Ferembach Et Al 1980_Recommendations for Age and Sex Diagnoses of Skeletons

August 21, 2017 | Author: soraya | Category: Skull, Tooth, Anatomical Terms Of Location, Pelvis, Skeletal System
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Ferembach Et Al 1980_Recommendations for Age and Sex Diagnoses of Skeletons...

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Recommendations for Age and Sex Diagnoses of Skeletons The following recommendations were drawn up by the “Workshop of European anthropologists” during a symposium dealing with age and sex diagnoses of skeletons in Prague in 1972 ; but they were, because of various difficulties, not dealt with concretely until 1977. By order of the commission, elected in Prague (Olivier, Paris; Schwidetzky, Mains; VlZek, Prague; Wiercinski, W’arsaw), they were formulated by D. Ferembach (Paris), I. Schwidetzky (Mains), and M. Stloukal (Prague), presented to the paleodemographic conference in Sarospatak (August 1978) and accepted there after discussion of some supplements and changes.*

1. Introduction The “recommendations”

serve two purposes : (1) to unify methods

to improve the basis for comparisons

in paleodemographic

analyses.

studies, the methods which are utilized should be apparent; and sex determination

should

be noted

in paleodemography In paleodemographic

the variables

(in text or table

form)

applied for age

whenever

possible.

It

would be useful, and it would serve to advance were

made

diagnoses

according

to the

based on another

make available

guidelines

only occasionally. comprehensive

Only a few specialists

or on another

of especially

important,

The

examine

were considered;

the already

recommendations,

on the skeleton

being made to improve them. described

scheme;

(2) to

extremely

therefore,

attempt

to

recent literature.

of sex and age determination

refer only to techniques

classification

to those who study skeletal material

can completely

on this subject.

and efforts are constantly Only europids

set of variables

for sex and age diagnoses

literature

offer a selection The methods

future research, if, in each case diagnoses in addition to those age and sex “recommendations”

prior to autumn

the particular

are, obviously,

not perfect,

Thus, the recommendations

1978, and that in condensed

problems

having

can form.

to do with age and sex

diagnosis of Paleolithic man also remain unstudied. Supplementary reports are planned for the future to summarize the most important new research findings. 2. Determination of Sex

Sex determination

of a skeleton

is a problem of concern to paleoanthropologists, The pelvic bones are the most important

demographers,

and forensic

scientists.

determination,

followed by the skull, and long bones.

parts can be used as well, they are less important utilized

the accuracy

These attempt when

guidelines

of sex determination for sex determination

to sex subadults dealing

applying

with larger

skeletal

Although

but as additional

the remaining

paleofor sex skeletal

skeletal elements

are

increases. of the skeleton

the same criteria, populations

apply only to adults.

One can

but this is more apt to be successful

where

sexual

demorphism

can be well

* English translation of the German text by Mary Grlfin Praschma, Frankfurt am Main, and R. I. Sundick, Kalamazoo/Michigan. Journal qf Human Evolution ( 1980) 9, 5 17-549 0047-2484/8010705

17 + 36 802.00/O

0

1980 Academic Press Inc. (London) Limited

518

WORKSHOP

defined.

There

children

whose sex is known.

In general,

OF EUROPEAN

are still no studies on skeletal,

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

morphological

differences

in juveniles

and

male bones are identifiable by their greater robusticity, but this is a question The sex classification of a bone is possible with a degree of certainty only

of relativity.

when it can be compared bone could be classified

to a series of known sexual dimorphism.

Otherwise,

as male when the series to which it belonged

robust.

It is not possible

between

males and females applicable

to define

precise

morphological

and

a female

was particularly

metrical

boundaries,

to all series.

Recently, discriminant function analysis has been increasingly utilized for sex diagnosis. For the most part, the discriminant functions confirm the diagnosis on the grounds of classical criteria, but they also occasionally make possible sex determination of a questionIn any event, a discriminant function should be used only for bones related to

able bone.

a series for which the function

has been developed.

separate

the sexes of a completely

functions

developed

differentiate aborginals example

male

by Giles & Elliot and

(Larnach

female

importance,

Hyperfeminine

Sulcus praeauricularis Incisura ischiadica major Angulus pubis

3 3 2

2 2

Foramcn obturaturn

2

Corpus ischi;

2

Crista

iliaca

(Howells,

may correctly discriminant

skulls, satisfactorily

1966)

or of Australian

We will see on the basis of the first

are used.

Sexually

\Sright

osci5

a function

as well; e.g. certain

characteristics

for each

bone,

in their order

of

follows :

Character

OS coxac-

of Japanese

1964; Giles, 1966).

of the sex determining

1

:Yrc compost

By chance

population

(1963) f or europid and negroid

skulls

& Freeman,

below how the formulae

A description

Table

different

1

Possa iliaca

i

Pelvis major Pelvis micor

1 1

i-

21

deep, well delimited very wide, U-shaped strongly obtuse angled, rounded double low. broad, wit11 expanding ala ossis and slight muscles relief trianguiar, \vith sharp rim< vcrv narrolv with less conspicuous Tuber ischiadicum very flat, S-formed vvry low

differentiating Feminine (-

morphological lYeutra1

1)

less deep delimited wide U-shaped Obtuse to rightanglrd, rounded curve less conspicuous female traits

characters Masculine

(0) medium

(+

1)

only slightpresent V-shaped

transistory shape rightangled

acute

transitory form

single slight malt traits

angled

of the pelvis Hypermasculine I+

2)

absent narrow, very V-formed strongly acute angled, A-form curve high, narrow with stronger muscle relief

triangular

form not classificahlc

oval

oval, rounded rim

narrow

middle

broad

very broad, marked tub. isch.

