# F&EI Calculation Workbook

September 22, 2017 | Author: safetysankar | Category: Explosion, Flammability, Combustion, Chemical Reactions, Chemical Compounds

#### Description

Explanation of the Dow Fire and Explosion Index.

The Fire and Explosion Index (F&E!) calculation is a tool to help determine the areas of greatest loss potential in a also enables one to predict the physical damage that would occur in the event of an incident.

The first step in making the F&EI calculation requires using an efficient and logical procedure to determine which be studied. A process unit is defined as any major item of process equipment. The following process units co typical plant.  

Explanation of the Dow Fire and Explosion Index.

The Fire and Explosion Index (F&E!) calculation is a tool to help determine the areas of greatest loss potential in a also enables one to predict the physical damage that would occur in the event of an incident.

The first step in making the F&EI calculation requires using an efficient and logical procedure to determine which be studied. A process unit is defined as any major item of process equipment. The following process units co typical plant.       

A designation of the Process Unit must be entered in the appropriate space on the F&EI form. The designation must also be entered on the F&EI form. A Manufacturing Unit is the entire productio chemical processes, mechanical processes, warehouse, packaging lines, etc.

It is quite clear that most manufacturing units have many process units. To calculate the Fire and Explosion process units that could have an impact from a loss prevention standpoint should be evaluated. These are known Units. Important factors for selecting Pertinent Process Units include: a. Chemical energy potential (Material Factor) b. Quantity of hazardous material in the Process Unit c. Process pressure and process temperature d. Units critical to plant operation, e.g. Reactor Important Considerations A.

The Fire and Explosion Index system assumes that a process unit handles a minimum of 2,500 kg of a flamm reactive material. If less material is involved, generally the risk will be overstated. However, F&EI cal meaningful results for pilot plants if they handle at least 500 kg) of combustible or reactive material.

B.

Careful consideration is needed when equipment is arranged in series and the items are not effectively isol An example would be a reaction train without an intermediate pump. In such situations, the type of proces several vessels or just a single vessel should be considered as the Process Unit.

It should rarely be necessary to calculate the F&EI for more than three or four Process Units in a sing Manufacturing Unit. The number of Process Units will vary according to the type of process and the Manufacturing Unit. A separate F&EI form must be completed for each process unit evaluated.

C.

It is also important to give careful consideration to the state or point in time of the operation. By their natur as startup, steady-state operation, shutdown, filling, emptying, adding catalyst, etc., often create unique impact on the F&EI. Generally, good judgment will enable selection of the point in time of operation calculation. Occasionally more than one point in time will have to be studied to determine the significant risk

C.

It is also important to give careful consideration to the state or point in time of the operation. By their natur as startup, steady-state operation, shutdown, filling, emptying, adding catalyst, etc., often create unique impact on the F&EI. Generally, good judgment will enable selection of the point in time of operation calculation. Occasionally more than one point in time will have to be studied to determine the significant risk

areas of greatest loss potential in a particular process. It an incident.

gical procedure to determine which process units should t. The following process units could be identified in a

areas of greatest loss potential in a particular process. It an incident.

gical procedure to determine which process units should t. The following process units could be identified in a

pace on the F&EI form. The Manufacturing Unit ng Unit is the entire production facility including c.

calculate the Fire and Explosion Index, however, only uld be evaluated. These are known as Pertinent Process

a minimum of 2,500 kg of a flammable, combustible or overstated. However, F&EI calculations can provide tible or reactive material.

d the items are not effectively isolated from each other. such situations, the type of process determines whether Unit.

e or four Process Units in a single process area of a g to the type of process and the configuration of the

me of the operation. By their nature, such normal stages atalyst, etc., often create unique conditions having an of the point in time of operation to perform the F&EI ed to determine the significant risk.

me of the operation. By their nature, such normal stages atalyst, etc., often create unique conditions having an of the point in time of operation to perform the F&EI ed to determine the significant risk.

PLANT NAME Sheet i.d. Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10

Unit Description Butadiene Unloading Finishing tower 0 0 0 0 0 Xylene storage LPG Store Solids pesticides warehouse

F&EI

0 0 0 0 0 P Xylene 0 0

103.34 145.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 56.38 114.16 41.78

Material factors for unlisted materials can be estimated by table at the bottom of this screen

MATERIAL 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,1-Ethylidene Dichloride 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichloroethylene 1,2-Dinitrobenzene 1,3-Butadiene 1,3-Dichloropropene 1,3-Propanediamine 1,4-Dioxane 1-Butanol (Butyl alcohol) 1-Butene 1-Chloro 1-Nitroethane 2,2-Dimethyl-1-Propanol 2,3-Butylene Oxide 2,3-Dichloropropene 2,4-Dinitro Phenol 2-Chloropropane 2-Ethylhezanal 2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate 2-Methylpropenal 2-Picoline 3,5-Dichloro Salicylic Acid 4-Vinyl Cyclohexene Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid Acetic Anhydride Acetone Acetone Cyanohydrin Acetonitrile Acetyl Chloride Acetyl Ethanolamine Acetyl Peroxide Acetyl Salicylic Acid [7] Acetylene Acrolein

