Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Specially Focus on-COLGATE
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1. INTRODUCTION Theoretical knowledge is the product of practical knowledge. However, the extent that the knowledge can understand is greatly limited because it doest not come with experience. The academic knowledge is not well enough to complete with real world. It was a great opportunity to experience of practical related work to an appraisal of Colgate toothpaste Company.
Though we are the student of school of business in under graduate program (Bachelor of Business Administration) We have to do innovate our potentiality to develop our skill in various sources such as Report making, preparing financial statement of different kinds of organization. It is our academic part to prepare a report on “Factors influencing consumer behavior specially focuses on Colgate toothpaste” that’s why we prepare it.
It enhances our knowledge base. It gives us a broad idea about marketing analysis.
1.3. Scope of the report Today's business world is a place of challenge. Challenge and problem can come from anywhere & anytime. Marketing prepare people to cope with the competition.
1.4. Objective of the Report 1.4.1 Broad Objective: To identify the factor those influence the consumer behavior to buy a product or service.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives: The broader objective may be broken down into further specific objectives enlisted as follows:
To know the using time of Colgate tooth paste
To find the price suitability based on the economic situation of Bangladesh
To find the people opinion about the advertisement of Colgate up tooth paste
to identify the situation of 'Colgate up Crystal'
To see how efficiently Colgate up manages their trends of business.
Recommend the steps to be followed to increase the popularity & business.
Methodology of the Study
1.5.1. Type of research We research it in a descriptive way. 1.5.2. Sources of data 22.214.171.124 Primary data: Primary data means first hand data. The data which is collected through observation, questionnaire, interview, telephonic talk etc is called primary data. 126.96.36.199 Secondary data: Secondary data is such kind of data which is already collected by others. 1.5.3. Data collection procedure: 188.8.131.52 Secondary data: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Internet, Annual report of Colgate toothpaste etc. 184.108.40.206 Primary data: Marketing expatriate, by monitoring a survey, personal investigation, academic learning, questionnaire etc. 1.5.4 Questionnaire: There are fourteen questions are included in the questionnaire. It is prepared not open-ended but close ended. 1.5.5 Sampling plan 220.127.116.11. Population: The total set of observation of numerical characteristics under study is called population. The size of population 50 and the people whose age is 15-30. 18.104.22.168. Sample element/units: Representative part of population is called sample element.
22.214.171.124. Sample frame: There is no well structured sample frame is found. 126.96.36.199. Sampling procedure: The process of selection of sample is called sampling procedure. In sampling method instead of every unit of the population only a part of population is studied & the calculations are drown on that basis for the entire population. There are two sampling procedure this are probability & non-probability. Here we used probability sampling procedure. 188.8.131.52. Sample size: Total unit of sample. In this report the sample size is 50. 1.6. Limitations: As result there some limitations in collecting information and conducting the report. The limitations are follows: The collection of data from person to person is a difficult task.
Lack of interest of people to join with this survey.
The limitation of time is a big factor of this survey. The lack of experience to do work in SPSS Software at first time. Financial problem.
