F6TesT English Manual

July 6, 2017 | Author: Robney Fiuza | Category: Electrical Impedance, Tab (Gui), Implied Warranty, Menu (Computing), Damages
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Manual so Software utilizado no controle da caixa de teste Doble...

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F6TesT 2.21 User’s Guide

Doble Engineering Company 85 Walnut Street Watertown, Massachusetts 02472-4037 (USA) www.doble.com

72A-1968-01

Rev. E 3/2011

This Manual is solely the property of the Doble Engineering Company (Doble) and is provided for the exclusive use of Doble Clients under contractual agreement for Doble Test equipment and services. In no event does the Doble Engineering Company assume the liability for any technical or editorial errors of commission or omission; nor is Doble liable for direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of or the inability to use this Manual. Government Restricted Rights Legend: Use, Duplication, or Disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted Rights Clause at FAR 52.227-19. This manual is protected by copyright, all rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without written permission from the Doble Engineering Company. Doble, the Doble logo, are trademarks of Doble Engineering Company. Microsoft, Windows™, Windows 2000™, Windows XP™, Windows Vista™, and Windows 7™ are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Copyright ©2010, 2011 By Doble Engineering Company All Rights Reserved

Warranty Equipment Limited Warranty

Doble Engineering Company (DOBLE) warrants the products that it manufactures to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from the date shipped from the factory. During the one year warranty period, DOBLE will repair or replace, at its option, any defective products or components thereof at no additional charge, provided that the product or component is returned, shipping prepaid, to DOBLE. The Purchaser is responsible for insuring any product or component so returned and assumes the risk of loss during shipment. All replaced products and components become the property of DOBLE. THIS LIMITED WARRANTY DOES NOT EXTEND TO ANY PRODUCTS WHICH HAVE BEEN DAMAGED AS A RESULT OF ACCIDENT, MISUSE, ABUSE, OR AS A RESULT OF MODIFICATION BY ANYONE OTHER THAN DOBLE OR AN AUTHORIZED DOBLE REPRESENTATIVE. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH ABOVE, NO OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, ARE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. DOBLE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES NOT STATED HEREIN. IN THE EVENT THE PRODUCT IS NOT FREE FROM DEFECTS AS WARRANTED ABOVE, THE PURCHASER’S SOLE REMEDY SHALL BE REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT AS PROVIDED ABOVE. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WILL DOBLE BE LIABLE TO THE PURCHASER OR ANY USER FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE CAUSE BY THE PRODUCT, ANY INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EXPENSES, LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, OR OTHER DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THIS PRODUCT.

Software Limited Warranty

THIS SOFTWARE PRODUCT IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE PRODUCT IS WITH PURCHASER SHOULD THE PRODUCT PROVE DEFECTIVE. PURCHASER (AND NOT DOBLE OR AN AUTHORIZED DEALER) ASSUMES THE ENTIRE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

Some states do not allow the exclusion of implied warranties, so the above exclusion may not apply. This warranty gives the purchaser specific legal rights and the purchaser may also have other rights which vary from state to state. DOBLE warrants the disks on which the software product is furnished to be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for a period of one hundred and twenty (120) days from the date of shipment from DOBLE. Limitations of Remedies

DOBLE’s entire liability and Purchaser’s exclusive remedy shall be: 1. the replacement of any disks not meeting doble’s “limited warranty” which are returned to doble. 2. If DOBLE is unable to deliver replacement disks which are free from defects in materials and workmanship, Purchaser may terminate this agreement. By returning the software product and all copies thereof in any form and affirming compliance with this requirement in writing, DOBLE will refund the purchase price. IN NO EVENT WILL DOBLE BE LIABLE TO PURCHASER FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE SUCH SOFTWARE PRODUCT, EVEN IF DOBLE OR AN AUTHORIZED DEALER HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY. Some states do not allow the limitation or exclusion of liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply. For Equipment Maintenance, contact: Customer Service Manager Doble Engineering Company 85 Walnut Street Watertown, MA 02472 (USA) Telephone: 617-923-2921 FAX: 617-926-0528 Email: [email protected] Web: www.doble.com

Contents 1. Getting Started ..................................................................................... 1-1 Safety ............................................................................................................................................ 1-1 Installing F6TesT.......................................................................................................................... 1-1 Instruments Supported............................................................................................................ 1-1 System Requirements ............................................................................................................. 1-1 Software Installation .............................................................................................................. 1-2 Removing Previous F6TesT Versions ............................................................................. 1-2 Installing the F6TesT Software........................................................................................ 1-3 Start-up and Login ........................................................................................................................ 1-5 F6TesT Architecture and Data Views .......................................................................................... 1-8 Location................................................................................................................................ 1-12 Relay..................................................................................................................................... 1-12 Test Plan ............................................................................................................................... 1-12 Menus and Toolbars ................................................................................................................... 1-12 Context Menu ....................................................................................................................... 1-13 Copy, Cut, and Paste in the Location Tree and List View............................................. 1-13 Delete, Insert, Append, Find in the Location Tree and List View................................. 1-14 Toolbars................................................................................................................................ 1-14 File Menu ............................................................................................................................. 1-17 New ................................................................................................................................ 1-17 Open ............................................................................................................................... 1-18 Close............................................................................................................................... 1-18 Save As .......................................................................................................................... 1-18 Delete Saved Graphs...................................................................................................... 1-19 Recently Opened Databases........................................................................................... 1-19 Print Setup...................................................................................................................... 1-19 Exit ................................................................................................................................. 1-20 Edit Menu ............................................................................................................................. 1-20 Copy ............................................................................................................................... 1-22 Multiple Cut, Copy, and Delete ..................................................................................... 1-23 72A-1968-01

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Find ................................................................................................................................ 1-24 Module Menu ....................................................................................................................... 1-25 Setup Menu........................................................................................................................... 1-26 Communication Setup .................................................................................................... 1-27 Graphics Setup ............................................................................................................... 1-28 Oscillograph Setup ......................................................................................................... 1-30 Using the Context Menu ................................................................................................ 1-31 Using the Cursors ........................................................................................................... 1-32 Setting Oscillograph Properties...................................................................................... 1-33 General Properties Tab................................................................................................... 1-33 Analog Tab..................................................................................................................... 1-34 Digital Output Tab ......................................................................................................... 1-35 Digital Input Tab ............................................................................................................ 1-35 Test Defaults .................................................................................................................. 1-36 Global Report Definitions .............................................................................................. 1-40 Directories ...................................................................................................................... 1-41 Change Language........................................................................................................... 1-42 Tools Menu........................................................................................................................... 1-43 Offline Simulation Mode ............................................................................................... 1-43 DB Compacting Preferences .......................................................................................... 1-43 F6000 Software Tools .................................................................................................... 1-44 Characteristics ................................................................................................................ 1-46 Relay Maintenance Schedule ......................................................................................... 1-46 Relay Mfrs & Models..................................................................................................... 1-47 Reports ........................................................................................................................... 1-49 Convert Database ........................................................................................................... 1-52 Template Library............................................................................................................ 1-53 Power System Model ..................................................................................................... 1-53 Vector Calculator ........................................................................................................... 1-53 Help Menu ............................................................................................................................ 1-53

2. Relay Characteristics ............................................................................2-1 Characteristics Library.................................................................................................................. 2-1 Characteristic Equations......................................................................................................... 2-2 Characteristic Constants ......................................................................................................... 2-4 Guidelines for Characteristics .......................................................................................... 2-8 vi

