Family Law Project
A PROJECT REPORT ON
“CHILD MARRIAGE IN INDIA”
Submitted by, Rishabh singh, Roll no-201290 Sec-B Sem-3rd 1
CERTIFICATE I, Mr…RISHABH… with Reg.No…201290… Of …IIIrd … Semester has prepared the project on… “child marriage in india”……………………… In partial fulfilment of his/her semester course in the subject … “FAMILY LAW”……… during the academic year 2013-14 under my supervision and guidance.
Signature of faculty
I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the completion of the project. My deepest thanks to Lecturer Dr. Sudha kavuri , the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed.I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well-wishers.
INTRODUCTION Child marriage in India has become a major issue in the country like India. Child marriage, defined as marriage before age 18, devastates the lives of the girls, their families and their communities. Widespread in many countries, half of the girls are married before they turn 18. This project deals with the various areas of child marriages which takes place in India. Child marriage usually refers social phenomena practiced in some societies in India, where a young child (usually a girl below the age of fifteen) is married to an adult man. A second form of practice of child marriage is that in which the parents of the two children (the girl and boy) arrange a future marriage, in this practice, the individuals (the boy & girl) do not meet one another until they reach the marriageable age, when the wedding ceremony is performed. As per law, the marriageable age is 21 for males and 18 for females. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: This project lays emphasis on the problem of child marriage in India which is an evil to the society. Child marriage in India is practised since ancient history times. Though government have passed many act and laws to stop child marriages but still it is practised in some parts of the northern parts of the country like Rajasthan, Gujarat, etc. but still it is happening. This project has raised the hidden issue of child marriage, main reason for child marriage, negative consequences of child marriage, and negative consequences of child marriage, early childhood pregnancy and breakdown of social institution like family which result in divorce etc. SCOPE: This paper analyses the various laws in India relating to the prohibition of child marriage and the laws ruling and controlling such activities. Many suggestions and recommendations are mentioned in the project to curb the problem of child marriage in India. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The research methodology used is mainly empirical one and books and mainly the internet sources would be used as the prime source of information.
PROBLEM OF CHILD MARRIAGE The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (among other charters and conventions) all directly or indirectly forbid the degrading and mistreatment of girls inherent in child marriage. Nevertheless, child marriage is common in many parts opf the world, claiming millions of victims annually--and hundreds of thousands of injuries or death resulting from abuse or complications from pregnancy and childbirth. Facts about Child Marriage1
According to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), 100 million girls will be married before the age of 18 in the coming decade. Most will be in subSaharan Africa and the Asian Subcontinent. In Nigera, for example, 77% of women in their early 20s were married as children. In Bangladesh, 65% were. Child marriage also occurs in parts of the Middle East, including Yemen and the rural Maghreb.
In the United States, child marriage is still permissible in some states, with parental or judicial consent.
Globally, according to UNICEF, 36% of women aged 20-24 were married or in a union, forced or consensual, before they’d reached 18.
An estimated 14 million girls between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth each year. They are twice more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their 20s.
Girls who marry between the ages of 10 and 14 are five times as likely to die during pregnancy6 or childbirth as women in their early 20s.
