FCE Use of English B2 Teacher´s Book

August 14, 2017 | Author: Melih Kolukırık | Category: Phrase, Preposition And Postposition, Verb, Adjective, Noun
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teacher's book


Use English for all exams QQQQ m m publications

Use of English B2 for all exams

E. M outsou

Published by: MM Publications www.mmpublications.com [email protected]


Great Britain - Greece - Poland - France - Cyprus - U.S.A. - Turkey Associated companies and representatives throughout the world. Copyright © 2009 MM Publications All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the publishers. Produced in the EU

C 1 103001307-5240 C 1103002007-5239

ISBN: 978-960-443-928-7

Teacher’s Edition ISBN: 978-960-443-929-4

Use of English B2 for the FCE Examination and other exams is intended fo r B2 level students. It system atically eaches gram m ar and vocabulary and prepares students th o ro u g h ly fo r all exams.

" i e FCE Use of English Paper contains fo u r parts and lasts 45 m inutes. The task types and the num ber of questions in each part are presented in the fo llo w in g table.





Multiple-choice cloze

12 (one mark per question)


Open cloze

12 (one mark per question)


Word formation

10 (one mark per question)


Key word transformation

8 (two marks per question)

This book is d iv id e d in to 15 units, fo llo w e d by a Final FCE Test and a Final ECCE Test.

~ne v o c a b u la ry and g ra m m a r ta u g h t has been d is trib u te d in 12 u n its (U nits 1-4, 6-9 and 11-14), each o f w hich is divid e d in to tw o sections. In th e firs t section, in u n its 1,3, 6, 8,11,13 th e re is a se le ctio n o f c o llo c a tio n s and

expressions, w h ile in u n its 2 ,4 , 7,9,12,14 th e re is a se le ctio n o f p re p o sitio n a l phrases. Phrasal verbs, w ords ith prepo sition s, g ra m m a tic a l s tru c tu re s and key w o rd tra n s fo rm a tio n s are presented and practised in all 12 -n its . This section ends w ith tw o exercises w h ich are s im ila r in fo rm a t to tasks in th e FCE Use o f English paper and ECCE G ram m ar and V o ca b u la ry sections, b u t w h ich te s t o n ly th e item s ta u g h t in th e co rre s p o n d in g unit.

In the second section, a n u m b e r o f g ro u p s o f easily confused w o rd s and d e riv a tiv e s are presented and

practised, fo llo w e d by tw o exercises w h ich te s t o n ly th e item s ta u g h t in th e c o rre sp o n d in g unit.

Units 5,10 and 15 are c o n s o lid a tio n u n its w h ich revise th e m a terial p re v io u s ly ta u g h t. Each o f th e m is a c tu a lly a co m p le te Use o f English Practice Test fo llo w in g th e exact fo rm a t o f th e FCE/ECCE exam ination s, b u t te s tin g o n ly th e item s ta u g h t in th e fo u r u n its pre ced in g it.

The Final FCE Test and Final ECCE Test are m o de lled on th e C a m bridge Use o f English Paper and on the G ram m ar and V o ca b u la ry se ction s o f th e U n iv e rs ity o f M ichigan E xam ination fo r th e ECCE.

The reference se ction at th e end o f th e b oo k in cludes an o v e rv ie w o f English Gram m ar, v o c a b u la ry notes w ith d e fin itio n s o f easily con fuse d w ords, exam tip s and th re e appendices. These appen dices a lp h a b e tica lly present p re p o s itio n a l phrases, w ords w ith p re p o sitio n s and d e rivatives.

The Teacher’s Book consists o f tw o sections. The firs t se ctio n is th e S tudent's Book w ith th e answers o ve rp rin te d . The second se ctio n inclu de s notes fo r th e te a ch e r and th re e p h o to c o p ia b le Revision Tests w ith Key.

U N IT 1

p. 6


p. 16


p. 26


p. 36


p, 4 6

Section 1

Section 2

Collocations with go, come, reach, get Collocations of the type noun+of+noun Phrasal verbs with come, go and be Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Tenses

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of work and employment) Introduction to Derivatives

Prepositional phrases of tim e and place Phrasal verbs with get, pull and throw Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Relative Clauses-Clauses of Time

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of time and viewing) Adjectives in -ful, -less and nouns in -ship deriving from noun roots

Expressions with day, year and time Collocations w ith hold, run, catch and keep Phrasal verbs with look, check, watch and show Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Adverbs-ComparisonsArticles-Uncountables

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of people and education) Adjectives in -al, -y, -ous, -ly (+adverbs) and nouns in -hood deriving from noun roots

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with keep, hold, catch, carry, wear, work and move Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Determiners-Pronouns

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of travel and tourism) Adjectives in -ic, -ical, verbs in -ise and nouns in -ist, -ian, -dom deriving from noun roots

Consolidation I (Units 1-4)

UNIT 6 P.so

Collocations with do and make Collocations with break, change, cut, turn and draw Adverbial expressions Phrasal verbs with make, do, grow, pass, fill and leave Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Infinitive /-ing form

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of money) Common negative prefixes


p. 60

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous), linking phrases Phrasal verbs with break, burn, cut and turn Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Modal Verbs

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of thinking) Verbs in -en and nouns in -ness, -nee, -ncy, -cy deriving from adjective roots


p. 70

UNIT 9 P.so

Collocations with leave, put, set, shake, miss and lose Collocations/Expressions with way Sentence linkers Phrasal verbs with put, lay, set, settle Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Passive Voice Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with mix, run, hang, fall, hurry and try Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Pronouns-Causative Form

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of communication) Verbs in -ise and nouns in -ity, -hood deriving from adjective roots

Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Inflections of nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs

Section 1 UNIT 10



Section 2

Consolidation II (Units 6-9)

UNIT 11 p.94

Collocations with follow, have, take, give, pay, bring and mind Phrasal verbs with take, close, knock, clean, clear and drop Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of crime and punishment) Adjectives in -able, -ible, -ent, -ant and nouns in -ery, -ence, -ance, -ant deriving from verb roots

UNIT 12 p.104

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with bring, give, hand, burst and blow Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Conditionals

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of health and illness) Nouns in -ion, -ation, adjectives in -ive, -ative and nouns in -al deriving from verb roots

UNIT 13 p.114

Adjective + Noun Collocations Collocations with say and tell Idiomatic expressions with all Phrasal verbs with lie, stand, sit, save, dress, pay, end, point, lock and let Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Unreal Past

UNIT 14 p.124

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with call, speak, tell and count Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Reported Speech




Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Nouns in -ment, -ure, -er, or and -ee deriving from verb roots

Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Irregular Derivatives Adjectives and nouns deriving from the name of a country or continent Adverbs and pronouns ending in -body, -one, -thing, -where, -how, -ever and -self

Consolidation III (Units 11-14)

Final FCE Test


Final ECCE Test


Grammar R e v ie w ...........


Vocabulary N o t e s ..........


Exam T i p s ........................

.............................................................................. 171

Appendix I: Prepositional P h ra se s................................................ .............................................................................. 173 Appendix II: Words with Prepositions........................................... .............................................................................. 174 Appendix III: Derivatives............................................................... .............................................................................. 176

Teacher’s Notes ..................


Revision Test 1 ....................

.................................................................. 186

Revision Test I I ....................

............................................................................. 190

Revision Test III ...................

.................................................................. 194

Key to Tests ........................

.................................................................. 198



Complete the blanks with the verbs go, come, reach or get.





a decision


to sleep




on sb’s nerves


rid of




off sb’s back


an agreement


down to business

to terms with




into trouble


the sack




over the top




in handy


the job


even with

B Complete the sentences with the collocations / expressions in the box below. Use each one only once. in somebody’s shoes

on top of

in charge of

1 Mr Johnson is

in search of

on the safe side

in charge of

in trouble with

____the company’s marketing department.

2 People who system atically cheat the tax system will one day b e ________ in trouble with

the Tax Department.

on the safe side

3 The doctor insisted that I should be given a thorough check-up just to be __ 4 The children wandered around the neighbourhood __________in search of

their lost dog.

5 Nobody would want to b e __________ in his shoes_________ _ pot with all those debts he has to pay off. on top of

6 After weeks of hard work, Kevin was confident he was finally


the situation.

Complete the collocations belo w with the w ords in the box. You may use some of the w ords more than once. In some cases more than one w ord may be correct.







of pyjamas



of lightning


of beer
















of scissors


of sheep

of sunglasses


of rules


of thunder

of paper .o f soap

of traffic lights


of birds

of flowers


of toothpaste


of bees

Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct num ber in the box next to each definition.


COME 1 While cleaning the basement, I came across something I thought I had lost

years ago. 2 Joe cam e into a lot of money, which changed his life completely. 3 Why doesn’t Julie come round to our place anymore? 4 The scientists took months to come up with a solution to their problem.


stop by, visit

2 inherit 1 find by chance 6 regain consciousness 5 betaken ill with

5 Richard came down with a bad cold the day before his exams. 6 It took the woman a few minutes tocom e round/to after she had fainted.


think of and suggest

unit 0 1 B GO

move / travel around, visit

1 They decided to go ahead w ith th e ir trip despite the bad w eather conditions.


2 Once you have finished cleaning, you can g o o n w ith your job.


3 The d octo r w anted to go over the test results w ith his patient.

start sth

4 That tie goeswith yo ur suit nicely.


5 Luckily no one was injured when the bom b went off.

continue doing

6 W hile visiting Rome, we went round all the m ajor archaeological sites.

turn sour, start to decay

7 The child went through a lot before recovering com pletely.

examine / discuss in detail

8 The m ilk went off a fte r o nly an hour in the scorching heat.


9 W hat’s going on in there? Open the door!


BE 1 What's on this weekend at the theatre? 2 We were prom ised th a t the hard tim es w ould be over soon. 3 I was about to leave home when some unexpected visitors arrived. 4 I'm for the mayor's plan to relocate the tow n hall. 5 What are the boys up to? Don’t tell me th e y’re ruining the garden again! 6 I m ust be off now. My parents are expecting me fo r dinner.

Words with Prepositions


Complete the blanks with prepositions.

Adjectives excellent


experienced happv



h a o D V w ith /a b o u t D ro u d



an answer


an exDert (take)D ride

s th

a reDlv a reDort






w ith




w ith


an o p p o rtu n ity



conaratulate sb


praise sb

w ith


o n /in /a t






w ith


provide sth

fo r




supply sb

w ith




supply sth

G Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. for

2 I would be m ore than happy to provide you 3 We supply all m ajor com panies 4 She takes great pride



our products.



the homeless.

yourself. W hat you did was w rong!

7 The governm ent supplied food and m edicine 8 The jo u rn a list was praised

our com pany's catalogue.

her work. That's w hy she's the best in her field.

5 The governm ent w ill provide housing 6 You shouldn't be proud

you and yo ur wife. with


his report


the victim s of the hurricane. on


provide sb

fo r

1 C ongratulations Rodney! I'm so happy

fo r

the starving children o f Africa.

unit 0 1 Grammar Revision (Tenses) See Grammar Review page 147 ^ Read the text below and complete each blank with one word. All missing words are auxiliary verbs (is, was, have, has, had, do, does, did etc.). My life (1 ) __________has__________ im proved a lot since last year. You see, before th a t I ( 2 ) __________ _____________ been w orking in the same jo b fo r five years and I ( 3 ) __________was__________ beginning to feel rather bored. I ( 4 ) __________ was g ettin g ready to apply fo r another job when one day my boss called me into her office. "Our com pany ( 5 ) _________ __________ planning to expand overseas," she said. "We ( 6 ) ___________^ w ith Spain, therefore we w ill ( 7 ) ___________be branch there. ( 8 ) ________ ^

needing some of o ur best em ployees to su pp ort o ur new

you th in k you w ould be interested in a transfer?" N aturally I accepted, although at


the tim e I (9)

__________ th in kin g of starting

_ not know that they ( 1 0 ) _________ ______________also going to prom ote me

to assistant manager.


By the end of this m onth, I w ill have (11) exciting my life (1 2 )__________ has

living in M adrid fo r a year. You can't im agine how


B Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple, Past Progressive, Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive and complete the boxes with the time words below. Use each time word only once. fo r



was having




_ (have) a bath yesterday evening, I was in the kitchen.

s h e ________ came__________ (com e) into the kitchen, she couldn 't believe her eyes!

Mum. I

° iafen lo oking


(look) for m y black belt


haven’t found



the past hour and Have

(not fin d) i t . .

________ you

(see) it anywhere?

Mother: No, but I th in k you Jim:


(cook) her fa vou rite dish because I ________ wanted________ (want) to surprise her.





was cooking


w hile

Ie ri__________ (lend) it to your bro the r about a week

Oh, you’re rig ht. He

hasn't ciyen/didrrc give

(n ot g (ve) jt back to me. I bet he


nas been wearing


it all week. Where is he now, Mum? Mother: I'm afraid M a rk ___ H e __________ 90 t



have been w orking


haven’t finished




.(ge t) up about an hour before you . (work) on this project (not finish) it


.(leave). . (do).

this m orning but yet

. What am I going to tell m y boss?

& M y sister loves cats. / She loves cats. /

She has gone to Italy.

(She is still there.)

She has been to Italy.

(She has returned.)

M y s is t e r s h e lo v e s c a t s . I bought this bike tw o years ago. /

(Only one subject in each sentence.)

(Past Simple + ago) $> There is a b o o k o n the table.

I-h a v e & o u g h tth is bike -two y ears ago.

It is Susan’s.

I b o u g h tth is b tk e tw o y e a r s b e fo r e .

(Use there when m entioning sth fo r the firs t time.

I have had this bike for tw o years. /

Use it fo r sth already mentioned.)

(Present P erfect+for) Ib a v eth i-sb ik e-lo rtw o y ear-s.— -

€> T h ey don't have a car. / (have = own) T h ey haven't got a car. /

I have had this bike since 1998. /

(have got = own)

(Present Perfect + since + time) I have had this bike since I w as sixteen. /

They haven't a car.

(Present Perfect + since + Past Simple)

® H e has a bath e v e ry morning. / (have = take) H e doesn’t have a bath e v e ry m orning. J H e has- got a bath e v e ry


(Only one tim e word in each sentence.) I haven't studied for a w eek , (refers to the past: The

last time I studied w as a week ago.)

® Jam es didn't use to sm oke so m uch. /

I have to study for a week, (refers to the future: I

Jam es didn't used to s m o k e s o m u e h .

must study fo ra week before I do sth else.)

(did/didn’t + bare infinitive) & I do speak French. /

I have-had this-bike since two years ago. »

I haven't eaten spaghetti for six months. /


Ihavetoeatspaghettiforsixm onths-.

He does eat snails. / T h e y did bu y a house. / W e did saw the thief.

(do/does/did + bare infinitive)

Key Transformations I h ave n ever b e e n to M alta before. It is the first tim e I h ave ever b e e n to Malta.

& The last tim e I sa w h er w a s a y e a r ago. I last sa w h er a y e a r ago. I h aven ’t seen h er for a year.

I h a d n ever b e e n to M alta before. It w a s the first tim e I h a d e v e r b e e n to Malta. W h e n did he start working? H o w long has h e b e e n working? H o w long is it since he started working?

It has b e e n a y e a r since I last sa w her. It is a y ear since I last sa w her.

unit 0 1 Examination Practice A

Read the text belo w and think of the w ord which best fits each space. Use only one w ord in each space.

MONGY w hat

There is no d ou bt th a t money, in the form th a t we know it today, (1).

keeps m odern econom ic life fu nctio nin g. Yet, th ro u g h o u t history, money, in w hatever form , has provided people (2 )_________ with__________ the a b ility to buy (3 )_________ and/or_________sell goods. Thousands o f years (4 ) __________ ago__________ , civilisations (5 )__________ used_________ to rely on the barter system as a way of exchanging goods. W ithin this system a person had to exchange one thing fo r another. This m eant th a t the tw o parties involved had to ( 6 ) ______ make/reach_______ an agreem ent as to w hat th ey th o u g h t th e ir products were w orth. Items such (7 )__________ as___________wheat, tobacco and livestock have all been used as m oney at one tim e or another. It was not until much later th at humans came up ( 8 ) _________ with__________ the idea o f m oney in the form of m etal coins. So w hy (9 ) __________did___________the barter system come to an end? The answer is simple. Coins were much easier to handle and carry around. Since then, the use of coins has become widespread. It has made com m erce sim pler and has given countries an o p p o rtu n ity (1 0 )__________ _____________developm ent by doing business w ith other countries fu rth e r afield, which they (11)__________ h^d__________ never done business w ith before. In recent years, paper m oney has become m ore com m on all over the w orld, as it is easier to use. It (12)__________ ^

__________ not be long, however, before plastic cards take over com pletely, replacing

coins and paper money.

6 Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the w ord given. 1

We last w ent abroad a long tim e ago. not


have not been abroad for

a long tim e.

When did they sta rt living in the suburbs?



long have they been living

in the suburbs?

It's the firs t tim e she has ever had problem s w ith the authorities.

trouble 4

w ith the a uth orities before.

When Carl was young, h e __________________used to go to

. a holiday camp every summer.

A fter the earthquake, the governm ent supplied food and m edicine to the homeless,

provided 6

has never had trouble

When Carl was young, he w ent to a holiday camp every summer,

used 5


A fter the earthquake, the g o v e rn m e n t_______provided the homeless with_____

Lucy hasn't visited me since February.


The la s t_______________ tim e Lucy visited me was__________________ in February.

How long has he had this car?

bought 8

How lo n g _________

is it since he bought

this car?

I haven't caught a cold fo r ages,


I la s t___________

came down with a cold

ages ago.

.fo o d and m edicine.

unit 0 1

Words easily confused Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may use some of the words more than once. In some cases, more than one word may be correct.



w ork

e m ploym ent

1 People in the m e d ic a l______ profession

w ork long hours.

2 In order to get a ( n ) _________ 12^______


__since January.

Employment______ agencies help people find w ork in th e ir field.

5 I was asked to w rite m y present


as a com puter analyst, you need a degree in com puter science.


3 Betty has been o ut o f ____




occupation________ on the a pplication form .

d uty task

1 They were set the duty

2 It is a n u rs e 's ___

o f cleaning the room after the m eeting. ______ to make the patients feel com fortable.

3 Her marks are quite high, so she can choose between a medical or a la w ________ course

em ployer

em ployee assistant

1 The shop 2 The car park




o ffice r


___ helped me choose a ju m p e r th a t suited me.

attendant_______ js responsible fo r parking custom ers’ cars.

employees_______ are expected to be at w ork by 8.30. O u r ________ employer

3 All

at university.

4 Jill w orked as a ( n ) _________clerk_______

insists on it.

fo r a law firm before entering politics.

5 All m y ______ colleagues_______ at the office are friendly. officer

6 Bob is a senior


p arty



1 A m em ber o f a p o litic a l______ staff

2 The teaching


3 The search _


4 The s h ip 's __



in the arm ed forces.


1 The Maths problem was a ( n ) ___


gave a speech in the tow n centre last night. at our school have form ed a basketball team.

_ had no luck in fin ding the m issing child, served drinks as the ship set sail.




a m b ition

and to ok me over an hour to solve.

2 T h e _______ aim/goal________ 0f environm ental organisations is to stop environm ental destruction.

unit 0 1 am bition

3 People w ith


4 Their firs t album was a great intention

5 I have no


and sold tw o m illion copies w orldw ide.

of changing my plans fo r to nig ht.


fu lfil


w ill always try to achieve th eir




1 J o h n _______ succeeded________ jn convincing his boss to give him the day off. 2 He doesn’t ________deal/cope________ w ith crisis situations very well. 3 Despite his health problem s, J o e ________fulfilled___________his am bition to play in the local fo otball team. facing

4 The Johnstons are

financial d iffic u ltie s after Mrs Johnston lost her job.

5 Kim put a lot of w ork into her project and 6 During his career as a teacher, he h a s ___




achieved dealt

excellent results. w ith students from d iffe re n t backgrounds.


1 You have to read the instructions carefully before y o u ______ operate __________ the photocopying machine. 2 Brett co uldn 't find experienced staff so h e _________ ________________ his business on his own fo r a few months. 3 Kate was supposed t o _______undertake_________ train in g of the new staff. 4 The com pany is



managed/run_______ by tw o people w ho share the responsibilities.


qualifica tion s


1 To get the job you m ust have three years’


qualifications 2 Leadership

in telecom m unications and the necessary

., one o f w hich is a university degree. qualities

__ are required by a Prime Minister, as well as c o m m u n ic a tio n .


3 Learning to w ind surf was a fa n ta s tic ______experience_________ |


Look at the sentences below. What part of speech (verb, noun, adjective or adverb) is each of the words in bold type?

unit 0 1

Each part of speech has a d ifferen t fu n ctio n in the sentence.

n u m

describe actions, events, feelings or situations. (e.g. The tw o patterns differ from each other.) refer to people, animals, things, actions, situations or ideas. (e.g. There is a difference between the tw o patterns.)

JECTIVES2 describe the qualities o f nouns. (e.g. This pattern is different from th a t one.)


describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, phrases or w hole sentences, (e.g. The tw o patterns have been differently designed.)

A lot of English words can be used as roots fo r the fo rm a tion of other words, w hich are called derivatives. Most adverbs, fo r instance, are form ed by adding the ending -ly to the root adjective. careful 4 ca re fully

te rrib le 4 te rrib ly

d iffe re n t 4 d iffe re n tly

B Choose the correct word A, B or C to complete the following sentences. •

The zoo's main _________ attraction________ are the pandas. A a ttra ctive ly

B a ttractive

(c )a ttra c tio n

2 The teacher w a s ___________angry__________w ith the student because he d id n ’t do his hom ew ork. A anger


C a ngrily

3 Before I set o ff on my journey, my fa th er to ld me to d r iv e ___________safely__________. A safe

B safety

(c )s a fe ly

4 What's t h e _________difference________ between increase and decrease? A difference

B d iffe re n tly

C d iffe re n t

5 I hired a _______ photographer______ to take pictures at my wedding. A) photographer

B p ho tography

C photographic

6 Despite his age, he leads an __________ active__________ life. A a c tiv ity

B acting

( ^ a c t iv e

7 She com pleted the p r o je c t________ successfully_______ and was prom oted. A success

(B )succe ssfully

C successful

C Read the sentences below and decide what part of speech is missing. Then, complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. 1

I love sitting on my new sofa. It’s so (Part of speech:

adjective_______ ) _____ com fortable

2 She chose light-coloured fu rn itu re to (Part o f speech:



) _brighten_____ ___ BRIGHT

up her dull flat. 3

It’s ce rta inly (Part of speech:

4 August is a (Part of speech: __ everyone is away on holiday.

adjective adjective

) ______ dangerous tQ drjve gt hjgh speed )


m onth in our city, as


unit O f robber


5 The (Part o f speech: _

held up the bank and


stole £ 20 0 0 0 0 . noun

6 N obody could find the (Part o f speech:.


to the


d iffic u lt Maths problem . 7

happily 8


Even th ough they had financial d ifficulties, they were (Part o f speech:.


___ m arried.

I feel very (Part o f speech:_________adjective



today. I th in k I’ll have


some coffee.

Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A , B, C or D best fits each space.



My firs t (1)^


was as a sales (2)_


I w anted to w ork part-tim e, because I was still studying (3).

at a large d epartm ent store. ___u niversity and I was only

( 4 ) _________ able__________ to w ork a few nights a week. across

I came (5).

the advertisem ent in the local

newspaper. I rem em ber the intervie w as though (6 )

I!___________ were yesterday. The personnel

m anager sat behind a large desk. He asked me various questions w hich surprised me because all I w anted was to w ork in sales. An hour later, I was told th a t I had g ot the jo b and was given a co ntract to go (7 )

over_________ . I was to be trained fo r ten days before i

to ok m y post. Also, as a m em ber of (8).

s ta ff

I was e ntitled to some benefits, including discounts.

When I eventually started, I was responsible (9)_


the to y section. I really enjoyed it there

and I loved dem onstrating the d iffe re n t toys. I was surprised at how frie n d ly m y (10) _ were, too. They made w orking there fun even when we had to (11)________deal with ( 12) .



colleagues custom ers who

on our nerves. On the whole, w orking there was a great experience which I w ill never


A occupation

B job

C w ork


A employee

B attendant

C o ffice r


A in

B on


A excellent

B able

C proud

D experienced


A across

B into

C on

D round

B 1

C th a t

D there


( A ) it

(» a t

D em ploym ent

( d) assistant D fo r


A on

B over

C ahead

D w ith


(f i) staff

B crew

C team

D party


A of

B at

C w ith

D fo r


A assistants

B staff


A control


A came

( C) colleagues

(JB) deal w ith B w ent

C manage © got

D em ployees D cooperate D were

Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

AN UNUSUAL OUTING Last week I made a (1)_______ suggestion______ tQ m y C0USjn A |ex 0f f e rjng to


take him to an (2 )______ amusement______ park. He was very excited because it


was his (3 )_______ favourite________place. However, from the m om ent I picked


him up, he was very ( 4 ) _________ noisy__________ w hich surprised me since


his behaviour was (5 )_______ normally________ very d jfferent, At one point,


w hile w aiting to get on a ride, he disappeared. ( 6 ) ________ Luckily_________


the manager, w ho was very (7 )_________ helpful_________ found him an hour


later am ongst a crowd. Apparently, Alex had seen a fam ous basketball player and wanted his autograph. He (8 ) ______ apologised_______ to me immecjiate ly but I


was so (9 )_________ angry_________at him that we left. It was then th a t I made


the (10)________ decision________never to take Alex o ut again.


Prepositional Phrases A

Com plete the blanks with the prepositions in, on or at. on

a farm


the right/left




a queue




the North


the back of






17 W alkley Road


the door


the suburbs




the outskirts


the m ountains


rows/a row


the country


an island


the crossroads


Park Avenue

B Read the sentences and com plete them with the prepositions in, on or at. 1 My brother is working part-time

the corner of the room.


There is a TV set


Jam es sits


They went on a boat ride


Hom eless people sleep


He had to stay


My girlfriend is waiting for me


The robbers parked their car



the front of the class.


the river.


the streets of most m ajor cities.

in/ ° n


hospital for a w eek after his operation.

front of the bank.


Read the sentences and com plete them with the prepositions in,

A tattoo is


Kick-off is in tw enty m inutes, so





my birthday, but now I’ve changed my mind.

the beginning of the book.


now on, no one is allowed to enter the school building during the lunch break.

I haven’t seen Michael

aaes. so I’m going to visit him


9 It’s a pity I have to remain indoors 10 I can ’t talk to you



such a nice day.


the moment. Ring me back

11 It’s difficult to see the moon in the sky


in______ a while.


12 I’m really worried about Sam. He should have been here


the very latest.

of date.

6 You should read the introduction



the meantime, do your warm-up exercises.


the beginning, I didn’t want to have a party

5 Typew riters are already




on, at, by, for, from or out.

life. So, think carefully before deciding on having one done.



the corner.


1 You can hand in your assignm ents


the hospital.




the weekend.

unit 0 2

Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by w riting the correct number in the box next to each definition.


Joe was a fussy person and difficult to get on / along with. 2 The police surrounded the building, making it difficult for the criminals to get away. 3 He always gets away with his bad behaviour. 4 A large percentage of the population get by on very little money. 5 It took Betty months to get over her father’s death. 1






manage to live

1 have a good relationship 3

avoid being punished


1 The authorities declared the building unsafe and had it pulled down immediately. 2 A strange rattling noise forced the driver to pull over onto the hard shoulder. 3 It was time I threw out / away my old trainers. They were torn.

3 get rid of sth unwanted 1 demolish 2 move closer to the side of the road and stop (for vehicles)

Words with Prepositions


Complete the blanks with prepositions.

Adjectives a m a zed

Nouns at/by


a d e scrip tio n


d istin a u ish

betw een with

carefu l with/of/about

a fa ilu re


e x p e rim e n t

cro w d ed

a s e a rc h


q la n c e


fed up




sa tisfied

a so lu tio n



rem in d sb s th

sb /sth

(=have inform ation about) hear




(=have n ew s from ) ioin

reaard sb/sth




SD ecia lise sta re

in at


B Read the follo w in g sentences and com plete them with prepositions. 1

Must I always remind you

2 I haven’t heard

3 4 5 6 7

a b o u t/o f


t0 follow


(= see m sim ilar to sb/sth)

vo te for/against



(=tell sb again to do sth) rem in d sb

at about/of


the proper procedure?

from Lisa for over two weeks now. The police released a description of the wanted man. The park was crowded w ith enthusiastic teenagers celebrating the end of the school year. your problem. There must be a solution_______ t0 “I’m a failure in_____ life,” declared the famous actor to his adoring fans. In some cultures staring at_____ people is considered offensive.

unit0 2 8 Have you heard


the latest medical discovery?

9 A final search


evidence at the scene of the crim e proved fruitless.

10 You remind me


m yself when I was yo ur age.

Grammar Revision (Relative Clauses - Clauses of Time) See G r a m m a r R e v ie w p a g e 148 A

R ea d th e t e x t b e lo w a n d c o m p le te e a c h b la n k w it h o n e w o rd . A l l th e m is s in g w o r d s a re r e la tiv e p ro n o u n : o r a d v e rb s . M arilyn Monroe, (1) ___________who___________ was one of the w o rld ’s m ost fam ous film stars, was born in 1926. M arilyn, ( 2 ) __________whose__________ real name was Norma Jean Baker, had a m iserable childhood. She grew up in Los Angeles, ( 3 ) __________ where__________ she spent m ost of her early years in foster homes. T hat’s ( 4 ) ____________why__________ she still fe lt lonely even when she became famous. She w orked as a m odel and also played m inor roles in various film s before m aking "Niagara”, the film ( 5 ) ________ w hich/that________ made her very popular. In 1954 she m arried Joe di Maggio, w ith (6) __________ whom__________ She entertained Am erican troops fig h tin g in Korea. She w ent on to make m any film s, some o f ( 7 ) __________ which__________ were very successful sue as “Some Like it H ot”, “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” and “ Bus Stop”. Her film career ended tra g ica lly in 1962, ( 8 ) __________ when__________ she died at the age of th irty six.