02. Overview of the Company/Company profile 2.1. Back ground:
Toothpaste has a history that stretches back nearly 4,000 years. Until the mid-nineteenth century, abrasives used to clean teeth did not resemble modern toothpastes. People were primarily concerned with cleaning stains from their teeth and used harsh, sometimes toxic ingredients to meet that goal. Ancient Egyptians used a mixture of green lead, verdigris (the green crust that forms on certain metals like copper or brass when exposed to salt water or air), and incense. Ground fish bones were used by the early Chinese. In the middle Ages, fine sand and pumice were the primary ingredients in teeth-cleaning formulas used by Arabs. Arabs realized that using such harsh abrasives harmed the enamel of the teeth. Concurrently, however, Europeans used strong acids to lift stains. In western cultures, similarly corrosive mixtures were widely used until the twentieth century. Table salt was also used to clean teeth. In 1850, Dr. Washington Wentworth Sheffield, a dental surgeon and chemist, invented the first toothpaste. He was 23 years old and lived in New London, Connecticut. Dr. Sheffield had been using his invention, which he called Crème Dentifrice, in his private practice. The positive response of his patients encouraged him to market the paste. He constructed a laboratory to improve his invention and a small factory to manufacture it. Modern toothpaste was invented to aid in the removal foreign particles and food substances, as well as cleans the teeth. When originally marketed to consumers, toothpaste was packaged in jars. Chalk was commonly used as the abrasive in the early part of the twentieth century. Sheffield Labs claims it was the first company to put toothpaste in tubes. Washington Wentworth Sheffield's son, Lucius, studied in Paris, France, in the late nineteenth century. Lucius noticed the collapsible metal tubes being used for paints. He thought putting the jarpackaged dentifrice in these tubes would be a good idea. Needless to say, it was adopted for toothpaste, as well as other pharmaceutical uses. The Colgate-Palmolive Company also asserts that it sold the first toothpaste in a collapsible tube in 1896. The product was called Colgate Ribbon Dental Crème. In 1934, in the United States, toothpaste standards were developed by the American Dental Association's Council on Dental Therapeutics. They rated products on the following scale: Accepted, Unaccepted, or Provisionally Accepted. The next big milestone in toothpaste development happened in the mid-twentieth century (1940-60, depending on source). After studies proving fluoride aided in protection from tooth decay, many toothpastes were reformulated to include sodium fluoride. Fluoride's
effectiveness was not universally accepted. Some consumers wanted fluoride-free toothpaste, as well as artificial sweetener-free toothpaste. The most commonly used artificial sweetener is saccharin. The amount of saccharin used in toothpaste is minuscule. Companies like Tom's of Maine responded to this demand by manufacturing both fluoridated and non-fluoridated toothpastes, and toothpastes without artificial sweetening.
Chairman,, is the chief of Colgate Group of Companies Ltd. One Managing Director (M. D.) and four other Directors are functioning under him. The four directors are: Director of Sales & Marketing, Director of Procurement, Director of Finance & Accounts, and Director of Administration (Human Resources Department). The organizational hierarchy is: Chairman
Director (Sales and Marketing)
National Sales Manager
2. 2 Vision: To strive towards excellence and leadership in manufacturing of quality toothpaste affordable to all to continue to unfold products on the threshold of latest technology and to satisfy customers need at all time with impeccable quality service through optimizing its resources in order to achieve high productivity and quality.
2.3. Mission: Improve the quality of life by bringing essential products within the reach of the common people. To continuously develop and market high technology products, which offer value and bring delight to our esteemed customers by creating a competitive advantage through innovation, cost structure and customer relationships. Skilled professionals, prudent human resource management and excellent service and delivery systems will adequately support these initiatives.
2.4. Goal: Its goal is to-•
Continually set the highest standards of customer satisfaction in our country
Secure the strongest competitive position in our markets
Be recognized as an employer of first choice.
2.7. Company SWOT analysis A name synonymous with the Indian oral care industry, Colgate, is the undisputed market leader in toothpastes with over 45% share in the Rs 21 bn (90,000 TPA) oral care segment.
The company’s parent has a presence in over 200 countries worldwide. In India, Colgate ranks No.1 in top of the mind recall in many consumer surveys.
subsidiary and has a presence in India since last 50 years. The company’s flagship product, Colgate Dental Cream is the largest selling toothpaste in India, with an estimated market share of over 30%. The company acquired Hindustan Ciba Geigy (Cibaca) in the year 1994, which helped it increase its market share. The company also has a significant marketshare in the toothbrush category. This and shaving brushes accounted for 10% of its FY04 revenues. The toothpaste segment can be divided into two broad categories: White’s, which accounts for a dominant share of the Indian oral care market. Gels are estimated to be only about 15% plus of the market. Colgate is considerably backward integrated. It has captive manufacturing facilities for flavor and other ingredients, which yield significant cost savings. It has also set up a world-class facility for manufacture of Di-calcium Phosphate, a key ingredient in toothpaste.
