irm BlacksttiitMtti J.M,DREW%
A MANUAL FOR FARMERS AND AGRICULTVRAL SCHOOLS
Cornell University Library
220.D77 1910 Farm blacksmithing
3 1924 003 588 450
Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright
the United States on the use of the
Unstnictor in Blacksmithing, School of Agriculture,
University of Minnesota.
ANTHONY PARK, MINN.
WEBB PUBLISHING COMPANY 1910,
workshop on a farm
always a good sign.
an indication that the farmer believes in having a place
where he that
profitably spend his time on stormy days
would otherwise be wasted.
hope that they some useful lessons in an easier way
their sons, this book is addressed, in the
than by hard experience.
"Farm Blackand Home. There
Several years ago a series of articles on
smithing" appeared in Farm, Stock
was then, and has since been, some inquiry for a book embodying those articles and covering the subject of iron and steel work, or so much of it as the farm mechanic would need to know. Such a book has now been prepared, and the author has added to it such knowledge as
he has gained by an experience of seven years in
teaching blacksmithing to the farmer boys in the Minnesota School of Agriculture.
If the expert blacksmith complains that he finds
nothing to interest him in the book,
that it is not intended that he should.
him remember It
The chapter on "Saw Filing" was written by Mr. William Eoss, Instructor in Carpentry at the School of Agriculture
FAEM BLACKSMITHING. The thoughtful reader
will at once recognize the
culty of teaching even the elements of a trade on paper
but I hope by the aid of illustrations to
bly plain all the operations which enter into the work
which the farm blacksmith will be called upon
farm blacksmith shop may be very cheap-
ly furnished with all the tools necessary for ordinary
work, and the convenience forge on every
yes, the necessity
farm needs no argument.
The time that may the means and skill to
often be saved by having at hand repair damages to machinery and
much more important matter than by doing one's own work. What farmer
tools is often a
not often been obliged, by some slight breakage, to go to
the town or village shop,
and there find that he must wait for several horses to be shod before his little job, (which he might have done himself if he had the proper tools), could be away,
attended to by the blacksmith.
true that a
at a blacksmith's forge
about the trade,
man may work and
for a lifetime
have more to learn
also true that the essentials of the
trade consist of only a few comparatively simple operations,
which may be acquired by any one who has melittle time and attention
chanical ability and will give a to the work. practice.
done, skill will
are too apt to think that
simply because thing like
we have never
we cannot do
tried to do
a thing or any-
"Our doubts are traitors; they make us lose the good we oft might win by fearing to attempt." There is no good reason why every farmer who has any mechanical ability, cannot do nine-tenths of the work which he usually hires done by the blacksmith.
FUENISHING THE SHOP.
In furnishing a shop, the first thing to be considered There are good portable forges now on the forge.
the market which
To any one thinking say:
be had for a reasonable price.
of buying one of these I would
Don't get one that
pan 18x24 inches and a
bench forges are entirely too small for
cheap forge which will answer every purpose of
farm shop may be made of wood,
a box filled with clay.
square and two and one-half feet high. lows
It should be about three feet
be had for $5, and a single nest tuyere iron
for 35 cents.
from the bottom
be cleaned out
A very cheap
and be made of a piece of two-inch iroi\ pipe extending entirely -through the forge. Several
will cost about $2.
Bmall holes are drilled into the top side of the pipe for the blast,
and a plug
into the end opposite the
the pipe gets clogged with ashes the
a strong blast
from the bellows
picture on page 4 shows
the style of forge in use at the School of Agriculture. It is simply a length of sewer pipe set
on end and
drilled through the back side for
the horn of the bellows, and an ordinary single nest
fashioned one, 32 inches wide.
The most expensive part vil.
of the outfit will be the an-
always been supposed that the best anvils
They cost about 10 cents per pound. Very good American anvils can now be had for about 8 cents per pound. One weighwere those imported from England.
ing 80 to 100 pounds use.
none too large for a farmer's
Don't make the mistake of getting a cast iron an-
vil that will
not stand hard pounding.
Get one that you can pound on withA wrought iron vise with steel out fear of breaking. true of the vise.
jaws costs from $3.50
to $5, according to weight.
one and one-half pounds, will be found the most convenient size for
mer weighing two and
and a blacksmith's hand ham-
one-half pounds will be conven-
ient to have at
about 50 cents.
hand for heavier work. Each will cost Tor sharpening plows a round-faced
should be used.
ject in a later chapter.
More will be said on this At the start the beginner
need a pair of plain tongs (Fig. 2) and a pair of bolt tongs (Fig. 3).
The plain tongs may be changed cutting off
into chain tongs by
the corners and shaping the ends of the jaws
on page 41.
This does not
affect their usefulness as plain tongg,
and makes them serviceable in handling links and rings. A set of stocks and dies for cutting threads on bolts
from one-fourth necessity.
to three-fourths of
These will cost from $3
$10, or even
more, depending upon kind, quality, and the number of
sizes in the set.
ordinary use, cutting
numbers of thread, and taking
nuts from five-sixteenths to three-fourths of an inch,
be had for $3.
very good upright
be bought for $4.50.
so far is about as follows
Bellows and tuyere iron Anvil Vise
$5.35 8.00 4.00 1.00
Hammer Tongs (two pairs) Hardie Stocks and dies
70 25 3.00 4.50
Beside tools there will be needed a supply of blacksteel. For general "Cumberland" coal is the best fuel. It contains but little sulphur, and is easily packed about the fire. It gives a powerful heat, and is so free from earthy matter that but little clinker is
smith's coal and some iron and
In former years charcoal was used almost entirely by blacksmiths. that
It has the
advantage over other coals
contains no sulphur, and for this reason
cially desirable for fine steel work.
pared with mineral coal has nearly driven
out of use.
cannot be used
It contains such a large percentage
of Bulphur and other impurities that iron cannot be
presence of sulphar.
would be ruined
Iron cannot be welded in the
Great care should therefore be
exercised to avoid getting sulphur into the forge. %2 .0409 3%4 .0625 9-16.. .0781 3%t .0313
POUNDS OF VARIOUS METALS