MF

Hc BTU/LB x 103

Hc Kcal/Kg x 103

Health

4

3.1

1.7

2

16

4.5

2.5

2

10

4.3

2.4

3

4

6.2

3.4

2

24

6.9

3.8

2

40

7.2

4.0

3

24

19.2

10.7

2

16

6.0

3.3

3

16

13.6

7.6

2

16

10.5

5.8

2

16

14.3

7.9

1

21

19.5

10.8

1

29

3.5

2.0

3

16

14.8

8.2

2

24

14.3

7.9

2

16

5.9

3.3

2

40

6.1

3.4

3

21

10.1

5.6

2

14

16.2

9.0

2

24

8.9

4.9

2

24

15.4

8.6

3

10

15.0

8.3

2

24

5.3

2.9

0

24

19.0

10.6

0

24

10.5

5.8

3

14

5.6

3.1

3

14

7.1

3.9

3

16

12.3

6.8

1

24

11.2

6.2

4

16

12.6

7.0

3

24

2.5

1.4

3

14

9.4

5.2

1

40

6.4

3.6

1

16

8.9

4.9

1

29

20.7

11.5

0

29

11.8

6.6

4

Nh

Acrylamide Acrylic Acid Acrylonitrile Allyl Alcohol Allyl Bromide Allyl Chloride Allyl Ether Allylamine Aluminum Chloride Ammonia Ammonium Nitrate Amyl Acetate Amyl Nitrate Aniline Barium Chlorate Barium Stearate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic Acid Benzyl Acetate Benzyl Alcohol Benzyl Chloride Benzyl Peroxide Bisphenol A Bromine Bromobenzene Butane Butyl Acetate Butyl Acrylate Butyl Bromide Butyl Chloride Butyl Ether Butyl Nitrate Calcium Carbide Calcium Stearate [6] Carbon Disulfide Carbon Monoxide Chlorine Chlorine Dioxide Chloro Methyl Ethyl Ether

24

9.5

5.3

3

24

7.6

4.2

3

24

13.7

7.6

4

16

13.7

7.6

4

16

5.9

3.3

3

16

9.7

5.4

3

24

16.0

8.9

3

16

15.4

8.6

4

24

[2]

#VALUE!

3

4

8.0

4.4

3

29

12.4

6.9

0

16

14.6

8.1

1

10

11.5

6.4

2

10

15.0

8.3

3

14

[2]

#VALUE!

2

4

8.9

4.9

0

10

13.7

7.6

2

16

17.3

9.6

2

14

11.0

6.1

2

4

12.3

6.8

1

4

13.8

7.7

2

14

12.6

7.0

2

40

12.0

6.7

1

14

14.1

7.8

2

1

0.0

0.0

3

10

8.1

4.5

2

21

19.7

10.9

1

16

12.2

6.8

1

24

14.2

7.9

2

16

7.6

4.2

2

16

11.4

6.3

2

16

16.3

9.1

2

29

11.1

6.2

1

24

9.1

5.1

3

4

#VALUE!

0

21

6.1

3.4

3

21

4.3

2.4

3

1

0.0

0.0

4

40

0.7

0.4

3

14

5.7

3.2

2

Chloroacetyl Chloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chloropicrin Chlorostyrene Coumarin Cumene Cumene Hydroperoxide Cyanamide Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopropane DER* 331 Di-tert-butyl Peroxide Dichlorobenzene Dichlorostyrene Dicumyl Peroxide Dicyclopentadiene Diesel Fuel Diethanolamine Diethyl Carbonate Diethyl Ether Diethyl Peroxide Diethylamine Diethylene Glycol Diisobutylene Diisopropyl Benzene Dimethylamine Diphenyl Oxide Dipropylene Glycol Divinyl Acetylene Divinyl Ether Divinylbenzene DOWANOL* DM DOWANOL* EB DOWANOL* PM DOWANOL* PnB DOWFROST* DOWFROST* HD

14

2.5

1.4

3

16

10.9

6.1

2

1

1.5

0.8

2

29

5.8

3.2

4

24

12.5

6.9

2

24

12.0

6.7

2

16

18.0

10.0

2

40

13.7

7.6

1

29

7.0

3.9

4

21

19.1

10.6

1

16

18.7

10.4

1

10

15.0

8.3

1

21

21.3

11.8

1

14

13.7

7.6

1

40

14.5

8.1

3

10

8.1

4.5

2

24

9.3

5.2

2

29

15.4

8.6

0

16

17.9

9.9

1

10

18.7

10.4

0

4

10.0

5.6

1

16

9.1

5.1

2

21

14.5

8.1

2

40

12.2

6.8

16

16.5

9.2

3

4

8.7

4.8

1

16

19.0

10.6

1

10

17.9

9.9

0

21

15.2

8.4

3

4

14.9

8.3

1

4

10.8

6.0

0

29

18.2

10.1

24

14.5

8.1

2

24

17.4

9.7

1

10

10.0

5.6

2

10

12.9

7.2

1

16

11.1

6.2

1

10

#VALUE!