B C h o o se A, B, C o r D to c o m p le te th e f o llo w in g s e n te n c e s .


As____________ Celia was d riving to the a irpo rt, she realised th a t she had left her passport at home. A As soon as


C During

D Until

2 I w ill have finished s tu d y in g ________ by the tim e________the film starts. A u ntil

B w hile

© b y the tim e

D once

3 The audience started c la p p in g _______ the moment________the singer came on stage. A by the tim e

(JB)the m om ent

C w hile

D just

4 Peter w on’t le a ve __________ until___________ he has finished all his work. (^A) until

B by

C ju s t as

D when

5 I haven’t heard fro m h im __________ since__________ we finished school. A before

B as soon as

C after

© s in c e

6 Jane was w orking as a jo u rn a lis t__________ while___________she was w ritin g her firs t book. A during

© w h il e

C ju s t as

D once

7 My m other used to c r y ________ whenever________ she heard this song. A by the tim e

B the m om ent th a t

© w henever

D until

8 The police o ffice r returned my d rivin g lic e n c e ___________ after__________ A ju st as

B until

C w hile

(D )a fte r

9 She burst o u t la u g h in g ________ as soon as________ she saw the clown. © assoonas

B since

C u ntil

D w hile

10 ________By the tim e________ we g ot back to the hotel, it was already dark. A The m om ent th a t

B As soon as

© B y the tim e

D Once

he had checked it.

& My brother, who j^fis a chemical engineer, works

The room (which/that) he works in is small./

for a multinational company, (subject: who)

The-foem-in w here he-works is-smaB.--

Jennifer’s brother, who you met

T-he-foem where he-works-in is-smalt. -

at her party last

week, is an engineer, (ob je ct: who)

Tke-i©©in-in-that- fre-works-fe small.— »

(Have o n ly one w ord fo r the subject o r the object o f P I have 3,000 stamps, some of which are valuable. /

the relative clause.)

I-haw-3^€>©sta¥»psrS©me-©Hhat:'are'va±uabie.' €> Ann’s father, who/whom we met last week, is ill. /

(expressions o f q u a ntity+ w h o m /w h ich /w h ose )

Ann-’s father, that w e -meHastweekris-rtl-. -..

(That is n o t used in non -d efin ing relative clauses.)

>When I grow up, I want to become a dentist. / Wherrf-will grow -u-pi-f-warrt-iaberomeadenttst:^

& The man with whom she is talking is her

He said he would call as soon as he returned. /

husband. /


(preposition + w ho m /w h ich)

(Never use will a nd would afte r tim e words)

Theraan w ith who/tha»-3hetstaftcingTSiter-^ >I visited two museums while I was on holiday. /

husbandrThe man (who(m)/that) she is talking with is her

I visited two museums during my holiday. /

husband. /

Ivisite^frwe-m-Hsettms-dwingl-wasonh-olid-ay:- —

(w h o /w h o m /w h ich /th a t + pre po sition s)

(during + noun)

& The room where he works is small. / The room in which he works is small. /

Key Transformations & Students who wish to go on the day-trip should write their names on this list.

She always watched TV after she did /had done her homework.

Students wishing to go on the day-trip should write their names on this list.

& I will sign the document when I read /have read it. I will sign the document after I read /have read it.

@ She always did her homework first and then she

I won’t sign the document before I read /have read

watched TV.


She never watched TV until she did /had done her

I won’t sign the document until I read /have read it.

homework. She never watched TV before doing / having done

< q Andrew left after/before breakfast.

her homework.

Andrew left after/before having (had) breakfast.

She would never watch TV before she did /had

Andrew left after/before he (had) had breakfast.

done her homework. She always watched TV after doing /having done her homework.

unit 0 2 Examination Practice A Choose the correct answer. 1 The Smiths b u ilt a huge house


the o utskirts

6 The e le c tric ity w ill be reconnected when you pay

o f the town.

the bill.

a. in

Vb; on

c. at

d. to

2 Once th ey


a. came ( c jc o m e

w e’ll ta lk to them about it.

4 ■■


c. when you are paying

d. during you pay

b. w ill come

on very little money.

d. are com ing

a. w ith

Mrs Davidson's nephew.

c. w ho sittin g

b. when you pay

7 There are people w ho manage to get

3 The man who is sitting jn the fro n t row is

(a.) w ho is sittin g

a. when you w ill pay

b. w here is sitting

a. in w here

d. th a t sitting

c. which

now 0 n, yOU w on't be allowed to use

b. over

c. round 8 The hotel

(d )b y in which

we stayed was perfect, ( b ) in which

d. that

9 The students left as soon as they finished the test,

(a ) as soon as

your m obile phones at school!" the headm aster warned

b. as

c. w hile

the students.

a. By

b. For

c. At

( d. From

"We visited the tow n

c. the sleeves of th a t

d )th e sleeves o f which


our grandfather

grew up.

are to o long,

b. th a t the sleeves

d. until

10 "What did you do on Saturday?"

the sleeves 5 My gra nd m o th er knitted me a jum per of which

a. w hich the sleeves


a. w hich

b. that

( c ) w here

d. when

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 Here’s the house w here I lived as a child. in

Here’s the h o u se _____________________ in which I lived_____________________ as a child.

2 I don’t know w hat made her q u it her job. reason I don’t __________________ know the reason why__________________ she q u it her job.

3 Passengers w ishing to get up can do so a fte r the seat belt lig h t has gone off. who

Passengers_________________who wish to get up__________________can do so after the seat belt light has gone i

4 He d id n ’t study enough fo r his exams, so he failed tw o of them. caused He didn’t study enough fo r his exams________________ which caused him to fail_______________ t wo o f them . 5 He always checked his car tyres before setting o ff on a journey. until

He never set o ff on a jo u rn e y ____________ until he (had) checked___________ his car tyres.

6 I’ve read all o f Jane Austen’s novels and there were o nly a couple th a t I did n ’t enjoy. most

I’ve read all of Jane Austen’s nove ls,______________________most of which_____________________ I enjoyed.

7 Dr W illiam s is a ca rd io log ist and has his surgery on the second floor. whose

Dr W illiam s,____________________ whose surgery is____________________ on t he second floor, is a cardiologist.

8 Last week Phil to o k part in a spelling co m p etitio n and won firs t prize, in

Phil won first prize in a spelling com petition

(that/which) he took part in/in which he took part

|ast week.

unit0 2

.Vords easily confused . se th e c o rr e c t fo r m o f th e w o r d s in th e b o x e s to c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s in e a c h g ro u p A-G b e lo w . Y o u m a y . s e so m e o f th e w o r d s m o re th a n o n ce . In s o m e cases, m o re th a n o n e w o r d m a y b e c o rre c t.



w atch






11 .Ve spent weeks in A fr ic a _______ observing_______ the way lions catch th e ir prey. ; Did y o u _______ see/notice_______ the tie he was wearing? It had pink elephants on it! 3 "h e students regarded/watched/observed the new teacher w ith curiosity. 4 - w a y s __________look__________left and then rig h t before crossing the road. 5 Don’t _________ stare__________at people like that! It’s really rude. ■

saw/watched______a great science fictio n film last night.

~ Before I bought the magazine, I


th rough it quickly.

IB I couldn’t h e lp ________ noticing________ the big red spots on his face. glanced/looked

find out


at his watch and started running. He was late fo r school.



Many serious illnesses may be cured if they a r e ________ detected_______ early enough.

2 We m u s t ________ find out________ as m uch as we can about the gang,” said the detective. 3 Was it Captain Cook w h o _______ discovered______ Australia? ■t The firs t camera, the Kodak 1, w a s ________ invented_______ by G. Eastman in 1888.



look for

look up

(do) research

• The police came t o _______ investigate_______the m urder im m ediately. 2 I still h a v e ________ research________to do fo r my p roject on sharks. 3 I m u s t________ look up________ this w ord in the dictionary, because I don’t rem em ber w hat it means. 4 Mum, I’m _______ looking for______ m y trainers. Have you seen them? 5 As soon as the five friends g ot to the cave, they decided t o ________ explore________ it.

a tte m p t

e ffo rt

tria l

experim ent

1 It takes a lot o f _________ effort_________ and patience to learn how to play a m usical instrum ent. 2 John’s case came t o __________ trial__________and in the end he was found innocent. 3 The athlete failed in his la s t ________ attem pt_______ to break the w orld record. 4 Many cosm etic com panies claim they don’t carry o u t ______ experiments______ on animals. 5 I w orked fo r the com pany fo r a ( n ) __________ tna]__________ period of tw o weeks before I was fu lly em ployed.

unit 0 2 audience


view ers




1 T h e _______spectators_______ disagreed w ith the referee’s decision and interru pted the fo otba ll match. 2 The tw o teenagers claim ed they were j u s t _____ onlookers_________and had nothing to do w ith the fig ht. 3 Paris attracts thousands o f ______ sightseers________all year round. 4 At the end of the play, t h e _______ audience_______ applauded enthusiastically. 5 T h e _______ witnesses_______ were asked to give a detailed description o f the accident. 6 The concert was broadcast on TV and attracted one b illio n ________ viewers________ w orldw ide.


m em orise

rem ind



1 I did n ’t _______ recognise________her at first. She had changed a lot. 2 I had t o _______ memorise_______ his phone num ber because I d id n't have a pen to w rite it down. 3 I’ll ring Dad t o ________ remind_________him to buy coffee, otherw ise he’ll forget. 4 My grandfather can s t i l l _________ recall_________ scenes of World War II.







1 The sun affects m y ______ vision/sight______ when I’m driving, so I always wear sunglasses. 2 We have a s u p e rb _________ view__________0f the sea from our balcony. 3 The child started to cry at t h e _________ sight_________ of the dogs. 4 The television show was about t h e _________ sights_________ you can visit in Rome. 5 The police arrived at t h e ________ scene_________ of the accident w ith in minutes. 6 An a c to r 's _________ image________ js im p o rta n t fo r his career. 7 I ran o ut of paint, so I co uldn ’t finish the sky fo r the b a c k g ro u n d ________ scene__________jn the play. 8 When we were leaving the flow er show, we were asked to fill in a questionnaire to give o u r _________ views on w hat we had seen.

Derivatives are formed from noun roots, adjective roots and verb roots. In this unit we will deal with adjectives, adverbs and nouns which derive from certain noun roots. Adjective = Noun + -ful

Noun Root

Adjective = Noun + -less

Describing a q uality or

Having enough of th a t q uality or

Not having th a t q u a lity or

characteristic (often abstract nouns)






Adverbs Noun + -fully


Adverb = Noun + -lessly carelessly


• Some o the r com m on nouns th a t form adjectives and adverbs in the same way are: colour, harm, hope, meaning, pain, p o w e r and use. • The noun doubt form s the adjective in -ful and the adverb in -fully and in -less. d o u b t 4 d o u b tfu l 4 d o u b tfu lly - doubtless • In some cases o nly one o f the tw o adjectives - and corresponding adverbs ■derives from the noun root, not both. beauty

b e a u tifu l - begs&tess / b e a u tifu lly - b e ^ fig $ s ly

- endless / e nitM T y - endlessly


In the same way: delightful, d utiful, grateful, aimless, effortless, heartless, homeless, nameless, pointless and shapeless.

• The opposite of some adjectives in -ful is un + noun root + ful, not noun root + less. success 4 successful * unsuccessful

skill 4 s k ilfu l t u n skilfu l

tru th 4 tru th fu l * u n tru th fu l

• Sometimes both adjective form s (noun root + less and un + noun root + ful) derive from the same noun. In such cases the tw o adjectives have d ifferen t meanings. The adjective form un + noun root + ful is the opposite o f the adjective in -ful. h e lp - } h e lp fu l (= sb who gives help)


u n h e lp fu l (= sb who doesn't give help) helpless (= sb w ho needs help)

• The opposite of some adjectives in -less is noun root + -y or noun root + -b le , not noun root + -ful. g u ilt


g u ilty

sense 4 senseless * sensible

sleep -4 sleepless * sleepy value -4 valueless * valuable (note the changes in spelling)

• Be careful w ith the m eaning of the adjectives derived from price. price -4 p rice y (=expensive)

4 priceless (= too valuable to have a p rice) Noun Root 1 Som ebody in a certain position / occupation author 2 Som ebody having a relationship w ith sb else friend

Noun = Noun + -ship 1 State of being in certain position / occupation authorship 2 Relationship between tw o people friendship

• Some com m on nouns th a t form nouns in the same way as a u th o r are: citizen, leader, m em ber and owner. • Some com m on nouns th a t form nouns in the same way as frie n d are: com panion, p a rtn e r and relation. • Some nouns form nouns in - ship w ith a d ifferen t m eaning: champion, scholar and sponsor. [ J I J J 3 When you are asked to com plete a sentence w ith a suitable w ord deriving from a given root, read the sentence carefully to decide: 1) w hat part o f speech the m issing w ord is (noun, verb, adjective or adverb), 2) if the missing w ord has the same m eaning as the given roo t (e.g. success-successful) or the opposite m eaning (e.g. success-unsuccessful).

unit 0 2 C o m p lete th e sentences w ith th e c o rre c t fo rm of th e w o rd s in c ap itals. 1 The top m odel w a s ________ beautifully_________ dressed in an elegant evening gown.




My street i s _________ peaceful__________

because it’s far from any main roads.

3 Our fo otba ll team won the ______ championship________ at the end o f the season and received _______ sponsorship_________ from a large company.


4 There are thousands o f _________homeless__________ people sleeping in the streets. colourful


I b ought a


I was fined because I was d riving


I am feeling q u it e __________ sleepy


I g ot into a b u s in e s s ______ being


. dress but its colours faded after I washed it.

7 The directions you gave us were rather

carelessly__________ .

because I d id n ’t get enough sleep last night. __ w ith my cousin but it ended up



10 The m usical perform ance was so


________unhelpful___________ as we still got lost.



SUCCESS powerful

. th a t the audience gave


the orchestra a standing ovation. 11 The w itness’ statem ent d id n ’t help the police in the investigation, so it proved to be ________ valueless__________ .


12 The man was found __________ guilty___________ of s h op liftin g and sentenced


to one m onth in prison. 13 He has ______ successfully__________com pleted his postgraduate studies.


14 The new lazer trea tm en t can extract teeth ________ painlessly__________ .



15 It’s ju st a

. dog. There is no need to panic.


Examination Practice A R ead th e te x t b e lo w a n d d ec id e w h ic h a n s w e r A, B, C o r D best fits e ach space.

A NIGHT AT THE THEATRE Going to the theatre brings back happy m em ories, as it (1)________ reminds

. me of m y very firs t perform ance on

stage, (2 )_________ which_________ was th irty years ago. Parts o f th a t p articula r n ig ht are so vivid th a t I can still picture m yself as th ough it were yesterday. The excitem ent am ongst the actors, the (3 )_______ audience's______ applause and the party after the opening n ig h t are m em ories which w ill rem ain w ith me fo r (4) _


I don’t know how we m anaged to do so well. The rehearsals were far from satisfactory because we th o u g h t th a t we could ju s t have tw o rehearsals a week (5 )_________ when_________ in fa ct we needed more. The background ( 6 ) _________scenes________ to the last act w eren’t ready u ntil an hour before the beginning o f the play despite the set b u ild e r’s best (7 )_________efforts_________. The director was not satisfied ( 8 )__________ with__________ anything and he d id n ’t even w ant to show up on the firs t night. Adm ittedly, I w o u ld n ’t have wanted to either. ( 9 ) _________ When_________ the n ig ht fin a lly arrived, we were all a b it w orried. I rem em ber (1 0 )_____


th ro ug h the curtain ten m inutes before the s ta rt and being amazed (11)___________at___________ the (12) _


. of a fu ll house. Finally, it was tim e fo r the curta in to go up. In the end, we proved the d irector

w rong and everythin g w ent like clockw ork.

unit 0 2 C recalls

D m em orises

B when

C w here

D w ho

A onlookers’

B view ers’

C audience’s

D spectators’


A life

B ages

C a w hile

D tim e


A where

B when

C which

D w henever


A images

B visions

C scenes

D sights


A attem pts

B efforts

C trials

D tries


A by

B in

C at


A When

B After

C While

D Until

B noticing

C staring

D w atching

C on

D fo r


A recognises


A w hich




:A )glancing


A in


A view

(B )reminds

© at B vision

© s ig h t

i D )w ith

D image

Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

FRIENDS Many people consider (1)_______ friendship_______ to be the


m ost im p o rta n t (2 )______ relationship______ th ey can have.


It is (3 )_______ wonderful_______to have a frien d you can talk


to and share (4) ________ valuable________ experiences w ith.


However, it is im p o rta n t to choose friends

(5 ) ________ carefully_______ .


An ideal friend should be ( 6 ) _______ thoughtful_______


Of course, there w ill be tim es w hen we m ig ht be (7 )________ doubtful_______ of our friends. But, we should


always ta lk things through in a ( 8 ) ________ sensible________


way and find a solution to our problems. Moreover, we should be careful not to be ( 9 ) _______ untruthful_______.


W ithout honesty, the bond between friends is (1 0 )_________useless________ and not w o rth anything at all.

I m

and when any d ifficu ltie s arise, hopefully be there fo r us.


Collocations/expressions A The following expressions include the words day, year and time. Complete them with prepositions. ( DAY



this day and aae




all vear vear


round after



this tim e

o f the year


a period of tim e

sb’s free tim e


tim e to tim e



the firs t tim e

have no tim e


the riq h t tim e

take tim e

no tim e f° r off

B Complete the sentences with the collocations /expressions in the box below. the o the r day in tim e

pass the tim e

all day long

call it a day

ahead of its tim e

at tim es

tim e and tim e again

on tim e fo r the tim e being

1 Despite technical problems, the flig h t l e f t ________ on tim e________ . 2 We’ll be g ettin g a new p rin te r next m onth. So,

for the tim e being

_we have to put up w ith this one.

3 Most engineers agreed th a t the ca r’s design w a s _____ ahead of its tim e 4 I started a conversation w ith the person sittin g next to me on the bus t o ______ pass the tim e______ 5 I saw S a lly _____ the other day______ . Did you know th a t she had broken her leg? 6 The m atch started at 7 pm and Jack arrived j u s t ________ in tim e_________for the kick-off. 7 Let’s ______ call it a day_______ and go home. We’ve been w orking fo r over tw elve hours w ith o u t a break. 8 He keeps m aking the same mistake

tim e and tim e again

9 I find it very d iffic u lt to agree w ith y o u ________ at times________ . Your views can som etim es be extreme. 10 I have been s le e p y _______all day long______ today. I don’t know w h a t’s the m atter w ith me.

C Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs hold, run, catch or keep. 1 The student w a s _________caught________ jn th e a ct o f cheating by the examiner. 2 I ju s t need you t o _________ keeP__________an eye on Sam w hile I go out. 3 Jenny w ill c e rta in ly _________ catch_________ everyone's a tte n tio n w ith th a t dress she's wearing. 4 Blue eyes and red h a ir __________ run__________ in m y fa m ily . Only m y aunt has brown eyes. 5 When m y gra nd m o th er was in hospital, I used t o __________keeP_________ her co m p a n y in the afternoons. 6 Mary is m oving to another city, but we prom ised t o _________ keeP_________ in to u c h w ith each other. 7

Running________ a business requires m any skills and expertise.

8 You can't rely on Roger. Actually, he's the kind of person th a t c a n 't_________ keeP__________a prom ise. 9 The w inner o f the m arathon had t o _________catch__________his b re a th before speaking to the journalist. 10 P le a se _________ keeP__________in m in d th a t sm oking is not allowed in this building. 11 We a l l __________held

o u r b re ath when the w inn er o f the co m p e titio n was being announced.

12 As I was running t o _________ catch_________ th e bus, I slipped and fell. 13 Can y o u _________ keeP_________ a secret? Jane is organising a surprise p arty fo r Kevin’s birthday! 14 The c h ild re n __________held__________hands w hile w alking down the street.

w ork

unit 0 3 ^

________________ ________ ____________________ _______________ _

Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the

correct number in the box next to each definition.

A LOOK 1 We looked after Ben’s house w hile he was on holiday.


have a poor opinion of


respect, admire


warn somebody about potential danger


take care of


expect sth pleasant to happen




inspect quickly


try to find in a book or list


be careful about


care for sb or sth, especially because it

2 We are all looking forward to the opening game o f the season. 3 The auth orities prom ised to look into the claims o f co rrup tion . 4 I looked over yo ur essay and can suggest some im provem ents. 5 Look out! The pavem ent is broken and you m ight trip. 5 Look up the m eaning of the w ord in the dictionary. 7 John looks down on people w ho aren’t as rich as he is. 3 Children often look up to sports heroes.

B CHECK, WATCH, SHOW 1 We were told to check in at the a irp o rt as early as possible. 2 Guests are kindly rem inded to check out by 12 o’clock.

is your responsibility

3 The to urists were told to watch out for pickpockets.


arrive, appear

4 The older children were told to watch over the younger ones.


report one’s arrival at a hotel/airport etc.

5 The man was showing off his new sports car to his friends.


pay the bill and leave (a hotel/clinic etc.)

6 Everybody showed up at the p arty on Saturday night.


try to make people notice and admire

Words with Prepositions


Complete the blanks with prepositions.

accustomed___ to



sb (=well known)


addicted____ ^



sb (=friendlv)

a rise


be familiar


astonished un)aware_ crazy,












t° r


w 'th


a taste


a taste



a talent



(= liking, preference) (=reaarded)


B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 Did vou know 2 Are you familiar


the surprise party?

with __ the com pany's no sm oking policy?

3 Do you like the taste.

of____ red w ine m ore than th a t of w hite wine?

4 He is feared by everyone in the area. He's known 5 I'm really keen



involve _ know



ty p ic a l

fill sth _





brief experience)




(feel) sympathy

sth (=know well)















‘The Cleaner'.

the idea of spending m y holiday on an island in the M editerranean.

in about


(=have knowledge of)

unit 0 3 to

6 This village looks fam iliar. 7 A rise


me. Have we been here before?

infla tion w ould have negative consequences fo r the c o u n try ’s economy.

8 I d id n ’t like olive oil but I’ve developed a taste


it now th a t I’m living in Spain.

Grammar Revision (Adverbs - Comparisons - Articles - Uncountables) See Grammar Review page 150 ^

A Read the text below and complete each blank with one word. Gianni Versace was one of the (1)__________most_______ ______ successful fashion designers (2 )_____


the 1980s and 1990s. He was born in 1946, in Reggio, a (3) __________ v e r y / r a t h e r ________ small town in Italy, where he learnt how to make clothes. In (4) _________ the_____________beginning, he sold his clothes to (5) ____________ a____________ m anufacturer in Milan, but he was not as popular then (6 ) ___________ as____________he was in later years. Very quickly he developed a personal style, which made him famous. He used bright colours and, over time, his clothes became more and (7 )___________ more_________ extravagant. The more successful his collections were, the (8 )___________m o r e __________ his talent was acknowledged. Celebrities (9 )__________ [ike___________ Princess Diana and Elton John loved his style. Versace same

also paid the (10),

. attention to his surroundings (11) _ lots

clothes and spent (12) (13)_________ one


he did to his

______ of m oney on art and expensive furniture. Versace’s fame, however, is just

. side of this story of style, which ended suddenly w ith his death (14)_________ in__________the

summ er of 1997. Some fashion critics have described his clothes (15)___________ £5___________ “fabulous rubbish” and criticised him for using cheap materials. Nevertheless, he has to be seen as one of the most influential designers of his generation.

B Choose A , B, C or D to complete the following dialogue. Jim:

Have you made up your mind about where to go on holiday?

Mike: I've narrowed down my choices to tw o (1)


large countries, France and

Mexico. What do you think? Jim:

Well, France is one of (2) the largest countries in Europe. Did you know it's tw ice (3 )

as big as

the UK? Since you've got eight weeks off (4)


you could go on a cycling to u r of the country. Mike: I'd like to visit (5)


Alps and M ont Blanc, which is (6)


than any other m ountain in Western

Europe. I suppose I could also go on long walks in the country, as the clim ate there is sim ilar (7)


that in

Britain. Jim:

Really? I th ink it's (8)



Especially on the Riviera, the Mediterranean in

1 (A ) rather

B m ost

C far

w inte r is (9)

the same tem perature as the

2 A larger

B largest

C the larger ( D ith e largest

British coastal waters are in summer! I

3 A bigger than

B as big as

C so big as

can really picture you, tanned and

4 A a

B the

C some

relaxed, tasting delicious local specialities

5 A an

B jth e

C some

D -


6 (^ jh ig h e r

B highest

C the higher

D the highest

7 A as

B w ith

© to

D of

8 A more

B m ost

('C)m uch

D quite

9 A the same

B same

10 A such

B as

© lik e

© fa r

C the


Cam em bert cheese, froas'

legs and snails! Mike: Come on, that sounds disgusting! Jim:

D too

ADoarentlv. thev taste (11)



than they sound. Mike: I don't know. I'd rather go to Mexico and eat to rtillas and chilli every day!

11 A pre tty

C sim ilar

D as bigger than ® -

D the sim ilar D so D more

inequality (noun)

• Some words of the same category (verbs, nouns or adjectives) deriving from one root form two opposites using two different negative prefixes -but with a difference in meaning: a£>/e (adj)

unable (=not able), disabled (=handicapped) inform ed (adj) uninform ed (=not informed), m isinform ed (=wrongly informed) used (adj) unused (=not used), misused (=wrongly/badly used)

attractive attractively

certain -*• uncertain unable inability, disability

able + ability



efficient ■ w in iin ii .ii . i n . . i ii .n .ii 'j!

1uwh mi i wfw








unattractive unattractively

certainty-^ uncertainty






1rath er than paying the whole (5 ) (6 )

amount__________ at once. Most consumers, though, prefer to buy things using th e ir cred it cards. By and large________ , it is th o u g h t th a t there are benefits to having a credit card. A part from the fact

th a t cred it cards are handy, some stores o ffe r bonus points to people m aking purchases, w hile others give (7)


on certain products.

On the o the r hand, cred it cards m ust be used w isely because they can prove disastrous. In the long run, consum ers find th a t they can't ( 8 ) ____________ do____________ w ith o u t th e ir credit cards and constantly rely ( 9 ) __________ on______________ them , as they are “easy m oney”. As a result, some people lose co ntrol of th e ir finances spending m ore than th ey should and w ind up not being able to (10) they end up in (11) _


and have d iffic u lty (12) _

make ends meet______ . so, in paying

it back.

iiuitOS 1

A change

B cash


A lent

B let


A. afforded

B owned

C saved


A sums

B deposits

C budgets

5 © am ount

B debt

C bill


A Last but not least

B One by one


A bargains


A go

(B ) discounts

9 (A )o n 10

A make m atters worse

C notes ©


borrow ed

D kept D possessed ^ in s ta lm e n t s D cost

By and large

C tips

D Every now and then D prizes

B make

C be

(D jd o

B in

C to

D of

C do th e ir best

D do business D owe

( b ) make ends meet

11 ( a ) debt

B loan

C charge


B to paying

C in pay

A to pay

D currency

( p ) in paying

Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

HOMEWORK Hom ework is a part o f every student's school life. (1)_______ Unfortunately_______ , many o f them




______ sapprove_________ 0f the am 0unt o f hom ew ork they are given, and find it p articula rly

3 )

unfair_____________ when they have to study a lot before a test. This makes them feel

4 )

anxious________and some even become physically sick w hen under pressure. Others

sometimes find it (5)_ relieve it's an act o f (6) _


to com plete th e ir hom ew ork, w hich makes teachers


On the o the r hand, teachers consider hom ew ork (7) „



______ . They believe


students should have a daily schedule to avoid g e ttin g ( 8 ) ___________ disorganised________ ancj


naving to hand in ( 9 ) __________ incomplete___________ hom ew ork. M oreover, teachers th in k


1 0 )______ inadequate______ am ounts of hom ew ork put students' fu tu re at risk.


Prepositional Phrases A

C o m p le te th e b la n k s w it h p r e p o s itio n s .

regardless due





because for


to of from

ow ing






co n tra ry






B C o m p le te th e b la n k s w it h p r e p o s itio n s . in




com parison



to of
















as of as

C R ead th e s e n te n c e s a n d c o m p le te th e m w it h th e p r e p o s itio n s in , o n , a t, by, u n d e r o r to . 1 You’ll find a fa irly detailed map o f the t o w n __________ on_____________page 4 0 of this guide. 2 3

lo ______________ m y parents' surprise I passed all my examinations. Under___________ th e circum stances, the police o ffice r had no o the r choice but to arrest them .

4 W h a t's ___________ on____________ yo u r mind, Geoffrey? You look rather w orried. 5 I prom ise to b e ___________ by____________ yo u r side no m atter w hat happens. 6 You look so calm a n d ___________ at_____________ease w ith yourself. 7

Jo____________sum up, this book is a good read and I d e fin ite ly recom m end it.

8 I made several a ttem pts to convince her, b u t____________ in____________ vain. 9 I w a s _________ under__________

the im pression you knew how to operate the video camera.