1Pierre Tristam Child Marriage: Facts, Causes and Consequences (november 12 th 05:28 pm ) http://middleeast.about.com/od/humanrightsdemocracy/a/childbrides.htm 5
ISSUE OF CHILD MARRIAGE IN INDIA
Child marriage in India has become a major issue in the country like India. Child marriage, defined as marriage before age 18, devastates the lives of girls, their families and their communities. Widespread in many developing countries, child brides number more than 60 million worldwide. In some countries, half of the girls are married before they turn 18.’First of all we should come to know the definition of child or age of child for being restrained from marriage. According to Chid Marriage Prohibition Act, 20062 a) “Child” means a person who, if a male, has not completed twenty one year of age, and if a female, has not completed eighteen years of age ; (b) “child marriage” means a marriage to which either of the contracting parties is a child ; (c) “contracting party” to a marriage means either of the parties whose marriage is (or is about to be) thereby solemnised and (d) “minor” means a person of either sex who is under eighteen years of age. This harmful traditional practice of child marriage is most common in poor, rural communities, and its consequences only perpetuate the cycle of poverty. More often than not, child brides are pulled out of school, depriving them of an education and meaningful work. They suffer health risks associated with early sexual activity and childbearing, leading to high rates of maternal and child mortality as well as sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. And they are more likely to be victims of domestic violence, sexual abuse and social isolation. Though child marriage is entrenched in tradition and culture, change is possible. Very often, girls and their parents want to delay marriage but lack options. Governments and communities are actively working to discourage the practice by raising awareness of the adverse consequences for girls, running programs that provide girls with viable alternatives to 2 (November 12th 5:34pm)http://wcd.nic.in/cma2006.pdf 6
marriage, and demanding more effective enforcement of existing laws that condemn child marriage. With the right mix of effective programs, policies and political will, millions of girls will have the opportunity to fulfill their potential.
FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT CHILD MARRIAGE IN INDIA Percentage of girls getting married before the age of eighteen in different states is alarming Madhya Pradesh – 73% Rajasthan – 68% UP - 64% Andhra Pradesh – 71% Bihar – 67% According to UNICEF’s “State of the World’s Children-2009” report, 47% of India's women aged 20-24 were married before the legal age of 18, with 56% in rural area. As per the UNICEF (‘State of the World’s Children-2009’) report 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India.3 CAUSES OF CHILD MARRIAGE4 Child marriage has many causes: cultural, social, economic and religious. In many cases, a mixture of these causes results in the imprisonment of children in marriages without their consent.
3Rakesh Mishra, essay on stop child marriages(November 11,3:05pm) http://www.indg.in 4 Abhinav Tiwari, Essay on Child Marriage in India(November 11,4:02 pm) http://www.preservearticles.com 7
Poverty: Poor families sell their children into marriage either to settle debts or to make some money and escape the cycle of poverty. Child marriage fosters poverty, however, as it ensures that girls who marry young will not be properly educated or take part in the workforce. “Protecting” the girl's sexuality: In certain cultures, marrying a girl young presumes that the girl's sexuality, therefore the girl's family's honour, will be “protected” but ensuring that the girl marries as a virgin. The imposition of family honour on a girl’s individuality, in essence robbing the girl of her honour and dignity, undermines the credibility of family honour and instead underscores the presumed protection's actual aim: to control the girl. Gender discrimination: Child marriage is a product of cultures that devalue women and girls and discriminate against them. “The discrimination,” according to a UNICEF report on “Child Marriage and the Law,” “often manifests itself in the form of domestic violence, marital rape, and deprivation of food, lack of access to information, education, healthcare, and general impediments to mobility.” Inadequate laws: in many countries such as in India there are laws against child marriage but they are not enforced properly. Trafficking: Poor families are tempted to sell their girls not just into marriage, but into prostitution, as the transaction enables large sums of money to change hands. This thing is very common in poor village people especially of India. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS DENIED BY CHILD MARRIAGE The Convention on the Rights of the Child is designed to guarantee certain individual rights-which are abused by early marriage. Rights undermined or lost by children forced to marry early are:5
The right to an education.
The right to be protected from physical and mental violence, injury or abuse, including sexual abuse, rape and sexual exploitation.
5 Monisha Agarwal, Short Essay on Child Marriage(November 12 th , 6:00pm), http://www.shareyouressays.com 8
The right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health.
The right to rest and leisure, and to participate freely in cultural life.
The right to not be separated from parents against the child's will.
The right to protection against all forms of exploitation affecting any aspect of the child’s welfare.
The right to eventual employment.
1. Cases of child marriage has been seen critically high in states like Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. 2. Demographically and Health surveys indicate that about 38% women aged 20-24 years of age in 50 least developed countries were married below 18 years of age. 3. Married girls are many times more likely to have had unprotected sexual relations than sexually active unmarried 4. Laws governing Child marriage area) Convention on the Rights of Child b) Convention on the elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against women 5. Under the Prohibition of Child Marriages Act, whoever performs, conducts, directs or abets any child marriage is punishable with rigorous imprisonment up to two years and fine which may extend to one lakh rupees. The Act says that child marriage can be declared illegal only at the option of contracting party being a child.