1

4

9.1

5.1

1

1

#VALUE!

0

DOWFROTH* 250 DOWICIL* 200 DOWICIL* 200 DOWICIL* 75 DOWTHERM* 4000 DOWTHERM* A DOWTHERM* G DOWTHERM* HT DOWTHERM* J DOWTHERM* LF DOWTHERM* Q DOWTHERM* SR-1 DURSBAN* Epichlorohydrin Ethane Ethanolamine Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Acrylate Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Benzene Ethyl Benzoate Ethyl Bromide Ethyl Butylcarbonate Ethyl Butyrate Ethyl Chloride Ethyl Chloroformate Ethyl Ether Ethyl Formate Ethyl Mercaptan Ethyl Nitrate Ethyl Propyl Ether Ethylamine Ethylbutylamine Ethylene Ethylene Carbonate Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether Ethylene Glycol Monoacetate Ethylene Oxide

1

#VALUE!

0

24

9.3

5.2

2

24

9.3

5.2

1

24

7.0

3.9

1

4

7.0

3.9

1

4

15.5

8.6

2

4

15.5

8.6

1

4

#VALUE!

1

10

17.8

9.9

1

4

16.0

8.9

1

4

17.3

9.6

1

4

7.0

3.9

1

14

19.8

11.0

1

24

7.2

4.0

3

21

20.4

11.3

1

10

9.5

5.3

2

16

10.1

5.6

1

24

11.0

6.1

2

16

11.5

6.4

0

16

17.6

9.8

2

4

12.2

6.8

1

4

5.6

3.1

2

14

10.6

5.9

2

16

12.2

6.8

0

21

8.2

4.6

1

16

5.2

2.9

3

21

14.4

8.0

1

16

8.7

4.8

2

21

12.7

7.1

2

40

6.4

3.6

2

16

15.2

8.4

1

21

16.3

9.1

3

16

17.0

9.4

3

24

20.8

11.6

1

14

5.3

2.9

2

16

4.6

2.6

2

4

7.3

4.1

1

10

11.6

6.4

2

4

8.0

4.4

0

29

11.7

6.5

3

Ethylenediamine Ethylenimine Fluorine Fluorobenzene Formaldehyde (Anhydrous Gas) Formaldehyde (solutions 37-56%) Formic Acid Fuel Oil #1 Fuel Oil #2 Fuel Oil #3 Fuel Oil #4 Furan Gasoline Glycerine Glycolonitrile Heptane Hexachloro Diphenyl Oxide Hexachlorobutadiene Hexanal Hexane Hydrazine (anhydrous) Hydrogen Hydrogen Cyanide Hydrogen Peroxide (40 to 60%) Hydrogen Sulfide Hydroxylamine Hydroxypropyl Acrylate Isobutane Isobutyl Alcohol Isobutylamine Isobutylchloride Isopentane Isoprene Isopropanol Isopropenyl Acetylene Isopropyl Acetate Isopropyl Chloride Isopropyl Ether Isopropylamine Jet Fuel A & A-1

10

12.4

6.9

3

29

13.0

7.2

4

40

#VALUE!

4

16

13.4

7.4

3

21

8.0

4.4

3

10

#VALUE!

3

10

3.0

1.7

3

10

18.7

10.4

0

10

18.7

10.4

0

10

18.7

10.4

0

10

18.7

10.4

0

21

12.6

7.0

1

16

18.8

10.4

1

4

6.9

3.8

1

14

7.6

4.2

1

16

19.2

10.7

1

14

5.5

3.1

2

14

2.0

1.1

2

16

15.5

8.6

2

16

19.2

10.7

1

29

7.7

4.3

3

21

51.6

28.7

0

24

10.3

5.7

4

14

[2]

#VALUE!

2

21

6.5

3.6

4

29

3.2

1.8

2

24

10.4

5.8

3

21

19.4

10.8

1

16

14.2

7.9

1

16

16.2

9.0

2

16

11.4

6.3

2

21

21.0

11.7

1

24

18.9

10.5

2

16

13.1

7.3

1

24

#VALUE!

2

16

11.2

6.2

1

21

10.0

5.6

2

16

15.6

8.7

2

21

15.5

8.6

3

10

21.7

12.1

0

Jet Fuel B Kerosene Lauryl Bromide Lauryl Mercaptan Lauryl Peroxide LORSBAN* 4E Lube Oil (mineral) m-Diethyl Benzene Magnesuim Maleic Anhydride Methacrylic Acid Methane Methyl Acetate Methyl Acrylate Methyl Alcohol Methyl Amyl Ketone Methyl Borate Methyl Carbonate Methylcellulose (bag storage) Methylcellulose Dust [7] Methyl Chloride Methyl Chloroacetate Methyl Cyclopentadiene Methyl Ether Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Formate Methyl Hydrazine Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Methyl Mercaptan Methyl Methacrylate Methyl Vinyl Ketone Methylacetylene Methylamine Methylcyclohexane Methylene Chloride Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate Mineral Oil Mineral Seal Oil Monochlorobenzene Monoethanolamine

16

21.7

12.1

1

10

18.7

10.4

0

4

12.9

7.2

1

4

16.8

9.3

2

40

15.0

8.3

0

14

3.0

1.7

1

4

19.0

10.6

0

10

18.0

10.0

2

14

10.6

5.9

0

14

5.9

3.3

3

24

9.3

5.2

3

21

21.5

11.9

1

16

8.5

4.7

1

24

18.7

10.4

3

16

8.6

4.8

1

10

15.4

8.6

1

16

#VALUE!