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Look-up Table ........................................................................................................................ 2-9 Importing from a Spreadsheet........................................................................................ 2-10 Differential Characteristics .................................................................................................. 2-11 Displaying and Comparing Relay Characteristics ............................................................... 2-13 Copying Relay Characteristics between Databases ............................................................. 2-14 Characteristics Cross Reference........................................................................................... 2-15

3. Creating a Relay .................................................................................. 3-1 Adding a Relay to a Location....................................................................................................... 3-1 Relay Parameters and Functions ............................................................................................ 3-2 Connections & Signals..................................................................................................... 3-2 Notebook.......................................................................................................................... 3-4 Test Plan........................................................................................................................... 3-5 Relay Parameters.................................................................................................................... 3-5 Function Window............................................................................................................. 3-7 Adding a Function............................................................................................................ 3-9 Adding an Impedance Function Using the Relay Library ............................................... 3-9 Copying a Function........................................................................................................ 3-14 Time Characteristic Functions ....................................................................................... 3-15 Generic Functions .......................................................................................................... 3-17 Impedance Functions ..................................................................................................... 3-19 General Characteristic.................................................................................................... 3-22 Directional Functions..................................................................................................... 3-25 Differential Functions .................................................................................................... 3-27

4. Creating Test Modules ......................................................................... 4-1 Test Plans...................................................................................................................................... 4-1 Tests.............................................................................................................................................. 4-2 Test Types .................................................................................................................................... 4-3 Test Definitions ............................................................................................................................ 4-4 Test Elements Tab ........................................................................................................................ 4-6 Overcurrent ............................................................................................................................ 4-6 Impedance .............................................................................................................................. 4-7 Directional.............................................................................................................................. 4-8 Differential ............................................................................................................................. 4-9

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Test Configuration Tab................................................................................................................. 4-9 Fault Calculation Button....................................................................................................... 4-10 Current, Voltage, and Frequency Time Characteristics ................................................. 4-10 Directional Overcurrent Characteristics......................................................................... 4-11 Differential Characteristics ............................................................................................ 4-13 Test Method Button.............................................................................................................. 4-15 Impedance Characteristics ............................................................................................. 4-15 WaveSim Characteristics ............................................................................................... 4-20 Test Method ................................................................................................................... 4-20 Test Timing and Trigger Selection Button........................................................................... 4-21 Digital Outputs Button ......................................................................................................... 4-22 Source Configuration Button................................................................................................ 4-23 Test Points Tab ........................................................................................................................... 4-28 Time Overcurrent Test Points .............................................................................................. 4-28 Test Graph Features.............................................................................................................. 4-39 Graph Pop-up Menu ....................................................................................................... 4-39 Selecting and Highlighting Test Points.......................................................................... 4-41 Deleting Test Points ....................................................................................................... 4-41 Editing Test Points ......................................................................................................... 4-42 Sorting Test Points ......................................................................................................... 4-42 Measurements Tab...................................................................................................................... 4-43 Test Tab ...................................................................................................................................... 4-44 Phasor Diagrams................................................................................................................... 4-45 I-Char and VF-Char Time Characteristics ........................................................................... 4-46 Directional Test .................................................................................................................... 4-47 Differential Test.................................................................................................................... 4-48 Testing Relays with Unknown Characteristics or Bias Equations................................. 4-52 Z-Time Test .......................................................................................................................... 4-53 Z-Char Test........................................................................................................................... 4-56 ZMTA Test........................................................................................................................... 4-57 WaveSim Test ...................................................................................................................... 4-58 Ramp Test of Voltage, Current, Phase Angle, or Frequency ............................................... 4-60 Pulsed Ramp................................................................................................................... 4-65 Double Ramp ................................................................................................................. 4-66 VpHzRamp Test – Volts per Hertz Ramp............................................................................ 4-67 SSIMUL Test – State Simulation ......................................................................................... 4-69

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Fault Rotate .................................................................................................................... 4-72 Display Phasors.............................................................................................................. 4-72 Time Units ..................................................................................................................... 4-74 Run Mode....................................................................................................................... 4-74 Digital Output Dialog Box............................................................................................. 4-74 Oscillograph ................................................................................................................... 4-75 Measurement Tab........................................................................................................... 4-76 Using the EXTERN Module ................................................................................................ 4-77 The EXTERN Test Tab ................................................................................................. 4-78 The EXTERN Notebook Tab......................................................................................... 4-79 The EXTERN Reports Tab ............................................................................................ 4-80 Using Autorun ...................................................................................................................... 4-83 Reports Tab ................................................................................................................................ 4-83 Notebook Tab ............................................................................................................................. 4-87

5. Running Tests ...................................................................................... 5-1 Selecting a Test............................................................................................................................. 5-1 Simulation Mode .......................................................................................................................... 5-3 Running the Test........................................................................................................................... 5-4 Hiding Table Columns ........................................................................................................... 5-4 AutoRun ....................................................................................................................................... 5-6

6. Changing Relay Parameters ................................................................ 6-1 Example........................................................................................................................................ 6-1

A. Reference Tables .................................................................................A-1 Test Preparation........................................................................................................................... A-1 Abbreviations .............................................................................................................................. A-2 Shortcut Keys .............................................................................................................................. A-3

B. Importing Functions ..............................................................................B-1 Importing a Function ....................................................................................................................B-1 Opening/Viewing Functions after Import ....................................................................................B-3 Characteristics Cross-Reference...................................................................................................B-3

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C. Cut, Copy, and Paste Operations ........................................................ C-1 D. Power System Model ........................................................................... D-1 Impedance Tab............................................................................................................................. D-3 Fault Tab ...................................................................................................................................... D-4 Relay Tab..................................................................................................................................... D-6 Load Flow Tab ...................................................................................................................... D-8 Model Menu ........................................................................................................................ D-10 Setup Menu.......................................................................................................................... D-11

E. Vector Calculator.................................................................................. E-1 Vector Table .................................................................................................................................E-1 Keypad ..........................................................................................................................................E-2 Function Keys.........................................................................................................................E-2 Vector Keys ............................................................................................................................E-3 Operator Keys.........................................................................................................................E-3 Number Keys..........................................................................................................................E-4 Recalculate Formulae Key .....................................................................................................E-5 Viewing Vectors ...........................................................................................................................E-5 Menu Bar ......................................................................................................................................E-5 File..........................................................................................................................................E-5 Setup.................................................................................................................................E-6 Print ..................................................................................................................................E-6 Exit ...................................................................................................................................E-7 Edit .........................................................................................................................................E-7 Cut ....................................................................................................................................E-7 Copy .................................................................................................................................E-7 Paste .................................................................................................................................E-7 Delete ...............................................................................................................................E-7 View .......................................................................................................................................E-7 Scaling..............................................................................................................................E-8 Zoom In ............................................................................................................................E-9 Zoom Out .......................................................................................................................E-10 Formulae...............................................................................................................................E-10 Standard Formulae .........................................................................................................E-10

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Help ......................................................................................................................................E-11 Contents .........................................................................................................................E-11 About Vector Calculator ................................................................................................E-12 Toolbar .......................................................................................................................................E-12 Performing Calculations.............................................................................................................E-12 Source Name Column ..........................................................................................................E-13 Formula Column ..................................................................................................................E-13 Performing Formula Box Calculations.......................................................................................E-13 Formula Operators ...............................................................................................................E-13 Standard Operators.........................................................................................................E-14 a, a2 ................................................................................................................................E-14 SQRT .............................................................................................................................E-14 Parentheses.....................................................................................................................E-14 Evaluate..........................................................................................................................E-14 Save the Answer in the Vector Table...................................................................................E-15