flat, S-formed

middle

definite

low, broad

middle high, middle broad middle middle broad

high,

broad broad

oval

S-form

narrow

narrow narrow heartshaped

accented S-form very high narrow very narroib very “PITO~~ heartshaped

519

DIAGNOSES OF SKELETONS

I. The Pelvis (0s coxae) The morphological characteristics are sufficient. Two indices are, however, of interest for sex determination and finally, discriminant functions have been developed. (u) Morphological Variables (Figure 1, Table 1)

In relation to the female pelvis, the male pelvis is higher, the pelvis major is less broad, the crista iliaca is bent more conspicuously in an S-form; the fossa iliaca is higher and less broad ; the foramen obturatum is oval (in the female triangular) ; the angulus pubis is narrow and A-formed (in the female broader and more rounded-off) ; the incisura ischiadica major is narrower, the OSischii lower; the corpus ossis ischii broader, the spina ischiadica is more levelled-off (more pointed in the female) ; the horizontal branch of the pubic bone (ramus superior ossis pubis) is, on the average, more prismatic in the male, Figure p&is.

1.

Sexcliffrrences

Fossa il. i.

Crista il. Spina il. ant. sup. Socrum Acetabulum Fommen obtur. Facies symphys. lschion

IArcus

b-Crista

pub

iliaca

Facies ouricu!. Sulcus praeourlc Inc. isch. major Arc compose

of the pelvis I. I,&:

femalepelvis; right:

malt

520

WORKSHOP

OF EUROPEAN

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

Figure 2. Sex differences of the pelvis II. Above: (1) measurement for the calculation of the ischio-pubic index according to Novotny; (2) and (3) form of the foramen obturatum; (4) and (5) variations of the corpus ossis ischium and the spina ischiatica. Below: The measurements for the calculation of the cotylo-ischiatic index; (1) height of the inc. isch. major; (2j cotilo-ischiatic breadth (from Sauter & Privat, 1955).

in the female more roof-shaped. sulcus praeauricularis

The male pelvis has no or only a narrow

(it is deep and broad

in the female)

and swallow

and a simple arc compose.

According to Novotny (1972), the sulcus praeauricularis alone permits correct sex determination in 80% of all cases, the shape of the incisura ischiadica major in 70%, the lower border of the pelvis (margo inferior ossis coxae) in 62%, the arc compose in 60%. In accordance

with the techniques

proposed

by AcsLdy & Nemesktri

(1970),

one can

DIAGNOSES

divide each trait into five categories: (neutral)

(0),

feminine

(-

l),

hypermasculine

and

521

OF SKELETONS

(+

hyperfeminine

2), masculine

(-

2).

Sex

(+ and

l), indifferent the

degree

of

ZWX. sexualization of a skeleton can be arrived at through the formula: A4 = In this, ZW 2 W represents the sum of the weights which are ascribed to the individual characters (table

1) ; 2 Wx the sum of the weights

+ 2) of the applied

multiplied

by the sex coefficients

(from

-

2 to

traits for a given skeleton.

(6) Indices (1) Cotylo-ischiatic (a)

Height

between

index :

Height

of the incisura

the edge of the inferior

spina ischiadica quadrilateral

border

(coordinate

The moveable

(b)

* caliper,

Figure

2):

distance

surface and the point of the

perpendicular

to the inferior border of the

The distal part of the coordinate caliper is arm of the coordinate caliper is placed at zero. This arm is surface,

not considering

the Spina

arm of the caliper is then applied in such a way that the pointed

end touches the point where the crista of the Incisura border

100

caliper).

to the edge of the border of the quadrilateral

ischiadica.

x

breadth (coordinate

of the quadrilateral

(Spina iliaca posterior inferior)

surface

drawn out and the moveable applied

of the inc. isch. major

Cotylo-ischiatic ischiadica major

ischiadica

major

is crossed by the

of the facies auricularis. Cotylo-ischiatic

between ischiadica

the inferior major.

(2) Ischio-puberal Point A is essential defined by various the following

breadth border

(coordinate

of the acetabulum

caliper) : direct

The axis of the caliper has to be parallel index:

projective

border

distance

of the Incisura

to the surface of the bone.

Length of the OS pubis x 100 Length of the os ischion .

in the determination authors

and

and the anterior

in different

two measurements

[Figure

of the ischion

and pubic length.

ways in the past.

Novotny

3(a)]:

Figure 3. Sex differentiating morphological characters of the skull. (a) Development of the glabella, (b) development of the inion (Brocai.

-

(1975)

----M

4

(b)

0

I

2

3

It has been recommends

5

4

6

5

522

WORKSHOP

OF EUROPEAN

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

(a) Length of the OSid&n: the distance between points B and IS M; B is the crossing point between the axis of the ramus superior ossis ischii (axis of ischion) with the middle of the tuber ischiadicum; IS M is that point of the rim of the acetabulum most removed from B. (b) Length of the ospubi~: the distance between point C and Pu MC. C: Middle of the most exterior end of the facies symphysios; PuM is the point of the rim of the acetabulum lying nearest to C. From a sample of 109 male and 115 female pelves from the Anatomical Institutes of Prague and Brno, 86% of the individuals had been classified correctly by this index only. Acsidy & NemeskQi (1970, p. 91) propose the following preliminary classification: hyperfeminine 115- 106, feminine 105-96, indifferent 95-90, masculine 89-80, hypermasculine 79-70. Schultz (1930) and Washburn (1948) measure from point A. This point A lies closest to the synostosis of the growth cartilage, where the inner rim of the facies lunata crosses a line which elongates the lower part of the acetabular rim of the OSilium in a downward direction. It is less definitely ascertainable than those points proposed by Novotny (1975), but is overwhelmingly applied to pelvic measurements in American papers. (c) Discriminant Functions On the base of the materials discriminant functions.