2

16

6.2

3.4

2

4

6.5

3.6

0

16

6.5

3.6

0

21

5.5

3.1

1

14

5.1

2.8

2

14

17.4

9.7

1

21

12.4

6.9

2

16

13.5

7.5

1

21

6.4

3.6

2

24

10.9

6.1

4

16

16.6

9.2

2

21

10.0

5.6

4

24

11.9

6.6

2

24

13.4

7.4

4

24

20.0

11.1

2

21

13.2

7.3

3

16

19.0

10.6

2

4

2.3

1.3

2

14

12.6

7.0

2

4

17.0

9.4

0

10

17.6

9.8

0

16

11.3

6.3

2

10

9.6

5.3

2

n-Butylamine n-Propyl Ether n-Propyl Nitrate N-SERV* Naphtha, VM & P, Regular Naphthalene Nitrobenzene Nitrobiphenyl Nitrochlorobenzene Nitroethane Nitroglycerine Nitromethane Nitropropanes o-Bromotoluene o-Chlorophenol Octane Oleic Acid p-Ethyl Toluene p-Nitrotoluene p-Xylene Pentamethylene Oxide Pentane Peracetic Acid Perchloric Acid Petroleum - Crude Phenol Polyethylene Polystyrene Foam Polystyrene Pellets Potassium (metal) Potassium Chlorate Potassium Nitrate Potassium Perchlorate Potassium Peroxide Propanal Propane Propargyl Alcohol Propargyl Bromide Proprionic Nitrile Propyl Acetate

16

16.3

9.1

3

16

15.7

8.7

1

29

7.4

4.1

2

14

15.0

8.3

2

16

18.0

10.0

1

10

16.7

9.3

2

14

10.4

5.8

3

4

12.7

7.1

2

4

7.8

4.3

3

29

7.7

4.3

1

40

7.8

4.3

2

40

5.0

2.8

1

24

9.7

5.4

1

10

8.5

4.7

2

10

9.2

5.1

3

16

20.5

11.4

0

4

16.8

9.3

0

10

17.7

9.8

3

14

11.2

6.2

3

16

17.6

9.8

2

16

13.7

7.6

2

21

19.4

10.8

1

40

4.8

2.7

3

29

[2]

#VALUE!

3

16

21.3

11.8

1

10

13.4

7.4

4

10

18.7

10.4

16

17.1

9.5

10

#VALUE!

24

#VALUE!

3

14

[2]

#VALUE!

1

29

[2]

#VALUE!

1

14

#VALUE!

1

14

#VALUE!

3

16

12.5

6.9

2

21

19.9

11.1

1

29

12.6

7.0

4

40

13.6

7.6

4

16

15.0

8.3

4

16

11.2

6.2

1

Propyl Alcohol Propylamine Propylbenzene Propylchloride Propylene Propylene Dichloride Propylene Glycol Propylene Oxide Pyridine Sodium Chlorate Sodium Dichromate Sodium Hydride Sodium Hydrosulfite Sodium Perchlorate Sodium Peroxide Stearic Acid Styrene Sulfur Chloride Sulfur Dioxide SYLTHERM* 800 SYLTHERM* XLT t-Butyl Hydroperoxide t-Butyl Peracetate t-Butyl Perbenzoate t-Butyl Peroxide t-Octyl Mercaptan TELONE* C-17 TELONE* II Toluene Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate Tributylamine Trichloroethylene Triethanolamine Triethylaluminum Triethylamine Triethylene Glycol Triisobutylaluminum Triisopropylbenzene Trimethylaluminum Tripropylamine

16

12.4

6.9

1

16

15.8

8.8

3

16

17.3

9.6

2

16

10.0

5.6

2

21

19.7

10.9

1

16

6.3

3.5

2

4

9.3

5.2

0

24

13.2

7.3

3

16

5.9

3.3

3

24

#VALUE!

1

14

#VALUE!

1

24

#VALUE!

3

24

#VALUE!

2

14

#VALUE!

2

14

#VALUE!