10 Their w illingness to em ploy me im m ediately w ith o u t another intervie w to ok m e _____________ by__________ surprise. 11

lo ____________a certain extent, yo ur anger is understandable.

Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition.


I'm buying a new car because m y old one keeps breaking down.

2 As soon as the governm ent announced the harsh econom ic measures, rio ts broke out th ro u g h o u t the country.


in te rru p t


be destroyed by fire


stop fu nctio nin g


end a relationship


sta rt suddenly


becom e exhausted


enter illegally


lose co ntrol of one’s feelings

3 The th ie f broke into the house and stole the jewels. 4 She co u ld n ’t handle being under so m uch stress so she broke down and started crying.

5 I started describing w hat had happened to the police o ffice r but m y sister broke in to tell him som ething I had forgotten.

6 They broke up a fter having been to g e th e r fo r three years. 7

If Peter doesn't stop w orking so hard, he'll burn out before his time.

8 By the tim e the fire brigade arrived, the b uilding had already burnt down.

unit 0 7




cut into sm all pieces

I 3 The speaker w as cut off by protesters m any tim es during her speech.


cut from /rem ove

| A Alw ays cut up the meat for the dog, otherw ise it w ill choke on it.


stop doing

5 During the w inter the island is cut off from the rest of the world.





1 These pictures of film stars were cu to u t of different m agazines. I 2 The doctor told me to cut down on junk food.

I 6 The boys are shouting upstairs. Tell them to cut it out!


Turn off the heater. It's v e ry hot in here.


a rrive u n exp ected ly

I 2 John has turned into a reliable and efficient w orker much to my surprise.



I 3 It turned out to be a great party.


sw itch off

I 4 More people turned up at the meeting than I had expected.


switch on

I 5 Can you please turn down the m usic? I can't hear you.

Z red u ce the am o u nt of sound, D

heat, etc.


in crea se the am o u nt of sound,

I 6 My application for a visa was turned down again. I 7 Don't forget to turn on the alarm when you leave home.

heat, etc.

I 8 I want you to know that you can turn to me for help any time. I 9 When Je ssica heard her favourite song, she turned up the radio full blast and started dancing.


result in a particular w ay


ch a n g e to


co m e to and ask for

Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives

ashamed _ of -usy with :onscious_ •-iendlv




je a lo u s, mean


re le v a n t_____ to




an e x a m p le .



an opinion of/about/in



a question




a reaction



sth (=competent)














B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions.


W hv are vou alw ays so mean

3 My friend Giles introduced me

the high jump. to to


an excep tio n .



com m ent


s h o rt______

1 W alter is ve ry good



Sarah? the fascinating world of classical music,

dedicate sth



introduce sb


.sb /sth







unit 0 7 4 The travel book w ill be useful 5 W hat exactly do you mean

for by

our trip to Paris at the end o f the m onth. saying I'm arrogant and a snob?

6 Most nouns fo rm th e ir plural in -s, but there area lot of exceptions 7 Mrs Ming is a very nice lady. She's always been good




8 A glass of orange juice a day is good


9 This brochure w ill be useful

all the to u rists w ho vis it the sights.


this rule.


Grammar Revision (M odal Verbs) See G ram m ar R e v ie w p age 155 ^

Read the short texts below and complete each blank with one word. All the missing words are modal verbs (can, could, may, should etc.) a

As children, they (1)__________ used_________ to spend a lot of tim e together. They (2 )_________ would___________go fo r long bike rides along the coast u ntil th ey reached the cave. Once there, th ey (3)__________were__________ able to explore it to th e ir heart's content, as no one else knew about this secret hideaway. They fe lt they (4 )__________ had___________ to keep this place to them selves no m atter what.


I'm w orried about Gene. He hasn't been well lately. Yesterday, he was pale and he (5) _________rnust___________ have been feeling sick, as he (6 )_________ could_________ not eat a thing. I th in k he (7)____________ had__________better see a doctor, as he (8) O)


might/could/may jUSt

have some serj0us j||ness he’s not aware of. Of course, it

a Vjrus. j Q be on the safe side, though, I (10)__________ w l]___________ drop by

his house later and tell him th a t he (11)______ should/m ust______do som ething about it im m ediately.


When used properly, videos (12)_________caD____________ be very educational fo r children. Of course, they (13)______ must/should______ be suitable fo r th e ir age and children (14)_______ should/m ust______ not just be placed in fro n t of the television and left unsupervised. Parents (15)_________ ought__________to be a ctively involved, too, as children (16)


must/should________not be passjve viewers; they need som eone to interact w ith w hile watching.

My car broke down yesterday and I (17)__________ had__________to take the bus to work. I (18)_________ should________ have taken a taxi instead, as it was a fru stra tin g experience. We were all squashed to ge th er like sardines in a tin and we (19)__________ could_________ hardly breathe. To make m atters worse, an o verw eight lady standing next to me wanted to get o ff at one point. "(2 0 )________ Do/Would_______ y 0U m ind m oving a b it to the side so that I (21)________ can/could

get to the door?" she said. She nearly squashed me to death! (22)_________Must__________

the public tran spo rtatio n system be this bad?

unit 0 7

I must wash my car. / I have to wash m y car. / : must to wash my car. •

You should wash your car. / You ought to wash your car. / You should to wash your car. Peter would wash his car every Saturday. / Peter used to wash his car every Saturday. / Peter would to w ash hip car every Saturday. tModal verbs arefollowed by a bare infinitive (without 'to'.) Note: have to, ought to and used to.) Jonathan can play tennis very well. Jonathan could play tennis when he was ten years old. If it doesn't rain, w e'll be able to play tennis. I haven't been able to contact Mike this week. (can has no future or perfect tenses so be able to is used in itsplace.) Bill could run quite fast when he was young. (general ability in the past) The injured athlete was able to finish the race. (ability in aparticular situation in thepast, especially a difficult one.) I must go to bed early tonight. I have to get up early every morning. I had to return some books to the library yesterday. I've never had to wait for more than ten minutes at the doctor’s surgery. W e'll have to work hard on our project next week. (must has nopast, perfect orfuture tenses, so have to is used in itsplace.)


He must be home now. / He must be watching TV. S (Positivedeductions about thepresent/future) He must have arrived early. ✓

He must have been working hard lately. / (Positive deductions about thepast) He can't be home now, he is usually at work at this tim e o ftheda yV He can't be watching TV. / He mustn’tbe home now. (Negative deductions about thepresent/future) He can't/couldn’t have stolen the money. / Ilemusttrt-havo stolon t-hemeneyr(Negative deductions about thepast) Ruth needs to see the doctor today. / Ruth nead see the doctor today.Does Ruth need to see the doctor today? / Need Ruth see the doctor today? / Ruth doesn't need to see the doctor today. / Ruth needn't see the doctor today. / (need is used as a modal verb only in present tense questions and negations.) They didn't need to return the books to the library today. (=it wasn't necessary and we don't know if they didornot.) They needn't have returned the books to the library today. (=it wasn't necessary but they did so nonetheless.) You should apologise. / You ought to apologise. / You had better apologise. / (Refer to the present or future) You should have apologised. / You ought to have apologised. / It would have been better if you had apologised. / Youhadbot-ter-haveapologised:(Refer to thepast)

Key Transformations 6

Could I (possibly) turn the music down? Do you m ind if I turn the music down? Would you m ind if I turn/turned the music down? Would you m ind m y turning the music down? I wonder if I could turn the music down.

& Your room needs tidying.

Your room needs to be tidied. You have/need to tid y your room. It is necessary for you to tid y your room. It is necessary that you tid y your room. ® It is not necessary for you to go shopping.

There is no need for you to go shopping. You don’t need/have to go shopping. You needn't go shopping.

& It was not necessary for you to go to the doctor.

There was no need for you to go to the doctor. You needn't have gone to the doctor. & My grandfather went fishing every morning.

My grandfather used to go fishing every morning. My grandfather w ould go fishing every morning. & The students did not manage to finish the project.

The students were not able to finish the project. The students were unable to finish the project. The students did not succeed in finishing the project. & (I think / Perhaps) you should take some tim e off work.

(I think / Perhaps) you ought to take some tim e off work. You had better take some tim e off work. The best thing you could do is take some tim e off work. The best thing for you to do is take some tim e off work.

unit 0 7

Examination Practice A Choose the correct answer. 1. You needn't have cooked so much food. There was

7. “Would you mind my leaving

plenty of food left over from yesterday.

a. cook

I must go to the dentist's.”

b. to cook

c. me to leave

2. Susan hates Maths and Chemistry but she’ s really good


. awful when she was told that

a. feel

(b )h a ve felt

d. of

c. felt

d. be felt

not go

out tonight. It's raining

9. You


to drink lots of water when you're on

a diet.

( a ) n o tg o

b. n o tto g o

c. d o n 't go

a. should

d. to d o n 't go

4. The climbers d id n 't succeed

a. to reach

10. Your jeans need

in reaching the


c. wash

t>e Annie who is crossing the street;

Annie's taller.


d. have washed

According to t he weather forecast, it will be cold and foggy at the weekend,

a. m ustn 't

(b )c a n 't

c. w o u ld n 't

d. shouldn't

a. Owing to

( ji ) According to

d. Instead of

c. Apart from

“When are Michael and Julie getting married?”

12. There used to .


.a coffee shop on that

“Well, they w o n 't get married after all. They broke

corner when I was young,

_____ UP

a. have been

a. out c. off

before y0U wear t hem b. to wash

(a)w ashing

(d )in reaching

ca n t

d. used

for the first time.

b. to have reached

c. reach

b. must

(c )o u g h t

mountain peak due to extreme weather conditions,


have felt

she had been fired


5. It

d. me to leaving

(b )a t

c. for 3. You had better

8. She m ust.


a. to

b. me leave

(a )m y leaving

d. to have cooked

@ h a v e cooked

a |jttle earlier today?

two months ago!”

b. down

(b )b e

c. were

d. being

( d)up

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 I'm sure he hasn't refused such a good offer.


He____________________can t have turned down___________________such a good offer.

2 There was no need for the climbers to bring so many supplies.


The clim bers____________________ need not have brought___________________so many supplies.

3 If I were you, I wouldn't stay in the sun w ithout sunscreen.


You______________________ had better not stay_____________________ in the sun w ithout sunscreen.

4 Shall I water the plants for you?


W ould______________________you like me to water____________________ the plants for you?

5 It is necessary that he doesn’t eat so many sweets.


He_____________________needs to/m ust cut down on______________ sweets.

6 I expect that she has invited everyone to her birthday party.


She___________________ must have invited everyone_______________ to her birthday party.

7 As a child, David was never in the habit of eating cornflakes.


As a child. David

never used to eat


unit 07 5-noking is not allowed in the building, ■ m ust

must not smoke


19 3erhaps Julie thought that you would check the report. have been under the impression im pression Julie m ay____________________________ ________ k

. that you would check the report.

: was wrong of you to steal that book. should


_in the building.

should not have stolen


_that book,

5ne is not obliged to cook if she doesn't have time. nave

She____________________ doesn't have to cook

if she doesn't have time.

Vords easily confused ; the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may : some of the words more than once. In some cases more than one word may be correct.

th in k ■ - ease.


consider consider


. m y o ffe r and call me if you decide to sell.


* l have b e e n .


I deserve it because I've w orked

_____ of taking a holiday. I _________believe

nard all year. regarded

The death penalty is _ d o n 't__________think d id n 't_____


as a barbaric practice by m ost people.

. he re a lly .


means__________w ha t he is saying, because he’s usually joking.

to offend you. Please_________ believe_________ me.



m eet




meet _________ m y favourite film star and get his autograph.

1 One day I'd like t o . 2 That's the journalist th a t

presents________the evening news. Don't y o u ________recognise_________ her?


3 The teacher did n ’t _________realise [ 4 Aren't you going to _ 5 | ________appreciate


__th a t the students hadn’t understood w hat he was saying. ______ me to yo ur friend? I haven’t ______________[O^t_________

her before.

yo ur help, but you m u s t_______ understand_______ th a t I w ant to do this on my own.

.Jgfg assume



1 Since I hadn’t studied for the test, I had t o ____

estim ate guess


p re dict


most of the answers.

2 We w ere _______ supposed_______to play football today, but we cancelled it. 3 It's almost impossible t o _________ Predict_______ what the future holds. 4 I suppose/assume/guess |’|| be late for work, since there’s so much traffic. 5 We h ad _______ estimated_______the value of the house to be around 6 0 ,0 0 0 dollars, but we hadn’t . the cost of the renovation.


unit 0 7 idea


th o u g h t

p o in t



1 She's ve ry rude and has no

m atter

.fo r anyone.


2 You should consider a ll___



. of his proposal, because he made some in te re s tin g .

3 In m y ________ view_______ ______ the education system should change. 4 I can't bear the

thought_______ 0f going back to w ork a fte r such a great holiday. point

5 There's n o ____

___ in talking to Clark about th is problem , as he has n o __

m atter

6 A s a (n )_



_o f fact, I hired an in te rio r decorator, w ho gave me some good



c o rrid o r


about it.



1 The cornflakes are in the th ird


2 Walk dow n th e _______ corridor

.and the to ile t is the th ird door on your right.

3 The e n tra n ce ____


_____to m y fla t is so small th a t it's a waste of space.

4 Please get in _____


____ and w ait yo ur turn, madam!

5 We were lucky enough to be given seats in the fr o n t___________[2 ^ _________ at the theatre. q u e u e /lin e

6 There was such a lo n g .



in the bank th a t I couldn’t be bothered to go in.



1 When I bought my car, I got the a ir-c o n d itio n e r____



f ree_________of charge. It really came in


during the summer. 2 Every car m ust have a (n )_________ spare_________ tyre in the boot. available

3 The Red Dog’s new album is now __

4 A laptop com puter is v e ry ________ handy

in music stores. . because it is portable a n d .


.anyw here.

5 I'm ________ f ree___________to m o rro w evening. Would you like to go to the cinema? 6 A car is a v e ry .




. means o f tra n sp o rt com pared to buses and trains.




1 A fter the accident, my father suffered a g ra d u a l__________ 1055

o f m emory.

2 V icky's _______ absence________f rom w o rk was noticed, so the boss rang her at home. 3 T h e __________lack__________of rain created severe________ shortages______ of fresh fru it and vegetables. shortage

4 There's a w orld

__of energy and scientists are looking fo r alternative sources.

5 Although I liked living w ith m y family, I was annoyed by th e __________ jack_________ 0f privacy.


sh ort




insu fficien t


1 As a botanist he specialises in _________ rare__________ species of plants. 2 The book costs $ 21 and I'm __________ short________by one dollar. Could you lend me some money? 3 A(n)

inadequate_______supply o f oxygen to the brain can prove lethal.

4 In m any parts of the w orld w ater is _________ scarce________ . _______5 Parking space in the city centre is

V | lE l



due to th e _______ inadequate______ num ber o f car parks.

unit 0 7

{^223331. This unit deals with some verbs and nouns which derive from adjectives. Verb = Adjective + -en

Noun ^Adjective + -ness

Describing the process of acquiring the q ua lity / state o f the adjective

The q ua lity / state described by the adjective



Adjective Root I Describing a quality/state dark

Some o the r com m on adjectives th a t form verbs and nouns in the same way are: fresh, hard, loose, quick,

sharp, thick and weak. The adjectives broad, deep and w ide form nouns in -th:




deep 4 deepen 4 depth wide 4 widen 4 width Some verbs in -en do not derive from adjectives, but from the corresponding nouns: Adjective



high long strong

height length strength frig h t threat

heighten lengthen strengthen frigh ten threaten

The adjective short form s tw o nouns w ith a difference in meaning:


shortness (being sh ort or having little of sth) shortage (lack or insu fficien t q u a n tity o f sth) Noun in-nee or -ncy

Adjective Root in -nt Describing a quality / state

The quality/state described by the adjective distance intelligence efficiency

d istant intellig en t e fficie n t Most adjectives in -ant/-ent form nouns in -ance and-ence.

Some com m on adjectives th a t fo rm nouns in -ance are: arrogant, assistant, ignorant, im portant, relevant,

reluctant, resistant, significant and tolerant. Some com m on adjectives th a t form nouns in -ence are: absent, confident, convenient, different, evident,

innocent, patient, present, silent and violent. Some com m on adjectives in -ant/-ent th a t form nouns in -ancy/-ency are: consistent, efficient, fluent, frequent,

pregnant, proficient, redundant, transparent, urgent and vacant. Noun in -cy

Adjective Root in -te Describing a q uality / state

The quality/state described by the adjective



Some o the r com m on adjectives th a t form nouns in the same way are: (in)accurate, (in)adequate, (il)literate,

immediate, intim ate and obstinate. The adjective secret form s tw o nouns w ith a difference in meaning:


secret (fact known o nly to few people and not to ld to others) secrecy (having/keeping secrets)

The adjective fortun a te does not form a noun in -cy but derives from the noun fortune.

unit 0 7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. 1 Despite being a keen camper, I fin d the _

darkness_______jn this forest



2 In ord er t o ________ broaden________ yOUI- shoulders, you have to do m any push-ups at the gym.


3 She d id n ’t like the colour o f her hair, so she decided t o _________ darken__________it. She was,



however, rather

____about how dark it w ould become.


4 The suspect was released because of lack o f ________ evidence________against him.


5 Being unable to m eet John, I rang to apologise fo r the



inconvenience______ | had caused him.

Fluency________ in at least tw o languages is essential if you w ant to become an


interpreter. 7 The tow n council placed restrictions on the w ater supply due to a ________shortage_________Gf


w ater th a t year. 8 There are m any com plaints about t h e ________ inadequacy______0f facilities fo r the handicapped.


9 The governm ent attem pted to re d u c e __________violence_______ by increasing police patrols.


10 T h e __________ depth_________ of th a t lake has never been measured. 11 To calculate the area of a room, you m u ltip ly i t s _____


DEEP width

. by its


12 The d o cto r advised me to exercise in ord er t o ________ strengthen______ my back muscles.


13 Amanda is unlikely to lose any w eight, as she has a ________ weakness_______ fo r sweets and junk


food. 14 Many flig h ts were delayed today, causing g row ing _



am ong the

passengers. 15 In some countries, the percentage o f ______ illiteracy

is still ve ry high.


Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

NEW YEAR r New Year celebrations date as far back as 2 0 0 0 BC in Mesopotamia. Yet, the actual date has changed a num ber of times. There was always a problem because New Year was (1)________ calculated by the m ovements o f the Sun and Moon w hich allowed room fo r error. To (2). a long sto ry short, it wasn't until 1582, when the calendar we use today was (3).

cut introduced

th a t January 1st became New Year’s Day in m ost cultures. Some cultures, however, celebrate the New Year at various times, according to th eir calendar and religious traditions. For example, the Chinese celebrate it between the 21st of January and the 19th o f February. In (4)

contrast___________w ith m ost of the w orld who celebrate

at the beginning of the year, the Jewish people celebrate it in September or early October. In any case, the New Year is a festive occasion. Some people celebrate at home w ith no (5).


champagne, w hile others party on the streets, w atching the firew orks that the city council ( 6 ) _____


of have

provided. Others prefer night clubs, joining the long (7 )_________ queues________ of people w aiting to get in and dance the night away. In China, there are parades w ith dancing dragons and hundreds of people tu rn (8 ) ____________ up__________to look on. It is also common to make New Year’s Resolutions, the ( 9 ) ________ idea (10)________regard__________ the New Year as a chance to (11)___________ break (12) To sum „




. bejng that m ost people .bad habits.

., New Year is a tim e of celebration that a large proportion of the people look forw ard to.

unit 0 7


B assumed

( a ) calculated


A break

B change


A realised

B recognised


A co ntrary

B opposite


(A ) shortage

C known

D introduced

© c o n tra s t

D difference

C absence C possibly

A likely

B should


A aisles

( b ) queues



B on

D tu rn

© cut

B loss


D considered

C supposed

D scarce ( d ) may

C rows

D co rridors

C into


o ut

D m atter

© id e a


A view

B point


A )re g a rd

B th in k

C believe

D realise


A cut

( b ) break

C change

D split


A on

D in

© up

B fo r

: Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.



. help and found m yself in the


2 ______ delightful__________position of fu lfillin g my dream - buying my own house.


Last year I received some (1)____

v . friends tried to (3)_


_ me by describing te rrible experiences

irv o lv in g house hunting. I knew th at my ordeal would test my (4 )_________ patience t j t I was determ ined to go to any (5).



.•.anted to live close to the city centre so I placed great (6 ).


LONG importance



the location. I inspected num erous houses and fin a lly found one I was happy w ith. I needed |o (7 )_________ freshen_________ the walls up a bit, but th a t w asn't a problem . I really loved :ne (8 ) _________ quietness_______ of the area, w hich was (9). considering the short (10) _ .•.hat I had dream ed of.



. from the c ity centre. It was exactly


Collocations/Expressions A Complete the blanks with the verbs le a v e , p u t, s e t or s h a k e . Put

a stop to sth


s liake

f jre to sth



an exam ple


hands w ith sb


pressure on sb

a message


fo o t in

the table


the alarm clock

B Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs p u t, s e t or s h a k e . 1 The u niversity h as________ set

. ve ry high standards to a ttra ct the best students.

2 D o n 't_______ Put______ the blame on him. He’s not the one responsible fo r the accident. shook______ his head in disappointm ent.

3 Jerry

4 She loved the house the m inute s h e ________set______ eyes on it. 5 Ia n ______ E>ut_______ a lot of e ffo rt in to repairing th a t old car. set

6 Mrs Smith

. her children the task of clearing o ut the attic.

7 A fter years o f im prisonm ent, the man w ho had w ro n g fu lly been accused o f the robbery was fin a lly ______ set


8 They have announced th e ir engagem ent but they h a v e n 't________set______ a date fo r th e ir w edding yet.

C Complete the blanks with the verbs m is s , or lo s e lose

.in te re st in



.a com p etitio n




a chance


. m oney


a person

a class


w eight


a m eeting

one's job



a train/plane etc.



a /you r turn



.c o n tro l (over)


. an o p p o rtu n ity

one's tem per


. one's way


lose/miss a m atch

D Complete the sentences with the c o llo c a tio n s /e x p re s s io n s in the box below. o ut o f the way

u n d e rw a y

make our way to

1 "This jo b is going to be done

by the way

on the way

have it yo u r way

way ahead

com e a long way

one way or another

one way o r another

way o f th in k in g

th ere ’s no way

way of life

said the m anager in a determ ined voice.

2 I 'm ______ on the way_________ to Julie's house. Will I see you there? 3 This school has

come a long way

4 We were asked to 5 Can you please move 6 N egotiations are There’s no wav By the way

make our way to

underw ay

___ ? We w ant to m ove this big box. t< buy a new striker, to im prove the team ’s chances. to

_ our parents w ill let us go to the rock festival next weekend. _ , whose tu rn is it to wash the dishes?

9 Once you understand the lecturer's

10 Why m ust you always _

the dining hall.

out of the way

way of thinking______ , his th e o ry becomes quite easy to follow.

have it your way

? it's not fair!

11 Stop w asting yo ur tim e in class, Michael. The rest of the class is

way ahead

12 Teenagers tend to idolise film stars and im itate the way they look and th e ir

o f you in M athematics. way of life

unit 0 8

Sentence Linkers plete the sentences/paragraphs with the sentence linkers in the box below. fu rth e rm o re besides

w hat is more

otherw ise


to be m ore specific

not o nly



to tell you the tru th Not only

'n e students are not happy w ith th e ir new English teacher.

sim ilarly . does he assign them a lot of

- omework, but he is also very critica l o f th e ir work. felt like com plaining to the a irp o rt a uth orities the o the r day. Our flig h t was delayed fo r an unknow n reason. s more/Besides/Furthermore the airline d id n ’t bother to apologise fo r th e inconvenience. 'lin e representative I asked was of no help, if not rude.

Besides/ What is m ore/ >the Furthermore Nevertheless/Yet______ , | m anaged to stay calm and get

ie inform ation I needed. To tell you the truth

, I don’t th in k Adam is very good at his job.

To be more specific

_he is slow and not

Furtherm ore/ Besides/ , he believes th a t he is the backbone o f the company. He is so annoying! What is more Yet/ Nevertheless don’t dare to challenge him because o f his close friendship w ith the manager.

.ery creative.


I w ould not have a problem te llin g him a th ing or two.

' you change address n o tify me.


. U ndoubtedly, exams

Py^____________ pressure on both students and parents alike.

Most parents w ould like to see th e ir children ( 2 ) _______succeeding________ academically, as they believe a good education gives them an added advantage in life. They w ant to see th e ir children settled in a rew arding job and be ( 3 ) _______ financially_________ w e|| Qff. But is th a t w hat th e ir children have planned fo r themselves? A pparently not. Most students either can't th in k th a t far ahead or have no ( 4 ) ________ intention_________ 0f doing so. They w ould rather aim low so as not to be disappointed if they get low marks. However, child psychologists, w ho have been ( 5 ) __________consulted______ on the matter, stress th a t students should aim high, b ut at the same tim e have a(n) ( 6 ) __________ variety________ of o the r options. As a result, students w ill not have to w o rry about grades and in the long ( 7 ) ___________ run___________ w ill have better chances of succeeding. On the whole, there are many practical things th a t parents can do and w hich may prove invaluable to th e ir children. ( 8 ) ________ Apart from _______being people th e ir children can ( 9 ) ______________ turn________ to, parents can plan a reasonable schedule th a t both they and th e ir children ( 1 0 ) __________ agree__________ on. According to psychologists’ (II )

instructions_______ , this schedule should include no more than e ig ht hours o f studying, three proper meals

a day and some exercise. Finally, p rio r to each exam, parents need to (1 2 )__________ reassure_______ th e ir children th a t e verything w ill be fine w hatever the result.


A force


A to succeed


A richly

B set ( jj ) succeeding



---------- -------------- --------------”

p ut

D bring

C have succeeded

D been succeeding

B econom ically

C) fin ancially

D valuably


(A) intention

B dem and

C opinion

D reaction


(A) consulted

B recom m ended

C suggested

D advised


A am ount


A tim e


A Nevertheless


(A ) tu rn


A approve


A clues


A ensure

B sum

(C) va riety

D selection

(J3) run

C term

D process

(j3) A part from

C Instead of

D As far as

C depend

D apply

B com m unicate B accept (J3) instructions

B insure

@ a g re e

C announcem ents C make sure

D confirm D directions (d ) reassure

unit I Q

For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).



Thomas Edison, the inventor ( 0 ) ___________ ______________ the ligh t bulb, th o u g h t th a t sleep was unnecessary and th a t a society th a t operated (1 3 )________ w ithout_________ sleep w ould be an ideal (1 4 ) __________ 20^____________ • However, he was w rong. Nowadays, we are living in a society w hich is sleeping less than ever and this has resulted 115)___________ In_____________ m any negative effects.

According (1 6 )___________ to____________ police reports, more than tw e n ty five percent of m otorw ay accidents are d irectly or in d ire ctly a ttrib u te d to lack of sleep. It is tru e th a t people (1 7 )______ used_______________ to sleep -in e hours a night, whereas today they sleep seven (1 8 )___________or_____________ even less. This is because our 19 ) 20 )

wav__________ of life has changed and we are try in g to squeeze a ctivities like watching_________ television, shopping or going to the gym in our 24-hour day.

Lack of sleep also has a negative effect on our health. Research th a t has (2 1 )__________ been__________ carried o ut on animals co ntin uo usly deprived of sleep has shown that they are likely to die. Of course, experim ents o f this kind are - g h ly unlikely to ( 2 2 ) ___________ be____________carried o ut on humans ( 2 3 ) ________ themselves______ .The longest period of wakefulness w hich broke the record was eleven days. This experim ent showed th a t after a few days w ith o u t sleep, the m ind and body w ere unable to fu n ctio n normally.

To put it in a nutshell, the vast m ajority o f us ( 2 4 ) __________ need__________ an adequate am ount o f sleep, in every tw enty-four-hour period.

unit I Q

For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end o f each lin e to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0).

SHARKS or DOLPHINS? A m bitious athletes will go to great ( 0 ) __ spo rt if there is a ( 2 5 ) _________ possibility

in order to su cce e d in their of th em participating in the O lym p ic G am es and


even w inning a m edal. training

T his is the ca se with the A m erican sw im m ing team w ho are in (26) next y e a r’s O lym p ics. Their co ach has (27)

fam iliarised

sh a rk s m ove through w ater in ord er to (28)

stren g th en

and eventually m axim ise their ( 2 9 ) ___________ efficiency


him self w ith the w ay the sw im m e rs’ stroke and speed. Sw im m ing like sh a rk s


could give them the ad vantag e they require, though altering their style m ay seem a(n) (3 0 )

u np leasant__________ e x p e rie n ce at first.


T h e (3 1 )_________m aJ ° ritV____________ of British sw im m ers, how ever, find the d o lp h in s’ m o vem en ts


e a sie r to adopt. By co pying them , sw im m e rs can co ver a g reater (32)


th us increasing their (33)


d istan ce______________

___ of w inning gold in the next O lym p ics.

Of co u rse, only tim e will tell w hich "fish" will sw im ( 3 4 ) ____________ faster____________ .


For questions 35-42, com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar meaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given. Do not change the w ord given. You must use betw een tw o and five words, including the word given. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0). Exam p le: 0

W hen I w a s yo u n g er, I played te n n is e v e ry Su n day.


W hen I w a s y o u n g er, I __________________________ used t a p

fay____________________________ te n n is

e v e ry Sunday.

35 S p e e d in g in th e city is a g a in st th e law.


I t _______________________________ is forbidden to speed _________________________ in th e city.

3 6 T h e re w a s no n eed for you to bring an u m b rella.