mentioned

above Novotny

(1975)

developed several

correctly classified individuals

Turning point

N

V

to

x 4.730

M 109 F 115

40-61 26-44

+ 43.9 -- 46.0

88.4

43.684

x 5.469 -

M 109 F 115

15-30 --G+14

+ 15.0 - 14.9

99.1

14.754

x 4.752 -

M 109 F 115

30-47 9-29

- 29.9 + 30.0

98.7

31.175

(IS-M) x 7.178 - (PU-M) x 4.789 (D-F) x 4.262 - IIMT x 0.778

M 108 F 115

29-45 6-29

+ 29.9 ----28.9

(IS-M)

x 7.600 -

(PU-M)

(IS-A) x 7.735 (D-F) x 6.283

(PU-A)

(IS-M) x 7.060 (D-F) x 4.687

(PU-M)

100

29.253

IS-M: Ischion length, technique of Novotny (1975). IS-A: Ischion length, technique of Washburn (1948). PU-M: Pubis length, technique of Novotny (1975). PU-A: Pubis length, technique of Washburn (1948). For the definition of these measurements see above. IIMT: Height of the incisura ischiadica major according to Sautrr & Privat (1955) (see above and Figure 2). DF: To take this measurement at first the breadth of the incisura ischiadica major has to be determined. It is the distance between the tuberculum musculi piriformis or, if it is not developed, a corresponding point (point where the superior border of the incisura ischiadica major crosses the extreme border of the facies articularis) and the root of the spina ischiadica (Genoves, 1959). DF is the distance between the tuberculum musculi piriformis and the base of the perpendicular line which is drawn from the most inferior point of the incisura ischiadica major on the breadth.

DIAGNOSES

In order to determine

523

OF SKELETONS

the sex of a bone, one inserts its measurements

carries out the calculations

in the above formula,

and compares the final value with the sectioning point on hand.

In the case of the first function, for example, a value of under 46 would correspond to a female individual. Further discriminant analyses for pelvic measurements are given by Day (1975),

Howells

( 1964), and others.

II. The Skull

(a) Morphological Characters (Figure 3, Table 2) Dealt with here are essentially traits of robustness which permit differentiation male

and

female

dimorphism Table

skulls.

Therefore

one must

take into account

of the series or type to which the individual

2 compiles the main characteristics

the less crucial

for a sex diagnosis.

In order to determine

traits the following might be mentioned:

point of the processus mastoideus, (Hoshi, Table

1962);

the form of the dental

Hyperfeminine Wright

Charactrr

3

(-

arch,

more rounded-off

smooth

(-

(0)

Broca)

the direction

Indifferent

1)

slightly delimited

in the male,

Masculine (+

(0) delimited

(2)

1)

marked

(3)

(I )

3

very small

small

medium

large

3

smooth

slightly arched traces of nuchal lines

Nuchal lines and occipital crest evident

Nuchal lines and occipital crest marked

Processus

3

thin,

medium

thick,

2

very thin and low smooth

marked

2

marked

delimited, marked moderatr

2

smooth

hCUS

superciliaris Tubera frontalia and parietalia Protuber. occ. ext. Schema Broca OS zygomaticum

(0)

low

slightly, delimited rnrdium hardly

(1)

mrdium

marked

(+

2)

massive, prominent

(3)

Nuchal lines and occipital crest with rough surface very thick, high very marked arched missing very marked

transistory form, medium

high, irregular surface medium inclined quadrangular rounded

very high, irregular surface strongly inclined quadrangular very rounded

gracile small slight eminences

medium medium moderate eminences

robust prominent marked eminences

thin

medium

thick

very robust very prominent strongly marked eminences thick

very low

low, smooth

1

smooth surface vertical

almost

1

round very sharp border

round sharp border

Total aspect Mentum Angulus mandibulae

3 2 1

very gracile small, rounded smooth

Margo

1

thin

vertical

medium, irregular surface little inclined

Mandible

inferior

high

indistinct (2)

Hypermasculine

(4-5) 2

Inclinatio frontale Forma orb.

and more

(4-5) very large

Processus mastoideus Relief of the l’lanum nuchalr

zygomaticus

of the

for sex determination

Feminine

2)

as with the

in the male and pointed inward in the female

Skull characters

2

C;labella (Schema

vertical

sexual

belongs.

the degree of femaleness or maleness of a skull, one applies the same standards pelvis. Among

between

the specific

524

WORKSHOP

OF EUROPEAN

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

elliptical in the female (Vlcek, 1972) ; the ramus of the mandible, in the male broader with heavier corpus mandibulae; the sutura supramastoidea is more frequent in males. (6) Metrics In the following, those measurements will be mentioned which were selected for discriminant functions and for factor analysis (Clement et al., 1974). Only the measurements themselves will be considered, since they have higher discriminant value than the indices. The measurements will be listed in order of their importance. In parentheses are the numbers of the measurements according to Martin-Sailer (1957) or to the authors who have defined them.

(9 Neurocranium 1. Maximum length (1) and maximum breadth (8) ; nasion-basion length (5), basionbregma height (17) ; minimal frontal breadth (9) ; maximal frontal breadth (10) ; height of the processus mastoideus (Giles & Elliot, 1964; Demoulin, 1972); see Figure 4. 2. Cranial capacity. Figure 4. The measurement of the height of the processus mastoideus (Giles & Elliot, 1963).