The Potential As per our estimates, 12.2% of the total world population lives in rural India. Currently, only a small portion (about 15%-20%) of region has been tapped. Although, expansion in rural areas requires huge investments, it is a market that cannot be overlooked and has huge potential. To put things in perspective, the per capita consumption of toothpaste in India is only 82 gms, as compared to 262 gms for Thailand, 376 gms for Mexico and 518 gms for USA (Source: Colgate, Equitymaster Research). In India, urban per capita consumption
Competition The Company has been facing immense competition from organised as well as unorganised players. HLL is the closet rival of Colgate with a share of 34% with its Pepsodent and Closeup (gel where ithas a lion’s share) brands. The latest entrant in the organised sector is LG that has ventured into the FMCG market and launched premium consumer products across 8
categories including toothpastes, shampoos, soaps, detergents, etc. Also, there has been speculation from sometime now that P&G (its worldwide rival) would debut its billion-dollarplus toothpaste brand Crest in India. This could intensify competition in the segment.
Concerns The Company has high reliance on a single category (Oral Care), which accounts for 94% of its sales and 98% of its profits (FY04). A large part of the company’s product folio consists of premium products, which do not have a large potential market in India. This is evident as new launches by the parent in India have been much lower than other markets. In the last couple of
years, the company’s top line has stopped growing and in order to achieve growth, Colgate cut prices of its products by an average 17% in April 2003 (Source: Company Annual Report). The company has been able to increase its margins by continuously cutting advertising expenses, which cannot go below a certain point, owing to its single product dependence.
STRENGTHS Strong financial performance Focus on innovation and new product launches Colgate business planning initiative
WEAKNESSES Product recalls Highly leveraged
OPPORTUNITIES Emerging markets growth Deploying advance technologies Growing Hispanic population in the US Specialty pet nutrition growth
THREATS Competitive landscape from other CPGs Private label growth Increasing commodity prices Falling consumer confidence in the US
Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by or there are four factors. 01. Cultural Factor 02. Social Factor, 03. Personal Factor, 04. Psychological Factor,
01. Cultural Factor:Cultural factor divided into three sub factors (i) Culture (ii) Sub Culture (iii) Social Class ** Culture:*** Culture has a great influence on the behavior of a consumer. Because people learn from the society. If the culture of a country can not suggest to use toothpaste or Colgate is a good quality toothpaste then people will not buy this. Sub Culture:*** If the experiences of the group says that Colgate is a bad toothpaste then people will not buy this product.. Social Class:*** If the social class of people is low or much high then people do not buy Colgate toothpaste. 02. Social Factors:A consumer's behavior also is influenced by social factors, such as the (i) Groups (ii) Family (iii) Roles and status ** Groups:***Sometimes groups make the choices of an individual. Family:*** In context of Bangladesh if the head of family choice Pepsodent rather than Colgate, so the family can not use other paste. So we can say that family has a influence on the consumer behavior. Roles and Status:*** Lower-lower and Upper-Upper people will not buy same product. Because they have different roles and status in the society. 03. Personal Factors:It includes i. Age and life cycle stage (ii) Occupation (iii) Economic situation, (iv) Life style, (v) Personality and self concept. ** Age and Life cycle Stage:*** Children and old do not want to use toothpaste where the very older has no teeth and children likes taste. So age has the influence on consumer behavior. Occupation:-
*** A doctor is always conscious about their health where a student has not same consciousness. And also the choice and buying capacity of a product is depends on their occupation. It varies according to their jobs category Economic situation:*** A person's economic situation will affect product choice Life Style:*** Life Style is a person's Pattern of living, understanding these forces involves measuring consumer's major AIO dimensions. i.e. activities (Work, hobbies, shopping, support etc) interest (Food, fashion, family recreation) and opinions (about themselves, Business, Products) Personality and Self concept:*** Choice of a product depends on the personality and the self concept of an individual. Personality depends on the status and self concept depends on the perception. 04. Psychological Factors:It includes these Factors. i) Motivation (ii) Perception (iii) Learning (iv) Beliefs and attitudes · Motivation:o Company must take some motivated activities to persuade the customer. ExAdvertising, give some free etc. · Perception:o The process by which people select, Organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world. The company must try to create the positive perception on the mind of individual. · Learning:o Perception filters a thing and then take decision it should be taken or not. It means perception fiter the knowledge and give the shape of learning. · Beliefs and attitudes:o Belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. So company always try to make belief through making reliability. o Attitude, a Person's consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies towards an object or idea
Factors influencing consumer behavior Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by or there are four factors. 01. Cultural Factor 02. Social Factor, 03. Personal Factor, 04. Psychological Factor, 01. Cultural Factor:-