Y o u __________________________ need not have brought___________________________ an u m b rella.

37 A b u rg la r e n te re d Mr S te in b erg 's o ffice last night,


Mr S te in b e r g ________________________ had his office broken into

_____________ last night.

3 8 No o n e help ed u s o rg a n ise th e fe stiv itie s th is year, by


org an ised the festivities by o u rse lv e s

th is year.

3 9 He failed to d e liv e r th e p a rce l on tim e,



didn't su cce e d in delivering

th e p a rce l on tim e,

4 0 P eo p le e x p e c t h er to e sta b lish h er o w n b u sin e ss so o n ,

se t

S h e __________________________ is exp ected to s e tu p _________________

h er ow n b u sin e ss so on.

41 I g et th e im p re ssio n th at Je n n y is w o rrie d ab o u t so m e th in g ,

seem s

J e n n y ________________________ se e m s (to be) w orried_______________________________ a b o u t so m eth in g .

4 2 I b elie ve sh e sw itch e d off the h e a te r before going out.


S h e ___________________________ m ust have turned off_____________________________ th e h e a te r b efo re g oing out.

unit I Q

SECTION 2 (ECCE format)

Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. The teacher got the students

to clean


6. You should have your hair

schoolyard. a. clean

© t o clean d. cleaning

don t need

a. needn't

a. to be painted

to Paint

the whole camp,

has decided to leave her job

© t o pick d. to picking

9. You must

have had

a great tim e on your vacation

b. had

c. be had

d. us

run out

airport this afternoon.”

a. have

5. Could you please go to the grocery store on your way home? We've

b. turned out

^ )ru n out

d. put out

will have © h a v e had

10. This project


bv the end of this month,

© w i l l have finished

of tomatoes.

a. made out

Jason up from the

You seem happy and relaxed.

© o u rs

c. ourselves

d. is expect

to Pick

c. pick

as a journalist and follow a career in modelling. a. our

© i s expected

a. picking

d. be painted


is expected to win the elections,

c. is been expected

© t o paint

c. paint

© s ty le d

8. "Jim, d o n 't forget

d. had better not

3. The soldiers were made

b. style

c. styles

a. is being expected

b. haven't

© d o n 't need

a. styling

7. Mr. Blake's party

t0 go t0 the supermarket. I have

everything we need for the cake.

4. A cousin of

for your

sister's wedding.

c. cleaned 2. You


b. will have be finished

c. will be finishing

d. will finished

Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. i w asn't satisfied with the


I was getting,

so I decided to quit my job. a. allowance

^ s a la r y 2. It was difficult to

b. income

a. contact

© te m p e r

c. chance

d. control

t ^ e extent of the

7. As soon as I get paid, I will pay all my a. deposits

a. predict

b. suppose

c. assume

© e s tim a te available

4. The student

, so we decided

service. b. insufficient

© in a d e q u a te

© in d e p e n d e n t

b. refused

c. incapable

d. resisted

10. I want to regardless

the d ifficult questions. a. except


c. short

cheating on the test

5. The third contestant managed to win

© re g a rd le s s


9. Now that the children had grown up and were independent _she hacj a |0t of free t|me

although her teacher caught her in the act.

c. rejected

d. budgets

a. scarce b. spare

© d e n ie d

b. sums

© d e b ts

d. handy



make sure

b. on behalf

b. engaged d. relevant

that I turned off all the lights

in the house, so I'll go back and check, a. insure

d. thanks


8. We complained to the restaurant manager about

to go somewhere close.

c. ready

and started screaming at

d. reward

damage at first sight.

© a v a ila b le

tem per

her colleagues.


3. We only had a few days

6. Julie lost her

© m a k e sure

b. reassure d. inquire

Complete the blanks with the verbs follow, h a v e or take.



a photograph/picture

take/have a seat have


follow/take Sb's advice take

care of

action on sth



a party/celebration

take/have a [qq^ (g^


a meal

have/take a rest/break


an araument/a quarrel

have/take a h o |idav

__________a meeting

follow/take orders


a test


trouble with


a headache/toothache





sb/sth for granted





sth into consideration


have/take a bath/shower have


the blame for sth

have/take t|me

a dream


sbbv surprise




place one's chance

B Read the sentences below. Complete the boxes with the verbs have or take and the blanks with prepositions. 1 Twenty two countries will


2 Every year we


3 They

take have


no respect


f° r


6 I


any idea

9 I 10


the weather conditions

th e ir eves take


the performing dolphins.


f° r

the company's disastrous performance.

d iffic u lty ____ [I]____ deciding which school to go to next year.


no notice have

12 Now that I’m older, I 13 I am a pilot and I


what she savs. She's always making up stories.

more confidence have



how to operate this contraption?


11 Youneedto


going back to school next year.


8 David had no option but to

the Bank Holiday and spend a long weekend at a seaside resort


no intention

7 The children couldn't

this year's water polo tournament.

their new teacher.

4 Before setting off on a fishing trip, you must 5 Do you



no interest a lot of pride



stamp collecting.


mv work.

C Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs give, pay, b rin g or mind. 1 It's been weeks since I last 2



Helen a visit.

Henry a ring immediately. He said it was urgent.

3 What were you doing hiding behind the door? You 4 The chairperson


5 Gerry was kind enough to 6 Passengers are asked to 7 Who can


me a real shock.

meeting to an end because the members of the board could not agree on a plan of action. give rnind

me a lift to the railway station. the step when disembarking.

_ me an explanation for the rising sea waters?

8 The teacher got angry because nobody was




attention to him.

unit 11 -"fvmf:



Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition.



1 The custom ers were asked to take th eir shoes off before entering the

leave the ground

10 fu lly understand

Japanese restaurant.

4 look like, resemble

2 Susan decided not to take on any new responsibilities.

3 The video recorder I bought wasn't w orking properly, so I took it back.

7 gain control of

4 Everybody says I take after my mother.

9 fill, occupy

5 The passengers had to w a it over th irty m inutes before the aeroplane fin a lly

3 return

took off.


begin, become interested in




leave suddenly w ith o u t telling anyone





6 After retiring, Steven took up bow ling to keep him self occupied. 7 My brother w ill take over the com pany now th a t my father has passed away. 8 Why did you take o ff w ith o u t saying goodbye last night? 9 The fu rn iture takes up too much space and the kids have nowhere to play. 10 He m ust have been tired because he didn't seem to take in anything I was saying.


CLOSE, KNOCK 1 The police had closed off the highway in search of the escaped prisoner.

cease, stop operating

2 The fu nfair was closed down because of its terrible safety record.

isolate, prevent from being used/accessed

3 The force of the ball h itting his head knocked him out cold. 4 They had no choice but to knock down the old warehouse.

make unconscious

5 Cycling on the footpath is prohibited due to the danger of knocking down/over

hit and cause to fall down




6 visit w ith o u t warning

1 The m isunderstanding w ill be cleared up as soon as he gets here. 2 Students are asked to clean out their lockers at the end of the school year.


3 We were detained after school in order to clean up the laboratory.

4 leave somewhere

4 Could you please drop me off at the railway station?

1 resolve, explain

5 He had a big fig h t w ith his parents because he decided to drop out of college.


em pty and clean

clean thoroughly

6 You w ouldn’t believe w ho dropped in yesterday at m y place! leave w ith o u t finishing the course

Words with Prepositions

A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives disgusted envious


Nouns by/at of

a reason a threat

for to

put the blame for





auiltv of/about patient popular shocked suspicious

for Verbs

with w ith by/at of




sentence sb

dream about/of of


arrest sb



blame sb



escape fiaht

from w ith



about to




about to

unit I f B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1

Why do I always get the blame



The w hole co u n try was shocked



Both parties put the blame



Jane’s friends were envious



Don’t blame me


The w ell-know n businessman was sentenced


People are usually suspicious


e verything th a t goes wrong? the president’s sudden death.

each o the r


the collapse o f peace negotiations .

her rise to fame and fortune.

the m isunderstanding. I tried my best.



three years in jail fo r fraud.

politicians m aking promises during election tim e.

Grammar Revision (Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result) See G r a m m a r R e v ie w p a g e 1 6 0 A

R ea d th e t e x t b e lo w a n d c o m p le te e a c h b la n k w it h o n e w o rd .

The production of items made of gold dates back to ancient Egyptian and Minoan times, when gold was panned (1)_________ with___________ the aim of making golden bowls and cups. Gold was usually found in river beds, (2)__________so_____________ in (3 )_________ order__________ to pan for gold, a circular dish (pan) was filled w ith a m ixture of sand and gravel that contained gold. So (4 )__________as____________ to obtain the gold, this m ixture was held under a stream of water and swirled (5 )__________so_____________that the lighter parts would slowly wash away and the gold particles would collect at the bottom of the pan. (6 )_______ Since/As_________ gold was a scarce metal, it was used as a form of exchange, and (7)


it became the basis for international transactions. Over time, new m ining techniques developed and elaborate methods were adopted because (8 )___________ of___________ the demand for gold. (9 ) (10 )

Due__________ to its huge reserves, South Africa has always been the world's leading supplier of gold despite__________ the discovery of gold in California and Australia in the 1840s.

Gold is stored in reserve by many governments. In Fort Knox, USA, alone, there are thirty-eight billion dollars w orth of gold bars secured behind a tw enty-ton door. In (11)_________ spite___________of these resources, however, financial circles predict a decline in the demand for gold. Gold was once a powerful currency, (12)______ whereas/but______ nowadays it seems to have lost much of its glitter.

B R e w rite th e f o llo w in g s e n te n c e s so th a t th e s e c o n d s e n te n c e h a s a s im ila r m e a n in g to th e f ir s t . B e g in w it h th e w o rd (s ) g iv e n . 1 They never help the poor even though they are very wealthy. Despite the fact that they are very wealthy, they never help the poor/being very wealthy, they never help the poor 2 However well he performed, he didn't win the first prize. No m atter how well he performed, he didn't win the first prize______________________________________________ . 3 Even though I was sick, I tried not to fall behind w ith my homework. Sick though/as I was, I tried not to fall behind w ith my hom ework___________________________________________ . 4 In spite of his disability, he managed to get on w ith his life. Although

he was disabled, he managed to get on w ith his life______________________________________________ .

5 She is so friendly that everyone wants to hang out w ith her. She is such a friendly person/girl that everyone wants to hang out w ith her_________________________________ . 6 All flights were delayed yesterday because there was an accident on the runway. Due to an accident on the runway, all flights were delayed yesterday_______________________________________ .

In spite of / Despite the cold weather, they went swimming. / In spite of / Despite the fact that the weather was cold, they went

We carituse-the company car for to goo a tin the evenings We can’t use the company car for going out in the evening. / sw im m ing./ Wecan!t use the company car for to going out in the cvcning.(to+infinitive, fo r+-ingform, expressingpurpose) In spite of / Despite the weather being cold, they went swimming. / © He wakes up early so as not to be late for work. / In spite of/Despite the weather was cuhl, Uieywenl Hewakes up eariy so as to not be lateforwerk. ■ swimming? He wakes up early in order not to be late for work. / Despite of the cold weather, they went swimming. Hewakesupearly-inordeFtonotb e-latefor-wefk. (in spite of/despite+noun/the fact that/-ingform) He wakes up early not to be late for work.— (so asnot to and in ordernot to expressnegativepurpose.) q Although the weather was cold, they went swimming. / Though the weather was cold, they went swimming. / & I'm going to buy a car so that I can get to work faster. I bought a car so that I could get to work faster. Even though the weather was cold, they went swimming. / (so that+can/may/will expresspurpose with present/ Rvfin although the wpathpr was rnlri they wpnt swimming future time reference.) Although /Though /Even though the cold weather, they went (so that+could/might/would expressespurpose with past swimming. time reference.) (though /although/even though+clause) & The flight was cancelled because the air-traffic controllers were ® I'm taking an umbrella in case it rains. / I’m taking an umbrella, in case it will rain: on s trik e ./ I took an umbrella in case it rained. / The flight was cancelled because of the air-traffic I took an umbrella, in caseit would rain. controllers'strike. / (Do not use will/would after in case.) The flight was cancelled because of the air-traffic controllers being on strike. / The film was so boring thatlnearly fell asleep. / The flight was cancelled because uf Ule aii -Ualflc controllers It was so boring a film that I nearly fell asleep. / were on strike. It was such a boring film that I nearly fell asleep. / (because+clause of reason, because of+ noun/-ingform) The film was suchboring that I nearly foil asleep It was such boring film that I nearly fell asleep. & We can’t use the company car to go out in the evening. / 0

Key Transformations Q Although/Even though/Though it was raining heavily,

they went on a day trip. In spite of / Despite the fact that it was raining heavily, they went on a day trip. In spite of / Despite the heavy rain, they went on a day trip. €> They worked hard but they didn't manage to finish the project on time. However hard they worked, they didn't manage to finish the project on time. No matter how hard they worked, they didn't manage to finish the project on time. & Jane wasn't feeling well, so she didn't go out. Jane didn't go out because/as she wasn’t feeling well. Since/As Jane wasn't feeling well, she didn't go out. Not feeling well, Jane didn't go out. Jane didn't go out because of / due to not feeling well. Jane didn't go out because of / due to the fact that she was not feeling well. & The child was rescued because the lifeguards acted immediately. The child was rescued due to / thanks to / owing to the lifeguards' immediate action.

& Whatever he tells me, I don't believe him.

I don’t believe him no matter what he tells me. © We arrived at the airport early because we did not want to miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early in order / so as not to miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early so that we wouldn't miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early for fear of missing the plane. We arrived at the airport early for fear (that) we might miss the plane. & We left early in order to / so as to / to get there in time. We left early so that we could/would get there in time. We left early w ith a view to / w ith the aim of getting there in time. & There was so much smoke that we couldn't see anything. There was such a lot of smoke that we couldn't see anything, g) His heart was so weak that he didn't survive the operation. He had such a weak heart that he didn't survive the operation. He had so weak a heart that he didn’t survive the operation. His heart was too weak to survive the operation. His heart wasn't strong enough to survive the operation.

unit I f

Examination Practice A

C hoose th e c o rre c t answ er. 1. The church has set up a charity with the aim of raising

6. She was heavily dressed

funds for the refugees,

a. of raise

@ o f raising

a. due to

d. to raising

c. because of

to send


7. He walked in quietly

to my friends abroad. a. to sending

c. I can send

( d ) to send

3. You should have more confidence______ in_______ yourself if you want to succeed. b. in

c. at

d. of

4. They a re _____ such_____ nice people that everyone likes them. (jj^such c. so

b. such a d. a so

5. “ Look at Sheila! She's so beautiful, is n 't she?” “ Yeah, she has ta ke n _____ after_____ her mother.” ( a ) after c. on

b. despite

(c£)for fear of so as not to

fa/iso as not to b. I could send

a. for


a cold.

b. raising

2. I took photos of the baby so as

for fear of

b. over

c. so as d o n 't 8.

wake up the baby,

b. so as to not d. so as to d o n 't

________ the weather was fine, we decided to go for a swim. ( a)As c. While

b. Because of d. Due to

9. “You know I have nothing to do with all this mess! Don't put the blam e______ on_______me." a. in

(b )o n

c. at

d. for

10. Take a jum per with you in case i t _____ 9ets______ colder at night, a. will get


b. would get d. getting

d. up

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 Although the police suspected him, they didn't arrest him. suspicious

Despite______________ being suspicious of him___________________ _ the police didn’t arrest him.

2 However busy she is, she always makes tim e for exercise. m atte r

She always makes tim e for exercise,_______________ no m atter how busy_____________________she is.

3 There was so much traffic on the road that I was an hour late. lo t

There w as____________ such a lot of traffic_________________________ on the road that I was an hour late.

4 The operation was cancelled because it was considered risky. due

The operation was cancelled______________ due to the risk___________________________ involved.

5 The puzzle was not easy enough for them to do. so

The puzzle_________________was so difficult that they_______________ couldn’t do it.

6 He wants to buy a new computer, so he is saving up. aim

He is saving u p _________________ w ith the aim of buying_________________ a new computer.

7 He braked suddenly to avoid hitting the old man. as

He braked suddenly__________________ so as not to hit_______________________ the old man.

8 He is proud of his work, but he is not arrogant. p ride

Even______________though he takes pride in__________________ WO|-|,ave t hejr passports w ith them. 14 Despite his young age, he behaved very



Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

A WILD HUNT Living in a modern society, we cannot (1).


the acts of crim e that take place every day. Criminal activity

ranges from stealing to the more serious crimes of kidnapping and murder. Just recently, a hunt was on for tw o men who (2 )_________ robbed

an off-licence in broad daylight. The shop owner tried

unit |1 to call the police, but he received a severe blow to the back of his head, which left him unconscious. It appears that the tw o

3 ) _______ criminals______ had planned everything very well, since they (4 )_______ avoided_______ getting caught. They were seen getting on their m otorbike holding guns by tw o policemen in a patrol car, who started (5)_______ chasing_______ them. 6 )_______ However______ , the robbers managed to get away through the back streets. All exits from the city were closed (7)__________ off_________ immediately. Even the airport was put on alert and flights were delayed, as strict security measures .■.ere (8 )_______ taken_________ and all passengers were asked to give proof of their identity. Many people considered this a nuisance and were shocked (9 ) _________ ^ __________ these tactics. So, they put the (1 0 )_________ blame________ for the situation on the police and (11)

accused_______ them of incompetence. In the end, the police (12)_________took________

responsibility for the setbacks.


(A ) ignore


A stole

B neglect ( b ) robbed

C fo rg e t

D o m it

C shoplifted

D hijacked

C pickpockets

D burglars


(A )crim in a ls


A escaped

(B) avoided

C prevented

D stopped


A arresting

(B )chasing

C hunting

D fo llo w in g


A Despite


A down


(A ) taken


B convicts

B Therefore

C Although

( d ) However

C up

D away

B follow ed

C put

D made

A w ith

B about

C from

D by


A fa u lt

B accusation


A charged


A got

(B )° ff

© b la m e

(jja c c u s e d

B recognised

C blamed © to o k

D cause D convicted D received

B Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.



soaps is the (2 )____

3 ) ______ ignorance (4 )___ no real (5)_


num ber o f people feel that washing w ith antibacterial

sensible_________thing to do. Unfortunately, their


_ has led them to believe that these soaps are


_ to normal ones. However, research has shown that there is


difference_______ between washing w ith ordinary soap or soap (6 )_______containing_______ antibacterial agents.lt has also been proved that being too clean actually has (7) effects, as our (8) _ (9 )




______do not become

to germs. This (10)______ discovery

has come as a surprise, especially to those who believe th a t bacteria ( have to be fo ug ht w ith every means known to man.


Prepositional Phrases A Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions on, at, by or to. 1 The auth or is a d o c to r________ by______ profession but she prefers to w ork on her novels. 2 I always s h o p _______ 5D_______ impulse. I never make plans. 3

Jo_______ this day, nobody knows w hat became o f the missing aristocrat.

4 Cancelling the m e e tin g ________ f t _______ such short notice was an inconvenience fo r everyone. 5 Some o f the artist's best w orks a re ________ on______ display at the gallery. 6 These elaborate rugs were all w o v e n _______ by________ hand. 7 My fa vou rite fo otball team is ________ at_______ the to p of the league. 8 The school principal is ________ ________ good term s w ith all the teaching staff.


Complete the blanks with the prepositions in and out of. In some cases both prepositions can be used. fashion

in /o u to f

prjn t

out of

.w o rk

in/out of


in /o u to f


out of


in/out of


out of


in /o u to f

in /o u to f


in /o u to f





in/out of


co m fo rt

in /o u to f


the o rd in a ry

in/out of


in/out of

out of in in

in/out of

. breath



out of

.d iffic u lty

in/out of

in /o u to f



o u to f


the question

C Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases in the box below. out of season in shape

o ut o f reach

o ut o f control

o ut o f the question

o ut o f place

o ut of date

in touch

1 The w ild animal w a s_______ out of control______and nearly broke down the cage door. 2 We looked

out of place______ w earing jeans in such an expensive restaurant.

3 It's d iffic u lt to find good oranges in summer, as th e y 're _______out of season______ . 4 The tw o friends k e p t__________ in touch________ during the sum m er break. 5 I s ta y _________ in shape________ by fo llo w in g a stric t exercise program m e.

6 My parents told me th a t taking the car on Saturday n ig ht was

out of the question


7 The books on the to p shelf w e re _______ out of reach_______fo r m ost people o f average height. 8 T h e _______ out of date________m achinery was the main cause of the company's financial collapse.

Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the

correct number in the box next to each definition.



1 Bringing up children is a full-tim e job. 2 You can bring your friend along to the party on Saturday.


stop having or doing sth




take with you




recall, remind






give free of charge



3 Looking through old photograph albums brings back many memories, i 4 The greenhouse effect has b rought about a change in our climate. 5 When she fainted, we all tried to bring her round. | 6 The new airline was giving away free tickets to many lucky passengers. 7 My doctor told me to give up coffee for health reasons. 8 The man standing on the corner was giving out advertisement leaflets to passers-by. 9 When we moved to Scotland, I had to give up my job.


admit being defeated

11 Have I given you back the money that I owe you?


make conscious again, revive

12 A good tennis player never gives in no matter what the score is.


quit, resign from


destroy by explosion


suddenly begin to laugh, cry etc.

3 They handed the m oney over to the police.


give to sb in charge

4 The secret know ledge of the profession was handed down from father to son.


deliver to sb in authority

5 The child was know n to burst in to tears fo r no apparent reason.



10 The review didn’t give away the end of the book, so I’m curious to read it.

B HAND, BURST, BLOW 1 The students were told to hand in th e ir assignm ents at the end of the lesson. 2 Before handing out the test papers, the teacher asked us to be quiet.

5 The students burst out laughing when the teacher slipped and fell down.


7 The te rro ris t’s initia l plan was to blow up the plane. pass on

3 We blew o u t the candles before leaving the room.

break into tears, laughter

Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions.

harmful mad mad


at/w ith

Sb (=angry)

about/on Sb/sth



(=sympathetic) (feel) sorry for/about sth (=regret)






w ro n g .









punish s b ____ ______


(feel) sorry



bew are.


tired _

protect from /against

(=interested in) safe





from to

reduce sth _ rescue sb


save _






unit 12 B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 I feel really s o rry ______ for________Bob. He looks so depressed. 2 If the w eather is good this weekend, I'm h e adin g _______ f° [ ______ the beach. 3 Rodney is very w e a k _______ at_______ Maths. He should consider studying som ething else. 4 Sham e______ on________ Peter! His behaviour was unacceptable. 5 Sue is very m a d _______ at________G eoffrey fo r not showing up at her party. 6 The explosion reduced the b u ild in g ________ to_______ an unrecognisable tangle of metal and bricks. 7 I’m really sorry

about______ y0ur cai-; Sally. I promise to pay for the repair work.

8 Most teenage boys are m a d ______ about 9 Lean the paintings

on/agas* ;st

fo otba ll and sports in general.

wa|| gent|y please.

Grammar Revision (Conditionals) See Grammar Review page 161 Rewrite the following sentences so that the second sentence has a similar meaning to the first. Begin with the word(s) given. 1 They w ant to travel abroad next m onth, so they have to renew th e ir passports.

Unless they renew their passports, they w on't be able to travel abroad next m onth_________________________ 2 I th in k th a t you shouldn't drive so carelessly. If I

were you. I w ouldn't drive so carelessly_______________________________________________________________.

3 The reason w hy the dog attacked them was because they h it it w ith a stick. If they hadn't hit the dog w ith a stick, it w ouldn't have attacked them ______________________________________ .

4 I m ig ht not manage to repair the leaking tap on my own, so I'll ask my bro the r fo r help. In case I don't manage to repair the leaking tap on my own. I'll ask my brother for help______________________ .

5 In ord er to hire a car, you need to have a d rivin g licence. Unless you have a driving licence, you can't hire a car____________________________________________________ . 6 I w ant to buy a big house w ith a garden, but I can’t afford it. If I could afford it, I would buy a big house w ith a garden__________________________________________________. 7 The burglars broke into my house because the burglar alarm didn't go off. Had

the burglar alarm gone off, the burglars wouldn't have broken into my house_______________________ .

8 Not having heard th a t his flig h t was boarding, he missed the plane. Provided (that) he had heard (that) his fligh t was boarding, he wouldn't have missed the plane_____________ . 9 The buses may be on strike, so you m ig ht have to catch a taxi to work. If the buses are on strike, you m ight have to catch a taxi to work_________________________________________. 10 My parents encouraged and supported me after the accident, so I recovered quickly. But fo r my parents' encouragement and support, I w ouldn't have recovered quickly after the accident 11 We feel so tired th a t we can't continue our journey. If we didn't feel so tired, we would/could continue our journey__________________________________________ 12 You can borrow m y bike, but you m ust prom ise to take good care of it.' As long as y ° u promise to take good care of my bike, you can borrow it__________________________________ 13 She m ust do her hom ew ork, otherw ise her parents w on 't let her go to the party. On co ndition (that) she does her homework, her parents will let her go to the party



He w ill buy a car if he saves enough money. / Ho will buy a car if ho will-savc enough moneys n i buy a car provided (that) I save enough money. / 111buy a r ar prmriripri (that)-U faall save enough money.— He would buy a car if he saved enough money. / He w ould buy a car if he would save enough money. -

(will, shall and would are not used after linking words/ phrases introducing conditional sentences.) | - I won’t go to the party if they don't invite me. / I won’t go to the party unless they invite me. / I won’t go to tho party unless they don't invite me.—

(unless=if not) I’ll buy a bottle of water in case I get thirsty.

(=111buy it before I get thirsty; I might not use it.) I’ll buy a bottle of water if I get thirsty. (=77/ buy it when I get thirsty; I'll definitely use it.) If he was taller, he could join a basketball team. If he were taller, he could join a basketball team. (were can be used instead of was in allpersons in

If I had been the Prime Minister, I would have-given lots ~ Qf-monoytothopoor. ~

(We use Conditional Sentences Type 2 for unreal situations in thepresent orfuture.) > If I had studied harder last semester, I would have passed m y exams. / If I studied harder last semester, I woukipass-ffly~

-examsT (We use Conditional Sentences Type 3 fo r unreal situations in thepast.) > If you should need me, don't hesitate to call me. / Should you need me, don't hesitate to call me. / If should you need me, don't hesitate to caHmc.— If she needed your help, she would call you. / Were she to need your help, she would call you. S If woro she to nood your help, she would csfryottrIf she had needed your help, she would have called you. / Had she needed your help, she would have called you. / If ha&sha-neaded your holp, sho would have-eatledyou. -

(if is not used in conditional sentences starting with

Conditional Sentences Type 2.)

should/ were/ had+ subject.)

| £) If I were the Prime Minister, I would give lots of money to the poor. /

Key Transformations I & If you see Harry, ask him to return the books to the

Your application w ill be considered on condition (that) you submit it on time. library. If you should see Harry, ask him to return the books to the library. & If he hadn’t helped me, I wouldn't have finished m y essay. Should you see Harry, ask him to return the books to the Had he not helped me, I wouldn't have finished m y essay. library. If it hadn't been for his help, I wouldn't have finished m y essay. But for his help, I wouldn't have finished m y essay. © If he doesn’t study hard, he won't pass the exam. I wouldn't have finished m y essay w ithout his help. He won't pass the exam unless he studies hard. He has to / must study hard, or else / otherwise he won’t pass the exam.

& Your application w ill be considered only if you submit it on time. Your application w ill be considered provided / providing (that) you submit it on time. Your application w ill be considered as long as you submit it on time.

i Q u This is the house where/in which John lives. (Defining) < u This is the house w hich/that (*) John lives in. (Defining) Ll I < > _i One of the most famous areas in China is the Forbidden City in Beijing, where the emperors used to live. (Non-Defining) H a. (*) may be omitted. < 1 -1 aajgas 1u Z 1K o in There must be a reason why he always wears black. (Defining only) < u



1 That is used only in d efining relative clauses and can replace: • w ho/w hich/w hom when they refer to the object of the verb. • when. • where (’that' must be followed by a preposition) That is never used after a comma. 2 Which sometimes refers to the whole previous sentence and cannot be omitted. He never tidies his desk, which really annoys me. 3 Prepositions are used: • before or after which and whom. The hotel at which we stayed/which we stayed at was not very expensive. • only after who and that. The man who she came to the party w ith is her husband. • never with when, where, why.

4 Expressions of quantity+of (some of, all of, many of, any of, much of, each of, a few of, most of, half of, either of, neither of, none of, a number of, one of, the majority of etc.) can be used before whom, which and whose. They have three children, tw o o f whom have already finished school. 5 Present and past participles can be used instead of relative clauses. • Present participles (-ing) replace relative clauses in the active voice. The man who is cleaning the garden is the gardener. 4 The man cleaning the garden is the gardener. • Past participles (-ed/irregular form s) replace relative clauses in the passive voice. Cars which are produced in Germany are rather expensive. 4 Cars produced in Germany are rather expensive.

LAUSESOFTIME Clauses of time are introduced by when, while, as, just as, the m oment (that), till/u n til, as soon as, before, after, once, whenever, every tim e etc. Clauses of time go before the main clause (separated by a comma) or after the main clause (no comma). Meaning Exam ples


T im e w ords

when, as, while

for two events happening at the same time

W hile m y b ro th e r was waxing the car, 1 was preparing dinner.

just as, the moment (that)

for two short actions happening at the same time

Just as 1entered the room, the phone rang.

when, as soon as, before, after, once

for events happening one after the other

They le ft as soon as they heard about the accident.

by the time

"not later than"

You should have finished by the time we return.

till, until

"up to a point of time"

I'll stay at the office until 1finish m y work.