3

4

15.9

8.8

1

24

17.4

9.7

2

14

1.8

1.0

3

1

0.0

0.0

3

4

12.3

6.8

1

10

14.1

7.8

1

40

11.9

6.6

1

40

10.6

5.9

2

40

12.2

6.8

1

29

14.5

8.1

1

10

16.5

9.2

2

16

2.7

1.5

3

16

3.2

1.8

2

16

17.4

9.7

2

24

10.6

5.9

3

10

17.8

9.9

3

10

2.7

1.5

2

14

10.1

5.6

2

29

16.9

9.4

3

16

17.8

9.9

3

4

9.3

5.2

1

29

18.9

10.5

3

4

18.1

10.1

0

29

16.5

9.2

10

17.8

9.9

2

Vinyl Acetate Vinyl Acetylene Vinyl Allyl Ether Vinyl Butyl Ether Vinyl Chloride Vinyl Ethyl Ether Vinyl Toluene Vinylidene Chloride Zinc Chlorate Zinc Stearate [7]

24

9.7

5.4

2

29

19.5

10.8

2

24

15.5

8.6

2

24

15.4

8.6

2

24

8.0

4.4

2

24

14.0

7.8

2

24

17.5

9.7

2

24

4.2

2.3

2

14

[2]

#VALUE!

1

4 10.1 5.6 0 Footnotes: The net Heat of Combustion (Hc) is the value obtained when the water formed in the combustion is considered to be in the vapor state. Wh to BTU/lb by multiplying by 1800 and dividing by molecular weight. [1] Vacuum distillation. [6] MF is packaged material. [2] Material oxidized to higher level of oxidation. [7] Evaluate as a dust. [3] Sublimes. [8] Decomposes. [4] Explodes on heating. [9] After extended use > 600 °F, the fla [5] Decomposes in water. Seta = Setaflash Method (See NFPA 321) NA = Not Applicable Other Flash Points determined by Tag Closed Cup Method (TCC).

Material factor for unlisted materials

MATERIAL FACTOR DETERMINATION GUIDE

Liquids & Gases Flammability or Combustibility Non-combustible2

Flamm ability Rankin g NFPA 325M or 49 0

Instability Ranking 0

1

2

1

14

24

F.P. > 200 F (> 93.3 C)

1

4

14

24

F.P. > 100 F (> 37.8 C) 200 F ( 93.3 C) F.P. 73 F ( 22.8 C) < 100 °F (< 37.8 C) or F.P. < 73 F (< 22.8 C) &

2 3

10 16

14 16

24 24

BP. 100 F ( 37.8 C) F.P. < 73 F (< 22.8 C) & B.P. < 100 F (< 37.8 C)

3

16

16

24

4

21

21

24

16 21 24

16 21 24

24 24 24

Combustible Dust or Mist St-1 (KSt 200 bar m/sec) St-2 (KSt = 201-300 bar m/sec) St-3 (KSt > 300 bar m/sec)

Combustible Solids Dense > 40 mm thick 1 4 14 24 Open < 40 mm thick 2 10 14 24 Foam, fiber, powder, etc. 3 16 16 24 F.P. = Flash Point, closed cup B.P. = Boiling Point at Standard Temperatures and Pressure (STP)

NFPA Rating Nf

Ni

Flash

Flash

Boiling

Flammability

Instability

Point (°F)

Point (°C)

Point (°F)

1

0

None

#VALUE!

165

3

0

2

-17

135 - 138

2

0

160

71

313

1

0

222

106

415

3

2

36 – 39

#VALUE!

140

1

4

302

150

606

4

2

-105

-76

24

3

0

95

35

219

3

0

124

51

276

3

1

54

12

214

3

0

84

29

243

4

0

Gas

#VALUE!

21

2

3

133

56

344

3

0

98

37

237

3

2

5

-15

149

3

0

59

15

201

1

4

#VALUE!

4

0

-26

-32

95

2

1

112

44

325

1

2

214

101

410

3

2

35

2

154

2

0

102

39

262

1

2

#VALUE!

3

2

61

16

266

4

2

-36

-38

69

2

1

103

39

244

2

1

126

52

282

3

0

-4

-20

133

2

2

165

74

203

3

0

42

6

179

3

2

40

4

124

1

1

355

179

304 - 308

2

4

#VALUE!

[4]

1

0

#VALUE!

4

3

Gas

#VALUE!

-118

3

3

-15

-26

127

2

2

#VALUE!

257[1]

2

2

124

51

286

3

2

32

0

171

3

1

72

22

207

3

1

28

-2

160

3

1

-20

-29

113

3

2

20

-7

203

3

1

-4

-20

128

0

2

#VALUE!

[3]

1

0

Gas

#VALUE!

-28

0

3

#VALUE!

410

3

0

60

16

300

2

0

118

48

306 - 315

2

0

158

70

364

0

1

#VALUE!

1

0

#VALUE!

2

0

148

64

354

3

0

12

-11

176

1

1

250

121

482

1

0

195

91

417

1

0

200

93

403

2

1

162

72

387

3

4

#VALUE!

1

1

175

79

428

0

0

#VALUE!

138

2

0

124

51

313

4

0

-76

-60

31

3

0

72

22

260

2

2

103

39

300

3

0

65

18

215

3

0

15

-9

170

3

1

92

33

288

3

3

97

36

277

3

2

#VALUE!

1

0

#VALUE!

4

0

-22

-30

115

4

0

Gas

#VALUE!

-313

0

0

Gas

#VALUE!

-29

1

4

Gas

#VALUE!