Cultural factor divided into three sub factors (i) Culture (ii) Sub Culture (iii) Social Class ** Culture:*** The set of basic values perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions. Culture is the most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. Sub Culture:*** A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. Each culture contains smaller sub cultures a group of people with shared value system based on common life experiences and situations. Sub culture includes nationalities, religions, racial group and geographic regions. Many sub culture make up important market segments and marketers often design products. Social Class:*** Almost every society has some form of social structure; social classes are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests and behavior. 02. Social Factors:A consumer's behavior also is influenced by social factors, such as the (i) Groups (ii) Family (iii) Roles and status ** Groups:*** Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals. A person's behaviors are influenced by many small groups. Groups that have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are called membership groups. Some are primary groups includes family, friends, neighbors and coworkers. Some are secondary groups, which are more formal and have less regular interaction. These include organizations like religious groups, professional association and trade unions. Family:*** Family members can strongly influence buyer behavior. The family is the most important consumer buying organization society and it has been researched extensively. Marketers are interested in the roles, and influence of the husband, wife and children on the purchase of different products and services. Roles and Status:*** A person belongs to many groups, family, clubs, and organizations. The person's position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status. For an example, M & "X" plays the role of father, in his family he plays the role of husband, in his company, he plays the role of manager, etc. A Role consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.
03. Personal Factors:It includes ii. Age and life cycle stage (ii) Occupation (iii) Economic situation, (iv) Life style, (v) Personality and self concept. ** Age and Life cycle Stage:*** People change the goods and services they buy over their lifetimes. Tastes in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation are often age related. Buying is also shaped by the stage of the family life cycle. Occupation:*** A person's occupation affects the goods and services bought. Blue collar workers tend to buy more rugged work clothes, whereas white-collar workers buy more business suits. A Co. can even specialize in making products needed by a given occupational group. Thus, computer software companies will design different products for brand managers, accountants, engineers, lawyers, and doctors. Economic situation:*** A person's economic situation will affect product choice Life Style:*** Life Style is a person's Pattern of living, understanding these forces involves measuring consumer's major AIO dimensions. i.e. activities (Work, hobbies, shopping, support etc) interest (Food, fashion, family recreation) and opinions (about themselves, Business, Products) Personality and Self concept:*** Each person's distinct personality influences his or her buying behavior. Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one's own environment. 04. Psychological Factors:It includes these Factors. i) Motivation (ii) Perception (iii) Learning (iv) Beliefs and attitudes · Motivation:o Motive (drive) a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need · Perception:o The process by which people select, Organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world. · Learning:-
o Changes in an individuals behavior arising from experience. · Beliefs and attitudes:o Belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something o Attitude, a Person's consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies towards an object or idea. 3.3 The Marketing Mix (The 4Ps of Marketing) The set of controllable tactical marketing tools-product, price, place, and promotionthat the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. A. Product: Product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. Example: Packaging, New-product development, Product naming, logos, Trademarks, Product quality, Product warranties, Product servicing after sale. B. Price: The amount of money charged for a product or service, or the sum of the values that consumer exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service. Example: Price level changes, Payment terms, and Published prices, Trade discounts. C. Place: It includes company activities that make the product available to target consumers. Example: forward vertical integration, Channel selection Concentration, Channel supports, Customer service, Inventory & ware housing issues, Direct Marketing, Personal selling.
D. Promotion: Promotion is the coordination of all seller-initiated efforts to set up channels of information and persuasion to sell goods and services or to promote an idea. Example: Brand positioning, Advertising spending level, Chosen media, Schedules, Creative thinking, Sales promotion, Publicity. Page -17
Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. The marketing mix consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its products.