• Will and would are ne'i/er used in clauses of time. • The present participic ; (-ing) can be used instead of clauses of time.


• Will can b( used after when only if it is a question word. Call me when yousvifl get back, (clause o f time). When w/ill you get back? (question)

Exam ples

S ignificance

As she was drivin g hom e, she had a te rrib le acciden t. 4 Driving home, she had a terrible accident.

a lengthy action interrupted by a short/sudden one.

As I was walking along, I fe lt that someone was follow ing me. 4 Walking along, I had the feeling that....

an action happening at the same time as another one.

As I closed the door, I rem em bered where m y keys were: an action happening immediately before another one. 4 Closing the door, I.... I


Grammar Review Unit 3 Adverbs-Comparisons-Articles-Uncountables ADVERBS • General order of adverbs: manner-place-time. Did you sleep well at your hotel last night? • Order o f adverbs after verb of movement: place-manner-time. Did you arrive at your hotel safely last night?

Special Cases


Types o f adverbs

P osition

| Exam ples

Adverbs of frequency always, occasionally, often, rarely, seldom, etc.

• before the main verb • after the (first) auxiliary • after the verb "to be"

We often play basketball together. I've never liked yoghurt. She is always late fo r school.

Adverbs of degree absolutely, hardly, quite, rather, very, etc.

• usually before the word they m odify • a+rather+adjective+noun • rather+a/an+adjective+noun • a+quite+adjective+noun • quite+a/an+adjective+noun • a+fairiy/pretty+adjective+noun

He was partly involved in this. It was a rather d iffic u lt subject. It was rather a d iffic u lt subject. It was a quite d iffic u lt subject. It was quite a d iffic u lt subject. It was a fairly d iffic u lt subject.



Typesof adjectives/adverbs""-^




clean long (a d j/a d v) shy

clean-er long-er shy-er

clean-est long-est shy-est

two-syllable ending in-y

heavy (adj) early (adj/adv)

heav-i-er earl-i-er

heav-i-est earl-i-est

more-than-one syllable

creative (adj) creatively (adv)

m ore creative m ore creatively

m ost creative m ost creatively

Pay attention to fat-fatter-fattest close-closer-closest dry-drier-driest

quiet-quieter-quietest or quiet-m ore quiet-m ost quiet But: recent-more recent-most recent

Irregular form s Positive


















farthest/ furthest



... —

Elder/Eldest describe close fam ily relations. Elder is not followed by than. My elder sister is a vegetarian. My sister Ann, who is older than me, is a vegetarian. Comparative+than The+superlative-M

Farther/Farthest is used for distances only. Further/ Furthest is used for distances or additional information. Pluto is the farthest / furthest planet from Earth. For further inform ation please contact 9312. Jim is fatter than Peter.

* of all/period „ in+place/group of people

The+comparative to compare tw o people or things. Other forms of comparison

She's the m ost famous runner

o f ail/the decade, in her country/her team.

Nicky is the more beautiful o f the two sisters. Examples

• as...as, not so/as...as or not such (a)+...+noun+as • the same as • tw ice/three times as...as • less...than

She's as good a painter as her father. The weather today is the same as yesterday. An ostrich's egg is five times as big as a chicken's egg. A sports car is less economical than a city car.

• the least • the+comparative...the+comparative (cause-result)

This is the least practical machine 1have ever used. The more we learn, the wiser we get.

• comparative + and + comparative (continual change)

As 1grow up, 1get wiser and wiser.

Grammar Review

EBIH 33 Examples


Structures like+noun/pronoun/-ing form as+subject+verb

sim ilarity

He waved the flag like a sword. She advised her husband to do as he was told.


Description of sb's job or of the function of something

She works as a nurse at the local hospital. He used his coat as a blanket.

• Like and such as are used to give examples. Many o f the earth's largest forests, such as/like the tropical rainforests, have been destroyed to a large extent. before the positive degree before the com parative degree

very*, too*, pretty, most, rather, quite, fairly

Considering you’ve ju st had an operation, you look fa irly well. a bit, a lot, even, far, much, rather

* very + adjective = positive meaning * too + adjective = negative meaning

Your employer is even stricter than you told me. She’s a very good student. She’s too good fo r her class.

• Very much is not placed before adjectives and adverbs.

m n ssm The indefinite article a/an is used before singular countable nouns or adjectives followed by singular nouns.


A/AN is also used: • before a noun which is mentioned for the first tim e and is not specific.

They own a house in the village.

• before a noun representing a group of people, animals or things.

A dolphin is faster than a shark.

• to show somebody’s character, job or nationality.

Her brother is a doctor.

• w ith expressions of quantity and numbers.

A couple of friends came by the house yesterday.

The definite article the is used before countable and uncountable nouns both in the singular and the plural.


THE is also used before: • specific nouns or nouns that have been mentioned before.

She bought two T-shirts and a dress yesterday but she likes the dress best.

• names of seas, rivers, groups of islands, mountains (plural), ranges, countries (plural), cinemas, theatres, museums, restaurants, hotels, institutions.

the Black sea, the Netherlands, The Odeon Cinema, The Archaeological Museum, the Steak House, the Holiday Inn, the University o f London, the Alps

• names of families and nationalities.

the Johnsons, the Japanese

• adjectives referring to classes of people.

the underprivileged, the deaf

• musical instruments, dances, inventions.

the piano, the mambo, the fax machine Examples

THE is not used before: • nouns referring to something general or not mentioned before.

llik e tea.

• names of people, streets, cities, islands, countries, continents, mountains Alain Delon, Regent Street, Paris, Sicily, Germany, (singular), religious holidays, days of the week, months, squares, parks, Africa, M ont Blanc, Easter, Monday, July, Trafalgar lakes, stations, m agazines, sports, games, colours, school subjects, Square, Hyde Park, Lake Victoria, Euston station, Vogue, tennis, cards, red, Psychology, Spanish. languages. • meals.

1always have breakfast.

• means of transport.

She goes to work by bus.

• the words bed, court, church, home, hospital, prison, school, university, She went to bed early because she was exhausted. She always makes the bed early in the morning. w ork when they are used fo r the purpose for which they exist.

• pubs, restaurants, hotels, shops, banks whose names include the name Mandy's Bar, G iovanni’s Restaurant, Burberry's, Harvey Nichols, Barclay's bank. of their founder or another proper name.


A/an is used when we don't specify the kind. She brought me a magazine.

One is used when we emphasise the quantity. She brought me one magazine (only one).

Grammar Review UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Uncountable nouns cannot be counted and have no plural form. Some, any, (a) little etc. can be used with most of them, but not a/an/ one. To specify the quantity of uncountable nouns we use expressions like a piece of (advice, news), a bar of (chocolate, soap), etc. Uncountable nouns describe food (e.g. meat, cheese, etc.), liquids (e.g. milk, water, etc.), material (e.g. glass, wood, etc.), natural phenomena (e.g. weather, heat, etc.), languages (English, German, etc.), diseases (e.g. chickenpox, cancer, etc.), sciences and school subjects (e.g. Physics, Literature, etc.), games (e.g. football, cards, etc.), abstract nouns (e.g. freedom, dignity, knowledge, etc.) and some concrete nouns (e.g. money, luggage, etc.).

U n it 4 Determiners - Pronouns Determiners are: articles (a/an, the), possessive adjectives (my, your, etc.), demonstratives (this, that, etc.), numbers (one, two, etc.), quantifiers (some, any, no, each, every, much, many, a lot of, plenty, a little, a few) and the words both, either, neither, most, all, none, whole. Some, any and no are used w ith countable and uncountable nouns. Each and every are used only w ith singular countable nouns. The compounds of some, any, no and every cannot be used w ith nouns. SOME (someone/somebody/som ething/somewhere) are used in: • affirm ative sentences.

ANY (anyone/anybody-anything-anywhere) are used in: • questions.

Did you see anyone running?

1need some advice.

• negative sentences w ith not or other negative words (hardly, never, rarely, etc.).

• polite requests and offers.

Would you like some tea?

You haven't done anything terrible.

• questions (a positive answer is expected).

Could 1help you w ith something?

• affirmative sentences, meaning “no matter who/which/where”.

You can buy this magazine anywhere.

NO (no one/nobody/nothing/now here) are used in: • negative sentences instead of not any. No other negative words can be used (never, not, etc.).

You have nothing to do w ith m y problems.

EVERY (everyone/everybody-everything-everywhere) are used: • for people or things considered as a group.

Every student needs books. • w ith nearly and not.

EACH is used:

Not everybody can do a cartwheel.

• for people or things considered separately.

Each athlete received a medal.

Every one of + plural noun. Every one o f the children came up with an excuse.

Each (one) of + plural noun/pronoun Each one o f you m ust go out. m any + countable nouns / m uch + uncountable nouns are used: • in questions and negations. • in affirm ative sentences w ith too, how, so and as. • at the beginning of a sentence (formal English).

Are there many cars in the street today? I'll do as much as 1can. Much trouble has been caused by this war.

a few + countable nouns a little + uncountable nouns

few + countable nouns little + uncountable nouns

• show a very small am ount (positive) and can be used w ith

• show a very small am ount (negative) and can be used with very, so, too, as and how.

only. I've only read a few pages.

There's very little cheese in the fridge.

a lo t (of) - lots (of) - plenty (of) + countable nouns and uncountable nouns are used: • in affirm ative sentences before nouns and pronouns.

A lo t o f people like chocolate. A lot, lots and plenty can be used w ithout nouns. D on't buy any more cheese; we've got a lot. FOR TWO PEOPLE OR THINGS




• is used w ith a plural verb.

• are used w ith a plural verb.

They both know how to dance the tango. EITHER (OF) • Either means "any of the tw o ”. Skiing o r snow boarding? Either sport is enjoyable. • Either o f is used w ith a singular or plural verb. Either o f these sports is/are enjoyable.

Most teenagers like pop music. Most o f m y schoolmates are noisy. A ll o f my children enjoy picnics. • all + that clause + singular verb = the only thing.. A ll I want is a little peace.



NEITHER (OF) • Neither means “not one and not the other”. Neither dress fitte d me well. • Neither of goes w ith a singular or plural verb. N either o f m y cousins know(s) how to swim.

NONE (OF) • None is not followed by a noun. Which book did you like best? None. • None of is used before nouns or object pronouns w ith a singular or plural verb.

None o f the film s 1saw in the past five m onths was/were interesting. WHOLE (=COMPLETE)

• Whole is used between a determ iner and a singular countable noun. The whole world knows that China has the biggest population. A ll (o f) the w orld knows that China has the biggest population.

• both...and ■ • either...or ■ are used as linkers. • neither...nor <

Both Kate and Peter are good students. You can either go skiing or m ountain climbing. Neither John nor Paul like chocolate.

• So/neither + auxiliary verb + subject i • 1think/hope/believe etc. so show agreement. • either at the end of the sentence J

1love the opera! - So do 1. Jim didn't go swimming. - Neither did 1. Is Mike com ing to the party? -1 think so. 1don't like fish! -1 don't either.

Unit 5 Consolidation I Unit 6 Infinitive, -ing Form Examples -ing fo rm verb+ing taking (present form )

having+past participle (perfect form)

• as a noun (subject or object of a verb) • after a preposition or verb+preposition • after the verb go, indicating physical activities • after the verbs need, want, require etc., with a passive meaning • after the object of the verbs catch, find, leave • after be busy, spend/ waste+expression of

We go fishing in the summer. Your room needs cleaning. (=Your room needs to be cleaned.) I caught him listening behind the door. I used to spend hours looking at the sea.


having taken

possessive adj/case



• after excuse, forgive, pardon, r pOSSessive

prevent, understand +

dislike enjoy fancy finish imagine involve keep (on)

mention mind miss postpone practise prefer quit

His m other prevented him (John) from getting hurt. Excuse my being late, b ut I got stuck in traffic.

{ I adjective/case

• after certain verbs and expressions listed below adm it appreciate avoid consider delay deny discuss

Hitch-hiking can be dangerous. I'm thrilled about going to that party.

recall recommend resent resist risk suggest tolerate

be/get accustomed to be/get used to in addition to look forward to object to take to

I quit smoking last year. as well as be in favour of can't stand/help feel like have difficulty (in) have a hard tim e have trouble

how about it's no good/use it's w orth there's no chance of there's no point in w hat’s the point of...? What’s the use of....?

Examples to express purpose after would like, would love, would

to be+past participle (simple)

I went home to check if everything was alright. I would prefer to stay home than go to that prefer party. after the first/second/last/best etc. Laika was the firs t dog to travel to the moon. after some, any, no and their compounds She looks like she doesn't have anything to do. after it+be+adjective(+of/for+object) It was generous o f her to host us fo r the night. after too/enough This coffee is Too hot fo r me to drink. after it+take+expression o f time It takes me h a lf an hour to walk home. after certain verbs and expressions listed She refused to come to the party.

to be taken


Present Infinitive Active Voice to+bare infinitive (simple)

to take to be+verb+ing (progressive)

to be taking Present In finitive Passive Voice

Grammar Review A fte r these verbs follow ed by who, w hat, which, where, how but not why. ask decide explain forget know learn

remember show tell understand wonder teach, etc.

As the object o f these verbs afford agree appear arrange ask beg claim decide demand

deserve expect fail forget happen hesitate hope learn manage


mean need offer plan prepare pretend promise refuse regret

remember seem swear tend threaten volunteer want, etc.

A fte r the object o f these verbs advise allow ask beg cause challenge convince encourage expect


Bare In fin itive

remind require teach tell urge want warn, etc.


after most modal verbs after these verbs in the active voice: hear,


forbid force hire instruct invite need order perm it persuade

let, listen to, make, notice, observe, see, watch etc. after why....?/why not.....? anything, but evervthina + 1J everything , except ' nothing


Perfect In fin itive Active Voice

after modal verbs after the verbs promise, seem,

(to) have+past participle (simple)

appear, claim, expect, hope, happen, pretend

(t o ) have taken

after these verbs in the passive voice:

(to) have been+verb+-ing (progressive)

believe, say, think, consider, suppose, understand

I may be late tomorrow. I heard her scream. BUT She was heard to scream. Why not go fo r a picnic? / did everything but clean the bathroom.

I would have finished by now if he hadn’t called. She claimed to have clim bed Mount Everest. She seemed to have been crying all night. He is thought to have stolen the emerald. The emerald is thought to have been stolen.

(to) have been taking Perfect In finitive Passive Voice (to) have been+past participle (t o ) have been taken

full infinitive


. *. . .

bare infinitive

My brother helped me (to) prepare lunch.

Subject + seem + full infinitive = It (impersonal) + seems + that clause. He seems to be intelligent. = It seems that he is intelligent. -ing • Advise, allow, encourage, permit, recommend, require ire+ J *r object + full infinitive l ot The doctor encouraged exercising.(=The doctor encouraged him to exercise.) Prefer can also take a full infinitive. Ip re fe r to drink coffee in the morning. Prefer+full infinitive+rather than+bare infinitive. I prefer to walk rather than drive. likely/unlikely +

1full infinitive John is likely to come to the party. It is unlikely to snow tomorow. , that clause

It is likely that John w ill come to the party.

The in fin itive o r the -ing form are used w ith no difference in m eaning a fte r these verbs: like, love, hate, begin, start, continue, intend, prefer, can’t bear etc.

He began to run as soon as he heard the shot. (=He began running as soon as he heard the shot). The in finitive o r -ing fo rm are used w ith different meanings a fte r these verbs: try + -ing: do something to see what effect it w ill have. If you want to get rid o f your sore throat, try drinking som ething hot.

try + full infinitive: make an effort. I tried to finish everything in tim e but that was impossible.

rem em ber/forget/regret + -ing: We refer to som ething that remem ber/forget/regret + full infinitive: We remember has already happened.

I regret talking to my mum that way. '

something before doing it. We forget something we are supposed to do. We regret something when we are sorry to do it.

I regret to tell you that you have failed your test.

Grammar Review ........ ..... ....................... .. ....... .. ... ...-....—...— ..-..... -..-..go on + full infinitive: the action changes.

go on + -ing: the action continues. 1went on doing my homework u n til m idnight.

When 1had finished eating, 1went on to do my homework.

stop + -ing: the action was stopped and not repeated. A fter having a heart attack, he stopped smoking.

stop + full infinitive: to pause an action tem porarily in order to

see/hear/sm ell/feel/notice/watch/observe/listen to + -ing:

see/hear/feel/notice/watch/observe/listen to + bare infinitive: for complete actions. 1watched her feed her dog.

for actions which are incomplete or still in progress.

On m y way to the supermarket, 1saw him walking the dog.

do something else. He was eating, but stopped to smoke a cigarette.

Unit 7 Modal Verbs Modal verbs do not form all tense form s and are followed by a bare infinitive, except for need. They have the same form in all persons, except have to and need. They express: ■can/be able to: ability in the present/future >could: general ability in the past >was/were able to: ability in a particular situation in the past

• can, could/may, m ight + present infinitive: possibility in the present/future

• could/m ay/m ight + perfect infinitive: possibility in the past r t In the negative only may not/m ight not can be used • could/m ight + perfect infinitive: for events that were possible but finally didn't happen • be likely to: can also express possibility (especially in questions)

She can sing in Spanish. Will you be able to finish this project by Friday? Mozart could play the piano at the age o f three. Last weekend we stayed at home, so we were able to spend some time together. They m ay/could/m ight watch TV tonight. Don't go there! There m ight be a riot. Sam can be very noisy sometimes. They could/m ay/m ight have forgotten about the concert. It's strange they didn't come. D on't ever cheat in your exams again! You could have been expelled fo r that. Is she likely to come to the party?

Why don't you ask Tim? He should be in his office now.

■should/ought to + present infinitive: probability in the present/future

• must + present infinitive: positive deduction about the

They must be out; Nobody is answering the phone.

present or the future

must + perfect infinitive: positive deduction about the past

• can't + present infinitive:

Mary m ust have been to the supermarket; the cupboards are a ll full. The 7:30 train to Bristol can’t be leaving yet; it ’s only 7:10.

negative deduction about the present or the future

It can't have been Ted I saw yesterday; Ted has got red hair.

can't + perfect infinitive: negative deduction about the past IWBWMW

- can/could I (possibly)...? May/might I....? asking for permission

. giving/ >Yes, (of course) you can/could/may L refusing No, (I'm afraid) you can’t/m ay not J permission

C a n /C o u ld / M ay/M ight I go out please? You can/could/may/can’t/m ay not smoke in this room.

Synonymous Expressions: I wonder if I could/ m ight.... Is it all rig ht if I .....? Would it be possible for me to ... ? Do you mind if I....?

Would it be possible fo r me to /l wonder if I could/Do you m ind if I open the door?

Grammar R eview |

• can/will....? informal request

5 :r •could/may/would....? form al request

W ill you come to the doctor's with me? Can you help me with m y homework, Mum? Could you show me the way to Oxford Street, please?

~ Synonymous Expressions: j Would you mind....? I/we'd like...

Would you m ind turning the lights on?

" will: willingness to help P w ill (you)....? informal offers and invitations |jjr • can/could: willingness to help can/could/shall 1....? form al offers |S • would you like/prefer + noun/full infinitive.,,,? Would you rather + bare infinitive....? | Polite or form al offers and invitations ^ • can: informal suggestions 5 • shall/could...? polite or form al suggestions

1 w ill clean the car fo r you. Will you come to Mexico w ith me?

1can help you w ith the washing up, if you like. Shall 1wait fo r you? Would you like to come to the cinema with us? Would you rather have dinner with us?

You can visit the Grand Canyon while you're in the USA. Could you turn down the music, please?

5 c Synonymous Expressions: ? Let's + bare infinitive, Why don't “ How about + noun/-ing


B • shall: asking for advice J j • should/ought to + present infinitive: asking fo r and giving advice E should/ought to + perfect infinitive: p r something should have happened but it didn't H • had better: strong advice, threat or warning ■

B p K g

• used to: past habits and situations that are no longer true (NEGATIVE = didn't use to) • would (+present infinitive): past habits or a person's typical behaviour in the past • will: to describe a person's typical behaviour in the present

| 9 B • must: internal obligation felt by the speaker • have (got) to: external obligation coming from facts • ought to/should: we remind someone of a duty or ■ f* obligation • need + noun/ -ing fo rm / full/bare infinitive: P® necessity M E E jr p iS P R H s O g

Why don’t we g o /H o w about going to the cinema?

Shall we tell him the truth or not? You should pay a visit to your dentist if you have a toothache. She should have told her father before she went away. You'd better stop interfering in my affairs. She used to go fishing when she lived in the island. He didn't use to dance when he was young. They would read a book before they went to sleep. Every time he passes by, he w ill say "hello".

1m ust tidy up or mum w ill get angry. You have (got) to take this syrup three times a day. You ought to/should inform your parents about the school trip. I'm so d irty! 1need a shower! The car needs repairing.

• don't have to/haven't got to /n e e d n 't/d o n 't need You needn’t eat it if you don’t like it. to + infinitive: It is not necessary to do something You don’t have to pay me back today. • needn’t + perfect infinitive: something wasn't necessary We needn't have cooked. There was plenty o f food le ft over but it was done from yesterday. • didn't need to + infinitive: something wasn't necessary He didn’t have to clean the car. but it isn't clear if it was done or not

• mustn't: prohibition • 1 can't: not being allowed to do something

You m ustn't smoke in here. He can't enter that room; it's fo r sta ff only.


NOTE • Need as a main verb form s the negative and interrogative w ith do/did.

Do you need anything? I need som ething (a machine) to cut the grass with. I didn't need his advice.

>Must is used o nly fo r the present. Past and future tenses are form ed w ith have to. He must take the dog fo r a walk. He had to take the dog fo r a walk last night but he forgot to.

Grammar Review Unit 8 Passive Voice Passive Voice stresses the action itself, not who or what caused it.

FORMATION destroyed

The fire

Active Voice:

the factory

1 I Passive Voice:



The factory

was completely destroyed by

'T the fire.


Active Voice

Passive Voice

Present Simple

Producers make horror film s every year.

Horror films are made every year.

Present Progressive

We are removing the furniture right now.

The furniture is being removed right now.

Past Simple

The technician repaired my TV yesterday.

My TV was repaired yesterday.

Past Progressive

They were pursuing the th ie f when there was an explosion.

The thief was being pursued when there was an explosion.

Present Perfect Simple

We have finished these reports.

These reports have been finished.

Past Perfect Simple

They had made a statem ent in Parliament before the war broke out.

A statement had been made in Parliament before the war broke out.

Future "will"

Someone w ill make a speech on technology tomorrow.

A speech on technology w ill be made tomorrow.

Going to

They are going to hire a new employee.

A new employee is going to be hired.

Future Perfect Simple

1w ill have typed my thesis by next month.

My thesis w ill have been typed by next month.

Present Infinitive

We o ug ht to finish the building before the end of the year.

The building ought to be finished before the end of the year.

Perfect Infinitive

We sh o u ld have fin ish e d th e b u ild in g earlier.

The building should have been finished earlier.

-ing form

We all appreciate other people helping us.

We all appreciate being helped.

Modal verbs

You must clean your room.

Your room must be cleaned.


Please fill in this form.

This form should/must be filled in.

■The Present, Past and Future Perfect Progressive and the Future Progressive are not used in the Passive Voice. * By + agent is used to emphasise who does or what causes the action. The new tax law was announced by the Prime Minister.

Note the fo llow in g changes in:

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Verbs w ith tw o objects

He gave her a painting.

She was given a painting. A painting was given to her.

Question words (what, who, when, where, why, how)

Who composed this song?

Who was this song composed by? (informal)

By whom was this song composed? (formal) not...any no not....anyof none of not....anyone/anybody no one/nobody not...anything nothing

The head teacher didn't expel any of the students. They didn’t find anything in the excavations.

None of the students were expelled. Nothing was found in the excavations.

make, hear, help, see, etc.

1heard her scream.

She was heard to scream.

believe, consider, expect, find, hope, know, report, say, think, understand

People say that he is very wealthy. People say that he was very wealthy.

It is said that he is very wealthy. He is said to be very wealthy. He is said to have been very wealthy.

They separated him from his parents when he was young.

He was separated from his parents when he was young.

verbs w ith prepositions

a s #

Grammar Review To:


Use the fo llo w in g expressions




Give permission

let sb do sth allow sb to do sth give sb permission to do sth

Her parents le t her stay out late. My father allowed me to borrow his car. The M ayor gave us perm ission to use the old building fo r our rehearsals.

Be given permission

be allowed to do sth get sb's permission to do sth

She is allowed to stay out late. We g o t the M ayor's perm ission to use the old building fo r our rehearsals.

Deny permission

not let, not allow to, not be allowed to + infinitive subject+is prohibited/banned It is illegal/forbidden to do sth

Her parents don't allow her to stay out late. She's not allowed to stay out late. Smoking is prohibited in this section. It is forbidden to enter that room.

The Perfect participle is used for an action that happened before another one in the past. Having been h it by an earthquake, the small town took 15 years to return to its previous condition. =A fter it had been h it by an earthquake, the sm all town took 15 years to return to its previous condition.

The past participle is used in the passive voice to replace


a relative clause

The dresses w orn by film stars on the night of the Oscar awards are all designer labels. = The dresses which are worn by film stars on the night of the Oscar awards are all designer labels.

a conditional sentence

Handled w ith care, contact lenses can last fo r over 2 years. = If they are handled w ith care, contact lenses can last for over 2 years.

a clause of reason

Fascinated by the film , they decided to stay and w atch it again. = As/Because they were fascinated by the film, they decided to stay and watch it again.

a clause of result

Carried away by the beautiful scenery, he lost concentration and had an accident = He was so carried away by the beautiful scenery that he lost concentration and had an accident.

U n it 9 Pronouns - Causative Form POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (My, Your, His, Her, Its, Our, Your, Their) Use


• before a noun

m y notebook, her car, their chairs

• possessive adjective + own + noun is used to emphasise that

1don't take the bus. 1have m y own car.

something belongs to only one person

• on + possessive adjective + own is used to emphasise that the My son always studies on his own. subject acts alone, w itho ut help

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Ours, Yours, Theirs) ----------------- I



• to replace a possessive adjective + noun They are never followed by nouns.

1like your house better than oursJ&usG,

• A/an + noun + of + possessive pronoun =

A colleague o f yours = one o f your colleagues.

one of + possessive adjective + noun



Use • • • •

singular nouns (people or animals) the compounds of some, any, no irregular plural nouns not ending in -s tim e expressions/idiom s

Examples John's car, the horse's tail Somebody's car is in fro n t of m y garage. Men's ties, women's dresses A hard day's work


Grammar Review Form


> o f + noun


Exam ples

• plural nouns ending in -s

My cousins' house.

• things, abstract nouns and animals (sometimes)

The ro o f o f the house, the price o f independence, the fu r o f the cat (=the cat's fur)

• When two or more people own something in common, 's is added to the last noun.

• We can use o f for people, only in long phrases.

The cousin o f the g irl who lives next door is a student.

John and Mary's house. • When tw o or more people own different things, 's is added to each noun.

John's and Mary's cars.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Yourselves, Themselves) i Use

Exam ples

• w ith the verbs behave, cu t, educate, enjoy, help, h u rt, kill, like, teach etc, if the subject and the object of the verb are the same.

The little g irl likes herself in that red dress. She hurt herself while trying to cut the bread. We enjoyed ourselves very much at your party.

• after certain verbs w ith prepositions (talk to, say to, take care of, etc.)

The young people took care o f themselves while camping.

• a fte r the verbs look, seem, etc, to describe em otions or behaviour.

She doesn’t look herself lately; som ething must be wrong with her family.

• for emphasis (emphatic pronouns)

The Queen herself gave the Beatles an award.

• by + reflexive pronoun = alone, w ithout help.

1painted my room by myself.


• One-Ones are used if we do not w ant to repeat a countable noun.

>Note the difference between them selves and each o th e r ( =one another).

This phone is broken; you can use the one over there.

Mary and John enjoyed themselves at the zoo yesterday. Mary and John liked each other from the m om ent they met.

• another = one more. It can also go w ith expressions of time, distance or money.

I'd like another steak please. I'm afraid you'll have to wait fo r another ten minutes.

CAUSATIVE FORM The Causative Form is used when we do not do something ourselves, but we arrange fo r someone else (usually an expert) to do it fo r us. Form ation Subject + Have /G e t + Object + Past Participle (in the correct form )


are having

our house

painted next month.

• Questions and negations are form ed as in the Active Voice w ith the auxiliaries do/does in the Present Simple and did in the Past Simple.

• If we want to m ention w ho perform s the action, we can add by + agent at the end of the sentence.

How often do you have your hair cut? When did you have your car serviced?

- have som eone do so m ething = make someone do something.

• We can use g et instead of have, especially in informal style.

My dress was too long so I g o t it shortened.

We had the tap fixed by the plumber.

She had her children clean the living room. - g et som eone to do som ething = persuade someone to do something.

She got her children to clean the living room.

U n it 10 Consolidation II

Grammar Review Unit 11 Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result CLAUSES OF CONCESSION express contrast, opposition o r unexpected results Use • although

even though I + subject + verb though J

Examples Although she's studied medicine, she faints at the sight o f blood. Even though he's smart, he didn't get into the course he wanted. Though we knew the way, we got lost.

• despite 1 + noun / -ing form in spite of J the fact that + clause

We managed to clim b the m ountain despite the rain. In spite o f the fact that he was sleepy, he drove home safely.

" adverfc>Ve }

Clever though he is, he couldn't solve the problem. Cloudy though it was, we got sunburnt.