Index ................................................................................................. Index-1

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List of Figures Figure 1-1 Figure 1-2 Figure 1-3 Figure 1-4 Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7 Figure 1-8 Figure 1-9 Figure 1-10 Figure 1-11 Figure 1-12 Figure 1-13 Figure 1-14 Figure 1-15 Figure 1-16 Figure 1-17 Figure 1-18 Figure 1-19 Figure 1-20 Figure 1-21 Figure 1-22 Figure 1-23 Figure 1-24 Figure 1-25 Figure 1-26 Figure 1-27 Figure 1-28 Figure 1-29 Figure 1-30 Figure 1-31 Figure 1-32

Run as Administrator Option ................................................................................ 1-4 Command Prompt Window .................................................................................. 1-4 Registration Successful Message .......................................................................... 1-5 Log-in Dialog Box ................................................................................................ 1-6 Select Database Dialog Box.................................................................................. 1-7 F6TesT Window with Location Table Selected ................................................... 1-8 F6TesT Window with Test Table Selected........................................................... 1-9 F6TesT Database................................................................................................. 1-10 F6TesT Relay Architecture................................................................................. 1-11 Menu Bar and Toolbars....................................................................................... 1-12 Context Menu...................................................................................................... 1-13 Standard Toolbar................................................................................................. 1-14 Run Toolbar ........................................................................................................ 1-15 Battery Toolbar ................................................................................................... 1-15 Formula and Function Toolbar ........................................................................... 1-15 Formula Bar Button ............................................................................................ 1-16 Formula Keywords and Functions Dialog Box................................................... 1-16 File Menu ............................................................................................................ 1-17 New Dialog Box.................................................................................................. 1-17 File Menu When No Database Is Open .............................................................. 1-19 Exit Dialog Box .................................................................................................. 1-20 Edit Menu............................................................................................................ 1-21 Multiple Cut, Copy or Delete Dialog Box .......................................................... 1-23 Find Dialog Box.................................................................................................. 1-25 Module Menu...................................................................................................... 1-25 Setup Menu ......................................................................................................... 1-26 Communications Setup Dialog Box.................................................................... 1-27 Graphics Setup Dialog Box................................................................................. 1-28 Graphic Setup Dialog Box for Impendance Tests .............................................. 1-29 Graphics Setup Dialog Box for Other Tests ....................................................... 1-30 Sample Oscillograph ........................................................................................... 1-31 Oscillograph Context Menu ................................................................................ 1-31

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Figure 1-33 Figure 1-34 Figure 1-35 Figure 1-36 Figure 1-37 Figure 1-38 Figure 1-39 Figure 1-40 Figure 1-41 Figure 1-42 Figure 1-43 Figure 1-44 Figure 1-45 Figure 1-46 Figure 1-47 Figure 1-48 Figure 1-49 Figure 1-50 Figure 1-51 Figure 1-52 Figure 1-53 Figure 1-54 Figure 1-55 Figure 1-56 Figure 1-57 Figure 1-58 Figure 1-59 Figure 2-1 Figure 2-2 Figure 2-3 Figure 2-4 Figure 2-5 Figure 2-6 Figure 2-7 Figure 2-8 Figure 2-9 Figure 2-10 Figure 2-11

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Oscillograph Cursors........................................................................................... 1-32 Oscillograph Setup — General Properties Tab ................................................... 1-33 Color Selection Dialog Box ................................................................................ 1-34 Oscillograph Setup — Analog Tab ..................................................................... 1-34 Oscillograph Setup — Digital Output Tab.......................................................... 1-35 Oscillograph Setup — Digital Input Tab ............................................................ 1-36 System Parameters Tab ....................................................................................... 1-37 Run/Auto Run Tab .............................................................................................. 1-38 Miscellaneous Tab .............................................................................................. 1-39 Relay Maintenance Schedule .............................................................................. 1-39 Blinking Maintenance Button ............................................................................. 1-40 Report Template Dialog Box .............................................................................. 1-40 Default Database Directory Dialog Box ............................................................. 1-41 Language Selection Dialog Box.......................................................................... 1-42 Tools Menu ......................................................................................................... 1-43 Database Compacting Preferences Dialog Box .................................................. 1-44 Flash Loader Dialog Box .................................................................................... 1-45 Doble F6X Key Code Upgrade Dialog Box ....................................................... 1-45 Set F6000 IP Address Dialog Box ...................................................................... 1-45 Relay Maintenance Schedule Dialog Box........................................................... 1-47 Relay Mfrs & Models Dialog Box ...................................................................... 1-47 Reports Dialog Box............................................................................................. 1-49 Tested Date Range Selector ................................................................................ 1-50 Reports — Selected Relays ................................................................................. 1-51 Reports Export Dialog Box ................................................................................. 1-51 Database Conversion Dialog Box ....................................................................... 1-52 Template Library Dialog Box ............................................................................. 1-53 Characteristics Window ........................................................................................ 2-2 Characteristic Equations Screen............................................................................ 2-4 Characteristic Constants Screen ............................................................................ 2-5 Characteristic Constants Graph............................................................................. 2-6 Show Multiple List Box ........................................................................................ 2-7 Add New Characteristic Dialog Box..................................................................... 2-7 Multiple Graph Display......................................................................................... 2-8 Lookup Table ...................................................................................................... 2-10 Import Details Group on the Lookup Table ........................................................ 2-11 Differential Characteristics Page......................................................................... 2-12 Displaying and Comparing Characteristic Curves .............................................. 2-13

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List of Figures

Figure 2-12 Figure 3-1 Figure 3-2 Figure 3-3 Figure 3-4 Figure 3-5 Figure 3-6 Figure 3-7 Figure 3-8 Figure 3-9 Figure 3-10 Figure 3-11 Figure 3-12 Figure 3-13 Figure 3-14 Figure 3-15 Figure 3-16 Figure 3-17 Figure 3-18 Figure 3-19 Figure 3-20 Figure 3-21 Figure 3-22 Figure 3-23 Figure 3-24 Figure 3-25 Figure 3-26 Figure 3-27 Figure 3-28 Figure 3-29 Figure 3-30 Figure 3-31 Figure 3-32 Figure 4-1 Figure 4-2 Figure 4-3 Figure 4-4 Figure 4-5