6. The Ministry of Women and Children Affairs is making progress in increasing women's education and employment opportunities. This, combined with specific education about child marriage and cooperation with religious leaders, is hoped to decrease child marriage.6 MAIN FEATURES OF THE “PROHIBITION OF CHILD MARRIAGE ACT, 2006” The new Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 (hereafter PCMA) brings about far reaching changes in the law as under:• Section 3 of this Act states that “child marriages shall be voidable at the option of the contracting party who was a child at the time of the marriage.” It allows for a petition to be filed declaring the marriage void within 2 years of the child attaining majority. However, since a girl is supposed to attain majority at the age of 18 and a boy at the age of 21, the girl can file a petition till she becomes 20 years of age and a boy till he becomes 23 years of age. • The Act also allows for maintenance and residence for the girl till her remarriage from the male contracting party or his parents. • It further allows for appropriate orders for custody for any child born from the marriage. • All the punishments for contracting a child marriage have been enhanced. The punishment for a male over 18 years of age has been enhanced to rigorous imprisonment of up to 2 years or with a fine up to Rs. 1 lakh or both. • A similar punishment is prescribed for anyone who performs, conducts, directs or abets any child marriage. • The same punishment is also prescribed for anyone who solemnizes a child marriage including by promoting such a marriage, permitting it to be solemnized or negligently failing to prevent the marriage. No woman can however be punished with imprisonment. The Act also makes all offences cognizable and non-bailable.
6Lig reporter, child marriage laws in India(November 12 th 06:57pm) www.lawisgreek.com 10
• The Act further allows for injunctions to prohibit child marriages including ex parte interim injunctions. It states that any child marriage solemnized in contravention of an injunction order will be void.7 The Rukhmabai case in Maharashtra and Phulmonee case in Bengal as they are popularly known raised significant questions about the age and issue of consent in Hindu marriage. Both the cases marked the tension between the Hindu orthodoxy on one hand that upheld child marriage and perceived any opposition to it as an affront to tradition and social reformers opposing such religious bigotry on the other hand. For the latter such blind adherence to social norms meant the continuation of harmful practices in the name of tradition and therefore necessitated immediate challenge of such socially sanctioned practices including child marriage. While the debate on child marriage is often understood as a tradition-modernity dichotomy, it is also important to bring to the fore the struggle by women themselves in these cases to challenge patriarchal values and practices, albeit in their limited ways.
ANALYSIS OF THE RUKHMABAI CASE The case of Rukhmabai dates back to 1884 when twenty two year old Rukhmabai refused to consummate her marriage solemnized at the age of eleven. Rukhmabai was eleven years when she was married to Dadaji Bhikaji, a poor cousin of her stepfather Sakharam Arjun. On reaching puberty few months after her marriage, the expected ritual was that of garbhadhan or the ritual consummation of the marriage. However, such early consummation was not encouraged by Sakharam and so Rukhmabai remained at her natal home and continued to study. Rukhmabai’s husband was a man of questionable character and within a few years’ time, she realized that she did not want to remain in this marriage. After eleven years of the unconsummated marriage, Dadaji filed a case for restitution of conjugal rights, a British law incorporated into the colonial legal system by which either of the spouses could demand for the union with his or her spouse when either party was as living apart without adequate reason. Rukhmabai steadfastly refused and defied the Privy Council’s order to ‘return’ to her husband, stating that she preferred courting imprisonment for violating orders than remaining 7 Manish malhotra, child-marriage-in-india-policy (November 10,05:25pm) legalperspectives.blogspot.com/ 11
in a marriage that she did not want. Her argument that she cannot be compelled to be tied in a marriage that was conducted at an age when she was incapable of giving consent was an argument hitherto unheard of and unimaginable. Rukhmabai’s struggle against indigenous patriarchal customs was not confined to her personal resistance only. She wrote in the Times of India under the pseudonym of A Hindu Lady attacking institutions of infant marriage and forced widowhood. While critics of infant marriage still considered early marriage as essential to hindu shastric norms suggesting a raised age of 12 years, for Rukhmabai the minimum age of marriage should be 15 years. In 1891, the age of marriage rose to 12 years from 10 years. While Rukhmabai had an out of court settlement with Dadaji, the case became a landmark in colonial India for raising issues of consent and choice of women in marriage.
