soft or wet one.

The pace factor is determined by getting the product of the sum of steps by the known value of the line or course. From getting the pace factor by pace or one step, or by the stride or double step, you can use your own pace factor to measure a line or a course.

Knowing pace factor is very useful in the field of engineering specifically in civil engineering in the field of surveying when you don't have an instrument in measuring a long distance of course or a line. Different people have their own pace factor so every individual differ on other pace factor.

There are many uses of the pacing in the field of surveying. Common uses of pacing consist of measuring tree height or measuring the distance between plots and it can also be used with a map. Pacing saves time but is not as accurate as using a tape measure and can be affected by terrain such as steep slopes, rocky areas, streams, and thick brush. A common practice in pacing when an obstacle is encountered is to offset or pace around the obstacle. However, sometimes pacing around an obstacle is not always an option. Good pacing can only be accomplished by practice. Knowing the distance of your pace will help to ensure the accuracy and precision of pacing distances.

CONCLUSION

A pace is the normal length of a step or stride of an individual. The length of pace of an individual should be checked with an accurately measured distance in order to determine the so-called Pace Factor. Pace Factor (P.F.) is defined as the ratio of the measured distance in the number of paces made by an individual to cover the measured distance or it can be expressed as P.F.= (length of course)/(mean number of paces).

Although different people have their own pace factor so every individual differ on other pace factor, based from the field work that we have done, this method can only achieve an accuracy from 1β/50β to 1β/150β. This is because of some certain sources of errors like topography, type of shoes, time of the day, height of the vegetation, and soil surface.

From the results of the field work, it should be better if have walked a distance farther than the 50-meter course to test our computed pace factor thoroughly. Also keep practicing because knowing the distance of your pace will help to ensure the accuracy and precision of pacing distances.

QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. Why is it important to know the individualβs pace factor? a. It is important to know the individualβs pace factor because when you don't have any device (such as tape, stadia, & etc.), you can measure a distance by your own pace factor. 2. Name three most important pointers that an individual must remember to follow in order to make his approximation of the distance of an unknown course to be accurate as possible. a. To keep on the line while pacing, practice to fix your eyes on a distant object. b. A pace is measured from heel to heel or from toe to toe. 1 c. Precision of a pacing distance = , so it should only be used for 300 estimating distances 3. A student tries to measure the perimeter of a small park of his community by pacing around the area for three consecutive times. The no. of paces was tallied at 535, 543 and 539 respectively, for each trial, if the studentβs pace factor is 0.74m/pace, determine the actual perimeter of the land. Given: Trial No.

No. of paces

1

535

2

543

3

539

P.F. = 0.74m/pace Solution: N = mean number of paces =

N=

535+543+539 3

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

=539 paces

ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ

P.F. =

πππππ‘ π ππ πππ’ππ π ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

0.74m/pace =

m/pace

πππππππ‘ππ ππ π‘ππ ππππ 539 ππππ

Perimeter of the land = (0.74 m/pace)*(539 pace) Perimeter of the land = 389.86 m

4. Every morning Joy walks to school from her boarding house and takes only a single route. For five consecutive days, she tries to count the number of paces she makes. Monday morningβs number of paces made by Joy is listed as 345 paces. On Tuesday, 353 paces; Wednesday, 358 paces; Thursday, 348 paces and, lastly, on Friday 355 paces. That Friday afternoon, a surveyor from City Engineerβs Office who is tasked to lay out a new drainage piping system, measured the exact route she took and found out that taped distance is 275m. What is Joyβs pace factor? a. Given: Days

No. of Paces

Monday

345

Tuesday

353

Wednesday

358

Thursday

348

Friday

355

Taped distance = 275m Solution: N = mean number of paces =

N = mean number of paces = N = 351.8 paces

π π’π ππ π‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ππ’ππππ ππ π‘πππππ 345+353+358+348+355 5

P.F. =

P.F. =

πππππ‘ π ππ πππ’ππ π ππππ ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ 275 351.8

m/pace

m/pace

P.F. = 0.782 m/pace

5. The table shown below was taken from Jackβs notes when he tried to determine the perimeter of his newly acquired agricultural piece of land. Knowing that his pace factor is 0.81, determine the perimeter of his lot. Complete the table:

TRIAL

LINE

NO. OF PACES

1 2 3 4 5 6

AB BC CD DE EF FA

125.25 85 79.5 133 185 112

PACED FACTOR

0.81

PACED DISTANCE 101.4524m 68.85m 64.395m 107.73m 149.85m 90.72m

PERIMETER

582.9974m

Pace Factor = 0.81 m/pace π. π·. = (ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ ) β (ππππ ππππ‘ππ) π. π·. ππ = 125.25 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 101.4524 π π. π·. ππ = 85 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 68.85 π π. π·. ππ = 79.5 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 64.395 π π. π·. ππ = 133 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 107.73 π π. π·. ππ = 185 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 149.85 π π. π·. ππ = 112 πππππ β 0.81π/ππππ = 90.72 π Perimeter = summation of paced distance Perimeter = 101.4524 m + 68.85 m + 64.395 m + 107.73 m +149.85 m + 90.72 m

Perimeter = 582.9974 m β 583 m 6. The length of the basketball court from MITβs Gym was paced by a CE student whose pace factor is 0.78. How many paces accurate to ΒΌ of a pace do you think the student make? Given: Length of basketball court = 28m P.F. = 0.78m/pace Solution: P.F. = 1 4

πππππ‘ π ππ πππ’ππ π ππ’ππππ ππ πππππ

X 0.78 =

m/pace

28 π

N = number of paces = 143.59 paces

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