3.1: Four Ps of marketing
3.4 Sellers and Buyers View In marketing mix the four Ps represent the sellers' view of the marketing tools available for influencing buyers. From a buyer's point of view, each marketing tool is designed to deliver a customer benefit. Thus, while marketers see themselves as selling products, customers see themselves as buying value of solutions to their problems. And customers are interested in more than just the price; they are interested in the total costs of obtaining, using, and disposing of a product. Customers want the products and services to be as conveniently available as possible. Finally, they want two way communications. Marketing is all about getting the right product at the right place at the right time, at the right price, using the right promotion to attract customer who will purchase products and services. Marketers would do well to think through the four Cs first and then build four Ps on that platform. Robert Lauterborn suggested that the sellers' four Ps correspond to the customers' four Cs.
Four Ps Seller’s view Product Price
Four Cs Buyer’s view Customer solution Customer cost
Winning companies will be those who can meet customer needs economically and conveniently and with effective communication. It is important for an establishment to identify its target market before attempting to blend marketing tools to create a marketing mix. 3.5 Brand A name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. Example: Volvo (safety), Hallmark (caring), Lexus (quality). Product Category
Existing Existing Line extension
New Brand Extension New Brands
Figure3.2: Brand Development Strategies.
• A brand is a complex symbol that can convey up to six levels of meaning __
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Attributes. Benefits. Values. Culture. Personality.
Analysis & Findings:
Every toothpaste contains the following ingredients: binders, abrasives, sudsers, humectants, flavors (unique additives), sweeteners, fluorides, tooth whiteners, a preservative, and water. Binders thicken toothpastes. They prevent separation of the solid and liquid components, especially during storage. They also affect the speed and volume of foam production, the rate of flavor release and product dispersal, the appearance of the toothpaste ribbon on the toothbrush, and the rinsibility from the toothbrush.
methylcellulose, carrageenan, and magnesium aluminum silicate. Abrasives scrub the outside of the teeth to get rid of plaque and loosen particles on teeth. Abrasives also contribute to the degree of opacity of the paste or gel. Abrasives may affect the paste's consistency, cost, and taste. Some abrasives are more
harsh than others, sometimes resulting in unnecessary damage to the tooth enamel. The most commonly used abrasives are hydrated silica (softened silica), calcium carbonate (also known as chalk), and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). Other abrasives include dibasic calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, tricalcium phosphate, and sodium metaphosphate hydrated alumina. Each abrasive also has slightly different cleaning properties, and a combination of them might be used in the final product. Sudsers, also known as foaming agents, are surfactants. They lower the surface tension of water so that bubbles are formed. Multiple bubbles together make foam. Sudsers help in removing particles from teeth. Sudsers are usually a combination of an organic alcohol or a fatty acid with an alkali metal. Common sudsers are sodium
lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfoacetate, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, sulfolaurate, sodium lauryl sarcosinate, sodium stearyl fumarate, and sodium stearyl lactate. Humectants retain water to maintain the paste in toothpaste. Humectants keep the solid and liquid phases of toothpaste together. They also can add a coolness and/or sweetness to the toothpaste; this makes toothpaste feel pleasant in the mouth when used. Most toothpastes use sorbitol or glycerin as humectants. Propylene glycol can also be used as a humecant. Toothpastes have flavors to make them more palatable. Mint is the most common flavor used because it imparts a feeling of freshness. This feeling of freshness is the result of long term conditioning by the toothpaste industry. The American public associates mint with freshness. There may be a basis for this in fact; mint flavors contain oils that volatize in the mouth's warm environment. This volatizing action imparts a cooling sensation in the mouth. The most common toothpaste flavors are spearmint, peppermint, wintergreen, and cinnamon. Some of the more exotic toothpaste flavors include bourbon, rye, anise, clove, caraway, coriander, eucalyptus, nutmeg, and thyme. In addition to flavors, toothpastes contain sweeteners to make it pleasant to the palate because of humecants. The most commonly used humectants (sorbitol and glycerin) have a sweetness level about 60% of table sugar. They require an artificial flavor to make the toothpaste palatable. Saccharin is the most common sweetener used, though some toothpastes contain ammoniated diglyzzherizins and/or aspartame. Fluorides reduce decay by increasing the strength of teeth. Sodium fluoride is the most commonly used fluoride. Sodium perborate is used as a tooth whitening ingredient. Most toothpastes contain the preservative p-hydrozybenzoate. Water is also used for dilution purposes.