Characteristic Batch Copy .................................................................................. 2-14 Appending a New Relay Record........................................................................... 3-1 Connections and Signals Tabs .............................................................................. 3-3 Notebook Tab........................................................................................................ 3-4 Relay Test Plan Tab View .................................................................................... 3-5 Relay Parameters Tab ........................................................................................... 3-6 Relay Function Screen for Impedance.................................................................. 3-7 Overcurrent and Impedance Functions ................................................................. 3-8 Adding a Relay Function ...................................................................................... 3-9 Add Relay Function With Relay Library............................................................ 3-10 Add Relay Function With Manufacturers and Models ....................................... 3-11 Relay Library Model Window ............................................................................ 3-12 Relay Function Pop-up Menu ............................................................................. 3-12 Relay Library — Relay Function Window......................................................... 3-13 Library Model Window ...................................................................................... 3-14 Time Characteristic Screen ................................................................................. 3-15 Modify Screen — Adding a Pickup Setting ....................................................... 3-16 Composite Graph ................................................................................................ 3-17 Generic Function Screen..................................................................................... 3-18 Generic Function Screen — All Rows Displayed .............................................. 3-19 Impedance Function Screen................................................................................ 3-20 Adding a Zone..................................................................................................... 3-21 Modes of Residual Compensation ...................................................................... 3-21 Modifying an Mho Characteristic....................................................................... 3-22 General Impedance Characteristic Screen .......................................................... 3-23 Predefined Shapes Quad Button Dialog Box...................................................... 3-24 Advanced Z–Time Curve Setting ....................................................................... 3-25 Add or Modify Directional Function Screen ...................................................... 3-26 Differential Function Screen............................................................................... 3-27 Setting Pick-up Values........................................................................................ 3-28 Graph with Boundary of the Restraint Region ................................................... 3-29 Compensation Settings Tab in the Differential Function Window..................... 3-30 Transformer Parameter Tab ................................................................................ 3-31 Adding a Test Plan to a Relay............................................................................... 4-1 Adding a Test to a Test Plan ................................................................................. 4-2 Save Test Definition Dialog Box.......................................................................... 4-4 Test Definition Dialog Box................................................................................... 4-5 Save Test Definition Dialog Box — Set as Default ............................................. 4-5

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Figure 4-6 Figure 4-7 Figure 4-8 Figure 4-9 Figure 4-10 Figure 4-11 Figure 4-12 Figure 4-13 Figure 4-14 Figure 4-15 Figure 4-16 Figure 4-17 Figure 4-18 Figure 4-19 Figure 4-20 Figure 4-21 Figure 4-22 Figure 4-23 Figure 4-24 Figure 4-25 Figure 4-26 Figure 4-27 Figure 4-28 Figure 4-29 Figure 4-30 Figure 4-31 Figure 4-32 Figure 4-33 Figure 4-34 Figure 4-35 Figure 4-36 Figure 4-37 Figure 4-38 Figure 4-39 Figure 4-40 Figure 4-41 Figure 4-42

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Overcurrent Test Elements Tab ............................................................................ 4-7 Test Elements Tab for Impedance Tests ............................................................... 4-7 Test Elements Tab for Directional Test ................................................................ 4-8 Test Elements Tab for Differential Tests .............................................................. 4-9 Fault Calculation Tab for Current, Voltage, and Frequency Time Characteristics .......................................................................... 4-10 Fault Calculation Tab for Directional Overcurrent Characteristics .................... 4-12 Fault Calculation Tab for Differential Characteristics........................................ 4-13 Is vs. Ip Graph ..................................................................................................... 4-14 Impedance Test Method Parameters ................................................................... 4-16 White Background in Actual Value Field ........................................................... 4-17 Constant Source Impedance ................................................................................ 4-18 Separate Arc Resistance Settings ........................................................................ 4-18 DC Transients Settings........................................................................................ 4-19 WaveSim Test Configuration Tab ...................................................................... 4-20 Test Timing and Trigger Parameters................................................................... 4-21 Digital Outputs Dialog Box ................................................................................ 4-22 Analog Signals Dialog Box................................................................................. 4-23 Sample Source Configuration for the F6150 and the F6150A............................ 4-24 Test Points Tab.................................................................................................... 4-29 Add Multiple Test Points Dialog Box................................................................. 4-30 Fault Calculation for Z-Time Test Points ........................................................... 4-31 Fault Type and Test Points List .......................................................................... 4-32 Determining the Borders of a Quadrilateral Characteristic................................. 4-33 Selecting Fault Locations along a Line ............................................................... 4-34 Z-T Plane............................................................................................................. 4-35 Test Points Tab for Differential .......................................................................... 4-36 Ip vs. Is Plane ...................................................................................................... 4-37 Z-Char Test Lines, Radial Lines ......................................................................... 4-38 Z-Char Test Lines, User-Drawn.......................................................................... 4-39 Pop-up Menu for the Test Graph ........................................................................ 4-40 WaveSim Measurements Tab ............................................................................. 4-43 Test Tab in the Test Definition Window............................................................. 4-44 Phasor Diagram ................................................................................................... 4-45 Derived Quantities Table .................................................................................... 4-45 Test Tab for I-Char.............................................................................................. 4-46 Test Tab for a Directional Test ........................................................................... 4-47 Test Tab for a Differential Test........................................................................... 4-49

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Figure 4-43 Figure 4-44 Figure 4-45 Figure 4-46 Figure 4-47 Figure 4-48 Figure 4-49 Figure 4-50 Figure 4-51 Figure 4-52 Figure 4-53 Figure 4-54 Figure 4-55 Figure 4-56 Figure 4-57 Figure 4-58 Figure 4-59 Figure 4-60 Figure 4-61 Figure 4-62 Figure 4-63 Figure 4-64 Figure 4-65 Figure 4-66 Figure 4-67 Figure 4-68 Figure 4-69 Figure 4-70 Figure 4-71 Figure 4-72 Figure 4-73 Figure 4-74 Figure 4-75 Figure 4-76 Figure 4-77 Figure 5-1 Figure 5-2 Figure 5-3

Test Tab with Ip vs. Is Selected .......................................................................... 4-50 Separate Screen for Phasors and Currents .......................................................... 4-51 Phasor Windows for Three-Phase Testing.......................................................... 4-52 Testing Relays with Unknown Characteristics or Bias Equations...................... 4-53 Test Tab for Z-Time Test.................................................................................... 4-54 Test Tab with Z-T Plane Selected....................................................................... 4-55 Test Tab with Spiral Test Selected ..................................................................... 4-56 Test Tab for Z-Char ............................................................................................ 4-57 Test Tab for a ZMTA Test.................................................................................. 4-58 WaveSim Test Tab.............................................................................................. 4-59 WaveSim Oscillograph ....................................................................................... 4-60 Test Tab for a Single Stepped Ramp Test .......................................................... 4-61 Stepped Ramp ..................................................................................................... 4-62 Pulsed Ramp ....................................................................................................... 4-63 Smooth Ramp...................................................................................................... 4-63 Source Configuration Dialog Box ...................................................................... 4-64 Digital Outputs Dialog Box ................................................................................ 4-65 Action Details for a Pulsed Ramp....................................................................... 4-66 Action Details for a Double Ramp...................................................................... 4-66 VpHz Ramp ........................................................................................................ 4-68 V/Hz Ramp Graph .............................................................................................. 4-69 Test Tab for an SSIMUL Test ............................................................................ 4-70 SSIMUL Phasor Diagram Window .................................................................... 4-73 Phasor Line Properties Dialog Box..................................................................... 4-73 Digital Output Dialog Box for SSIMUL Test..................................................... 4-75 Oscillograph Window for SSIMUL Test............................................................ 4-76 Measurement Tab for SSIMUL Test .................................................................. 4-77 EXTERN Tabs .................................................................................................... 4-78 EXTERN Notebook Tab..................................................................................... 4-80 EXTERN Reports Tab ........................................................................................ 4-81 EXTERN Module Flowchart .............................................................................. 4-82 Reports Tab......................................................................................................... 4-84 Sample Report Format ........................................................................................ 4-85 Export Dialog Box .............................................................................................. 4-86 Export Options Dialog Box ................................................................................ 4-86 Selecting a Test ..................................................................................................... 5-1 Test Definitions Dialog Box ................................................................................. 5-2 Test Tab Showing Values from Previous Tests.................................................... 5-3