The Phulmonee case summary In 1890, eleven year old Phulmonee died of marital rape by her twenty nine year old husband Hari Maiti. Her mother Radhamonee’s account of seeing her daughter lying in blood and succumbing to the injuries of forced intercourse paved the ground for the age of consent debate. Hindu norms mandated sexual intercourse on men when their child wives attain puberty and the colonial law only penalized marital rape when then the child wife was under the age of ten. Since Phulomonee was older, Hari Maiti was not accused of marital rape and murder and charged for rash acts.However, this case pushed the colonial government to raise the age of consent for marriage of girls to twelve. More importantly this case raised questions whether families or communities had the right to inflict pain or suffering on women using the plea of tradition. Both these cases paved the ground for not only raising the age of marriage of girls but more importantly confront issues of choice and consent of women in marriage. These cases in the 19th century were precursors to later discussions and legal interventions on child marriages in 20th century in India.8 Case: Smt. Parayankandiyal Eravath Kanapravan Kalliani Amma and others Vs.K. Devi and others9 8 sanhati.com/excerpted/2207/ 9 Smt. Parayankandiyal ... vs K. Devi & Ors on 26 April,: 1996 AIR 1963, 1996 SCC (4) 76 12
CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT BY CHILD MARRIAGE PROHIBITION ACT,2006 1. Old Child Marriage Act, 1929 did not affect the validity of marriage.
2. New Act of 2006 makes it voidable and void in some cases.
3. This being secular piece of legislation applies all the religions
in India and is a very good
step towards enactment of U.C.C.
4. Section 3 of the new Act terms it ‘voidable’ and is at the option of the party/minor child to decide.
5. Section 12 of the new Act terms it ‘Void’ when it is done by enticing or taking away of child from the lawful custody of Parents or Guardian. The Act lays emphasis on the prohibition of child marriages by providing for the appointment of Child Marriage Prohibition Officers by the State Governments and gives powers to these Officers to prevent and prosecute solemnization of child marriages and to create awareness on the issue. However without the required financial allocations these Officers will probably not get appointed. The Act gives the District Magistrate powers to stop and prevent solemnization of mass child marriages by employing appropriate measures and minimum police force apart from giving him all the powers of the Child Marriage Prohibition Officer. The marriage of a minor girl often takes place because of the poverty and indebtedness of her family. Dowry becomes an additional reason, which weighs even more heavily on poorer families. The general demand for younger brides also creates an incentive for these families to marry the girl child as early as possible to avoid high dowry payments for older girls.