(ii) Splanchnocranium

1. Bijugal breadth (45-l) ; malar height (48.4) ; maxillo-alveolar-breadth (61). 2. Bizygomatic breadth (45) ; total facial height (47) ; upper facial height (48) ; basionprosthion length (40). (iii) Mandible 1. Symphysial height (69) ; real thickness of the corpus mandibulae between M, and M, (Piquet, 1956). 2. Bigonial breadth (66) ; length of the mandible (68-l); breadth of the ramus (70). (c) Discriminant Functions In applying the method, compare the introduction and the chapter on the pelvis. Giles & Elliot (1963) as well as Giles (1966, 1968) used a sample of 75 male and 75 female

DIAGNOSES

skulls of white Americans percentage

from the Terry

of misclassifications

(1 maximum

is 13*4%,

cranial length)

525

OF SKELETONS

x 3.107

collection.

Their

formula

1, for which

the

is as follows: -

(8 maximum

cranial

breadth)

x 4.643

+ ( 17

basion-bregma height) x 5.786 + (45 bizygomatic breadth) x 14.821 + (40 basionprosthion length) x 1.000 + (48 nasion-prosthion line) x 2.714 - (61 maxillo-alveolar breadth)

5.179

x

+ height

The sectioning

of the processus mastoideus

point lies at 2.676,39,

(Figure

4) x 6.071.

the average for the male skull at 2.779,66,

and for

the female skull at 2.573,12. Other

discriminant

series : Finnish French

functions

skulls

skulls (Boulinier,

1968),

quote the first of the functions (69

symphysal

height)

bigonial height) The sectioning

were determined

(Kajanoja,

x

on the basis of different

European

skull

1966)) Belgian skulls (Defrise-Gussenhoven, 1966)) Nordic skulls (Henke, 1971). For the mandibles we

published

by Giles (1964)

l-390

(70 breadth

+

1.000. point lies at 287.43,

for the above mentioned

of the

ramus)

2.304

x

series: +

(66

x

the average

for the male at 302.25,

and for the

female at 272760.

III. Teeth In general,

female

show the greatest differences 1978). between

teeth

are smaller

amount

For

all teeth,

cannot

for adults.

diameters

For children,

useful for sex diagnosis. (1978)

In recent

and Ditch 68%

however,

The remarks

& Rose (1972)

of the children

sexual

are

(Hanihara, dimorphism

Therefore,

the deciduous

canines

as there

populations,

mentioned

developed

The

Just

differences

show greater

ones.

of male and female measurements.

be based on teeth.

Black

1975).

there are also population

the bucco-lingual

64:/, respectively

male ones.

(Wolpoff,

males and females than the mesio-distal

the only factor classified

the corresponding

dimorphism

in size due to sex dimorphism

there is a broad overlapping really

than

of sexual

however,

sex diagnosis teeth represent

above are the same as

discriminant

functions

that

correctly.

IV. The Long Bones In general, particular

female

bones are shorter

the following

that have proved themselves (in parentheses:

numbers

Humerus : Maximum

Breadth

and have a slighter

for the metric

in discriminant according

muscle

measurements

function to Martin)

of the distal epiphysis

:

(H 9).

(H 4).

of the deltoid tuberosity.

Maximum

length

Transverse

diameter

(R 1). of the shaft (R 4).

Distal condylar breadth (R 5/6). Development of the radial tuberosity. Ulna :

Maximum length (U 1). Proximal ulnar breadth (U 6/l). Development of the ulnar tuberosity

relief.

In

only those

analysis are included

(H 1) .

diameter at midshaft (H 5). transverse diameter of the Caput

Development Radius :

to be valuable

of the measurements

length

Maximum Maximum

and thinner

traits are noteworthy:

and of the margo interossea.

526

WORKSHOP

Maximum

Femur :

length

Diameter

breadth

Development Total

Tibia :

head (F 19).

(F 21).

of the Linea

length

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

(F 1).

of the femoral

Bicondylar

OF EUROPEAN

aspera.

(T 1).

Maximum

anterior-posterior

(T 4). Bicondylar

breadth

Development

diameter

of the shaft at the level of the tuberosity

(T 6).

of the tibia1 tuberosity.

Again no boundary between male and female values can be given which would apply The largest diameter of the femur head of Portugese men has a value, for

to all series. example,

of 46.05

5 0.19

1949) ; for North American Schull,

and for Portugese

1957, cf. also Genoves,

humerus,

39.92

f

O-17 (Tamagnini

offers a formula

functions

for Portugese

femora

were established of known

however,

&

for sex diagnosis.

sex and Steel

radius, ulna, femur, and tibia based on British materials

in his materials,

et al.,

(Thieme

1962).

For the long bones a series of discriminant Pons (1955)

women

Negroes this value is 5 7-l 7 and 4 l-52 respectively

(1962)

(cf. also Henke,

for

1978;

sex is not known).

V. The Remaining

Bones of the Postcranial

Skeleton

Since the remaining

bones are of lesser significance,

they will be mentioned

only briefly.

(a ) Shoulder Region 1. Scapula. Because of the great degree of overlapping between males and female in different populations, sex determination based on measurements of this bone should be considered

as suggestions.

of the cavitas glenoidalis spine

(7).

Olivier

Measurements (Martin

to be considered

include the length and breadth

12 and 13), the overall height

& Pineau

(1957)

give corresponding

(1) and the length of the

values

for French

men and

women. 2.