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Figure 5-4 Figure 5-5 Figure 5-6 Figure 5-7 Figure 5-8 Figure 6-1 Figure 6-2 Figure 6-3 Figure 6-4 Figure 6-5 Figure B-1 Figure B-2 Figure B-3 Figure B-4 Figure D-1 Figure D-2 Figure D-3 Figure D-4 Figure D-5 Figure D-6 Figure D-7 Figure D-8 Figure D-9 Figure D-10 Figure D-11 Figure D-12 Figure D-13 Figure D-14 Figure E-1 Figure E-2 Figure E-3 Figure E-4 Figure E-5 Figure E-6 Figure E-7 Figure E-8 Figure E-9 Figure E-10

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Run Toolbar .......................................................................................................... 5-4 Run Dialog Box..................................................................................................... 5-4 Hide Columns Dialog Box .................................................................................... 5-5 Marking Tests for AutoRun .................................................................................. 5-6 Changing a Default Definition for AutoRun......................................................... 5-7 Test Elements Tab to Apply Changes ................................................................... 6-1 Reference Graph After Testing ............................................................................. 6-2 Original and New Settings .................................................................................... 6-2 Test Points Graph Without Recalculation............................................................. 6-3 Reference Graph with Previous Test Results Cleared .......................................... 6-4 Relay Parameters Dialog Box .............................................................................. B-2 Relay Functions List ............................................................................................ B-2 Predefined Tab ..................................................................................................... B-3 User-Defined Tab................................................................................................. B-4 Power System Module ......................................................................................... D-2 PSM Source Z Dialog Box................................................................................... D-3 PSM Fault Tab ..................................................................................................... D-5 PSM Relay Tab .................................................................................................... D-7 Relay Tab Fault Data ........................................................................................... D-7 PSM Load Flow Tab Parameters Tab .................................................................. D-8 PSM Load Flow Tab Power Tab.......................................................................... D-9 PSM Load Flow Tab Load Data Tab ................................................................... D-9 PSM Model Menu .............................................................................................. D-10 PSM Single Line Model..................................................................................... D-10 PSM Parallel Line Model................................................................................... D-10 PSM Single Line with Tap Model ..................................................................... D-11 PSM Parallel Line with Tap Model ................................................................... D-11 PSM Setup Dialog Box ...................................................................................... D-11 Vector Calculator – Main Screen .......................................................................... E-1 File Menu .............................................................................................................. E-5 Vector Setup Dialog Box ...................................................................................... E-6 Edit Menu.............................................................................................................. E-7 View Menu............................................................................................................ E-7 Scaling Off – Vectors Scaled to the Largest Magnitude....................................... E-8 Scaling On – Vectors Scaled by Type to the Largest Magnitude ......................... E-8 Dashed Box Outlining Area to Zoom ................................................................... E-9 Zoomed Area......................................................................................................... E-9 Formulae Menu ................................................................................................... E-10

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List of Figures

Figure E-11 Figure E-12 Figure E-13 Figure E-14

Formulae Manager Dialog Box .......................................................................... Help Menu .......................................................................................................... Vector Calculator Toolbar .................................................................................. Square Root Dialog Box .....................................................................................

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List of Tables Table 1-1 Table 1-2 Table 1-3 Table 1-4 Table 2-1 Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Table A-1 Table A-2 Table A-3 Table D-1 Table E-1 Table E-2

F6TesT System Requirements .............................................................................. 1-1 Edit Menu ............................................................................................................ 1-21 Module Menu Options ........................................................................................ 1-26 Oscillograph Context Menu ................................................................................ 1-31 Same-Characteristic Equations and Constants ...................................................... 2-9 Supported Test Types ............................................................................................ 4-3 Graph Pop-Up Menu Options ............................................................................. 4-40 Checklist Test Preparation for a New Relay ........................................................ A-1 Abbreviations Used in F6TesT 2.21 ..................................................................... A-2 Keyboard Shortcuts Used in F6TesT .................................................................... A-3 Default Values for Impedance .............................................................................. D-4 Operator Keys ........................................................................................................E-3 Number Keys .........................................................................................................E-4

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1. Getting Started Safety WARNING! Before turning on or using any F6150, verify that the instrument is safely grounded to eliminate the potential of a dangerous electric shock. Always turn the source output off and disable the unit before connecting, removing, or touching any output terminal or cable.

HIGH VOLTAGE! Dangerous and potentially fatal voltages can be developed across the output terminals of any Power System Simulator. USE EXTREME CAUTION when turning on or using the F6150. Always turn the source output off and disable the unit before connecting, removing, or touching any output terminal or cable. Never ground any F6150 output source connection. The high-intensity yellow LED flashes to indicate that dangerous and potentially fatal voltages may be present. Flashing occurs when the battery simulator is on or when other sources are enabled or on.

Installing F6TesT Instruments Supported F6TesT version 2.21 supports F6150, F6150A, and the F6150+F6300 external high-power current amplifier.

System Requirements Table 1-1 outlines the system requirements for the F6TesT software. Table 1-1 F6TesT System Requirements Operating System

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Table 1-1 F6TesT System Requirements (Continued) Hardware

• 128–512+ MB RAM, depending on the operating system; performance generally improves with increased RAM • 1.0 GHz or higher • 800 x 600-pixel, 256-color resolution or higher recommended • CD/DVD-ROM drive to install software • Serial port, Ethernet port, or USB port for communication with F6000 test instrument • Microsoft mouse or other Windows®compatible pointing device

Hard-Drive Space

250+ MB to install the software and store test plans and results

Software Installation Software installation consists of: • •

“Removing Previous F6TesT Versions” on page 1-2, if required. “Installing the F6TesT Software” on page 1-3

If you are using Windows 7 or Vista and are unfamiliar with the User Account Control (UAC) and data redirection, also known as UAC virtualization, you may want to consult with your IT support staff before uninstalling or installing F6TesT.

Removing Previous F6TesT Versions

Do not use the F6TesT installation wizard to uninstall F6TesT.

• •

1-2

You must remove version 2.20 of F6TesT before installing version 2.21. You may choose to install version 2.21 side-by-side with version 2.19, but you cannot run tests from both versions simultaneously using the same instrument.

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Windows 7 and Vista may have used data redirection on some of the F6TesT application folder, consult with your IT support staff if necessary to save any desired files and to ensure complete removal of earlier versions of F6TesT.

To remove earlier versions of F6TesT: 1. Save your database(s) to a location outside the F6TesT application folder. 1. Use the Control Panel to uninstall F6TesT. • •

For Windows XP and earlier, select Control Panel  Add or Remove Programs. For Windows 7 and Vista, select Control Panel  Programs and Features.