Young brides face the risk of sexual and reproductive ill health because of their exposure to early sexual activity and pregnancy. The NFHS-2 had recorded that only 4% of married girls practiced gauna. It had further been recorded that the period between marriage and gauna had been reduced to about one year in most cases. The NFHS-3 figures show that the practice has been further restricted to 0.7% married girls. Complications and mortality are common during childbirth for young pregnant girls. Girls who come from poor backgrounds and who are often married at an early age have little or no access to health care services. Risks associated with young pregnancy and childbearing include “an increased risk of premature labour, complications during delivery, low birth-weight, and a higher chance that the new born will not survive.” Young mothers under age 15 are five times more likely to die than women in their twenties due to complications including haemorrhage, sepsis, preeclampsia/ eclampsia and obstructed labour.16 Maternal mortality amongst adolescent girls is estimated to be two to five times higher than adult women. Child marriage most often occurs in poor, rural communities. In many regions, parents arrange their daughter’s marriage unbeknownst to the girl. That can mean that one day, she may be at home playing with her siblings, and the next, she is married off and sent to live in another village with her husband and his family – strangers, essentially. She is pulled out of school. She is separated from her peers. And once married, she is more likely to be a victim of domestic violence and suffer health complications associated with early sexual activity and childbearing. Under British rule European scholars observed in the 19th century that Hindu women are “naturally chaste” and “more virtuous” than other women. During the British Raj, many reformers such as Ram Mohan Roy,Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Jyotirao Phule etc. fought for the upliftment of women. Peary Charan Sarkar, a former student of Hindu College, Calcutta and a member of “Young Bengal” set up the first free school for girls in India in 1847 in Barasat, a suburb of Calcutta While this list might suggest that there was no positive British contribution during the Raj era, that is not entirely so, since missionaries' wives like Martha Mault née Mead and her daughter Eliza Caldwell née Mault are rightly remembered for pioneering the education and training of 14
girls in south India - a practise that initially met with local resistance, as it flew in the face of tradition. Raja Rammohan Roy’s efforts led to the abolition of the Sati practice under Governor-General William Cavendish-Bentinck in 1829. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's crusade for the improvement in condition of widows led to the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856. Many women reformers such as Pandita Ramabai also helped the cause of women upliftment. Kittur Chennamma, the queen of the princely state Kittur in Karnataka led an armed rebellion against the British in response to the Doctrine of lapse. Abbakka Rani the queen of coastal Karnataka led the defence against invading European armies notably the Portuguese in 16th century. Rani Lakshmi Bai, the Queen of Jhansi, led the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British. She is now widely considered as a nationalist hero. Begum Hazrat Mahal, the co-ruler of Awadh, was another ruler who led the revolt of 1857. She refused the deals with the British and later retreated to Nepal. The Begums of Bhopal were also few of the notable female rulers during this period. They did not observe purdah and were trained in martial arts. Chandramukhi Basu, Kadambini Ganguly and Anandi Gopal Joshi were few of the earliest Indian women to obtain educational degrees. In 1917, the first women's delegation met the Secretary of State to demand women's political rights, supported by the Indian National Congress. The All India Women's Education Conference was held in Pune in 1927. In 1929, the Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed, stipulating fourteen as the minimum age of marriage for a girl through the efforts of Mahomed Ali Jinnah. Though Mahatma Gandhi himself married at the age of thirteen, he later urged people to boycott child marriages and called upon the young men to marry the child widows. Women played an important part in India's independence struggle. Some of the famous freedom fighters include Bhikaji Cama, Dr. Annie Besant, Pritilata Waddedar, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kriplani and Kasturba Gandhi. Other notable names include Muthulakshmi Reddy, Durgabai Deshmukh etc. The Rani of Jhansi Regiment of Subhash Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army consisted entirely of women including Captain Lakshmi Sahgal. Sarojini Naidu, a poet and a freedom fighter, was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to become the governor of a state in India.
CHILD MARRIAGE PROHIBITION OFFICER (1) The State Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint for the whole State or such part thereof as may be specified in that notification, an officer or officers to be known as the Child Marriage Prohibition Officer having jurisdiction over the area or areas specified in the notification (2) The State Government may also request a respectable member of the locality with a record of social service or an officer of the Gram Panchayat or Municipality or an officer of the Government or any public sector undertaking or an office bearer of any nongovernmental organisation to assist the Child Marriage Prohibition Officer and such member, officer or office bearer, as the case may be, shall be bound to act accordingly. (3) It shall be the duty of the Child Marriage Prohibition Officer(a) to prevent solemnisation of child marriages by taking such action as he may deem fit (b) to collect evidence for the effective prosecution of persons contravening the provisions of this Act; (c) to advise either individual cases or counsel the residents of the locality generally not to indulge in promoting, helping, aiding or allowing the solemnisation of child marriages; (d) to create awareness of the evil which results from child marriages; (e) to sensitize the community on the issue of child marriages; (f) to furnish such periodical returns and statistics as the State Government may direct; and (g) to discharge such other functions and duties as may be assigned to him by the State Government. (4) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, subject to such conditions and limitations, invest the Child Marriage Prohibition Officer with such powers of a police officer as may be specified in the notification and the Child Marriage Prohibition Officer shall exercise such powers subject to such conditions and limitations, as may be specified in the notification. (5) The Child Marriage Prohibition Officer shall have the power to move the Court for an order under sections 4, 5 and 13 and along with the child under section 3.