The

maximal diaphysis permits

same applies

length

(l),

(6) (Olivier, a reliable

to the clavicle: the best differentiating characteristics are the breadth (5), and the circumference at mid-shaft of the 1955). According to Jit & Singh (1956), however, no measurement

the maximal

sex diagnosis.

(b) Sternum. According

to Witschell

values renders the determination significantly

different

between

& Mangersdorf

of a boundary

(1971) the great range of individual

value unreliable,

men and women

although

in the bones which

the means are

they had at their

disposal. (c) Vertebrae. atlas. other

Studies on sex differences were done on the epistropheus (axis) and the In comparison to females, the male atlas is more robust (this applies as well to all

vertebrae,

in particular

the corpora

of the lumbar

vertebrae),

the lateral

masses

are more pronounced, the anterior-posterior and transverse diameters, and in fact the external as well as the internal diameters are also higher (Hinck et al., 1962; Iordanidis, 1961). Unfortunately it is just as difficult to determine boundaries for these bones as it is with the sternum. The dimensions of the epistropheus (Iordanidis, 1961) appear to be still less differentiated. (d) Sacrum. Since the characteristics which had been described as male cannot be

DIAGNOSES

agreed upon (larger

frontal

concavity,

over more than two vertebrae) The length-breadth is smaller

maximal

index:

one can correctly

greater

527

height,

expansion

they are not recommended length

maximal

in men than in women

analysis,

OF SKELETONS

determine



1961).

85-89%

surface

100

x

breadth

(Iordanidis,

of the auricular

for use.

Employing

discriminant

of the bones (Stradalovi,

function

1975).

According to Mann & Brend (in Iordanidis, 1961) the averages are 112.4 and 116.0 (the standard deviation is not published). As the differences seem to be small we may conclude absolute (e)

that

this bone

measurements

contributes

Talus and CaZcarzms. Steele

Americans

from the Terry

individuals

could be correctly

VI. Chemical From

Kiszely,

anything

to sex determination

except

the

(1976)

collection

developed

(cf. above)

discriminant

according

functions

to which

for white

79-89%

of the

determined.

Methods

the onset of puberty

spongiosa

hardly

of size.

to the beginning

of climacterium

the citrate

content

in the

of the female skeleton seems to be higher than in male skeletons(Lengyel,l969; 1974).

chemically

In a 10th century

determined

series studied by Ery (1971)

the morphological

sex was the same in 91 o/oof the adults (cf. also Lengyel

and the & Farkas,

1972). The absolute level of citrate content depends, however, on the age and preservation of the bones, More studies are therefore needed to check the reliability of the method. If it will be verified, the chemical method has the advantage that it can be utilized to determine the sex of smaller fragments, and the sex of non-adult individuals, too, where no characteristics

for a morphological

sex diagnosis

are available.

3. Age Diagnosis The

characteristics

phases (children,

used in age diagnosis juveniles,

adults).

must first be tested on individuals populations.

There

are different

for the various

In each case the age variability whose age is known.

are ethnic and diachronic

differences

developmental

of the characteristics

For this we must rely on recent in the tempo of the ontogenetic

development (Eveleth & Tanner, 1976; Legoux, 1966)) in particular, the acceleration of It is therefore preferable, to select reference populagrowth due to improved nutrition. tions not studied in recent years, but rather the oldest populations, which have been adequately studied. On the basis of studies of recent populations (age of development) biological

stages.

can be determined. Until

now there

the corresponding

However,

is no means

for correcting

One cannot, therefore, determine discrepancies between them. tempo of maturation and aging processes in different populations. a strong individual

variability

stages of biological

we assign chronological

in age changes in the skeleton.

and

determining

the differences Moreover,

age

ages to given the in the

there exists

Because of this, it will never

be possible to determine with exact certainty the age at death in skeletons as can be done The age diagnosis for an individual must in recent populations from written documents. always be given with the estimated range of variability. In certain cases this can be exceeded, but certainly, this will not always occur. Through systematic errors the total population could seem to be younger or older than it really is (Masset, 1971). Current analyses based on the same methods studies try to eliminate such mistakes. Demographic

528

WORKSHOP

OF EUROPEAN

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

Figure 5. (a) Development of the teeth I. teeth II (Ubelaker, 1978).

(b) Development of the

(4

Months In utero (f2 months)

5

2 Years (* B months)

3 years (f I2 months)

Birth (* 2 months)

6 Months (f3 months)

::,, :::.:. :.:. :.:::. ..: ~~~~ bq oe [email protected] .:::.::,::: ;.::.i::. .,.,., :,:: :j:

4 Years (*I2 months)

5 Years (* 16 months)

I Year

(f4

months)

I6 Months (f 6 months)

6 Years (* 24 months)

DIAGNOSES

OF SKELETONS

529

(b)

II yeerr

(%O

months)

? Y6WS (*

24 months)

12 Years (* 30 months)

9 Year5 (224 months)

9 Years (2 24 months)

IO Years (* 30 months)

15

Y6ar¶

(2

36 months)

530

WORKSHOP

OF EUROPEAN

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

(and perhaps have the same systematic error) are comparable; this means that they correctly comprehend [email protected] of the age structure of the deceased in different population samples. 1. Age Diagnosis in Children Ufi to 14 Years