2. Delete the F6TesT 2.20 application folder. The default location of the folder is: • •

For 32-bit systems: C:\Program Files\Doble\F6Test2.20 For 64-bit systems: C:\Program Files(x86)\Doble\F6Test2.20

If you have any questions about removing earlier versions of F6TesT, contact Doble at [email protected]

Installing the F6TesT Software The F6TesT software, including an installation wizard, program files, and a sample database is installed from a single CD. To install the software: 1. Close all other applications. 2. Insert the Doble F6TesT CD into the CD or DVD drive. 3. Browse to the CD and open it. 4. In the CD's folder, browse to the F6TesT 2.21 folder to locate the setup application, setup.exe, and double-click to launch the Installation Wizard. 5. The F6TesT Installation Wizard presents a series of dialog boxes with installation choices, such as selecting an installation path and the option to create a desktop icon for the application. Selecting the default installation path is recommended. 6. If you are installing on Windows 7 and have had version 2.19 installed on the same system, you must manually register cwui.ocx:

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a. Open a Command Prompt window using the Run as administrator option. Select Start  All Programs  Accessories, right click on the Command Prompt item and select Run as administrator.

Figure 1-1 Run as Administrator Option b. In the Command Prompt window, enter regsvr32 followed by the path to cwui.ocx in your version 2.21 application folder, for example:

Figure 1-2 Command Prompt Window

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A regsvr32 dialog box with successful registration message appears.

Figure 1-3 Registration Successful Message

If you uninstall version 2.19 after installing version 2.21, you will need to re-register cwui.ocx using the preceding steps before using version 2.21.

Windows 7 and Vista may use data redirection on some of the F6TesT installation folders and your data; consult with your IT support staff if necessary.

Start-up and Login There are two quick ways to start the F6TesT program: 1. Double-click the F6TesT desktop icon (

)

or 2. Select Start  Programs  F6TesT from the task bar. A Login dialog box appears (Figure 1-4).

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Figure 1-4 Log-in Dialog Box

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To log in: 1. Enter a name (up to 20 characters) in the User Name field or select a previously entered name from the drop-down menu. 2. Select the preferred language from the Language drop-down menu. 3. Click OK. The Select Database dialog box appears (Figure 1-5).

Figure 1-5 Select Database Dialog Box 4. Select an existing database (F6TestSampleDB.mdb in Figure 1-5). 5. Click Open. New databases can be created later.

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F6TesT Architecture and Data Views Once the database is selected, the program displays the main F6TesT window (Figure 1-6).

Figure 1-6 F6TesT Window with Location Table Selected The F6TesT window consists of the following areas: •



The menu bar at the top of the window provides access to F6TesT functions. For more information, refer to “Menus and Toolbars” on page 1-12. Three toolbars are located just below the menu bar:  Standard  Run  Battery

The icons on the toolbars provide quick access to principal F6TesT functions. •

The location tree on the left shows the organization of the database into Locations, Relays, and Test Plans. The tree view is similar to the Windows Explorer view of folders and files.  Click the plus icon to the left of an item to display the contents of the Location, Relay, or Test Plan.  Click the minus icon to hide the contents of the Location, Relay, or Test Plan.

In Figure 1-6, only the locations are shown, while in Figure 1-7, the tree is fully expanded to show individual tests.

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The Table View on the right provides details on the item selected in the location tree. There are four tables linked in a parent-child relationship: 1. Location, when the database name at the top of the location tree is selected 2. Relay, when a location is selected 3. Test Plan, when a relay is selected 4. Test, when a test plan is selected.

Figure 1-7 F6TesT Window with Test Table Selected As shown in Figure 1-8, F6TesT data is divided into four main categories: 1. Locations, to organize relays and test plans by substation or similar scheme 2. Relays and their functions and elements 3. Relay Characteristics Library 4. Tests (or test modules)

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F6TEST Database

Location Level 1

Relay Manufacturers

Characteristics

Z Mho Characteristics

Location Level 2 (Up to 3 Levels)

Elements / Setting

Relay Functions

RELAY

Input/Output Mapping

Z General Characteristics

Differential Characteristics

Test Plans

Test Module

More Locations/Sub-locations

More Relays

More Test Plans

More Test Modules

Figure 1-8 F6TesT Database The F6TesT architecture accommodates a modern multifunction relay, but is easily applied to a simple relay or to a complex relay with only a few functions in use. In F6TesT, a relay is assigned one or more functions; each function can be assigned one or more elements. For example, separate overcurrent elements can be applied to phase and ground current.

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Each function element can be modeled using characteristic equations common to many relays. The equation determines relay response to different fault conditions, such as operating point or response time. Tests are then defined to test an individual element, several elements together, or even all elements of a relay function together. F6TesT stores data in a relational database. The database is compatible with Microsoft® Access 2000. The relay and test data are organized in tables, using locations to logically group relays (Figure 1-9). Avoid using Microsoft Access to edit an F6TesT database. Changes, such as adding or deleting records, might not be recognized by F6TesT and can make the database unusable.

Characteristics Library Overcurrent, Under/Over Voltage, Under/Over Frequency, Differential Characteristic Equations Look-up Tables

Z General Characteristics

Z Standard Mho/Offset Mho Characteristic Model

Building Blocks Arcs/Lines

RELAY Function 1

Function 3

Element 1

Element 2

Element 1 Element 2

Function 2 Element 1

Test 1

Digital I/O and Triggers

Element 2

Element n

Test 3

Test 1

Test 2

Test 2 TEST PLAN 1

Test 3

TEST PLAN 2

Test 1

Test 2

Test 4 TEST PLAN N

Figure 1-9 F6TesT Relay Architecture

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Location The first level of a data tree is always a location, which can correspond to a substation or to a protection panel in a substation. A location contains either sublocations or relays, but not both. Up to three levels of locations are allowed. The user can add an asset tracking number if necessary.

Relay A relay record has a user assigned Relay ID, which can identify the line or equipment being protected and an optional serial number. These are arbitrary and can be edited by clicking the table entry and entering changes. A timestamp records the original creation date of the record, and the login name of the user that created the record. The timestamp and originator cannot be changed. The Manufacturer field enables you to enter a relay manufacturer. You can select the manufacturer from a drop-down menu or you can type the name in the field. Each manufacturer has a corresponding list of relay models. If the name entered is not in the list, a prompt appears, asking whether to add the name to the list. Care should be taken to avoid entering duplicate names or synonyms for the same manufacturer. For consistency of the relay naming conventions, it is advisable to enter all relay model names under the Relay Mfrs and Models menu.

Once a test plan has been defined for a relay, the Mfr cannot be changed.

Test Plan Each test plan has a user-assigned name to describe the purpose of the plan. A creation date and login name are recorded when the test plan is first created. These fields cannot be changed.

Menus and Toolbars This section describes the F6TesT menu bar and toolbars (Figure 1-10).

Figure 1-10 Menu Bar and Toolbars 1-12

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The F6TesT menu bar consists of the following menus: • • • • • •

File Edit Module Setup Tools Help

Context Menu The Edit menu is also available as a context menu in the Location Tree and the Table View (Figure 1-11). To access the context menu, right-click the item in either the Location Tree or Table View. The function of the selected menu item is applied. This menu enables you to perform many of the functions on the Edit menu.

Figure 1-11 Context Menu

Copy, Cut, and Paste in the Location Tree and List View You can copy and paste one or more records (locations, relays, test plans, tests) from the location tree or table view, according to the following rules: 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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• •

Copy a location and paste it to another location. This pastes all sublocations, if any, and all relays, test plans, and tests to the target location. Copy a relay and paste it to the same location or another location. All subrecords are also copied and pasted. Copy a test and paste it to the same test plan or another test plan.

See Appendix C, “Cut, Copy, and Paste Operations”, for more details. A copy/cut/paste operation in F6TesT cannot be undone. A cut operation is executed only after a paste operation is successful.