50

1

1

#VALUE!

0

1

#VALUE!

223

3

0

84

29

270

0

0

#VALUE!

143

0

3

#VALUE!

234

1

2

165

74

372

1

2

#VALUE!

554

3

1

96

36

306

2

4

175

79

[4]

1

3

286

141

500

4

0

Gas

#VALUE!

55

3

0

-4

-20

179

2

0

154

68

322

4

0

Gas

#VALUE!

-29

1

1

485

252

878

2

4

65

18

231

2

0

151

66

357

1

2

225

107

1

3

#VALUE!

3

1

90

32

342

2

0

100 – 130

#VALUE!

315

1

0

342

172

514

3

1

77

25

259

4

1

-49

-45

94

4

4

[4]

#VALUE!

[4]

3

0

-18

-28

132

1

0

255

124

472

3

0

23

-5

214

2

0

170

77

401

4

0

Gas

#VALUE!

44

1

0

239

115

496

1

0

250

121

449

3

3

< -4

#VALUE!

183

3

2

< -22

#VALUE!

102

2

2

157

69

392

2

0

197 (Seta)

#VALUE!

381

2

0

150

66

340

3

0

90 (Seta)

#VALUE!

248

2

0

138

59

338

1

0

215 (TOC)

#VALUE!

370

1

0

None

#VALUE!

240

1

0

300 (Seta)

#VALUE!

473

2

2

-

#VALUE!

-

2

2

#VALUE!

2

2

#VALUE!

1

0

252 (Seta)

#VALUE!

330

1

0

236 (Seta)

#VALUE!

495

1

0

266 (Seta)

#VALUE!

551

1

0

322 (TOC)

#VALUE!

650

2

0

136 (Seta)

#VALUE!

358

1

0

240

116

550 – 558

1

0

249 (Seta)

#VALUE!

513

1

0

232

111

325

2

1

81 – 110

#VALUE!

3

2

88

31

241

4

0

Gas

#VALUE!

-128

2

0

185

85

339

3

0

24

-4

171

3

2

48

9

211

3

0

55

13

173

3

0

70

21

277

1

0

190

88

414

1

0

None

#VALUE!

100

2

1

122

50

275

3

0

75

24

248

4

0

-58

-50

54

3

1

61

16

203

4

1

-49

-45

94

3

0

-4

-20

130

4

0

600 °F, the flash point can potentially drop to 95 °F.

NA = Not Applicable

TOC = Tag Open Cup Method * Trademark of the Dow Chemical Company

N GUIDE

ility Ranking 3

4

29

40

29

40

29 29

40 40

ure (STP)

29

40

29

40

29 29 29

40 40 40

29 29 29

40 40 40

Boiling Point (°C) 74 57-59 156 213 60 319 -4 104 136 101 117 -6 173 114 65 94 #VALUE! 35 163 210 68 128 #VALUE! 130 21 118 139 56 95 82 51 151-153 #VALUE! #VALUE! -83 53

125[1] 141 77 97 71 45 95 53 [3] -33 210 149 152 - 157 184 #VALUE! #VALUE! 179 80 250 214 206 197 #VALUE! 220 59 156 -1 127 149 102 77 142 136 #VALUE! #VALUE! 46 -192 -34 10 #VALUE!

106 132 62 112 189 290 152 #VALUE! 260 13 82 161 -34 470 111 181 #VALUE! #VALUE! 172 157 268 126 34 #VALUE! 56 244 101 205 7 258 232 84 39 200 194 171 120 170 188 116

245 #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 166 257 288 343 181 288 - 292 267 163 #VALUE! 116 -89 171 77 99 78 136 212 38 135 120 12 95 34 54 35 88 64 17 111 -104 177 83 - 84 197 79 175 11

115 57 -188 85 -21 97 - 100 101 151 - 301 #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 31 38 - 204 171 #VALUE! 98 #VALUE! #VALUE! 131 69 113 -253 26 108 - 114 -60 70 210 -12 107 66 69 28 34 83 33 90 35 69 34 204 - 288

#VALUE! 151 - 301 180 143 #VALUE! 74 360 181 1107 202 163 -161 60 81 64 150 69 89 #VALUE! #VALUE! -24 130 73 -24 80 32 88 117 6 101 82 -23 -6 101 40 #VALUE! 360 249 - 360 132 171

77 90 110 149 100 - 160 218 211 330 236 - 246 114 [-16] 101 121 - 132 182 8 126 286 162 238 137 81 36 105 19 [8] #VALUE! 181 #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 766 400 400 #VALUE! #VALUE! 49 -42 114 - 115 89 97 102

97 49 159 46 -48 96 188 34 116 [4] [4] [4] [4] [4] [4] 386 145 138 -10 203 174 [9] [4] [4] 80 159 - 165 93 104 111 251 214 87 343 185 89 286 212 257 -18 156

en Cup Method mical Company

73 5 67 94 -14 36 168 32 #VALUE! #VALUE!

DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL FACTOR The Material Factor (MF) is the basic starting value in the computation of the F&EI and other risk analysis values. The MF is a measure of the intrinsic rate of potential energy release from fire or explosion produced by combustion or chemical reaction. The MF is obtained from the flammability and instability rankings according to NFPA 704. Generally, the flammability and instability rankings are for ambient temperatures. It is recognized that the fire and reaction hazards of a material increase markedly with temperature. The fire hazard from a combustible liquid at a temperature above its flash point is equivalent to that from a flammable liquid at ambient temperature. Reaction rates also increase very markedly with temperature. If the temperature of the material on which the MF is based is over 140 F (60 C), a certain adjustment may be required, as discussed below under C. ―Temperature Adjustment of Material Factor.‖ Appendix A provides a listing of MFs for a number of chemical compounds and materials, and these values will be used in most cases. If Appendix A does not list the material, the flammability and instability rankings may possibly be found in NFPA 325M or NFPA 49 adjusted for temperature, if appropriate, and used with Table l to determine the MF. If the material is a combustible dust, use the Dust Hazard Class Number (St number) rather than the flammability ranking.

Unlisted Substances If neither Appendix A, NFPA 49, nor NFPA 325M contains values for the substance, mixture or compound in question, these values will have to be determined from the flammability ranking or dust class (St) (see Table l). First, the parameters shown in the left column of the table will have to be determined. The flammability ranking of liquids and gases is obtained from flash point data, and the St of dusts or mists is determined by dust explosion testing. The flammability ranking of combustible solids depends on the nature of the material as categorized in the left column. The instability ranking can be obtained from a qualitative description of the instability (or reactivity with water) of the substance, mixture or compound at ambient temperature. Definitions in National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704 should be used to assign hazard MATERIAL FACTOR DETERMINATION GUIDE ratings for materials which are not listed in the F&EI calculation tool in S2S.

Flammability Ranking

Instability Ranking

Non-combustible2

0

1

14

24

29

40

F.P. > 200 F (> 93.3 C)

1

4

14

24

29

40

F.P. > 100 F (> 37.8 C)  200 F ( 93.3 C) F.P.  73 F ( 22.8 C) < 100 °F (< 37.8 C) or F.P. < 73 F (< 22.8 C) & BP.  100 F ( 37.8 C) F.P. < 73 F (< 22.8 C) & B.P. < 100 F (< 37.8 C)

2

10

14

24

29

40

3

16

16

24

29

40

4

21

21

24

29

40

16

16

24

29

40

Combustible Dust or Mist3 St-1 (KSt  200 bar m/sec)

F.P. > 100 F (> 37.8 C)  200 F ( 93.3 C) F.P.  73 F ( 22.8 C) < 100 °F (< 37.8 C) or F.P. < 73 F (< 22.8 C) & BP.  100 F ( 37.8 C) F.P. < 73 F (< 22.8 C) & B.P. < 100 F (< 37.8 C)

2

10

14

24

29

40

3

16

16

24

29

40

4

21

21

24

29

40

16 21 24

16 21 24

24 24 24

29 29 29

40 40 40

4 10 16

14 14 16

24 24 24

29 29 29

40 40 40

Combustible Dust or Mist3 St-1 (KSt  200 bar m/sec) St-2 (KSt = 201-300 bar m/sec) St-3 (KSt > 300 bar m/sec)

Combustible Solids Dense > 40 mm thick 4 Open < 40 mm thick 5 Foam, fiber, powder, etc. 6 F.P. = Flash Point, closed cup

1 2 3

B.P. = Boiling Point at Standard Temperatures and Pressure (STP

Notes: 1 Includes volatile solids. 2 Will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 816 C for a period of five minutes. 3 K values are for a 16 Litre or larger closed test vessel with strong ignition source. See NFPA St 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations. 4 Includes wood – 2 inches nominal thickness, magnesium ingots, tight stacks of solids and tight rolls of paper or plastic film5 Includes coarse granular material such as plastic pellets, rack storage, wood pallets and non-dusting ground material such as polystyrene. 6 Includes rubber goods such as tyres and boots,

PROCESS UNIT HAZARDS FACTORS After the appropriate Material Factor has been determined, the next step is to calculate the Process Unit Hazards Factor (F3), which is the term that is multiplied by the Material Factor to obtain the F&EI. The numerical value of the Process Unit Hazards Factor is determined by first determining the General Process Hazards Factor and Special Process Hazards Factor listed on the F&EI form. Each item which contributes to the Process Hazards Factors contributes to the development or escalation of an incident that could cause a fire or an explosion. When calculating the penalties comprising the Process Unit Hazards Factor, F 3, pick a single specific instant in time during which the material under consideration is in the most hazardous normal operation state associated with the Process Unit. Startup, continuous operation and shutdown are among the operational states that may be considered. This rather strict definition is intended to prevent double or triple counting of hazards occurring during the process. Since the MF is taken to be that of the most hazardous substance present in the Process Unit, it can be certain that the Fire and Explosion analysis will really be based upon a ―worst case‖ when focus is placed on the most hazardous operational point involving the MF, and this will be a realistic worst case — one that could actually occur. In the F&EI system, only one hazard may be evaluated at a time. If the MF is based on a flammable liquid present in the Process Unit, do not take penalties relating to combustible dusts, even though dust may be present at a different time. A reasonable approach might be to evaluate the Process Unit once using the MF of the flammable liquid and a second time using the MF of the dust. Only the calculation resulting in the highest F&EI and Actual Maximum Probable