For the age diagnosis of children, the dental development is, by far, the most important factor. An age determined from calcification of individual teeth is more reliable than one determined by tooth eruption. For an age diagnosis after calcification we recommend the scheme of Ubelaker, 1978; Figure 5(a), (b). It considers the results of many studies and rests on several thousands of individuals. Till now the very similar scheme of Schour & Massler (1944) had been used predominantly, but it was based on a small number of individuals. The range of variability given in Figure 5(a), (b) concerns the total state of the teeth. If only the calcification is considered, and those teeth whose development is particularly variable (canine and 3rd molar) are not included, the range of variability is much smaller. The following developmental stages must be considered: first, the tooth crown beginning with the occlusal surface appears, followed by the neck and root; the walls of the roots diverge at first in a downward direction; later the final root form develops; lastly, the tooth root closes. This applies for the deciduous teeth as well as for the permanent teeth. The determination of age on the basis of teeth is more reliable and more delineated for younger than for older children. From about 12 years of age on, ossification (Figure 6) should be taken into account to increase the reliability of age diagnosis. X-rays are necessary in order to determine the stage of development of all teeth in both jaws. In the case of individual age diagnosis, the estimated range of variability from the tables can be presented. These are to be omitted in paleodemographic analysis. When individual teeth are available, it is not necessary as a matter of practice to X-ray the jaw. In exceptional cases, e.g. when no other material is available, the age can be estimated with some degree of reliability on the basis of an individual tooth which is not completely developed. Tooth eruption should be considered for age determination after tooth caIcification; however, there is some degree of variability in tooth eruption, and the order of eruption was different in prehistoric and medieval times than it is today. The scheme of Ubelaker (1978) should be used for the determination of tooth eruption. [Figure 5(a), (b)]. If neither jaws nor teeth are present, one must attempt to determine the age of children from the ossification of the skull and postcranial skeleton. This is not as precise, and one must therefore be content with larger age categories. Above all, the following traits are to be considered (cf. Gray, 1967; Olivier, 1973; Rauber-Kopsch, 1952; Wolff-Heidegger, 1954) : a. In the course of the first three months of life the posterior fontanelle and the anterior side fontanelles close; b. As a rule, the ala magna and the OSsphenoidale fuse together before the age of nine months; c. In the first year the posterior side fontanelles close and the two halves of the mandible grow together; d. In the course of the first two years the anterior fontanelle and the frontal suture close (in exceptional cases the suture remains open during adulthood (this is called metopic suture) and both halves of the vertebral arches grow together;

DIAGNOSES

531

OF SKELETONS

Figure 6. The times of epiphyseal union (Brothwell, 1965; WolffHeidegger, 1954; Raubrr & Kopsch, 1952; Haret et al., 1927; Gray’s Anatomy 1967).

6+$! 16-20

6+q 15-20

e. By the end of the third year usually the pars lateralis occipitale grow together; In the fourth years of life the vertebral

g.

Up until the end of the sixth year the fissure between

ossifications

of age can also be determined

see Figure

rs-

t%

arches grow together with the vertebral body;

lateralis of the occipital bone closes; simultaneously, hip bone fuse together at the ischio-pubic ramus. Indications

16-20

8 f$

and the pars basalis of the OS

f.

For further

8 +Q

the squama

and the pars

the pubic and the ischial part of the

6. from the size and the stage of development

of the postcranial skeleton. In this case one should not insist on an exact age determination, but rather work with broader age classes of approximately five years. The maximum

532

WORKSHOP

length of the diaphyses from comparison Table

of the long bones can be measured

with Table

Averages

88-l 97.9 108-6 117-5 124.9 133.5 142.7 152.4 163.8 174.8 184.6 194.3 203.9 211.9 219.9 231.2 240.8

and an age assigned to them

3.

3

6 months 12 months 18 months 24 months 30 months 3 years 4 years 5 years G years 7 years 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years

OF EUROPEAN ANTHROPOLOGISTS

178-971 /89-1061 j98-1181 /106-129/ /113-138/ /120-147/ /128-1591 /136-170/ /147-l8l/ /157-1921 /169-201/ /178-2101 /186-218/ /196-2241 /202-2341 12 1 l-247/ 1220-2571

and variation

69.7 76.8 84.1 89.8 95.1 101.6 108.3 116.0 125.1 133.5 141.9 149.2 156.9 163.3 168.8 175.7 182.5

of long bones

163-751 168-851 /75-901 /80-961 /86-103/ /93-l lo/ /98-120/ /105-130/ /I l4-1401 /121-1521 /130-1601 /139-163/ /149-168/ /156-175/ /160-I 791 /165-188/ / 166-200/

108.1 122.0 137.5 149.6 160.9 174.1 188.3 203.2 221.1 238.1 253.0 266.5 281.2 292.5 302.9 319.0 333.3

of children

195-1221 /109-1351 /122-1521 /135-1661 /143-1821 /156-196/ /169-2131 /183-230/ /198-246/ 1214-2631 1228-2781 /241-2901 /254-3051 1265-3231 /279-3371 1286-3581 1296-3821

88.8 99.2 111.4 121.1 131.7 142.2 151.9 164.1 177.1 188.9 202.0 213.6 224.3 235.1 244.4 256.1 269.8

184-931 193-l 051 /102-120/ /109-131/ /117-144/ /127-1561 /136-171/ /146-184/ /158-2011 /168-216/ /180-227/ /191-2351 1202-2461 /212-2591 12 18-2681 1227-2831 /235-301/

Table 3 (Stloukal & HanLkovL, 1978) is based on an old Slavic population with an average body height of 171 cm for men and 161 cm for women. The sex of the children was not taken into account. Dealt with here are corrected means since the number of individuals is, in part, very small. Similar tables are available from Sundick (1978) for a southern German population of the early Middle Age. 2. Age Determination

After the fourteenth for non-adults. union

of Adolescents year of life, dental development

The most important

of the long bones;

character

also ossification

offers little further indication

for age determination

of the pelvis, scapula,

of age

is now the epiphyseal sternum,

sacrum,

and

phalanges can be indicators (Figure 6). The volumes of Pyle & Hoerr (1955) for the ossification of hand bones and Greulich & Pyle (1959) offer X-rays of the developmental stages of ossification (see also Flecker, approximately

but are of lesser value for the determination 1942;

Haret

et al.,

1927).

one to two years after ossification.