Delete, Insert, Append, Find in the Location Tree and List View These options enable you to delete, insert, append, and find records (locations, relays, test plans, and tests) in the location tree or table view. To perform any of these actions, highlight a record and select one of the options from the context menu. If you are adding, inserting, or appending, the new record will appear before the selected record.

Toolbars The following four toolbars provide quick access to various program functions: 1. The Standard toolbar (Figure 1-12) presents basic file and edit functions, using icons that are common to many Windows applications. Open a Database

Clipboard functions: Cut, Copy, and Paste

Move the selected item up Move the selected item down Find an item in the database

Save changes to the currently open test record

Figure 1-12 Standard Toolbar 2. The Run toolbar icons (Figure 1-13) are used in running tests, as described in Chapter 5, “Running Tests”.

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Pause the test

Run the test

Stop the test

Start Auto Run on a test sequence

Figure 1-13 Run Toolbar 3. The Battery toolbar (Figure 1-14) controls the F6000 Battery Simulator source. The Battery toolbar is always active, even when no database is open.

Figure 1-14 Battery Toolbar To turn the battery simulator source on: a. Use the drop-down menu to select DC voltage (48, 125, or 250 V). If the F6000 has a variable-amplitude battery simulator, you can enter the amplitude manual in the field. The range is 6–300 V, in 1-volt increments. b. Click 1 to turn the battery simulator on. c. Click 0 to turn the battery simulator off.

The battery cannot be turned off or on while a test is running.

4. The Formula and Functions toolbar (Figure 1-15) enables you to manage formulae, functions, and keywords when a test definition is open. Formula Bar

Highlight Formula

Find Note in Notebook

Keyword & Functions

Figure 1-15 Formula and Function Toolbar

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Formula Bar — causes a Formula Bar pop-up window (Figure 1-16) to appear, enabling you to create a formula. The Formula Bar appears any time the user enters an equal sign (=) in a cell. An equal sign must also preceed the formula in the Formula Bar.

Figure 1-16 Formula Bar Button •



Highlight Formula — turns highlighting on and off. If there are any formulas in your test definition, they will be highlighted when you turn highlighting on. Click the arrow next to the button to display the Color Selection dialog box (Figure 1-35); this dialog box enables you to change the color of the highlighting. Formula Keywords and Functions — causes a dialog box to appear (Figure 1-17) that displays keywords and functions for formulas for different categories of tests. It also displays a list of valid operators for formulas.

Figure 1-17 Formula Keywords and Functions Dialog Box •

1-16

Find Note — alerts you to the fact that there are notes on the Notebook tab. This icon appears only when there are notes for the test definition.

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File Menu Use the File menu (Figure 1-18) to open, save, and close databases; print; and exit the program.

Figure 1-18 File Menu

New To create a new database file: 1. Choose File  Close to close the current database. 2. Select File  New to open the New dialog box (Figure 1-19).

Figure 1-19 New Dialog Box 3. In the Template Database Name field, enter the name of the template to be used with the new database or click the browse button and browse to an existing template. 4. To store the database in a location other than the default (..\F6TesT2.2\Databases), use the Browse button navigate to that location. 5. Enter a name for the new database. 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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6. Click Save. The file is saved as an Access-compatible file and the appropriate extension (.mdb) is automatically appended to the name. The database is created and opened. The new database does not include manufacturers, relays, and characteristics. To create a new database containing information from the sample database, open the F6TestSampleDB and choose File  Save As from the menu bar to make a copy. Then, open the new database and delete unwanted Locations, Relays, and Test Plans. Manufacturers, relay models, and characteristics defined in the sample database remain available.

Open To open an F6TesT database: 1. Close the open database. 2. Select File  Open or click the folder icon in the toolbar. The F6TesT program displays the Select Database dialog box (Figure 1-5). 3. Navigate to the desired database. 4. Click Open.

Close To close the currently open database: 1. Select File  Close from the menu bar or click the small gray X ( ) in the upper right corner of the screen. A dialog box appears asking if you want to close the database. There is no prompt to save or discard changes. 2. Click Yes.

Save As To make a copy of the open database: 1. Select File  Save As. 2. Enter a new name for the database. 3. Click Save. The original database remains open. 4. Select File  Close. The current database closes. 5. Select File  Open. 6. Select the newly created copy. 7. Click Open.

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Delete Saved Graphs To delete any graphs that have been saved, select File  Delete Saved Graphs.

Recently Opened Databases When no database is open, the File menu lists the most recently opened databases (Figure 1-20). Click a database name to reopen it.

Figure 1-20 File Menu When No Database Is Open

Print Setup Print Setup opens a standard Print dialog box for selecting and configuring a printer for F6TesT reports (refer to “Reports Tab” on page 4-83).

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Exit To close F6TesT: 1. Select File  Exit. A dialog box appears, asking if you want to exit F6TesT (Figure 1-19).

Figure 1-21 Exit Dialog Box 2. Click Yes.

Edit Menu The Edit menu (Figure 1-22) provides basic functions for adding or modifying items selected in the location tree or in table view. There are two ways to access the menu: 1. Select Edit from the menu bar. 2. Right-click an item in the location tree or table view to access the pop-up context menu. Menu bar options are disabled or grayed out if they are not applicable to the current context window.

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Figure 1-22 Edit Menu Table 1-2 lists and describes the commands available from the Edit menu, along with the corresponding icons in the Standard toolbar and keyboard shortcuts (such as Ctrl + C to copy an item). Right-clicking offers two additional options — Check All and Uncheck All — that enable you to select or deselect all the check boxes in a list of tests. Table 1-2 Edit Menu Menu Option

Short-Cut Key

Insert

Ctrl + I

Inserts a new record in a table immediately above the selected record.

Append

Ctrl + A

Appends a new record to the end of a table.

Delete

Delete key

Deletes a selected record.

Copy

Ctrl+ C

Copies a selected record to the clipboard.

Cut

Ctrl + X

Removes a selected record from the table and stores it on clipboard so that it can be can be pasted to different, compatible place in the database.

Paste

Ctrl + V

Appends a copied or cut record to the end of the list.

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Table 1-2 Edit Menu (Continued) Menu Option

Short-Cut Key

Description

Multiple Copy

Copies multiple locations, relays, test plans, and tests to the clipboardfrom the table and stores it on clipboard so that it can be can be pasted to different, compatible place in the database.

Multiple Cut

Cuts multiple locations, relays, test plans, and tests.

Multiple Delete

Pastes multiple locations, relays, test plans, and tests.

Move Down

Moves the selected record down one position in the table.

Move Up

Moves a selected record up one position in the table.

Find

Ctrl + F

Opens the Find dialog box, enabling you to perform a database search for records that match a search string. A blank search field acts as a wild card. For example, searching for blank in table Relay, column Relay Name lists all relays in the database.

Import from SS File

Imports state simulation files created by other applications.

Rename

Enables you to rename a file.

Copy Use Copy to copy one record (location, relay, test plan, or test), including all related records under it, to the clipboard so that it can be pasted to a compatible place elsewhere in the open database. For example, a relay can be copied to another location, but a test plan or test can be copied only within the same relay because it is linked to specific relay functions and parameters. Copying blocks of data is enabled in some test definition dialog boxes. To copy a record from one database to another: 1. Right-click the record. 2. Select Copy from the pop-up menu or press Ctrl + C. 3. Close the database. 4. Open the destination database.