This rather strict definition is intended to prevent double or triple counting of hazards occurring during the process. Since the MF is taken to be that of the most hazardous substance present in the Process Unit, it can be certain that the Fire and Explosion analysis will really be based upon a ―worst case‖ when focus is placed on the most hazardous operational point involving the MF, and this will be a realistic worst case — one that could actually occur. In the F&EI system, only one hazard may be evaluated at a time. If the MF is based on a flammable liquid present in the Process Unit, do not take penalties relating to combustible dusts, even though dust may be present at a different time. A reasonable approach might be to evaluate the Process Unit once using the MF of the flammable liquid and a second time using the MF of the dust. Only the calculation resulting in the highest F&EI and Actual Maximum Probable Property Damage need to be reported. One important exception is the hybrid, described previously under ―Mixtures.‖ If a hybrid mixture is selected as the most hazardous material present, it is penalized both as a dust and as a flammable vapor in the Process Unit Hazards Factor sections of this manual. Some items on the F&EI form have fixed penalty values. For those that do not, determine the appropriate penalty by consulting the text that follows. Remember – analyze only one hazard at a time, relating the analysis to a specific, most hazardous time (e.g., startup, normal operation or shutdown). Keep the focus on the Process Unit and Material Factor selected for analysis and keep in mind that the results of the final calculation are only as valid as the appropriateness of the penalty assessments. The entry of all the pertinent information to allow calculation of the Fire and Explosion Index and the radius of exposure is made in the excel workbook F&EI Calculation workbook S2S June 2006.xls When the indexes for all pertinent units in the plant have been calculated, the results give an indication of the ranking of risk of each unit relative to another. This ranking can be used for screening out the lower risk items and concentrating study on the higher ones.

AL FACTOR

mputation of the F&EI and other of potential energy release from

nkings according to NFPA 704. or ambient temperatures. It is rease markedly with temperature. ve its flash point is equivalent to rates also increase very markedly he MF is based is over 140 F (60 below under C. ―Temperature

al compounds and materials, and does not list the material, the d in NFPA 325M or NFPA 49 l to determine the MF. If the mber (St number) rather than the

ntains values for the substance, ave to be determined from the the parameters shown in the left mmability ranking of liquids and s or mists is determined by dust e solids depends on the nature of

e description of the instability (or ambient temperature.

should be used to assign hazard ATION GUIDE tool in S2S.

Instability Ranking 14

24

29

40

14

24

29

40

0

14

24

29

40

6

16

24

29

40

1

21

24

29

40

6

16

24

29

40

0

14

24

29

40

6

16

24

29

40

1

21

24

29

40

6 1 4

16 21 24

24 24 24

29 29 29

40 40 40

0 6

14 14 16

24 24 24

29 29 29

40 40 40

rd Temperatures and Pressure (STP)

or a period of five minutes. trong ignition source. See NFPA

ts, tight stacks of solids and tight rial such as plastic pellets, rack polystyrene.

ACTORS

the next step is to calculate the ltiplied by the Material Factor to

termined by first determining the Factor listed on the F&EI form. ontributes to the development or

Hazards Factor, F 3, pick a single deration is in the most hazardous tartup, continuous operation and ed.

ple counting of hazards occurring st hazardous substance present in alysis will really be based upon a ional point involving the MF, and r.

time. If the MF is based on a ies relating to combustible dusts, ble approach might be to evaluate d a second time using the MF of and Actual Maximum Probable

ple counting of hazards occurring st hazardous substance present in alysis will really be based upon a ional point involving the MF, and r.

time. If the MF is based on a ies relating to combustible dusts, ble approach might be to evaluate d a second time using the MF of and Actual Maximum Probable

under ―Mixtures.‖ If a hybrid penalized both as a dust and as a this manual.

those that do not, determine the ber – analyze only one hazard at (e.g., startup, normal operation or Factor selected for analysis and valid as the appropriateness of the

the Fire and Explosion Index and Calculation workbook S2S June

ed, the results give an indication of used for screening out the lower risk

103.34 24.00

NFPA Health rating (Nh)

2

NFPA Flammability rating (Nf)

4

NFPA Instability rating (Ni)

2

General Process Hazards Base

1A Exothermic Reaction (range of input 0.3 - 1.25) 1B Endothermic Reaction (input range 0.2 - 0.4) 1C Material Handling and Transfer (input range 0.25 - 0.8) Enclosed or Indoor Process or storage Units handling Flammable materials

1D 1E Ease of Access for Emergency Responders 1F Drainage and Spill Control General Process Hazards Factor Base

2A Toxicity of the material handled.

1 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.20 0.10 1.80 1 0.40

Process or Storage operates at vacuum (