Amendment of Act No. 25 of 1955.- In the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, in section 18, for clause (a), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:- “(a) in the case of contravention of the condition specified in clause (iii) of section 5, with rigorous imprisonment which may extend to two years or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both”.
PUNISHMENT FOR VIOLATION OF CHILD MARRIAGE RESTRAINT ACT, 1929 Under the Child Marriage Restraint Act, the scope of penalty for different parties to the child marriage is:
Punishment to Parent or guardian: In most cases, a child marriage is instigated by the parents or guardians. The punishment for these parties may extend up to three months imprisonment. They may be also subjected to a fine. The penalty is valid even if the parent/guardian has not consented to the marriage, but fails to take adequate measures to prevent it.
Punishment to the Party who solemnizes child marriage: This implies anyone who performs or conducts a child marriage ceremony, such as a priest. The penalty in this case is three months imprisonment and a fine. The party may, however, escape liability if he proves he was unaware that the bride and bridegroom were minors.
Punishment to the Bridegroom: If the bridegroom above 21 years is marrying a minor, he may be imprisoned for up to three months, and may have to pay a fine as well. However, if the bride is below 21, but above 18, the maximum duration of imprisonment is 15 days.
CHILD MARRIAGE LAWS IN INDIA: A FINAL WORD From the scope of penalties in the Child Marriage Restraint Act it is evident that the existing laws are not strict enough. Considering that the last revision to the act took place over three decades ago, it is high time that the Government of India pays serious attention to this issue. The government created the “National Plan of Action for Children” in 2005, claiming to eliminate child marriage entirely by 2010. However, we’ve entered 2010 and the issue continues to subsist.
Alarmingly, child marriage cases are not only found in the rural regions of the nation, and also in some developed cities of states like Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. The problem of child marriage is not localised it is common and still widespread in many parts of the developing country. The problem of child marriage is a matter of supreme concern as the children who are the futures of tomorrow are if burdened with marital responsibilities at very tender age they are not able to prosper and concentrate on their aim of life. It leads to the degradation of not only the community but the whole nation as a whole. Laws are there but it is high time that educated people like we and us should come forward and stop this. Even in many cases the police officers are invited in such marriages and they could be seen enjoying in such ceremonies and giving blessings to the newly wed. It’s high time if we want the development of our country as a whole we have to come forward and stop this.
CONCLUSION I am in favour of most proposals (though I simply cannot conceive the consequences of the reduction in age for marriage of boys to 18 years). However one significant fact which arises upon an evaluation of this Report is its lack of consideration of the Muslim personal laws wherein the age of marriage of girl is the age when she attains puberty. Since the proposal is keen to envisage all girls to be married only after they attain 16 and there is no qualification as to Muslim girls, it would imply that these provisions are applicable across the board to all girls in India, irrespective of the religion or cultural ethos they come from. This makes this proposal the first in line with the cherished idea of a ‘Uniform Civil Code’which forms a controversial element in the ‘Directive Principles of State Policy’ under the Constitution of India. Though most critiques would jump at the Report for various recommendations it makes (and on the lighter side, I have already seen various funny caricatures on the age of boys for marriage reduced to 18 years), it’s a progressive piece of advice which the Commission has meted out to the Government and the only item on the agenda which remains to be performed is when (and if at all) the Government decides to translate these proposals into laws.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bare Acts: 1. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act,2006 2. Child Marriage Restrain Act,1929
WEBSITES REFFERED 1. www.lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/reports/report205.pdf 2. www.cis.uchicago.edu/.../081118-Shulman_India-BackgroundReading.pdf 3. www.lawisgreek.com/child-marriage-laws-in-india.com 4. www.social.un.org/index.com 5. www.childlineindia.org.in