+ as/th o u 9h + subject + verb

• however* l ... . no m atter how ] + adJ/adv + sub^ect + verb

However fast he walked, we managed to keep up w ith him. No m atter how much she ate, she didn't get fat.

• whatever 1 + sut>ject+verb no matter what J

She can't convince me that she's telling the truth, whatever she says. I'll go to the party, no m atter what you say.

* However can introduce a main clause.

Sam came by yesterday; however, he forgot to bring the book 1had lent him.


Examples • because ■* as r + clause since J

They don't talk to each other, because they have had a fight. 1didn't know where to turn as I'd forgotten my map. Since you're a vet, you can have a look at m y canary.

• because o f i + noun/ -jng form due to J

They wanted nothing to do w ith him because o f his rude behaviour. Due to her allergy, she never touches daisies.

• due to the fact that + clause

Due to the fact that they knew each other so well, they decided to share a flat.

CLAUSES OF P U R P O S E H H H H i ...— - j-— ------------ —......——

positive purpose • to so as to in order to

< L + infinitive


Examples They visited us to announce the good news. She told him to come along so as to introduce him to her friends. I'm learning Portuguese in order to go to Brazil next year.

r can/may/will + infinitive for present/ They're going to Africa so that they can study the gorillas. • so that < future We thought o f staying home fo r the whole week, so that we could 1 L could/m ight/would + infinitive for past rest. • with a view to/w ith the aim of + -ing form

She started training hard w ith the aim o f winning the tennis cup.

• in case + present tense for present/future in case + past tense ^ for past

Take an anorak in case it rains. We always had an extra tyre in the car, in case we got a fla t tyre.

• for -ing form

She uses that needle fo r sewing.

negative purpose • so as not to i in order not to )


Em m es The th ie f was wearing a mask, so as not to be recognisable. She tied her key around her neck in order not to lose it.

f can/may/will + not + infinitive • so that ■I for present/future They rem inded me 1had a class, so that 1w ouldn’t forget. L could/m ight/would + not + infinitive ^ for past • for fear / lest + subject + might/should + infinitive

She closed the door fo r fear it m ight be broken by the wind.

• for fear of + noun/-ing form

She was wearing long boots fo r fear o f snakes.

Grammar Review LAUSES OF RESULT Examples • too + adj/adverb (+for sb) + to + infinitive not + adj/adv+enough (+for sb) + to + infinitive so + adj/adv + that + clause

That exercise was too d ifficu lt fo r me to do. The sea isn't warm enough for us to swim in. The weather was so cold yesterday that nobody dared to go out.

• noun + verb + so + adj/adv 1 so + m uch/m any/little/few + noun r + that + clause so + adj + a/an + noun ^

The tunnel was so low that we had to crawl. We had so much spare tim e that we didn't know what to do. It was so hot a day that we decided to go swimming.

• such (a/an) (+adj) such a lot of

It was such a scary place that 1wanted to get out as fast as possible. She’s lost such a lo t o f weight that 1hardly recognised her.

1 | + noun + that + clause

NOTE are used in exclamatory sentences.

It's such an extraordinary animal! Your baby is so cute! How interesting! What a surprise to meet you here!


Main Clause • future tense

If Paula learns Spanish, she'll visit Spain.

Present Simple (or Progressive) lf +

Use real/probable situations in the present/future

• can/m ay/might/should + infinitive

If you have finished eating, you can/may watch TV.

Present Perfect Simple (if the action has already finished)

• present simple

general truths

If you m ix red and blue, you get purple. • Imperative

instructions/comm ands

If you go out, turn the lights off. • If-clauses either precede or follow the main clause. When they precede, we separate them w ith a comma.

If you can hear me, give me a sign. Give me a sign if you can hear me. (no comma) • We can use should in the if-clause if there is a slight possibility o f something happening. If you should buy that car, take it to the mechanic to have it checked first. • Sometimes if is om itted and should comes before the subject (inversion). Should you buy that car, take it to the mechanic to have it checked first.


Main Clause w ould/could/m ight + present infinitive

If + Past Simple (or Progressive)


If he were a pianist, he could get a jo b in the Orchestra.

unreal/imaginary situations in the present

If 1became a m illionaire, 1would buy a house w ith a swimming pool.

events that are unlikely to happen in the future

I f l were in your shoes, 1 would talk to my parents.

to give advice

Use were instead o f was in type 2 conditional (formal).

If she were more polite, people would like her more.

• Sometimes if is o m itted and were comes before the subject (inversion).

Were he more careful, he would avoid such awkward situations.


Main Clause w ould/could/m ight + perfect infinitive

If + Past Perfect (Simple or Continuous)

Use for actions that didn't happen

If she had stepped on the banana peel, she would have had an accident. If 1had taken better care o f m y teeth, 1wouldn't have had this terrible toothache.

to express criticism /regret

Grammar Review Sometimes if is om itted and had comes before the subject (inversion)

Had he been older, he would have been allowed to enter the disco.


We can have combinations according to the context (Mixed Conditionals) If they le ft early, they would have arrived by now. (types 2,3) If we hadn’t go t lost, we would be there now. (types 3,2) conditionals can be introduced w ith other expressions (instead o f if):


• unless (=if not)

/ won't talk to her unless she apologises to me.

• as long as/provided/providing (=only if)

I'll go to his party provided (that)/as long as he invites me.

• in case

I'll take an umbrella in case it rains.

• on condition (that) (=provided)

On condition you've told the truth, I'll le t you go w ithout punishment.

• but fo r (=if it wasn’t/hadn't been for)

But for her help, 1would have failed my exam.

• or else (=if not/otherwise)

Do as 1tell you, or else I'll get angry.

• suppose/supposing (=imagine if)

Supposing you won the lottery, what would you do?

• only if

I'll work w ith you only if you promise not to talk all the time.

• even if

She w ouldn't change her m ind even if you proved her wrong. We use the future "will" only after the expression o r else.

Unreal Past = unreal situations stated w ith Past Tenses



type 2 Conditional

If I could go on a holiday, I would go to Peru.

present/future imaginary situations

Supposing you were an animal, what would you choose to be?

w is h /if only + Past Tense

we wish a present situation were different (if only is stronger than wish)

I wish I had a pet. If only I were in Jamaica!

w is h /if only + would + infinitive

- to express annoyance, irritation, dissatisfaction >to make a wish concerning a present situation that is unlikely to change (The subject of would must be different from that of wish)

I w ish/if only you would stop shouting.

w is h /if only + could + infinitive

make a wish/express regret about sth we cannot do at present

He wishes he had a motorbike.

as if/a s though + Past Tense

untrue situations in the present (were is used instead of was)

She walks as if she were a dancer.

it’s (a b o u t/h ig h ) tim e + Past Tense

• to indicate that tim e has come for sb to do sth • to express criticism /com plain about sth that should have already been done (It's tim e + infinitive = the right tim e for sb to do sth) (It's about/high tim e are stronger expressions)

It ’s tim e we le ft this place. It's tim e you told them the truth. It's high tim e you qu it this jo b ! It's tim e fo r him to ask fo r a raise.

If + Past Tense imagine / suppose / supposing + Past Tense

I wish days would go by quicker!

Examples If + Past Perfect

type 3 Conditional

If she had been more careful, she w ouldn't have crashed into the tree.

Grammar Review Use w is h /if only + Past Perfect as if/a s though + Past Perfect im a gin e/ suppose/ supposing + Past Perfect


express sorrow/regret about sth in the past

1wish 1had m arried Paul. If only 1hadn't forgotten m y passport!

unreal situations in the past

She behaved as if she had not seen anything.

imaginary situations in the past

Imagine you hadn't gone to the beach, would you be brown now?

WOULD RATHER (= I WOULD PREFER)] If the subject o f w ould rather is the same as the subject o f the verb: Present / Future reference Past reference

would rather (not) + present bare infinitive

I'd rather have a crepe. He'd rather not take the test tomorrow.

would rather (not) + perfect bare infinitive

We'd rather have rented a jeep. I'd rather not have eaten so much at the dinner party yesterday.


If the subject o f w ould rather is d ifferent from the subject o f the verb: Present / Future reference

would rather + subject + Past Simple

I'd rather you didn't bring your dog along on our trip.

Past reference

would rather + subject + Past Perfect

He would rather she hadn't cut her hair so short.

§ • Would rather + bare infinitive + than + bare infinitive I'd rather sleep than watch TV.

• Would sooner is used in the same way as would rather I'd sooner go to the East than to America.

EXPESSING PREFERENCE ........... ...... ..... .. ..... .................................................... '|

• prefer + -ing/noun + to + -ing/noun

1prefer fishing to hunting.

• prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (general reference)

He prefers to play chess rather than play scrabble.

• would prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (preference in a particular situation)

She would prefer to have an orange juice rather than have a cup o f coffee.

HAD BETTER idea (n) = 1) knowledge or understanding of something without being certain (n) = 2) a suggestion, thought or plan for doing something view (n) = opinion thought (n) = idea point (n) = single fact, idea or opinion aspect (n) = a distinct feature or element in a problem, situation etc. respect (n) = politeness and honour shown towards sb or sth matter (of fact) (phrase) = actually, in fact 7.E queue (n) = a line of people or vehicles waiting for sth line (n) = a number of people /things one behind the other or standing side by side aisle (n) = a long narrow gap between rows of seats (in a church, classroom etc.) or between supermarket shelves corridor (n) = a passage in a building or train, usually with rooms on either side hall (n) = a room serving as an entry area row (n) = a number of people/ things standing or arranged in a line 7JF available (adj.) = that can be found or obtained spare (adj.) = extra, additional, available for use when needed free (adj.) = not being used / occupied by sb or not reserved for somebody to use (e.g. table, seat)/costing nothing convenient (adj.) = easy, useful or suitable for a particular situation handy (adj.) = useful for a particular purpose usable (adj.) = that can be used 7.G absence (n) = the state of not being somewhere lack (n) = when something is insufficient or does not exist at all shortage (n) = deficiency, when there is not enough of sth loss (n) = the fact of no longer having sth or having less of it 7.H short (of sth) (adj.) = not have enough of sth, nearly run out of scarce (adj.) = not easy to find or obtain rare (adj.) = not common inadequate (adj.) = too low in quality, or too small in amount; not good enough

Words Easily Confused insufficient (adj.) = inadequate, not enough for a particular purpose

comment (on) (v) = express your apply (for) (v) = to request

opinion about sth or give an explanation for it report (v) = inform some UNIT 8 authority about sth that has 8A happened choose (v)= to select from a 8 JG number of alternatives announce (v) = to state or make pick (v) = to gather / to make known publicly a selection from a number of inform (v) = to tell, give things information gather (v) = come together in a confess (v) = admit that you have group done sth wrong or shameful collect (v) = to accumulate sth as introduce (v) = to present (sb) by a hobby or for study name (to another person) 8JB reveal (v) = uncover or expose choice (n) = an act of choosing sth hidden, make it known to between two or more people possibilities publish (v) = print numerous collection (n) = a group of copies of a book or magazine objects that have been gathered 8 H together ensure (v) = to make sth certain selection (n) = the state of being to happen, guarantee chosen insure (v) = pay money to an election (n) = voting in order insurance company to choose a person or group of reassure (v) = to comfort sb and stop them from worrying people for an official position variety (n) = different types of make sure (v) = to make sth sth certain, ensure confirm (v) = to make an option (n) = alternative / one thing which can be chosen from arrangement or meeting certain, a set of possibilities often by telephone or writing 8J 8.C consult (v) = ask for specialised agree (v) = (on sth): have the advice same opinion on sth advise (v) = to give an opinion on accept (v) = to receive with what sb should do approval / to receive, take suggest (v) = to mention (an idea, admit (v) = to confess or plan etc.) for consideration acknowledge (a crime, mistake, propose (v) = to put forward (a etc.) plan etc.) for consideration approve of (v) = like, admire sb recommend (v) = advise, or sth suggest sth as the best choice 8D UNIT 9 tip (n) = a helpful piece of advice 9A clue (n) = a sign or information say (sth to sb) (v) = speak words that helps you to solve a problem to sb advice (n) = an opinion which tell (sb sth) (v) = let sb know sth, sb offers you about what give information you should do in a particular speak (v) = use your voice in situation order to say sth information (n) = knowledge talk (v) (1) = express thoughts, feelings or desires by using about sth, esp. news or facts 8,E words reliable (adj) = sb or sth that (2) = to have a conversation with sb can be trusted to work well or discuss (v) = to consider a behave in a desirable way responsible (adj) = having subject by talking about it with others. control or authority over sth or sb debate (n) = (formal) discussion about a subject on which reasonable (adj) = quite good, fair, sensible people have different and often opposing opinions respectable (adj) = having or 9.B deserving the respect of other ask (v) = to put a question to sb, people inquire. 8J? mention (v) = refer to or speak demand (v) = ask for sth urgently or in a forceful way about sth briefly or incidentally wonder (v) = to ask yourself refer to (v) = 1) to send sb or sth to another place for advice 2) to questions or express a desire to mention, describe or involve know about something express (v) = show what you question (v) = 1) to ask someone about sth 2) express doubt about think or feel by saying or doing sth sth

something in writing or by sending in a form 9.C require (v) = need, demand inquire (v) = to ask for information request (v) = an act of asking; a polite demand for something command (v) = order order (v) =to ask for goods or services appeal (v) = to take a legal case to a higher court where it can be judged again beg (v) = to ask for food, money, especially in the street or to request strongly and without pride 9X> advice (n) = recommendation or opinion instructions (n) = the (written) information that tells you how to use a piece of equipment etc. directions (n) = instructions about how to get from one place to another or about what to do manual (n) = a book which gives you instructions on how to do sth or how to use sth, such as a machine guide (n) = a book for travellers or tourists giving information about a place plan (n) = 1) a drawing from which sth is made or built 2) a decision made in advance recipe (n) = a set of instructions for cooking 9JE brochure (n) = a thin book giving information or advertising sth leaflet (n) = a printed piece of paper for distribution, esp. advertising handbook (n) = a small reference book giving useful facts catalogue (n) = a complete list of items, usually in alphabetical order list (n) = a set of words, numbers, etc. written one below the other menu (n) = a list of all the kinds of food that are available in a restaurant 9.F refuse (v) = say no to a proposal or invitation; turn down, deliberately not do sth deny (v) = state that sth is untrue, not accept an accusation/not allowed regret (v) = feel sad or disappointed because of sth that happened resist (v) = to stop yourself having sth that you like very much or doing sth that you want to do reject (v) = turn down, refuse to accept 9.G complain (about) (v) = say that

you are not satisfied with a situation criticise (v) = express disapproval of sth, say what is wrong with it object to (v) = to feel or express opposition to or dislike of sth or sb discourage (v) = to take away sb’s confidence or sb’s hope of doing sth disapprove (of) (v) = not like, not agree with or approve of sth protest (n) (v) = say or show publicly that you object to sth argue (v) = to express an opposite opinion, to exchange angry words quarrel (v) = to disagree, argue fight (v) = to oppose or struggle against sb or sth 9.H worry (v) = to be anxious and troubled about sb or sth mind (v) = to be upset, annoyed or disturbed by sth or sb (used in questions or negative sentences) bother (v) = to make the effort to do sth / to annoy, worry or cause problems to sb annoy (v) = to irritate or make sb angry trouble (v) = to cause sb to be worried or anxious doubt (v) = to have a feeling of uncertainty about sth UNIT 11 1LA

stop (v) = to put an end to sth happening / prevent

avoid (v) = not to allow sth to happen / to keep away from sb or sth forbid (v) = to order sb not to do sth, not allow sb to do sth prohibit (v) = forbid or make sth illegal, ban ban (v) = state officially that sth must not be done, shown or usee prevent (v) = to stop sth from happening / to stop sb from doing sth escape (v) = to avoid sth 11.B blame (v) = believe or say that st or sth is responsible for sth bad accuse (v) = to say that you believe sb has done sth wrong arrest (v) = to take and keep sb prisoner with the authority of the law charge(v) = to accuse sb of having done sth illegal convict (v) = to decide in a'court of law that sb is guilty of a crime sentence (v) = to state that sb v\ I be punished in a certain way (by a law court) 11C complaint (n) = expressing your dissatisfaction with a particular situation annoyance (n) = irritation, feelinc angry and impatient

Words Easily Confused accusation (n) = criticising sb

quantity or size destroy (v) = to cause damage in a violent way, to cause to exist drop (v) = to fall or let sth fall (by accident) lower (v) = to reduce sth or become less in amount, level, quality etc. demolish (v) = destroy a building completely 12JE illness (n) = the state of not being fall (v) = move downwards in good health UNIT 13 disease (n) = illness of people, 13.A animals plants etc. caused by attention (n) = notice, thought or infection infection (n) = a disease caused consideration care (n) = the responsibility of by germs and bacteria h i protecting sb or sth sickness (n) = a particular type forget (v) = to fail to remember notice (n) = attention, of illness or disease, nausea leave (v) = to not take sth with observation weakness (n) = not feeling you when you go warning (n) = advice to beware healthy and strong ignore (v) = pay no attention to of sth that might happen accident (n) = sth unpleasant sb/sth signal (n) = sign, gesture or neglect (v) = fail to look after sth which happens unexpectedly, sign intended as a message or causing damage or injury properly command incident (n) = an event which is omit (v) = leave sth out caution (n) = great care and either unpleasant or unusual deliberately or by accident attention 12JF 13.B cure (v) = to make sb healthy UNIT 12 insist on (v) = say firmly that sth again 12A must be done protect (from) (v) = to prevent sb heal (v) = to make or become persist in (v) = go on doing sth well again, esp. after a cut or or sth from being harmed despite having difficulties injury rescue (v) = get sb out of an continue (v) = go on doing sth, treat (v) = to give medical care unpleasant or dangerous not stop doing sth or attention to a person or a situation last (v) = to continue for a period condition save (v) = help sb out to avoid recover (v) = regain health after of time harm or to escape a dangerous remain (v) = to stay in the same being ill situation place or condition support (v) = 1) help, encourage overcome (v) = to successfully maintain (v) = to keep in good 2) provide sb with money or the deal with a feeling or a problem condition 12jG things they need defend (v) = take action in order sensible (adj) = based on reason, protect (v) = to keep sth or sb safe from injury, damage or not on emotions to protect or support sb or sth sensitive (adj) = 1) easily affected loss guard (v) = watch over in order to protect or not allow to escape or harmed by sth 2) aware of and keep (v) = have, look after J3 £ understanding other people’s secure (v) = to make sth safe convince (v) = to make sb agree, needs and problems from being harmed understand or realise sth sensational (adj) = very good, 12.B persuade (v) = to convince sb injure (v) = cause physical harm wonderful, exciting emotional (adj) = causing strong that sth is true or make them do to sth wound (v) = to cause an injury to feelings urge (v) = to try hard to persuade a part of the body usually with a 12.H sb to do sth weapon produce (v) = to make or impress (sb) (v) = to make sb manufacture sth, esp. in large hurt (v) = to cause physical or admire you mental injury; to cause a painful quantities develop (v) = to grow or change attract (v) = to cause a particular sensation reaction collapse (v) = fall down suddenly into a more advanced form increase (v) = become greater in appeal to (sb) (v) = to attract, harm (v) = to cause physical charm, fascinate or interest sb number, level or amount injury to sb, usually on purpose 13D build up (v) = to increase or I2.C win (v) = achieve first place and become larger or stronger damage (n) = physical harm gain a prize in a competition create (v) = invent, design or caused to an object beat (v) = defeat sb in a injury (n) = damage to a person’s make sth new competition or election progress (n) = advance, or animal’s body gain (v) = acquire sth(gradually) development for the better wound (n) = an injury to part of earn (v) = receive money as advance (v) = 1) to progress, the body, usually caused by a payment for your work develop 2) doing more difficult weapon defeat (v) = to win a victory over work pain (n) = the physical suffering sb caused by injury or illness improve (v) = to (cause sth to) fail (v) = not to succeed in get better ache (n) = physical pain or something discomfort caused by injury or 121 13JE reduce (v) = make sth smaller illness appeal (n) = a formal request in amount (quantity) or degree 12D to the authorities asking for a endanger (v) = to put sb or sth (size) decrease (v) = become smaller in decision to be changed in danger of being harmed,

from a bank, shop or vehicle using force or threats thief (n) = person who steals from sb else burglar (n) = person who enters a building illegally, with the intention of stealing 11D kidnapper (n) = criminal who chase (v) = to run after sb in kidnaps another person order to catch them hostage (take / hold sb) (n) = pursue (v) = follow or chase sb or sth especially in order to catch a person captured and held prisoner by one or more people them hunt(v) = to chase esp. birds and victim (n) = sb who has been hurt animals in order to catch and kill or killed pickpocket (n) = sb who steals them things from people's pockets follow (v) = to go behind

and expressing the belief that they have done sth wrong disappointment (n) = feeling let down, because of sth not meeting your expectations

U.E cause (n) = what makes an event happen

excuse (n) = a reason sb gives, in order to explain why sth has been done or in order to avoid doing sth reason (n) = fact or situation explaining why sth happens or what causes it to happen; cause purpose (n) = the reason for which sth is made or done, intention aim (n) = what you are hoping to achieve by an action, plan etc. 11JF burgle (v) = to enter by force and steal rob (v) = steal money or property from sb steal (v) = take sth away without permission or intention of giving it back hijack (v) = to force someone to give you control of a vehicle, aircraft or ship that is in the middle of a journey deceive (v) = make sb believe that sth is not true in order to gain sth yourself cheat (v) = to behave in a dishonest way in order to get what you want lie (v) = to say sth which is not true shoplift (v) = to take sth from a shop without paying for it blackmail (v) = to demand money or favours from sb, by threatening them 1LG attack (v) = try to hurt or damage sb or sth using violence knock (v) = a sound made with the hand on the door hit (v) = to strike with the hand or with an object beat (v) = to hit repeatedly with a hand, stick or other object blow (n) = a hard hit with a hand ora weapon strike (v) = to hit or attack forcefully or violently U.H

convict (n) = sb who is in prison criminal (n) = sb who commits crimes

robber (n) = person who steals

damaged or destroyed risk (v) = the possibility of meeting danger or of suffering harm or loss threaten (v) = say that you will do sth to sb in order to make them do sth you want warn (v) = to make sb aware of a possible danger or problem

Words Easily Confused application (n) = formal request

definite (adj) = fixed, certain,

for sth

clear, that cannot be doubted certain (adj) = sure, beyond doubt particular (adj) = specific, special special (adj) = not ordinary or usual sure (adj) = certain, confident that one is right 14.G stand (v) = tolerate, endure sth/sb resist (v) = refuse to accept sth/ stop yourself from doing sth, although you would like to do it tolerate (v) = to put up with suffer (v) = to feel pain, discomfort, sorrow etc. 14H offer (v) = ask sb if they would like to have or use sth provide (v) = supply sth that sb needs or wants supply (v) = give sb sth that they need cater (v) = to provide what is required or desired

each other similar (adj) = resembling sb/sth, attraction (n) = a person or thing almost the same that attracts sb or sth common (adj) = usual,familiar interest (n) = a state of wanting 14.B to learn or know about sth suit (v) = 1)be convenient for sb 13JF or the best choice in a particular result (n) = 1) answers that are situation 2) make sb look produced by a scientific study or attractive test 2)sth that happens or exists fit (v) = be the correct size or because of sth else shape effect (n) = a change produced match (v) = 1)be in harmony by a particular influence with sth 2)have a pleasing affect (v) = to have an influence appearance when used together on sb or sth combine (v) = join together, blend, mix consequence (n) = an often bad or inconvenient result of a compare (v) = to examine and particular action or situation look for the difference between influence (n) = an effect of one two or more things person or thing on another 14£ 13.G punctual (adj) = arriving, allow (v) = to let sb do sth or let doing sth or happening at the sth happen; permit expected, correct time let (v) = to give sb permission to accurate (adj) = precise, correct do sth to a very detailed level permit (v) = to allow sth or make correct (adj) = right, accurate sth possible and without mistakes accept (v) = say “yes” to sth or exact (adj) = in great detail, agree to take sth correct, precise make (sb do sth) (v) = to force sb sharp (adv) = exactly at the (or sth) do sth stated time oblige (v) = to require sb to do 14D sth by legal, moral or physical remain (v) = to stay in the same means place or condition force (v) = to make sb do sth reveal (v) = uncover/expose sth against their will hidden, make it known to people 13.H review (v) = 1) to write an opinion postpone (v) = to arrange for an of a book, film, play etc. 2) to event etc. to happen at a later examine or consider sth again time revise (v) = to study again (sth cancel (v) = to say that sth which already learned) in preparation for an exam has already been arranged will not be done or take place / to relieve (v) = make sth less order sth to be stopped unpleasant, cause sth delay (v) = to be slow or late or unpleasant to disappear make sb slow or late release (v) = to allow sb or sth to 131 come out of a place/to make sth guest (n) = sb who is visiting you available to the public or is a customer at a hotel 14.E host (n) = sb who receives or outcome (n) = something that entertains guests follows an action or situation outdoor (adj) = existing, visitor (n) = sb who is visiting a person or a place happening or done outside client (n) = a person or rather than inside a building outfit (n) = clothes worn together organisation that receives a service from a professional as a set person or another outlet (n) = 1) a place that sells organisation in return for money goods made by a particular company 2) a hole or pipe customer (n) = a person who buys goods or services, through which liquid can flow especially from a shop away outsider (n) = a person who is not accepted as a member of a UNIT 14 14JV society, group etc. 14J? like (prep.) =such as, similar to alike (adj) = when two or more perfect (adj) = excellent, suitable, people/things are similar without fault ideal (adj) = the best possible unlike (adj) = different from sth person or thing for sth likely (adj) = probable, sth that may happen fine (adj) = sunny and dry(for as (prep.) = like, with the identity weather) of thorough (adj) = detailed, careful same (adj) = having two or more detailed (adj) = having many people or things exactly like details, thorough

Part 1: Multiple Choice Cloze —

® Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. ® Read the text again, one sentence at a time. Read the whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gap, as there may be clues that could help you. ® Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is. ® Do not look at the four choices or guess the answer until you've tried to understand what the sentence means. @ Do not always think of words as single isolated items, but as parts of a context. ® Read the options carefully.

Decide which of the four choices is best in this context. Consider syntax and style. Find which of the choices may have the same meaning and decide which one should be left out. If you aren't sure about the right answer, try to eliminate three of the four alternatives starting with the words that don’t make sense. ® Check if the word you have selected forms an acceptable expression with the word before and/or after it. Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense.

Part 2: Open Cloze ® Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. ® Read the text again, one sentence at a time. Read the whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gap, as there may be clues that could help you. Note that sometimes you may find clues in other sentences, too. ® Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is. 0 Remember most of the missing words will be grammatical words, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, articles, linking words etc. and not vocabulary items.

Part 3: Word Formation


Remember: there is only one missing word. If you think that two or more words are suitable, you will have to choose and w rite only one. 0 'Check for accuracy of grammar and spelling. & Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense.


® Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. ® Read the text again, one sentence at a time. ® Decide what part of speech is needed to fill in the gap. The words to be formed will usually be nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. ® Decide if the word to be formed has the same or the opposite meaning of the given word according to the meaning of the sentence. ® Remember that you will need to add a prefix and/or a

suffix to the given word to form a derivative. Sometimes you m ight also add an ending to the derivative (e.g. -s after a noun, -s, -ed, -ing after a verb, -er, -est after an adjective). Note, however, that you never need to make more than two changes to the given word. ® Make sure the new word and given word have a common root and that you have spelt the new word correctly. ® Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense.

Part 4: "Key" Word Transformation ® Read the given sentence, the incomplete sentence and the ‘key’ word. ® Consider what kind of transform ation is required, e.g. passive voice, reported speech, conditional sentences etc. Look for clues in both the given and the incomplete sentences.


Remember that your answer must be between two and five words. Keep in mind that you must definitely use the ‘key’ word and not change it in any way at all. ® Write your answer, making sure that the completed sentence means the same as the given sentence. ® Check for accuracy of grammar and spelling.

Exam Tips for A ll Parts of the Paper


When dealing with each of the four parts, start with the questions that seem easy to you. Leave the ones you aren’t sure about until later. ® Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go back and try to answer it later. ® Answer all the questions, even those you are not

completely sure of. Make a sensible guess rather than leave a question unanswered. 0 Do not w rite more than one answer for each question. ® Write your answers on the answer sheet clearly and correctly.


In this part of the test there are 35 multiple-choice items which test basic knowledge of grammar. Candidates are required to choose a word or phrase which will complete the given sentence in a grammatically correct way. Remember:

& Read the sentence or short exchange carefully and consider what kind of structure is required. & Look at the position of the gap in the sentence and consider what part of speech is required. & Look out for words (e.g. linking words) or expressions (e.g. tim e expressions) that can help you decide on the correct answer. Consider the syntax and style of the sentence. Read the four answer choices carefully and decide on the correct answer. If you are not sure about the correct answer, try to eliminate the answer choices that are grammatically incorrect. Once you have decided on the correct answer, read the sentence or short exchange together with your answer, making sure that they form a grammatically correct sentence. & Make sure you transfer your answers to the answer sheet clearly and carefully.

& & & &

There are 35 multiple-choice items in this section which test basic knowledge of vocabulary. Candidates are required to choose the word or phrase which is appropriate in the context of the sentence. Remember:

& You should always learn new words in context. You can even try to use these new words in your own example sentences. This helps you remember new vocabulary instead of simply memorising their definitions in your mother tongue. @ You should learn verbs, nouns and adjectives with their dependent prepositions (e.g. laugh at somebody, talent for something, be good at something). & Try to remember collocations (e.g. make a mistake, do one’s homework) and fixed expressions (e.g. at the beginning of, in the beginning) that are considered problematic because they are quite similar. & Learn how to break down words in order to find the root, prefix and suffix. This w ill not only help you learn more words but also help you understand how they are formed. This w ill automatically increase your awareness of the language. & You can greatly improve your vocabulary by reading as many authentic English texts (e.g. books, magazines) as possible.