The

epiphyseal

of age on the skeleton lines are noticible

These point to the transition

for

into the

adult age. On the skull the basisphenoid synchondrosis (ossification of the suture between the OS sphaenoidale and the basal part of the OS occipitale) shows the border between non-adult and adult. If no long bones are present, the stage of development of the third molar can give a rough idea. It is, however, especially variable and sometimes it is not developed at all.

If the third molar

surface of the other molars, 3. Age Diagnosis

is completely

developed,

and if it has reached

this suggests adult age (Demisch

& Wartmann,

the occlusal 1956).

of Adults

The reliability of an age determination of the skeleton. If it is well preserved

of adults is largely dependent on the preservation the “complex method” of Nemeskeri, Harsiny &

Plate 1. Harsanyi

Phases of the relief & Acsadi, 1960).

of the

facies

symphaseos

(Nemesktri,

Plate 2. Phases of the spongiosa structure of the femur head (Nemeskkri, Harsanyi & Acsadi, 1960).

Plate 3. Phases of the spongiosa structure of the humerus head (Nemesktri, Harsanyi & Acsadi, 1960).

DIAGNOSES

AcsPdy (1960)

is recommended

paleodemography differences

(Masset,

though 1973,

of morphological

533

OF SKELETONS

there are some reservations

1976).

age changes

Some

questions

[e.g. Bocquet

still

concerning under

its use in

study

are

(1977) found in a Portuguese

sex

series

no sex differences in the development of the spongiosa structure of the femur head, but significant differences in the humerus head] ; the influence of births on age changes of the pubic symphysis

in women

population

social

and

environmental research

factors

the complex

diagnosis process

(Stewart,

differences

1970; in the

such

as nutrition,

method

by Acddy

four characteristics

Ullrich, aging

1975) ; as well as differences process

disease,

depending

workload.

& NemeskCri

(1970)

The comparison

able through

Statistical

Prof. Dr Nemeskeri,

should

be employed

better

for younger

Because

6 phases). should

well-preserved, of the head. of the suture

than

for older women;

tomographic

to determine

pictures

the phases

(Plate

is facilitated

Office,

Verb

It is recommended (4) The

on women

obliteration

is determined

structure

are

of the

of the humerus head (Plate 3,

X-rays

for the

& Bocquet,

laboratories

levels in question)

1976).

procure

of the endocranial for

10, 1053

the results obtained

(2) the spongiosa

structure (i.e.

(Bergot

that larger

obliteration

1, 5 phases).

by casts (attain-

PdlnC utca

the heads of the long bones can be sawed open, exactly

used by butchers.

of

For age

of the facies by birth this characteristic

phases) ; (3) the spongiosa

If possible,

be used

Central

of the changes

only for men ; if it is utilized women

femur head (Plate 2,6

and

state

is the best one.

(1) The relief of the facies symphaseos

The upper surface must be well preserved. V/Hungary).

the present

are used, and for each of them, several phases of the aging

have been described.

Budapest

In

due to

on heredity,

14 sections

If the bones are in the mid-plane

the kind of bone saw

skull sutures. of the coronal,

A coefficient sagittal

and

Figure 7. The obliteration of the skull sutures. Left: the 14 sections of the sutures; right: the degree of obliteration according to Broca.

*

y\/y_-J,_

/-.,

534

WORKSHOP

OF EUROPEAN

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

lambdoidal sutures [Figure 7(a)]; the degree of obliteration is determined according to Broca’s scheme [Figure 7(b)], and then the mean value is calculated from the individual figures. If the skull is completely intact, the endocranial sutures may be illuminated through the foramen magnum by a small flashlight. The mean values of the degree of obliteration are classified in five phases. Mean values

Phase

o-1.5 1.6-2.5 2.6-2.9 3.0-3.9 4.0

I II III IV V

If the stages of development of the four characteristics have been determined, the age can be arrived at according to the tables of Sjovold (1976) (Appendix). They take into consideration all combinations of characters and phases, the variability of age changes, and the practical calculation rules of Nemesktri. For single individuals, the estimated range of variability given in the tables are to be used. For paleodemographic analyses, the classification into 5-year-groups is recommended. The determination of the ossification coefficients of the sutures according to Nemeskeri requires good preservation of the coronal, sagittal and lambdoidal sutures. If only small parts of the sutures are preserved, the scheme of Vallois (1937) which relies on ectocranial sutures must be used. A large range of variability can be expected in the determination of an individual age-at-death (Necrasov et al., 1966) and the estimated figures are too low for the upper age categories, especially over 60 years (Masset, 1971). With great caution a series of additional characteristics can be considered in age diagnosis, e.g. degenerative characteristics and age-related diseases. (1) For young adults the ossification may yield additional information (Figure 6), e.g. the Epiphysis sternalis of the clavicula (Bass, 1970; Szilvassy, 1977) the distal epiphyses of radius and ulna and the Epiphysis marginalis of the OS ilium close rather late. The ossification of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx (which seldom is preserved, however) continues even to the age of maturity (Leopold & von Jagow, 1960; Schott, 1961; applicable only to males). (2) The abrasion of teeth, in particular the molars. Miles (1963) presents a scheme with age categories for an Anglo Saxon population. A very large variability, e.g. on the basis of the type of nutrition and the individual tooth constitution, can be expected. If the sample is large enough the correlation between age and abrasion should be estimated within the population and used for age determination (see Maples, 1977). (3) Spondylytic changes of the vertebrae; Stloukal, Vyhndnek & Rijsing (1970) categorize spondylytic changes into four classes and give mean values for a series of medieval populations by age and sex. (4) Arthritic changes of the large joints; classification, frequency distribution and class means for an old Slavic population are given by Stloukal & Vyhnanek (1975). (5) Gustafson (1966) describes a method for more exact age determination of adolescents and adults on the basis of their teeth [modification of the method in light of their applicability to prehistoric dental material by VlEec & Mrklas (1975) ; see also Johannson