The Manufacturing Process Weighing and mixing •
After transporting the raw materials into the factory, the ingredients are both manually and mechanically weighed. This ensures accuracy in the ingredients' proportions. Then the ingredients are mixed together. Usually, the glycerinwater mixture is done first. All the ingredients are mixed together in the mixing vat. The temperature and humidity of vat are watched closely. This is important to ensuring that the mix comes together correctly. A commonly used vat in the toothpaste industry mixes a batch that is the equivalent of 10,000 four-ounce (118 ml) tubes.
Filling the tubes •
Before tubes are filled with toothpaste the tube itself passes under a blower and a vacuum to ensure cleanliness. Dust and particles are blown out in this step. The tube is capped, and the opposite end is opened so the filling machine can load the paste. After the ingredients are mixed together, the tubes are filled by the filling machine. To make sure the tube is aligned correctly, an optical device rotates the tube. Then the tube is filled by a descending pump. After it is filled, the end is sealed (or crimped) closed. The tube also gets a code stamped on it indicating where and when it was manufactured.
Packaging and shipment • •
After tubes are filled, they are inserted into open paperboard boxes. Some companies do this by hand. The boxes are cased and shipped to warehouses and stores.
Each batch of ingredients is tested for quality as it is brought into the factory. The testing lab also checks samples of final product.
Chart no. 1 How many years do you perchase toothpaste?
1 year 2year 3year More
Figure: 4.1 Purchase of toothpaste We observed among 50 people that how long they have been using it. From the above pie chart we have seen that 25 people use it below three years long.So we can say that if it wants to keep up the customers on it’s hand,then it have to take promotional step.
Chart no. 2 Bar Chart You feel better using 'Close-up Crystal'
Neutral Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 31.00
t n u o C
Figure 4.2.Agree and disagree of toothpaste. Here we see that male 8 out of 12 said disagree, 3 out of 5 said strongly disagree. Another side female 5 out of 8 said agree, 4 out of 12 said disagree\, 3 out of 4 said strongly agree
Chart:-3 Here we see that male 9 out of 14 said agree, 1 out of 4 said disagree. 2 out of 1 said strongly disagree. Another side female 5 out of 14 said agree, 4 out of 5 said disagree, 2 out of 2 said strongly agree. 1 out of 3 said strongly disagree.
Bar Chart New 'Stand up tube' is not attracted by you
Agree Disagree Neutral
t n u o C
Chart:- 4 Most High Branded 40 consumers were asked to answer,” Which brand do you purchase?” 45% of them answered Colgate, 23% answered Close up, 15% answered Harbal, 10 % answered Meswake, 5 % answered Pepsodent and the rest of 2 % answered others. From these responses, it is clear that Colgate brands have the strongest place in consumers’ mind.
High Brand Image
23% Colgate Meswake
Close up Pepsodent
Figure: Product that has the Highest Brand Image
Most Attractive Outlook Others Pepsodent Meswake Herbal
2% 5% 10% 15%
Close up Colgate
23% 45% Series1
Figure: Brands of Most Attractive Outlook Here, out of 40 respondents 45% think that Colgate has the most attractive look. Chart-6 Most important factor
Psychologic al 36%
Cultural 16% Social 16% Personal 32%
Cultural Social Personal Psychological
Here, out of 50 respondents 36% says that Psychological, 32% personal, 16% social and cultural factor is important. So we can easily say that Psychological factor is the most important factor.
Chart-7 Most influe ntial cultura l fa ctor
Social class 48%
Culture Sub-culture Social class
Here, out of 50 respondents 48% think that social class is the most influential cultural factor that influences the consumer greatly. Chart-8 Most affected social factor
Groups 20% Roles & Status 40%
Groups Family Roles & Status Family 40%
Here, out of 50 respondents 40% think that Roles & status and Family are the most affected social factor that influence the consumer greatly.