Prepositional Phrases

AT at + address at a glance at a loss at all costs at ease at first at first sight

crossroads door end (of) expense of front hospital latest

at random at school at short notice at the age of at the back of at the beginning (of) at the corner

as far as

as long as

ahead/behind schedule

by chance by cheque/credit card by day/night by far

by force by hand by heart by means of

by mistake by now by oneself by one's side

for for for for

for for for for

for sale

at the moment at the sight of at the top/bottom of at the weekend at university at work


AS as a result of

at the at the at the at the at the at the at the

at heart a t ... km/miles per hour at last at least at night at noon at once

BY by accident by all accounts by all means by bus/car/plane

by phone/post/airmail by profession (take) by surprise

FOR for for for for

a change a while ages certain/sure

example fear of granted hire/rent

instance life one's sake the sake of

FROM from experience

from now/then on

IN in + month/season in + year/century all in all in a bad/good mood in a mess in a queue in a row/rows in a state in a while in addition (to) in aid of in advance in answer to in any case in captivity in case of in cash in charge of in com fort in common in conclusion

in connection with in contact with in court in debt in detail in difficulty in exchange for in fact in favour of in flames in full in general in half in haste in honour of in hospital in instalments in memory in need of in/out of action in/out of business

in/out of control in/out of danger in/out of demand in /o u to f fashion in/out of hand in/out of order in/out of place in/out of print in/out of season in/out of shape in/out of sight in/out of stock in/out of touch in/out of use in one's opinion in other words in pain in pairs in particular in person in practice

in prison in private in progress in public in reality in/with reference to in relation to in reply to in return in secret in shock in short in sight of in summary in support of in the beginning in the centre (of) in the city/country in the corner of in the end in the first place

in the future in the long/short run in the meantime in the middle (of) in the mood for in the m orning/ afternoon/evening in the mountains in the North/South in the streets in the suburbs in this respect in touch with in town in trouble (with) in vain in writing

on + road/avenue

on a diet

on a farm

INTO into pieces

(come) into power

ON on (a) + day

on + date

m m *

Appendix 1 & 2 on on on on on on on on on

a journey/trip/tour an excursion an island account of approval arrival average behalf of board

on business on credit on demand on display on/off duty on fire on good/bad terms on holiday on impulse

on on on on on on on on on

one's birthday one's mind one's own page purpose sale schedule second thought(s) strike

out of the ordinary out of practice

out of the question out of reach

out of work

to one's astonishment

to one's surprise

to some extent

to this day

under control under the impression

under pressure under repair

under strain under the circumstances

under the weather

with respect to

with a view to

with the exception of

w ithout delay

w ithout fail

w ithout warning

on on on on on on on on on

television time top of the back of the contrary the corner the floor the left/right the market

on the move on the one/other hand on the outskirts on the phone on the point of on the radio on/off the road on the whole on weekdays

OUT out of breath out of date

TO to one's amazement

UNDER under age under arrest

WITH with regard to

WITHOUT w ithout (a) doubt


(un)aware of


Nouns with Prepositions

accuse sb of advise sb on/about sth (dis)agree with sb about/on sth aim at apologise to sb for sth apply to sb/sth for sth (dis)approve of argue with/sb about/for sth arrest sb for sth arrive at a building arrive in a city/tow n/country ask for associate with

(dis) advantage of (give) advice on an answer to


accustomed to addicted to afraid of amazed at/by amused at/with angry at sth angry with sb annoyed about sth annoyed with sb anxious about ashamed of astonished at/by

B Verbs beg for believe in belong to benefit from beware of blame sb for sth blame sth on sb boast about/of borrow from Adjectives

bad at sth bored with sth bound to busy with

c V erbs _ care about sb/sth care for sb/sth choose from/between

collaborate with combine with comment on communicate with compare w ith/to compete with sb for sth complain to sb about/of sth concentrate on sth confess sth to sb congratulate sb on sth connect to/w ith consist of contrast with contribute to cooperate with sb cope with cover sb in/with sth criticise for Adjectives

(in)capable of careful of careless about/of certain about/of close to concerned about/for confident of/about conscious of crazy about

Appendix 2 crowded with cruel to curious about Nouns with Prepositions a comparison between a complaint about a connection between/with

fed up with fond of free from /of sth friendly w ith/to frightened of full of Nouns a failure in

D Verbs deal with decide on dedicate sth to sb depart from depend on describe sth to sb differ from discourage from distinguish between divide sth between/among divide sth into divide by (Maths) dream about/of Adjectives delighted with dependent on different from /to disgusted by/at Nouns with Prepositions damage to a decrease in a delay in a demand for a description of a difference between/in/of

E Verbs escape from exchange sth for sth else excuse sb for/from experiment on sb/sth with sth explain sth to sb Adjectives engaged to sb enthusiastic about envious of equal to excellent at excited about experienced in Nouns with Prepositions an example of an exception to an expert at/in/on sth

F Verbs fight with fill sth with sth else forget about Adjectives faithful to familiar to sb familiar with sb/sth famous for

G Verbs glance at Adjectives generous to sb good at sth good for sb/sth good to sb grateful to sb for sth guilty of/about

H Verbs head for/towards hear about/of sb/sth hear from sb hope for Adjectives handy for happy about/with sth/sb happy for sb harmful to Nouns with Prepositions hope for I Verbs include in insist on introduce sb to sb/sth invest in invite to involve in Adjectives identical to impressed by/with independent of inferior to interested in Nouns with Prepositions an increase in influence on an intention of (doing sth)

J Verbs join in Adjectives jealous of

K Verbs know about sth Adjectives keen on (doing) sth known as

Nouns with Prepositions knowledge of

L Verbs lean on/against lie to sb about sth listen to Adjectives late for Nouns a lack of

M Verbs (be) made of/from mean by mention to mistake sb/sth for sb/sth else Adjectives mad about/on sb/sth mad at/with sb married to mean to sb

N Adjectives nervous about Nouns a need for o Verbs object to sb/sth occur to Nouns with Prepositions an opinion of/about/in an opportunity for the opposite of

P Verbs pay for point at/to praise sb for sth pray for sb/sth prefer to prepare for prevent from protect sb from/against sth protest about/against/at provide sb with sth provide sth for sb punish sb for put the blame for sth on sb Adjectives patient with pleased with polite to popular with proud of Nouns with Prepositions protection from (take) pride in

Appendix 2 & 3



Verbs quarrel with sb about sth


Nouns with Prepositions

a question about

R Verbs receive sth from sb recover from reduce sth to refer to regard sb/sth as relate to rely on remind sb about sth remind sb of sb/sth replace sth with sth else rescue sb from result from result in retire from Adjectives

ready for relevant to reluctant to respected for responsible for rude to Nouns with Prepositions

a reaction to a reason for a reduction in a relationship between a relationship with sb a reply to a report on a reputation for the result of a rise in

thank for think of/about translate from

save sb from sentence sb to shout at smile at/to speak to/w ith sb specialise in spend money on sth stare at steal sth from sb succeed in suffer from supply sb with sth suspect sb of




safe from (dis)satisfied with separate from serious about shocked by/at short of sim ilarto sorry fo rsb sorry for/about sth suitable for superior to sure of/about sth surprised at/by suspicious of

upset about useful for sth useful to sb

Nouns with Prepositions

a search for shame on sb (take) shelter from a solution to a specialist in (feel) sympathy for


terrible at terrified of tired of typical of Nouns with Prepositions

a talent for a taste of a taste for a threat to

Nouns with Prepositions

an understanding of V Verbs

vote for/against

w Verbs

wait for warn sb about/against/of waste money on sth wonder about w orry about Adjectives

weak at sth worried about wrong about

T Verbs

take care of sb/sth talk to/w ith sb about sth

1 When the root w ord ends in consonant +e, the final -e is dropped when adding a suffix th a t starts w ith a vowel. e.g. com bine 4 com bination fame 4 famous wide 4 widen 2 When the roo t w ord ends in one consonant and before it there is one stressed vowel, th e last consonant is doubled when adding a su ffix th a t starts w ith a vowel. e.g. w it w itty fat fatten occur 4 occurrence When the root w ord ends in -y and before it there is a consonant, the -y changes into -i when adding a suffix, e.g. carry 4 carriage happy 4 happiness g lo ry -4 glorious

Appendix 3 VERB


accept achieve act, activate add admire admit advertise advise afford (dis)agree amaze

acceptance, acceptability achievement (in)action, act, activity, acting addiction addition, additive (in)adequacy admiration admittance, admission adventure advertisement, advertising (dis)advantage advice, advisability agency (dis)agreement, (dis)agreeableness amazement ambition amusement anger announcement annoyance anxiety apology (dis)appea ranee application, applicator (dis)appointment (dis)approval argument, argumentation arrangement arrival art, artefact, artistry, artifice assistance astonishment attendance, attention attraction, attractiveness automation, automatic avoidance bearing beauty (mis)behaviour belief benefit blackness blood, bleeding boredom breath, breathing, breather breadth brightness building, build burglary (mis)calculation, calculator care, carelessness caution, cautiousness celebration championship character,characteristic, characterisation cheerfulness, cheerlessness, cheerness childhood choice city, citizenship coast collection colour, colouring, discoloration combination comedy, comic (dis)comfort communication competition, competitiveness


amuse anger announce annoy -

apologise (dis)appear apply (dis)appoint (dis)approve argue arrange arrive -

assist astonish attend attract automate avoid bear beautify (mis)behave believe benefit blacken bleed bore breathe broaden brighten build burgle (mis)calculate care celebrate -

characterise cheer -

choose -

collect (dis)colour combine -

comfort communicate compete

NOUN (person) achiever actor, actress, activist addict —

admirer -

adventurer advertiser -

adviser -

ADJECTIVE (+opposite) accepted, (un)acceptable achievable (in)active, actual addicted, addictive additional (in)adequate admirable, admiring (in)admissible, admissive adventurous advertising (dis)advantageous, (dis)advantaged (in)advisable, advisory(*adv:advisedly) affordable



(dis)agreeable amazed, amazing ambitious amusing, amused angry (un)announced annoyed, annoying anxious apologetic apparent (in)applicable, applied (dis)appointed, (dis)appointing (dis)approving (un)arguable, argumentative arrangeable


announcer — — —

applicant, applier — -

arranger -


artist assistant

artistic, artful, artless, arty, artificial assistant astonished, astonishing (in)attentive, unattended (un)attractive automatic, automated (un)avoidable (un)bearable beautiful behavioural (un)believable beneficial black bloody, bloodless, bleeding bored, boring breathless broad bright


attendant — -

bearer beautician -

believer beneficiary,benefactor —

bore -

builder burglar



calculated, calculating, (in)calculable careful, careless, carefree cautious, cautionary celebrated

celebrity champion character —

child -

citizen -

collector -

comedian, comic comforter communicator competitor

(un)characteristic, characterless cheerful, cheerless, cheery childish, childless choosy -

coastal collective, collected colourful, colourless, coloured combined comical, comic (un)comfortable, comforting, comfortless (un)communicative, communicable competitive

Appendix 3 VERB


NOUN (person)

complain complete conclude confide (dis)connect consider construct consume contain contribute

com plaint com pletion conclusion confidence, confidentiality (dis)connection consideration (de)construction consumption containm ent, container contribution (in)convenience convention cooker, cookery, cooking co-operation correction, correctness correspondence creation, creativity, creativeness crime, crim inality criticism , critique cure, curability curiosity darkness day, daily deafness decision, decisiveness decoration defence delight, delightfulness dem onstration denial departure depth (in)dependence, dependency description, descriptiveness design, designing desire, desirability destruction, destructiveness determ ination developm ent device death difference difficulty diplom acy direction, directive, directory, directness disaster discouragement discovery discussion distance distribution disturbance dominance, dom ination doubt, doubtfulness, doubtlessness

com plainant

constructor consumer

(in)complete (in)conclusive confident, confidential, confiding (dis)connected, connective considerable, considerate, considered constructive consuming



convene cook co-operate correct correspond create -

criticise cure -

darken —

deafen decide decorate defend delight demonstrate deny depart deepen depend describe design desire destroy determine develop devise die, deaden differ, differentiate — —

direct —

discourage discover discuss distance distribute disturb dominate doubt

emphasise employ enable

drama, dramatisation drive, driving economics, economy education effect, (in)effectiveness (in)efficiency election, electorate embarrassment emotion, emotionalism emphasis (un)em ploym ent (in)ability, disability


courage, encouragement, courageousness

dramatise drive economise educate effect —

elect embarrass —

confidant connection —

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)


contributory — (in)convenient convener (un)conventional cook (un)cooked co-operator (un)co-operative — (in)correct, corrective, correspondent correspondent, corresponding creator, creature creative criminal criminal critic (un)critical curer (in)curable, cureless curious dark daily — deaf, deafening, deafened — (in)decisive, (un)decided decorator decorative defendant, defender defensive, (in)defensible — delightful, delighted dem onstrator demonstrative (un)deniable departed — deep (in)dependent, dependable dependant descriptive designer designing (un)desirable, desired destroyer destructive, indestructible determ iner determined developer (un)developed, developing —



dead, deathly, deadly, undying different difficult diplom atic direct, directive, directional disastrous discouraging



diplom at director —

discursive distant d istributor distributive, distributional disturbing, disturbed — dom inant doubtful, (un)doubtable, undoubted doubter (adv: doubtless) dram atist dramatic driver driving economist economic, economical educational, educated, educative educator — (in)effective — (in)efficient elected, elective, electoral, electable elector embarrassing, embarrassed — emotional — em phatic employer, employee (un)employed (un)able, disabled — —

courageous, encouraging



end endanger energise engineer enjoy entertain enthuse equip evidence examine exceed excel excite exhaust exhibit exist expand

end, ending danger energy engine, engineering enjoyment entertainment enthusiasm equipment essence, essentials evidence examination excess excellence excitement, excitability exhaustion exhibition, exhibit existence expansion, expansibility, expansiveness, expanse expectation, expectancy expense(s), expensiveness experiment, experimentation explanation explosion, explosiveness exposure expression, expressionism, expressiveness

expect expend experiment explain explode expose express extend fail -

familiarise fascinate -

favour fear fertilise fight finance -


extension, extensibility, extent failure, failing faith fairness, fair familiarity, familiarisation fame, infamy fascination fashion fate, fatality favour, favourite fear, fearfulness, fearlessness fertilisation, fertiliser fight, fighting finance fluency foolishness



forge forget formalise

forgery forgetfulness formality, formalisation (mis)fortune foundation freedom freezer, freeze, freezing freshness friendship, friendliness fright fun generalisation, generality generosity, generousness government grace, graciousness growth guarantee guide, guidance guilt, guiltiness happiness hardness, hardship harm hatred, hatefulness health, (un)healthiness


found free freeze freshen _

frighten -

generalise -

govern grace grow guarantee guide -

harden harm hate

NOUN (person)

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)


endless dangerous, endangered energetic

engineer entertainer enthusiast -


enjoyable entertaining (un)enthusiastic equipped (in)essential evident

examiner, examinee


excessive, exceeding excellent exciting, excited, excitable exhausting, exhausted, (in)exhaustible — existent, existential expansive, expandable, expandible


exhibitor -

— — experimenter — -

expressionist — — -

familiar -

fatalist — — -

fighter financier -

fool foreigner forger -

formalist -

founder -

fresher friend -

general —

governor, governess -

grown-up guarantor guide _ -

expectant (in)expensive, expendable experimental explanatory, (in)explicable explosive exposed expressive, expressional, expressionless, expressionistic extensive, extensible, extended unfailing (un)faithful, faithless (un)fair (un)familiar (in)famous, famed fascinating (un)fashionable fatal, fateful, fated (un)favourable, favourite, favoured fearful, fearless, fearsome (in)fertile fighting financial fluent foolish foreign forged forgetful, (un)forgettable (in)formal, formalistic (un)fortunate —

free frozen, freezing fresh (un)friendly, friendless frightened, frightening, frightful funny general, generalised (un)generous governing, (un)governable graceful, graceless, gracious growing, grown —

guiding, guided guilty, guiltless happy hard, hardened, hardy harmful, harmless hateful (un)healthy

Appendix 3 NOUN heat, heater, heating height help, helping, helplessness — heroism hesitate hesitation — history — home — (dis)honesty hope hope — horizon host, hospitalise hospital, hospitality humanise (in)humanity, humanism

VERB heat heighten help

humour hunger hunt -

ice idealise ignore -

immigrate imagine imitate -

impress imprison improve include individualise influence inform infuriate inhabit injure inspect instruct insure -

intend intensify interest interfere interpret interview introduce invent investigate invite irritate -

(mis)judge -

know -

laugh -

lead learn -

lengthen live lighten light

humour, humorlessness hunger hunting, hunt hygiene ice, icing idea, idealism, idealisation ignorance illness immigration imagination, image imitation importance impression, impressiveness prison, imprisonment improvement inclusion, inclusiveness individualism, individuality influence information fury —

injury inspection instruction insurance, insurability intelligence, intelligibility intention intensity interest interference interpretation interview introduction invention, inventiveness, inventory investigation invitation irritation, irritant irony jealousy jewel, jewellery journal, journalism (misjudgement kingdom knowledge language, linguistics lateness laughter law leadership, leader learning (il)legibility length life, living, livelihood, liveliness light, lightness lighter, lighting, lightning

NOUN (person) —

helper hero, heroine —

historian — — -

host, hostess humanist, human humorist -

hunter hygienist —

idealist — -


ADJECTIVE (+opposite) heated, hot high ______ _ (un)helpful, helpless heroic hesitant historic, historical homeless, homely (dis)honest hopeful, hopeless horizontal hospitable (in)human, (in)humane, humanitarian, humanistic humorous, humourless hungry


(un)hygienic icy, iced ideal, idealistic ignorant ill —

imaginary, (un)imaginable, (un)imaginative imitative, imitational — (un)important impressionist (un)impressive, impressionable prisoner imprisoned — improving, improved — inclusive, included individual, individualist individual, individualistic — influential informer, informant informative, (un)informed furious, infuriated, infuriating inhabitant (un)inhabitable, (un)inhabited — injured — inspector instructor instructive, instructional insurer insured, insurable — (un)intelligent, (un)intelligible — (un)intentional, intended — intensive, intense — (un)interesting, (dis/un)interested — interfering interpreter interpretive interviewer, interviewee — — introductory inventor inventive investigator investigative — inviting, (un)invited — irritated, irritating, irritable — ironic, ironical jealous jeweller jewelled journalist journalistic judge judicious, judgemental — king knowledgeable,(un)knowing,(un)known linguist linguistic late laughable lawyer (un)lawful, lawless, (il)legal leader leading learner (un)learned (il)legible long, lengthy lively, alive, living, live light lit -


A p p e n d ix 3 VERB (dis)like -

(un)lock —

loosen lose love -

luxuriate mechanise maintain major manage manufacture marry -

mature measure medicate —

memorise — -

miss mix modernise -

mother -

mount move murder —

mystify nationalise naturalise necessitate — —

normalise notice numerate —

(dis)obey object oblige observe occupy offend operate —

oppose optimise (dis)organise originate own —

paint —

participate — -

pay . . .

NOUN likelihood liking, (dis)like (il)literacy, literature lock, locker, locket logic, logistics looseness loss love, loveliness luck luxury, luxuriousness machine, mechanics, mechanism, mechanisation, machinery maintenance majority management, manageability manufacturing marriage mathematics (im)maturity, maturation measurement, measure medicine, medication, medicament membership memory, memorial, memorisation minority misery, miserableness miss mixer, mixture modernity, modernism, modernisation month motherhood motor mountain, mountaineering movement murder music, musical mystery nation, nationalisation, nationality nature, naturalisation, naturalness necessity, necessaries neighbourhood, neighbourliness nerve, nervousness noise norm, normality, normalisation notice number, numeration, numerator nutrition, nutrient, nutriment (dis)obedience object, objection, objective, objectivity obligation observation, observatory occupation offence, offensiveness operation opportunity, opportunism opposition optimism (dis)organisation, organiser origin, originality, origination ownership pain painting, paint parenthood, parentage participation partnership (im)patience payment peace, peacefulness

NOUN (person)

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)


(un)likely likeable (il)literate, literal, literary (un)locked (il)logical loose lost lovable, (un)lovely, loving, unloved (un)lucky, luckless luxurious, luxuriant mechanical, mechanistic


major manager(-ess) manufacturer

major managing, manageable manufacturing married mathematical (im)mature (im)measurable medical, medicinal, medicated

— — —

logician —

loser lover -


mathematician -

medic member -

minor -

n modernist -

mother motorist mountaineer -

murderer musician -

nationalist naturalist -

neighbour — — —

— -

objector —

observer occupant, occupier offender operator opportunist -

optimist organiser originator owner -

painter parent participant partner -

payer, payee


memorable, memorial minor miserable missing mixed modern, modernistic monthly motherly, motherless motor mountainous (im)movable, moving murderous musical mysterious, mystic, mystical national, nationalistic (un)natural, naturalistic (un)necessary neighbouring, neighbourly nervous noisy, noiseless (ab)normal noticeable, unnoticed numberless, numerous, numerical, numeral, (in)numerate, innumerable nutritious, nutritional, nutritive (dis)obedient objective, objectionable obliging, obligatory, obligated, obliged observant occupational, (un)occupied (in)offensive operational, (in)operative, (in)operable (in)opportune, opportunistic opposite, opposable, opposing optimistic organisational, (dis/un)organised original -

painful, painless painted parental — -

(im)patient paying, payable peaceful

Appendix 3 VERB


NOUN (person)

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)

perfect perform permit persist impersonate, personalise, personify persuade photograph

perfectionism, (im)perfection performance permission, permissiveness persistence person, personality, personnel, personification, impersonation persuasion, persuasiveness pessimism photograph, photography physics play (dis)pleasure poetry, poem poison politics, policy pollution, pollutant popularity population possession (im)possibility power, powerfulness practice, practising, practicality prediction, predictability preference, preferment preparation presentation prevention price pride privacy, privatisation procedure, proceeds product, production, produce, productivity profession, professionalism, professorship promotion protection (dis)proof psyche, psychology publishing, publication punishment pursuit (dis)qualification quiet, quietness rain rapidity reaction, reactor reality, realisation, realism reason, reasoning rebellion reception, receiver, receptiveness recognition reduction reference reflection, reflector, reflex refreshment regulation rejection, reject relation, relationship relaxation (un)reliability, reliance relief religion, religiousness remark rental repetition replacement report, reportage

perfectionist performer

(im)perfect, perfectible performing (im)permissible, permissive persistent (im)personal, personable, personified


play (dis)please -

poison politicise pollute popularise populate possess -

power, empower practise predict prefer prepare present prevent price pride privatise proceed produce profess promote protect (dis)prove -

publish punish pursue (dis)qualify quieten rain -

react realise reason rebel receive recognise reduce refer reflect refresh regulate reject relate relax rely relieve -

remark rent repeat replace report

— -

— -

pessimist photographer physicist, physician player -

poet -

politician -

people possessor — -

practitioner — —

presenter — —

private —

producer professor, professional promoter protector —

psychologist publisher punisher pursuer

persuasive pessimistic photographic physical playful, playable (dis)pleased, (un)pleasant, pleasurable poetic, poetical poisonous (im)politic, political polluted, polluting (un)popular populated possessive, possessed (im)possible powerful, powerless, powered (im)practical, (im)practicable, practised (un)predictable, predictive preferable, preferential (un)prepared, preparatory presentable, presentational preventive, preventable precious, priceless, pricey proud private procedural (un)productive professional, professorial promotional protective provable, proven psychological —

punishment, punishable —

(dis/un)qualified quiet rainy — rapid — reactionary, reactive realist (un)real, (un)realistic — (un)reasonable, reasoned rebel rebellious receptionist, recipient receptive — (un)recognisable — reducible, reductive referee referential, referable reflective, reflexive — refreshing regulator regulatory reject rejected relative related, relative, (ir)relevant relaxing, relaxed — (un)reliable, reliant relieved religious — (un)remarkable — -


— -

replacement reporter

repetitive, repeated, repeatable, repetitious (ir)replaceable reported

Appendix 3 VERB


represent reproduce require research reside resist respect respond retire revise risk rob sadden save, safeguard (dis)satisfy

representation reproduction requirement research residence, residency resistance, resistor respect, respectability response, responsibility retirement revision risk robbery sadness safety, safe, safeguard, saving(s) (dis)satisfaction scene, scenery scholarship science secret, secrecy security sight sense, sensitivity, sensibility, serving, service settlement shame shop, shopping shortness, shortage sickness, sickliness signature significance (dis)similarity song, singing skill sleep society, socialism, socialisation


secure see sense serve settle shame shop shorten sicken sign ..................... signify -

sing -

sleep socialise -

solve speak specialise spectate spend sponsor stabilise starve sterilise store straighten -

strengthen succeed suffice suggest suit sum, summarise -

survive suspect symbolise sympathise talk taste -

tend terrorise, terrify thank thicken

solitude, solitariness solution, solubility, solvent speech, speaking speciality, specialty, specialisation spectacle, spectacles spending sponsorship (in)stability, stabilisation, stabiliser starvation sterilisation, sterility store(s), storage straightness strangeness strength success, succession (in)sufficiency suggestion suit, suitability sum, summary sun survival suspicion symbol, symbolism sympathy talk taste technique, technicality technology tendency terror thanks, thanklessness thickness

NOUN (person)

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)


(un)representative, representational reproductive required


researcher resident -

respecter — -

revisionist —

robber -

saver, saviour — -

scholar scientist — -

sensualist server, servant settler —

shopper — -

singer -

sleeper socialite, socialist, sociologist -

speaker specialist spectator spender sponsor — — -

residential resistant, resisting, (ir)resistible respectable, respectful, respective (ir)responsible, responsive retiring, retired revised, revisory risky -

sad (un)safe, savable (dis)satisfied, (un)satisfactory, satisfying scenic scholastic scientific secret, secretive (in)secure sighted, sightless (in)sensible, senseless, (in)sensitive -

unsettling, (un)settled shameful, shameless, ashamed shopping short sick, sickly, sickening signed (in)significant (dis)similar singing (un)skilful, (un)skilled sleepy, sleepless (un)social, (un)sociable solitary (in)soluble, (in)solvent (un)spoken, speechless, unspeakable special, specialised spectacular —

sponsored (un)stable starved, starving sterile


straight strange strong (un)successful, successive, succeeding (in)sufficient suggested, suggestive (un)suitable summary sunny surviving suspicious symbolic, symbolical (un)sympathetic talkative tasteful, tasty, tasteless technical technological

stranger -

successor — — -

survivor suspect —

sympathiser talker taster technician technologist -


terrifying, terrified, terrific thankful, thankless thick, thickening


Appendix 3 VERB


NOUN (person)

thirst think

thirst thought, thinking


threaten thrill tire tolerate toughen

threat thrill, thriller tiredness (in)tolerance, toleration toughness tradition, traditionalism train training transform transformation, transformer (mis)treat (mis)treatment, treatise, treaty (dis)trust (dis)trust, trustworthiness truth, truthfulness typing type (mis)understand (mis)understanding unite unity, union, unit universe, universality use usage, usability value value, valuation, valuables vary variety, variation, variant, variance, variable victimise victim, victimisation violate violence, violation vision, visibility visit visit warm warmth, warmness warn warning weaken weakness wealth week weigh weight widen width will will, (un)willingness wise wisdom wonder wonder work work, works worth, worthlessness, worthiness year youth

— — — —

traditionalist trainer, trainee — —

trustee —

typist — —

user valuer -

victim violator visionary visitor -

ADJECTIVE (+opposite) thirsty thoughtful, thoughtless, thinking, unthinkable threatening, threatened thrilling, thrilled tired, tiring, tireless, tiresome (in)tolerant, (in)tolerable tough traditional trained, trainable transforming (un)treatable (dis)trustful, trustworthy (un)true, (un)truthful typed understandable, understanding united universal useful, useless, (un)usable, (mis)used (in)valuable, valueless, valued various, variable, varied —

violent visionary, (in)visible visiting warm


weak wealthy weekly weighty, weightless wide (un)willing, wilful wise wonderful working, workable worthy, worthless, worthwhile yearly young

— — — — — — —

worker — —


Teacher's Notes

Teacher's Wotes Use of English B2 for the FCE E xam in atio n a n d other exam s is intended fo r B2 level students. A part from th o ro u g h ly preparing students fo r all exams, this book also system atically teaches English gram m ar and vocabulary. The texts included are based on a va rie ty of interesting and m otiva ting topics w hich are com m only found in exam inations. The m aterial included in the book is g radually presented and practised in 12 units (Units 1-4,6-9 and 11-14) and consolidated and revised in units 5,10 and 15. All 15 units include exercises w hich are in accordance w ith the FCE Exam ination and the ECCE form at, w hile the Final FCE and Final ECCE Tests provide students w ith fu rth e r practice and fam iliarise them fu lly w ith the C am bridge FCE Use of English Paper and the Gram m ar and Vocabulary sections of the ECCE. Each o f the units 1-4, 6-9 and 11-14 has been divid ed in to tw o sections. The firs t section m ainly focuses on gram m ar. Collocations, expressions, prepositional phrases, phrasal verbs and w ords w ith prepositions are presented and practised th ro ug h exercises. These exercises enable students to id e n tify the syntactic and sem antic features o f the item s introduced and see how they are used in m eaningful contexts. Appendices I and II alphabetically present all prepositional phrases and w ords w ith prepositions w hich are introduced in the book. In section 1 some gram m atical structures are also revised by means of a num ber of exercises. Although these exercises do not follow the exact exam ination form at, they practise sentence transform ation and te xt com pletion, thus preparing the ground fo r the corresponding parts of the FCE Use of English Paper and the ECCE Gram m ar section. Some basic rules are given in the form of ‘Points to Remember' accom panied by illu strative examples w hich h ig h lig h t the co rrect gram m atical structures as well as some mistakes co m m only made by students. Finally, the m ost com m on sentence transform ations related to the gram m atical structures explained are presented. For fu rth e r explanations, students can refer to the corresponding part of the special Gram m ar Revision Section at the end of the book. The firs t section o f each u nit ends w ith a sub-section called exam ination practice. This includes tw o exercises w hich have a sim ilar fo rm a t to FCE Use o f English Gram m ar and Vocabulary and ECCE tasks and test a selection of the items th a t have already been introduced in the unit. The second section o f each o f the units 1-4,6-9 and 11-14 m ainly focuses on vocabulary. In this section, seven to nine groups of w ords th a t are easily confused are presented and practised through a num ber of m ultiple m atching/sentence com pletion exercises. D efinitions w hich h ig h lig h t the differences between the words in each group are given in the special Vocabulary Section at the end of the book. The second section of each u nit ends w ith a sub-section called exam ination practice. This includes tw o exercises w hich test a selection of the item s th a t have already been introduced in the unit. Section 2 also includes a sub-section focusing on derivatives. In each unit, a num ber o f com m on prefixes and/or suffixes added to verb, noun or adjective roots is discussed and b rief rules accom panied by illu stra tive tables and exam ples are given. This is follow ed by an exercise practising the patterns ta ught. A ppendix III presents all derivatives dealt w ith in the book + m ore in alphabetical order. The syllabus of the book includes all the m aterial that is com m only required fo r Paper 3 of the FCE Examination as well as fo r ECCE and other exams and should be mastered by students at this level. Despite its com prehensiveness, this book cannot be regarded as exhaustive, as it is possible th a t a few items not included in it may be set in fu tu re exam inations.

