FEASIBILTY OF BANANA AS CHARCOAL
FEASIBILITY OF BANANA (MUSA ACUMINATA) AND ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) PEELINGS AS CHARCOAL Ed Samuel A. Bacaltos John Dale S. Eguna Ana Preciosa L. Bacalso Darlene Eleanor A. Bernas Dianne Katrinne C. Pacquiao Heshvan Janin L. Sabequil Merry Jessah S. Torres Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Research II Talisay City Science High School Poblacion, Talisay City, Cebu November 2012 Ms. Memelie E. Villejo Research Teacher I. ABSTRACT
The use of trees on making charcoals has been a major factor that contributes to the climate change in developing countries especially Philippines. Thousands of tones of trees have been cut and the trend is still going on that result in deforestation due to its production. Fruit peelings from bananas (musa acuminata) and oranges (citrus sinensis) can save the country from becoming dry for there are other benefits apart from becoming sources of food. Banana and orange peels can be used as another sources of making charcoal without causing much hazard towards the environment. With this, trees will be saved from less as the main source of charcoal. In this study, the feasibility of the banana and orange peels as sources of making charcoal was tested. This includes the processes of sun-drying the fruit peelings until half-burned and then sheaved. The sheaved peelings was mixed with clay soil and cassava flour to bound. There are three mixtures held in the experiment: 1st mixture having banana peelings only bound with clay soil and cassava flour, 2 nd mixture having orange peelings only bound with clay soil and cassava flour, and 3rd mixture having both fruit peelings bound with clay soil and cassava flour. The mixtures were then molded to become briquettes and fully-dried. After the the mixture briquettes were set in flame, all of them have efficacy to ignite like common charcoal. Therefore, fruit peelings of oranges and bananas can be used as an alternative for charcoal.
II. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The study is conducted to strive for a better sustainable society, considering the limitation of global threats in the environment. By using fruit peelings as alternative sources for charcoal, the production of charcoal and firewood by using trees which is time consuming and not environment friendly would be lessen making the environment more inhabitable. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study is all about the feasibility of fruit peeling specifically from bananas and oranges as alternative sources of charcoal. The difference between ordinary charcoal from trees to the charcoal made from fruit peelings is also being studied based on their effectivity and durability in usage. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study aims to have an environment-friendly fuel. This will help obtain a lesser pollution kind of community because charcoals made from fruit peelings does not have compositions that will bring catastrophic effects in the environment such as depleting the ozone layer. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study will try to determine the possibility of using banana and orange peelings to be used as alternative sources of charcoal. In the experiment we will be using the ripe yellow bananas and just ordinary orange fruits commonly sold in streets. Generally, the experiment may last for one to two days until the mixture briquettes will dry and ready to be used as charcoal.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Charcoal is dark grey residue consisting of carbon, and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis, the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen. It is usually an impure form of carbon as it contains ash; however, sugar charcoal is among the purest forms of carbon readily available, particularly if it is not made by heating but by a dehydration reaction with sulfuric acid to minimise introducing new impurities, as impurities can be removed from the sugar in advance. The resulting soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material resembles coal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal Banana is the common name for monocarpic flowering plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. They are native to tropical South and Southeast Asia, and are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. Today, they are cultivated throughout the tropics. They are grown in at least 107 countries, primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine and as ornamental plants. Its fruits, rich in starch, grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. They come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana According to Mallimbo (2009), peelings of banana can be used as charcoal without causing too much hazard towards the nature. Orange is the citrus and its fruit. As from 1987, it has been the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world. The orange is a hybrid, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata), cultivated since ancient times. It is an evergreen flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m, although some very old specimens can rise to 15 m. Its oval leaves, arranged alternately, are 4 to 10 cm long and have crenulate margins. The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit) Briquette is a block of flammable matter used as fuel to start and maintain a fire. Common types of briquettes are charcoal briquettes and biomass briquettes. Some briquettes are compressed and dried brown coal extruded into hard blocks. This is a common technique for low rank coals. They are typically dried to 12-18% moisture, and are primarily used in household and industry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Briquette
METHODOLOGY To fulfill this experiment, we prepared the fruit peelings, fine sand, and the binders (corn starch and charcoal aggregates). The fruit peelings from bananas and oranges are collected, cut into tiny pieces, then measured ½ cup to be used in every set-ups. There are three set-ups planned in this experiment: 1st set-up has ½ cup mixture of fruit peelings, ¼ cup of fine sand, and ¼ cup of corn starch to act as binder; 2 nd set-up has ½ cup mixture of fruit peelings, ¼ cup of fine sand, and ¼ cup of charcoal aggregates to act as binder; 3rd set-up has ½ cup mixture of fruit peelings, ¼ cup of fine sand, ¼ cup of starch and charcoal aggregates to act as binders. Each of the mixtures were then mashed in the mortar and pestle one by one. When the mixtures in each set-ups were thick enough, we molded them into shapes using our hands. After molding the mixtures, we finally sun- dried them.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Charcoal. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal Banana. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana Orange. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit) Briquette. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Briquette Mallimbo, P. (2009). Banana peels an alternative way of making charcoal. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from http://mallimbo.wordpress.com/2009/05/18/banana-peels-an-alternative-way-ofmaking-charcoal/