Chart-9 Most influential personal factor Age 4% Occupation 8% Economic situation 8% Personality 60%
Life style 20%
Age Occupation Economic situation Life style Personality
Here, out of 50 respondents 60% think that personality is the most influential personal factor that influences the consumer greatly. Chart-10 Most influential psychological factor
Beliefs & attitude 28%
Learning Beliefs & attitude
Here, out of 50 respondents 36% think that social class is the most influential psychological factor that influences the consumer greatly.
Colgate Toothpaste Company is contributing a major portion to the economic growth;
In Bangladesh the potentiality of this sector is bright:
Competition is high in Colgate Toothpaste Company as a lot of companies are fighting for the market share, specially for energy drinks;
Marketing and Promotion of Colgate Toothpaste Company is quite better in Bangladesh market;
When the Colgate Toothpaste Company introduced in Bangladesh this product entered in the market gap and soon got acceptance. When the demand was increasing, not only for this size but also for all the products of this company, it failed to provide products as demanded.
Though Close Up Brand is the market leader, Colgate brand has achieved the best position through delivering better quality, price and taste. Most of the consumers of Colgate Toothpaste are used everyday.
Now-a-days, people are so busy that they can’t or don’t watch TV. Moreover, because there are many national and foreign TV channels, people switch from one channel to another during the commercial breaks. Therefore, the TV commercials cannot convey the message cost effectively to mass people. Therefore, all the companies are emphasizing on outdoor advertisement. Nevertheless, the advertising of GSDL is mainly based on TV media.
Conclusion: As per our estimates, 12.2% of the total world population lives in rural India. Currently, only a small portion (about 15%-20%) of region has been tapped. Although, expansion in rural areas requires huge investments, it is a market that cannot be overlooked and has huge potential. To put things in perspective, the per capita consumption of toothpaste in India is only 82 gms, as compared to 262 gms for Thailand, 376 gms for Mexico and 518 gms for USA (Source: Colgate, Equitymaster Research). In India, urban per capita consumption
Bangladesh is the host country of Colgate toothpaste so it have to give attention on its promotional activities. We analyze that marketing mix of Colgate toothpaste it is included our course.
Recommendation: A few things that can be done to make the retailing more efficient, applied into comes to sales incentives systems it can be beneficial: •
Do not make incentives cumbersome for the individual salesperson to understand or track. It is de-motivating to have to puzzle over incentive systems, and salespeople will simply not bother to decipher complex rules.
Psychologically, a reward becomes more enticing when it is within reach. Publicize sales incentives in printed matter and conversations so that salespeople know not only that the incentives exist but also that they are attainable.
If you want to get the best out of your employees, you have to know what makes them tick. This can be a con for sales incentive systems, particularly since small business owners may not have the time to dedicate to this aspect of human resources. If you have the time and inclination, however, learn as much as you can about personality-based theories of motivation, and figure out where your salespeople fit in.
The existence of an incentive system isn't meant to replace day-to-day efforts to equip, support, and respect your sales force. Even flashy incentives won't make up for a poorly run business.
Remember that incentives programs aren't the end-all of sales management. Sales motivation is holistic, encompassing proper recruitment, training and direction as well as incentives. Motivation comes not simply from the lure of tangible rewards but from being treated well. Paying attention to the whole process is the best thing you can do for salespeople.
Colgate can reduce their price of product. Because at this Bangladesh is facing big inflation and the price of basic goods rising frequently. They spend $1 for purchasing rice.
For the attraction of new generation close may modify their advertisement system.
Can offer free goods with Colgate to increase sales.
seminar, workshop can do better for the product Selling
Can arrange teeth fair,
Can offer free medical check up of teeth with social wale fare organization.
For advertisement perform with social work more and more
Philip Kotlar and Gary Armstrong, Principles of Marketing, Eleventh Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Person Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, Copyright-2006,2004,2001,1999 and 1996.
Philip Kotlar and Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, Eleventh Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Person Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, Copyright-2006,2003,2000,1987,1994.
Internet (www.wikipedia.com; Colgate toothpaste.com, etc.)