DIAGNOSES OF SKELETONS

535

(197 l)]. This requires, however, a tooth section, and is thus time-consuming and expensive. Therefore it cannot be applied to large populations, but rather to age diagnosis and identification of individuals, e.g. historically important persons. (6) For the time being, the same is true for histological studies, in which, e.g. the number of osteons and of the non-Harversian canals are examined for age diagnosis (Kerley, 1970). For this, thin sections must be made and examined microscopically; with oft-brittle prehistoric material the bones in question must be imbedded and then prepared for section [a relatively simple technique is described by Ubelaker (1974) ; see also Bouvier & Ubelaker (1977), Ubelaker (1978)]. The method has the advantage of dealing with quantitative characteristics which vary, however, and cannot always be determined correctly. But age diagnosis rests on counting and measurement for which personal errors play less of a role than in the classification by given schemes. The correlations with chronological age should be checked in additional skeletal materials. (7) Chemical studies of bones have shown a series of changes due to age : the phosphorus, calcium, and collagen content in the spongiosa of the vertebral bodies declines while the carbonate content increases (Lengyel, 1968, 1972). Metabolic disorders can influence individual values dramatically. Since a large individual variability also exists, all applicable characters should be studied, just as with morphological traits. Just as with sex diagnosis, the chemical method can render results when a morphological age diagnosis However, more studies on the correlation is not feasible because of bad preservation. between morphologically and chemically-determined ages-at-death should be performed, and standard techniques have to be described. The “Recommendations” anthropologists :

have been accepted

and signed by the following physical

S. Borgognini-Tarli, Pisa (Italy) ; G. Gesnys, Vilnius (USSR) ; B. Chiarelli, Florence (Italy); C. Corrain, Padua (Italy) ; V. Correnti, Rome (Italy); D. Ferembach, Paris (France) ; M.-D. Garralda, Madrid (Spain) ; N. Gejvall, Solna (Sweden) ; J. GladykowskaRzeczycka, Bialystok (Poland) ; W. Henke, Mainz (BRD); J. Jargensen, Copenhagen (Denmark) ; B. Kaufmann, Base1 (Switzerland) ; R. Knussmann, Hamburg (BRD) ; P. Liptlk, Szeged (Hungary); A. Mann, Philadelphia (USA) ; 5. Mikik, Sarajevo (Jugoslavia) ; B. Miszkiewicz, Wroclaw (Poland) ; 0. Necrasov, Jasi (Romania) ; J. Nemesktri, Budapest (Hungary) ; G. Olivier, Paris (France) ; D. K. Patterson, Ontario (Canada) ; G. Pilarit, Zagreb (Jugoslavia) ; R. Riquet, Bordeaux (France) ; F. W. Rijsing, Ulm (BRD); U. Schott, Berlin (DDR); I. Schwidetzky, Mainz (BRD); M.-A. Sauter, Geneva (Switzerland) ; T. [email protected], Solna (Sweden) ; M. Stefancic, Ljubljana (Jugoslavia) ; M. Stloukal, Prague (Czechoslovakia) ; J. SzilvPssy, Vienna (Austria) ; H. Ullrich, Berlin (Poland) ; (DDR) ; A. Wiercihska, Warsaw (Poland) ; A. Wierci-nski, Warsaw N. Xirotiris, Athens (Greece); G. Ziegelmayer, Munich (BRD). References

Determination of Sex AcsPdi, G. & NemeskCri, J. (1970). History of Human Lif Span and Mortality, pp. 346. Budapest. Black, Th. K. (1978). Sexua.l dimorphism in the tooth-crown diameters of the deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 48, 77-82. ” Borovansky, L. (1936). Differences sexuelles chez les crPnes humains. N&ad. Ceskd Akad. vbd urn, pp. 115, tschech., engl. summary. Boulinier, G. (1968). La dktermination du sexe des crgnes humains I l’aide des fonctions discriminantes. Bulletins et Mkmoires de la SociU d’iinthropologie de Paris 3, XIIe str., 301-316.

536

WORKSHOP

OF EUROPEAN

ANTHROPOLOGISTS

Me’mnires de la So&&! d’Anlhro)ologie de Broca, P. (1875). Instructions craniologiques et craniomtitriques. Paris II, 2&e str. Lcs alpins de Catal Hiiyiik Clement, F. M., Dabaghian, E., Fcrembach, D. & Jouannrau, J. F. (1974). (Ntolithique, Turquie). Application d’unc analyse en composante principal? normbe h la ddfinition de leur origine. Biom&rie Hum. 9, 53-69. Day, M. H. 6r Pitcher-Wiimot, R. W. (1975). Sexual dil%rentiation in the innominate bone studied by multivariate analysis. Annals of Human Biology 2, 143- 15 1. Defrise-Gussenhoven, E. (1966). A masculinity-feminity scale based on a discriminant function. hta Chc6ica 16, 198-208. Demoulin, F. (1972). Importance de certaines mesurcs crini
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