Use of English B2 fo r the FCE Exam ination and other exam s has been s p e c ific a lly designed to be co m p le te d in a pp ro xim a tely fo rty -fiv e teaching hours, provided th a t some o f its parts are assigned as hom ew ork. It is recom m ended that m ost of the exam ination practice sub-sections and consolidation units should be assigned as hom ew ork and discussed in class. The G ram m ar Review, V ocabulary Notes and Appendices at the end o f the book are m eant to be used by students fo r reference, although some parts may have to be explained in class by the teacher. The section including the exam tips should be explained in class, though, before the firs t Consolidation Unit is done. A fter com pleting each Consolidation Unit, teachers should do the corresponding photocopiable Revision Test in class allow ing students about one hour and fifte e n m inutes to com plete it.

SECTION 1(FCE format)

For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). -z& r Example: 0

A for

® to

c of

D on

ALTERNATIVE FAST FOOD It is generally agreed upon th a t fast food is a great solution ( 0 ) ______


the problem of w hat to

eat. However, it’s ( 1 ) __________________________ as less n utritio n a l than a healthy meal, which is w hat growing children need. For years, n u tritio n ists have been try in g to get children into the ( 2 ) __________________________ of eating healthy food. W ithout a doubt, this has not been easy, (3)

in m ind th at they have had to com pete

w ith num erous fast food restaurants which are very popular w ith young people. N utritionists have lately ( 4 ) __________________________ up w ith an idea which could prove to be successful. This involves ( 5 ) __________________________ children how to cook and in the process to enjoy the taste of fresh food. In the long run, this may keep them ( 6 ) __________________________ fast food. There are already a num ber of school projects th ro u g h o u t Britain th a t are experim enting w ith the idea. They begin by m aking vegetarian pizza ( 7 ) __________________________ the dough and the topping. Many children were ( 8 ) _______________________

w ith

th eir own home-made pizzas. When they compared th e ir pizzas w ith ready-made ones, the differences were noticeable. They found the latter greasy and not ( 9 ) __________________________ delicious as the home-made ones. Throughout the lessons, the children learn about q ua lity and become skilful in the differen t techniques ( 1 0 ) __________________________ in cooking. They become interested in cooking and (11)___________________________ they even learn how to look after them selves by eating n u tritio u s food. Finally, n u tritio n ists would like to get children cooking at home, too. It may be messy, but, it’s also a(n) (1 2 )__________________________ for parents to spend q u a lity tim e w ith th e ir children.


A regarded

B observed

C noticed

D recognised


A custom

B habit

C routine

D trend


A staying

B getting

C keeping

D holding


A come

B caught

C gone

D got


A learning

B teaching

C studying

D facing


A o ff

B back

C out of

D up w ith


A neither

B both

C all

D either


A enthusiastic

B astonished

C impressed

D keen


A much

B as

C even

D more


A respected

B included

C involved

D addicted


A in no tim e

B at tim es

C on tim e

D is .ime


A am bition

B position

C o p p o rtu n ity

D reduction

Revision test I For questions 13*24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning CO).

HUMMlftCMON Many cultures, ( 0 ) ___________ such __________ as the Incas, the Australian Aborigines and the ancient Egyptians practised the custom of m um m ifyin g th e ir dead. M um m ification dates as far back (1 3 )__________________________ 3 0 0 0 BC, and it was the ancient Egyptians w ho carried (1 4 )__________________________ the process m ost often and m ost thoroughly. There were various ways of m um m ifying a body. The best method was also the (1 5 )__________________________tim e-consum ing and took about seventy days. (1 6 )__________________________ m ethod involved opening up the body and rem oving the internal organs, (1 7 )__________________________ were placed in jars. Spices and resin were then placed in the body. Such a burial was very expensive and only (1 8 )__________________________ rich could afford it. A cheaper way was to soak the (1 9 )__________________________ body in chemicals fo r fo ur to five weeks. However, ( 2 0 ) __________________________ methods required the body to be wrapped in many layers of bandages. As (2 1 )__________________________ as the body was wrapped up, it was placed in a coffin which was In the shape of a mummy, and then in a second coffin made of wood, stone or even gold. As the process was considered holy, the knowledge ( 2 2 ) __________________________ how to m um m ify a body was reserved for only a ( 2 3 ) __________________________ people and ( 2 4 ) __________________________ step was accompanied by prayers.


Revision test I For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (O).

HOLIDAY NEEDS Summer is in the air and it’s only ( 0 ) __ (2 5 )_______________________

n a tu ra l

for people to feel good and


about going on holiday. Everyone needs to relax and get away, so they

try to use their (26)

leave in the best possible way.


Some people find it (27)

___ to stay at a holiday resort and have everything done


for them. Of course, if you are (28)

_____________ , money is not an issue whatsoever. A more


(29) to be much more (30)

alternative would be a camping holiday, which many people consider


_________________ and challenging. Exploring nature as well as relaxing


(31 )

in the mountains is a great way to recharge your batteries,


(32 )

to say, getting away and escaping from your routine reduces stress. Any


(33 )

w ill tell you of the benefits a holiday offers. So, even if you have to


(34 )

in order to afford a holiday, do it. In the end, it's w orth it!


For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0

When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday.


When I was younger, I ___________________ used to p la y

_tennis every Sunday.

35 Both houses are fa irly new, b ut John's is m ore m odern than ours,


Both houses are fa irly new, but John's is _______________

the two.

36 The com pany has o nly tw o em ployees and they both w ork part-tim e,


The com pany has o nly tw o em ployees,____________________


full-tim e. 37 John had never fe lt so proud of his work.

tim e

It was th e _________________________________________________

.so proud o f his work.

38 She inherited her fa th e r’s fo rtu n e six m onths ago.


It has been six m o n th s _________________

.h e r father's fortune.

39 Jack hadn't had Chinese food fo r weeks and yesterday he ordered some,

w hich

Yesterday Jack ordered some Chinese fo o d ,___________________


weeks. 4 0 I w ill investigate the m atter and then I w ill give you my opinion.

in to

I w ill give you m y o p in io n _____________________________________

the matter.

41 How long have you been exercising at home?

w orking W hen_____________________________

at home?

42 She always takes her cred it card w ith her w herever she goes,



her cred it card.

Revision test I SECTION 2 (ECCE format)

Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. My best frie n d _____________ over for dinner tonight.

6 . 1_____________ dinner yet and I'm starving.

a. comes

b. is coming

a. haven't

b. haven't had

c. will have come

d. has been coming

c. don't have

d. hadn't

2. That's the island______

___we spent our vacation

last year.

a. that

b. which

c. where

d. whom

3. H ardly_____________noticed that she had left. a.anybody

b. nobody

c. somebody

d. everybody

4. When the bomb w e n t_____________ , there were a lot of

7. Kelly is _____________ interested in photography.

a. a lot

b. enough

c. far

d. very

8. We went cam ping _____________ the mountains. It was very relaxing to be so close to nature.

a. at

b . in

c. up

d. by

9. The apartment in _____________ he lives is on the fifth

people in the department store but luckily no one was



a. that

b. where

c. which

d. whose

a. out

b. over

c. through

d. off

10. After he lost his job, he has been living on very money, but it doesn't seem to bother

5. The baby had a temperature yesterday and today it him.

is _____________ .

a. badly c. badlier

b. worse

a. few

b. a few

d. worst

c. a little

d. little

Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. Who's the leading actor in this movie? I can't

6. “ It’s cold in here.” “ Should I _______

his name.

a. remind

b. recognise

c. recall

d. memorise

2. It took Julie quite some tim e to ____________ .to terms

. you a sweater to put on?”

a. get

b. deliver

c. carry

d. approach

7. The firm I work for has over five hundred _____________ .

with the fact that she wouldn't go to work again after

a. employers

b. colleagues

she retired.

c. attendants

d. employees

a. come

b. get

c. reach

d. go

3. T o _____________ an interpreter, you need to be fluent in at least two languages.

a. grow

b. become

c. arise

d. involve

4. I didn’t like my boss in the beginning, but I soon got to his strange ways.

a. accustomed

b. familiar

c. aware

d. addicted

5. Caroline is r e a lly _____________of children. She says that when she grows up, she’ll have at least four.

a. fond

b. interested

c. eager

d. keen

8. There was a _____________ of lightning and it suddenly started pouring with rain.

a. clap

b. bunch

c. flash

d. flock

9. Steve went through a red traffic light, and he was lucky t o _____________ with only a fine.

a. getaw ay

b. ca rry o u t

c. come round

d. go ahead

10. People who are colour-blind c a n n o t_____________ between green and red.

a. associate

b. depart

c. differ

d. distinguish


For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0

A believe

B regard

C think

(D )consider


People (0)

all plants to be harmless. But th a t is not the case w ith carnivorous plants,

otherw ise known as kille r plants. Carnivorous plants are every insect's nightm are, as the insect cannot (1)

the colour

o f the plant and the sweet liquid on the inside of its leaves. However, once it has landed, sensitive hairs on the leaves signal the plant to pum p a small am ount o f w ater around the leaves, w hich makes them p artially ( 2 ) __________________________ . By this tim e, the insect has ( 3 ) __________________________ it is in trouble, because the hairs on the edges of the leaves have form ed bars which trap the insect inside. ( 4 ) __________________________, there is little chance of the insect (5) Carnivorous plants th rive in areas where the soil is poor. (6)


( 7 ) __________________________ supply of nutrients, they get w hat they require from live insects. Among the plants of this category is the Venus flytrap, native to North and South Carolina, USA. It produces small w hite flowers and its leaves consist ( 8 ) __________________________ tw o b rig h t lobes. It is ( 9 ) ___________________________ th a t one Venus fly tra p w ill eat around five thousand flies in its lifetim e. If necessary, it w ill even consume small spiders. Surprisingly, the largest prey are ( 1 0 ) __________________________ to have been found in traps in the tropics. Carnivorous plants there have captured animals the size of birds or small rodents. So, here’s a word of (11)__________________________ . Don’t (12)

a mistake and tease a

fly tra p w ith your finger. You m ight not get it back!

m p

S j k


A refuse

B deny

C resist

D reject


A to close

B to be closed

C close

D closing


A realised

B recognised

c known

D agreed


A On second thoughts

B In vain

c On the contrary

D Under these circum stances


A to escape

B escape

c escaping

D to escaping


A As for

B Because of

c As well as

D Regardless of


A short

B shortage

c inadequate

D lack


A of

B w ith

c from

D in


A guessed

B estim ated

c predicted

D assumed


A announced

B presented

c com m ented

D reported


A instruction

B tip

c direction

D advice


A perform

B make

c do

D try

Revision test II For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

TIMES ARE CH AN G IN G The tw e n tie th ce n tu ry is believed to ( 0 ) __________ nuvt-___________been a century of technological advances, when many changes were made, w hich have dram atically affected people's lives. Take, for instance, life expectancy. Until the nineteenth century, people lived till the age of th irty-five (1 3 )__________________________ average. Growing (14 )

in unhealthy living conditions,

Sack of good quality food and hard work, all co ntributed (15 )

low life expectancy.

(16 )

big change concerns people's homes

and way of life. Families once had to settle fo r the bare essentials. Large extended fam ilies lived toge th er in small houses. Nowadays, our houses are bigger and better; extended fam ilies have been replaced by nuclear families; and both parents w ork long hours. Transport has come a (1 7 )__________________________ way, too. The car has replaced earlier means of transport, and public tran spo rt has also been im proved. As a (1 8 )__________________________ , travel tim e has decreased drastically and people have (1 9 )__________________________ brought closer together. However, all this progress has come at ( 2 0 ) __________________________ cost. We live in a m odern world and our life has been made easier, (21 )

stress and anxiety are m ajor health

concerns. Family ties are not as strong as they used to be, as parents w ork hard to afford all the luxuries, which nowadays are considered to (22 )

necessities. Last but not

(23 )

, cars and other means of tran spo rt cause

congestion and pollution. It is clear th at a balance ( 2 4 ) __________________________ to be found before the situation gets out of hand.


Revision test II For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A HOLIDAY OFFER It's summ er and everybody is looking forward to (0)

£ e ttin B


_away to a holiday place

where they can enjoy their favourite ( 2 5 ) __________

__________ .But are you one of those people


whose anxiety levels reach new ( 2 6 ) _______________

______ every tim e you think about organising


your holidays? If you are ( 2 7 )_____________________

w ith w hat is available, don't feel frustrated and


(28 )

. We are here to find the right place for you and make your life


(29 )

and more relaxed. Whether you dream of a holiday in the m ountains to


enjoy the (30)


of nature, or you like the busy resorts that offer people a



of things to do, come and see us!

We (32)


__ in making your dreams come true. No one can deny the

(3 3 )___


of being able to get away from your daily routine and going to a place

that is to your (34)


_____________ . So why don't you take the tim e to consider our offer?

For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0

When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday.


When I was younger, I _______________

used to p la y

.te n n is every Sunday.

35 An optician m ust test yo u r eyesight as soon as possible,


You n e e d _________________________________

. as soon as possible.

36 Kate, I suggest we go cam ping this summer,



this summer?

37 It was w rong of you to cheat him out of his money,


Y ou___________

out of his money.

38 They made me refuse the offer,


I ________________

. the offer.

39 He still finds it d iffic u lt to drive on the right-hand side of the road.


He can't.

_ driving on the right-hand side of the road.

4 0 Could I in te rru p t you fo r a mom ent?


W o u ld ____________________

______fo r a mom ent?

41 They don’t let people take photographs in the a rt gallery,


P eople________________________________________

______ photographs in the a rt gallery.

42 He was not able to com plete the application fo rm on his own.


He was inca pa ble __________________________________ own.

_________________the application form on his

Revision test II SECTION 2 (ECCE format)

Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. It was kind of y o u _________

. my daughter home

after the party.

6. We

. either eat out or order takeout. What

do you prefer?

a. to bring

b. bring

c. bringing

d. to bringing

2. When Tom looked a t _____________in the mirror, he

a. should

b. could

c. would

d. have to

7. The new mayor has a rep uta tio n_____

noticed that his eyes were red.

corrupted, but that’s far from the truth,

a. him

b. himself

a. of

b. on

c. his

d. he

c. about

d. for

3. Now that she's moved to the suburbs, she misses by her friends.

. being

8. After the alarm went off, a man was seen down the stairs quickly and leaving the building,

a. to be visited

b. have been visited

c. being visited

d. been visited

4. If the day tu rn s _____________ wet, we may have to change our plans.

a. walk

b. walking

c. to walk

d. to walking

9. Samantha could have been an excellent musician but she hasn’t made good use_____________her talents.

a. up

b. into

c. on

d. out

5. She decided to let th e m _____________for the night

a . to

b . for

c. of


10. Did they finally get their washing machine ?

though she didn’t want to.

a. to stay

b. staying

a. repair

b. to repair

c. stay

d. have stayed

c. repairing

d. repaired

Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. Cathy got a speeding_________

for exceeding the

6. When Mary’s grandmother died, she came into some _ jewels.

speed limit.

a. fee

b. fare

c. ticket

d. receipt

2. John is a very talented writer. His books have gained

a. priceless

b. worthless

c. insufficient

d. available

7. Jenny is a _____________secretary; she never makes

several lite ra ry _____________ .

mistakes and I have complete trust in her.

a. donations

b. rewards

a. convenient

b. spare

c. prices

d. prizes

c. reliable

d. usable

3. “ Look at that awful stain on my new dress! What would

8. We decided t o _____________ the best of the situation

y o u _____________for removing this ink stain?”

and have our picnic despite the awful weather.

a. recommend

b. consult

a. do

b. make

c. propose

d. confess

c. give

d. take

4. “ You should keep in mind that a car_____________

9. “What tim e are you planning t o _____________ on your

servicing regularly, otherwise you’ll have problems

trip tomorrow?”

with it.”

“ We haven’t decided yet.”

a. inquires

b. requests

a. set off

b. turn on

c. requires

d. commands

c. make for

d. run along

5. The residents_____________to having a mall built in their neighbourhood,

10. “ Don’t be so

________to your brother! He just

wanted to play with you and you kicked him!"

a. rejected

b. disapproved

a. jealous

b. relevant

c. resisted

d. objected

c. mean

d. upset


Revision TestIII For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (O). Example: 0

A harm

B injure

C hurt

D suffer

SUM M ER IN TH E CITY Sum mer is a w on de rful season because it means sun, beaches and having fun. However, sum m er in the city can make

s u ffe r ______________ . a m ixture of airborne gases and heat can (1 ) __________________________ som ething

one (0)

of a m ini-greenhouse effect, w hich is ( 2 ) ______________________

to our health. This, in turn, brings

( 3 ) __________________________ a rise in tem perature, m aking it essential to seek (4)

in an

air-conditioned building. Some cities even have the added problem of smog. This, com bined w ith the heat makes conditions unbearable. Asthm atics, w ho are considered to be more ( 5 ) __________________________ during the sum m er season, are the ones who are ( 6 ) __________________________ the m ost by these conditions and th e ir lives are often ( 7 ) _____________________ _ _ . It is therefore im p o rta n t th a t these people (8)

. going o ut when p ollutio n levels are high.

According to official records, the increase in tem perature coincides w ith a higher num ber o f deaths. Twenty percent more people die from heart attacks or are killed in car accidents.However, there is hope fo r c ity dwellers. Experts say th a t the situation can be ( 9 ) __________________________ if we pay more ( 1 0 ) ___________________________ to looking after our environm ent. One step w ould be to (11) which produce to xic emissions. Even (1 2 )__

the num ber of vehicles and lim it heavy industry, dark-coloured roofs w ith lighter-coloured ones can

cause a drop in tem perature o f up to 4 ° Celcius.


A result

B gain

C remain

D create


A w rong

B suspicious

C harm ful

D serious


A up

B about

C round

D along


A rescue

B guard

C shelter

D caution


A sensitive

B sensational

C sensible

D influenced


A affected

B attacked

C obliged

D appealed


A warned

B risked

C damaged

D endangered


A o m it

B avoid

C ban

D prevent


A im proved

B progressed

C recovered

D saved


A care

B caution

C interest

D attention


A dem olish

B lower

C reduce

D destroy


A exchanging

B urging

C advancing

D replacing

Revision test III For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

AN INTERVIEW WITH A CHALET COOK W orking as a chalet cook at a ski resort is the p erfect o p p o rtu n ity to com bine cooking ( 0 ) ___________ zvith _________ skiing - at least that's w hat Victoria Kent th ou gh t. She (1 3 )__________________________ up a post as a chalet cook in the French Alps last year but d id n ’t get to see m uch of the slopes. First of all, she had to prepare a considerable am ount of food every day. In (1 4 )__________________________ to buying all the food and preparing it, Victoria had to tid y up the chalet and make sure e verything ran smoothly. (1 5 )__________________________ the job appeared exciting and easy at first, it soon became apparent th at this wasn't the case. Victoria had to w ork hard (1 6 )__________________________ th a t she could cope. Since she d idn't have any help, she had to take (1 7 )__________________________ of everything by herself. She'd rather fo rg et the tim e the dishwasher was out of (1 8 )__________________________ for a week and the inconvience th at it had caused her. On top (1 9 )__________________________ it being hard work, the pay wasn't the best either. Victoria earned only £150 a week and was, therefore, unable to save up much. At tim es she wondered ( 2 0 ) __________________________ it was w orth it and often th o u g h t of giving it (2 1 )__________________________ , and going home. But, all (22 )

all, Victoria adm itted having gained

invaluable experience which b uilt up her character. When asked if she (23 )

go back, she replied th a t she would,

(24 )

th a t she worked w ith others and shared

the responsibility.

Revision test III For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (O).

Mata Hari Margaretha Zelle was a well known (0)

e n te rta in e r

_at the beginning of the 20th century.


Her sensational Eastern-style (2 5 )____

. made her famous throughout Europe.


But who was Margaretha Zelle? She was an (26)

_____________ woman who was born in the


Netherlands, but lived in the ( 2 7 )_____________ ( 2 8 ) ____________________


_capital for most o f her adult life. She gave

the stage name Mata Hari, which literally means ‘eye of the day’, and is


a Malayan ( 2 9 ) ____________________ _________ used to describe the sun. She was extrem ely successful and before long became very wealthy. Her good fortune ended during World War I. The (30)

___________________ in Paris accused her of


being responsible for handing over documents to the (31)_______________________ . However, her


(32 )

to prove her innocence had serious consequences. She was sentenced to


(33 )

and was consequently shot by a firing squad. Till now, this


(34 )

w artim e incident remains shrouded in mystery.


For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0

When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday.


When I was younger, I ___________________ used to p[ay ____________________ tennis every Sunday.

35 "Don't go swim m ing on a fu ll stomach," the lifeguard said to us.


The life g u a rd _____________________________________________________________ sw im m ing on a full stomach.

36 It would be foolish of us not to go shopping during the sales.


It w ould be foolish of u s _______________________________________________________ shopping during the sales.

37 They are saving up as they w ant to buy a new car.


They are saving up

a new car.

38 I don't w ant to lie to him this time,

tru th


this time.

39 "I’m sorry I shouted at you," Kelly said to me.



at me.

4 0 A fter her illness, she wasn’t strong enough to be able to walk on her own.


A fter her illness, she

couldn't walk on her own.

41 You can use the telephone if it works.


You can use the telephone provided


42 In spite of m aking a lot of mistakes, she passed the test,


She passed the test

a lot of mistakes.

Revision test III SECTION 2 (ECCE format)

Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1.

the heavy rain, all flights were cancelled,

a. Because

b. Since

c. Due to

d. As

6. He’s always boasting success at school,

2. Susan made a wish and then she blew the candles on her birthday cake,

a. up

b. over

c. out



a. for

b. about

c. on

d. in

7. The teacher wanted to know w h e re _____________ .

more responsible, she wouldn’t have lost

a. did I live

b. I lived

c. do I live

d. have I lived

8. It was _____________ frightful accident that I’ll never

her job.

forget it.

a. If she would be

b. Had she been

c. would she be

d. If she has been

4. I wish you ______

his children’s

making so much noise! I just

b. stop

c. had stopped

d. would stop

5. The burglar didn’t turn on the lights ______

a. so that not

b. so as not to d. so as to not

c. a too

d. so

a. bought

b. have bought

c. had bought

d. buy

. Cathy tried hard, she didn’t manage to



seen by the neighbours.

c. so that to not

b. a so

9. Would you _________ _________ a yacht if you were rich?

need to relax for a while, a. will stop

a. such a

win the race,

a. Even though

b. In spite of

c. Despite

d. Despite of

Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. Many businesses have _____

because of the

financial crisis,

a . ended up

b. given out

c. closed down

d. dropped off

2. The hijackers kept the pilot as a _____________ on board the plane.

a. convict

b. victim

c. hostage

d. kidnapper

3. I won’t _____________ your behaving in this way! Please stop!

a. forbid

b. resist

c. remain

d. tolerate

4. Mary is not always _______ _____for her appointments. She’s late at times.

a. punctual

b. sharp

c. exact

d. correct

5. A good way to ___________ _ your English is to visit an English-speaking country,

a. decrease

b. improve

c. produce

d. recover

6. I said hello to Jill, but she

me completely.

a. neglected

b. omitted

c. cheated

d. ignored

7. A good friend should ___ ________you whatever happens.

a. stand by

b. take after

c. let down

d. bring round

8. The two companies a re _

with each other

to gain the contract.

a. combining

b. competing

c. comparing

d. protesting

9. Lucy has been under considerable______

. lately

because she has a lot of personal problems,

a. haste

b. schedule

c. aid

d. strain

10.1think Meryl should _____________ responsibility for the company's financial problems,

a. mind

b. pay

c. give

d. take

Key t. Revision Tests Revision Test I (Units 1-4)

1 regarded

13 as

25 enthusiastic

35 the m ore m odern of

1 b

6 b

2 habit

14 out

26 yearly

36 neither of w hom

2 c

7 d

3 keeping

15 m ost

27 logical

37 firs t tim e John had fe lt

3 a

8 b

4 come

16 This

28 w ealthy

38 since she came into

4 d

9 c

5 teaching

17 w hich

29 econom ical

39 w hich he hadn't had

5 b

10 d

6 off

18 the

3 0 adventurous

4 0 when 1look/have looked into

7 both

19 w hole/dead

31 peacefully

41 did you sta rt w orking out

8 impressed

2 0 both/these

32 needless

42 never goes anyw here w ith o u t


6 a

9 as

21 soon

33 psychologist

2 a

7 d

10 involved

22 of

34 econom ise

3 b

8 c

11 in no tim e

23 few

4 a

9 a

12 o p p o rtu n ity

24 each/every

5 a

10 d

Revision Test II (Units 6-9)

1 resist

13 on

25 a ctivities

35 to have/get yo ur eyesight tested


6 b

2 close

14 up

26 heights

36 how about going cam ping

2 b

7 d

3 realised

15 to

27 dissatisfied

37 shouldn't have cheated him

3 c

8 b

4 Under these

16 A nother

28 helpless

38 was made to tu rn down

4 d

9 c

17 long

29 easier

39 get used to

5 c

10 d

5 escaping

18 result

3 0 quietness

4 0 you m ind my in te rru p tin g you

6 Because of

19 been

31 va riety

41 are not allowed to take

7 inadequate

20 a

32 specialise

42 of fillin g in

8 of

21 b u t/ye t/h o w e ve r 33 im portance

9 estim ated

22 be

circum stances

10 reported

23 least

11 advice

24 has/ought

12 make

34 satisfaction

1*1 1n 1c

6 a

2 d

7 c

3 a

8 b

4 c

9 a

5 d

10 c

Key to Revision Tests

Revision Test III (Units u-14)

B EI 235

1 create

13 took

25 perform ance(s)

35 advised us not to go/against going


6 b

2 harm ful

14 addition

26 attractive

36 if we d id n 't/d o n 't go

2 c

7 b

3 about

15 A lth ou g h/

27 French

37 w ith a view to buying

3 b

8 a

4 shelter


28 herself

38 rather tell him the tru th

4 d

9 d

39 apologised fo r shouting/having

5 b

10 a


6 d

2 c

7 a

3 d

8 b

4 a

9 d

5 b

10 d

5 sensitive

16 so

29 expression

6 affected

17 care

30 governm ent

7 endangered

18 order

31 Germans

4 0 was so weak (that) she

8 avoid

19 of

32 failure

41 it is not o ut of

9 im proved

2 0 w he th er/if

33 death

42 even though she (had) made

10 atte ntio n

21 up

34 unpleasant

11 reduce

22 in

12 replacing

23 w ould 24 provided



Use of English EE ■

for all exams QQCQ m m publications

teacher's book

Use of English

This book systematically teaches grammar and vocabulary and helps students develop all the skills necessary to succeed in all exams at B2 level.


for all exams

Use of English B2 includes:

• Consolidation Units and Practice Tests

• Presentation of lexical items and

• A reference section including an

grammatical structures in context

overview of English grammar,

(including collocations, expressions,

vocabulary notes, exam tips and

phrasal verbs, words with prepositions,

comprehensive appendices

prepositional phrases, key

• A Glossary

transformations, words easily confused and derivatives) • Clear explanations and useful exam tips • Exercises providing thorough practice in Use of English (including multiple

The Teacher's Book includes: • The Student's Book with the Key overprinted • Photocopiable revision tests

choice, matching, gap filling, open and multiple choice cloze tests, key word transformation and word formation)


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