Various marketing & sales Report on Colgate toothpaste
Newspaper- Article (The Daily Star)
Annexure Raw Tables: Table-3
You feel better using 'Close-up Crystal' Agree Disagre Neutral Strongly e Agree 9 1 0 2 5 4 2 2 14 5 2 4
No. of Consumers
% of Consumers
1 2 3 4 5 6
Colgate Close up Herbal Meswake Pepsodent Others
18 9 6 4 2 1 40
45% 23% 15% 10% 5% 2% 100%
No. of Consumers
% of Consumers
1 2 3 4 5 6
Colgate Close up Herbal Meswake Pepsodent Others
18 9 6 4 2 1 40
45% 23% 15% 10% 5% 2% 100%
Total Strongly Disagree 2 1 3
31.00 0 1 1
14 15 29
Cultural Social Personal Psychological
8 8 16 18
8 16 32 50
Table-7 Cultural Factors
Roles & Status
Table-9 Factors Age Occupation Economic situation Life style Personality
cf 2 4 4 10 30
2 6 10 20 50
Table-10 Factors Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs & attitude
Questionnaire [Dear responded,
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We are the student of Bangladesh University of Business and Technology (BUBT). We are conducting a survey on
“Factors influencing consumer behavior special
focus on Colgate Toothpaste” we need some information from you. We assure you that no information will be use without this survey report. Your kind cooperation will be highly appreciated.] 1. How many years do you purchase toothpaste? a) 1 year b) 2 years c) 3 years d) More 2. Which brand do you prefer purchase toothpaste? a) Close up b) Colgate c) Pepsodent d) White paste e) Others 3. Which brand do you purchase toothpaste last? a) Close up b) Colgate c) Pepsodent d) White paste e) Others 4. What is most important for toothpaste? a) Brand Image b) Price
d) Package style
5. Where you usually from buy toothpaste? a) General store
b) Departmental store
c) Super shop d) One stop mall
6. How much toothpaste? Do you purchase per Month? a) 250 ml. b) 270ml. c) 330ml. d) More 7. How much money do you spend for toothpaste Per Month? a)10-30 Tk.b)30-60 Tk.c) 60-100 Tk. d)100-150 Tk. e) More 8. Do you like Colgate Toothpaste? a) Yes
9. If yes, then why? a) Brand Image b) Price
c) Quality d) taste
e) Package style
10. If the answer of question 8 is no, then why? a) Quality b) Pack design
c) Price d) Others……
11. Would you accept any type of gift with Colgate Toothpaste? a) Yes b) No 12.From where do you usually buy Colgate Toothpaste? a) General store
b) Departmental store
c) Super shop d) One stop mall
13. Why do you prefer Colgate Toothpaste more than any other Toothpaste? ………………………………………………………………………
14. Do you want any change in Colgate Toothpaste? a) Yes
15. If yes, then would you expect to change? a) Pack size b) Pack deigns
16. Are you satisfied about Colgate Toothpaste? a) Delight b) Satisfied c) Average d) Dissatisfied 17. Which media attracts you most for Colgate Toothpaste? a) TV b) Magazine c) Radio d) Billboard 18. Do you remember about Colgate Toothpaste? a) Yes b) No 19. Which one is the most important factor that influences the behavior most? a) Cultural, b) Social, c) Psychological, d) Personal 20. Which cultural factor affects most to the consumer to buy toothpaste? a) Culture, b) Sub-culture, c) Social class. 21. Which social factor affects most to the consumer to buy toothpaste? a) Groups, b) Family, c) Roles & Status 22. Which personal factor affects most to the consumer to buy toothpaste? a) Age, b) Occupation, c) Economic situation, d) Life style, e) Personality 23. Which psychological factor affects most to the consumer to buy toothpaste? a) Motivation, b) Perception, c) Learning, d) Beliefs and attitude 24. Do you like Colgate Toothpaste advertisement?
If yes/No, then why?
………………………………………………………………………………………… …… Any suggest
About Respondent: Name:………………………………………… Sex: a) Male b) Female Age: a) 14 - 25b) 25- 45 d) Above 45 Education:
b) HSC c) Graduation d) Post-Graduation
Working status: a) Student. b) House wife c) Business man d) Service holder