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5. Right-click in the appropriate table. 6. Select Paste from the pop-up menu or press Ctrl + V. To highlight a block of data for copying or cutting: 1. Click the item at the start of the block. 2. Press Shift and click the item at the end of the block. The highlighted portion is copied to the clipboard. Because the Copy function uses the Windows clipboard, data can also be copied from one application to another.

Multiple Cut, Copy, and Delete F6TesT enables users to select one or more locations, relays, test plans, and tests and cut, copy, or delete them. Once they are on the clipboard, you can paste the records into other locations, databases, or applications. To cut, copy, or delete multiple records: 1. Go to the location in F6TesT where you want to paste the cut or copied records. 2. Select Edit  Cut, Copy, or Delete. The following dialog box appears.

Figure 1-23 Multiple Cut, Copy or Delete Dialog Box

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3. Select the type of record that you want to cut, copy, or delete. 4. From the Evaluation drop-down menu, select an operating range for the records to further refine the data. Choices are: • • • • •

All Pass Fail Op No Op

5. Check or uncheck the Default for auto run check box to set the parameters as the default parameters for autorun. 6. In the Date section, select the date(s) that you want included in the dialog box for selection. Choices include: • • • • •

All Last Tested Last Edit Tested Date Range Edited Date Range

7. Once you have established all parameters, click Find. F6TesT finds and displays all records that match your query. 8. When finished, click Cut, Copy, or Delete. The dialog box disappears and the location you selected in step 1 is displayed. The button that is available at the botton of the dialog box depends on the operation you selected from the Tools menu. All other buttons, with the exception of Close, are greyed out.

9. Select Edit  Paste.

Find Use Find (Figure 1-24) to specify a search of the database for records that contain a specific string. To find a record that contains a specific string: 1. Right-click the record. 2. Select Find from the pop-up menu or press Ctrl + F. The following dialog box appears.

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Figure 1-24 Find Dialog Box 3. Enter the text string in the Find What field. (The search string is not case-sensitive.) 4. Use the drop-down menus in the In Table and In Column(s) fields to further refine the search. A blank search field acts as a wild card. For example, searching the table Relay and column Relay_Name with nothing specified in Find What returns all relays in the database. You can search only one column in one table at a time. 5. Check Match Whole Word Only to further restrict the search. 6. Click Find. Matching records are displayed in the lower pane of the dialog box. 7. Double-click a record to open it.

Module Menu Module menu options (Figure 1-25) are described in Table 1-3. These options are active only when a test record is selected.

Figure 1-25 Module Menu

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Table 1-3 Module Menu Options Open

There are three ways to open a test module record: • Select the module in the test plan Table View and choose Module  Open from the menu bar. • Double-click the record in the test plan Table View. • Select the module in the test plan Table View and press Enter. Only one module record can be open at a time.

Close

There are three ways to close a test module record: • Select Module  Close from the menu bar. • Click the small gray X in the upper right corner of the Test Definition screen. • Press F9. When prompted, save the record if there are any unsaved changes.

Save

There are three ways to save changes to a test record: • Select Module  Save from the menu bar. • Press Ctrl + S. • Click the Save icon. If you are editing an existing definition, save the changes to the definition or to a new definition when prompted.

Setup Menu Setup menu (Figure 1-26) options are:

Figure 1-26 Setup Menu

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Communication Setup To configure communications between the computer and the F6000 instrument: 1. Select Setup  Communication Setup from the menu bar to open the Communication Setup dialog box (Figure 1-27).

Figure 1-27 Communications Setup Dialog Box 2. Select either Serial or Ethernet and configure the connection parameters. For a serial port connection: • •

Select the Comm Port from the drop-down menu. The Baud rate is fixed at 57,600.

For an Ethernet connection: •

In the IP Address field, enter the IP address of the F6000 instrument as it appears in the upper right corner of the F6000 front panel display. If the instrument is connected to a network, it may be necessary to change the IP address of the instrument to avoid a conflict with another device on the network. The IP address can be changed user the F6000 Software Tools menu (see “F6000 Software Tools” on page 1-44).

3. Click OK. If necessary, click Refresh to refresh the communications. Click Verify Connection to make sure that the connection to the F6000 is up and running.

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Graphics Setup Use the Graphics Setup dialog box (Figure 1-28) to set default color and display properties for tests: 1. Choose Setup  Graphics Setup. The Graphics Setup dialog box appears.

Figure 1-28 Graphics Setup Dialog Box 2. Use the dialog box controls to set the color scheme for displaying test points and characteristics, the test point shape, and tolerance format. For example, to improve printing quality, select a white background and colors for axes, grid, and data that show up well against a white background. 3. Click OK. To see additional selections for Impedance tests, click More and select Impedance. The following, additional options appear in the dialog box.

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Figure 1-29 Graphic Setup Dialog Box for Impendance Tests To see additional selections for other tests, select Other Tests. The following, additional options appear.

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Figure 1-30 Graphics Setup Dialog Box for Other Tests

Oscillograph Setup The Oscillograph Setup dialog box enables you to set color and display properties for X (voltage) and Y (current) sources for all test types. Oscillographs can be displayed for each test by double-clicking the test, clicking the Test tab, and then clicking the Oscillograph button. Figure 1-31 shows a sample oscillograph.

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Figure 1-31 Sample Oscillograph

Using the Context Menu To access the oscillograph context menu, right-click in the oscillograph. The following menu appears.

Figure 1-32 Oscillograph Context Menu Table 1-4 explains the Oscillograph context menu. Table 1-4 Oscillograph Context Menu Menu Option

Setup

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Description

Displays the Oscillograph Setup window.

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Table 1-4 Oscillograph Context Menu (Continued) Menu Option

Description

Zoom In

Zooms in on the part of the oscillograph that is between the right and left cursors.

Un Zoom

Zooms out to normal view.

Maximize Graph

Blows up the oscillograph to full-screen size.

Restore Graph

Restores the oscillograph to its normal size. Note that this menu selection is grayed out until Maximize Graph is used.

Using the Cursors The oscillograph has two vertical cursors (Figure 1-33) that enable you to select a part of the oscillograph to zoom in on.

Left Cursor

Right Cursor

Figure 1-33 Oscillograph Cursors To move either cursor, click on it. When a double arrow appears, drag the cursor to its desired location and drop it.

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Setting Oscillograph Properties To set up the properties for an oscillograph, select Setup  Oscillograph Setup or click somewhere in the oscillograph and select Setup from the pop-up menu. The following window appears.

Figure 1-34 Oscillograph Setup — General Properties Tab

General Properties Tab The General Properties tab enables you to create property profiles and to set general properties, such as the caption of the oscillograph, background colors, the color of the axis, and the color or the captions for the x- and y-axes. 1. To create a new profile, click New. 2. Enter the name of the new profile. 3. Click Apply. 4. For each item on the tab for which you want to set a color, click the browse button ( ) next to that item. The color selection dialog box appears.

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Figure 1-35 Color Selection Dialog Box 5. Select a color and click OK. 6. When finished, click OK to close the Oscillograph Setup window.

Analog Tab The Analog tab enables you to set the color for a maximum of 12 sources with power system simulators. You can also select the width of the line (in millimeters), as well as the style of the line.

Figure 1-36 Oscillograph Setup — Analog Tab

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1. To configure the Analog display, select the color as you did on the General Properties tab. 2. From the Width drop-down menu, select the width of the line (1 – 5 millimeters). 3. From the Style drop-down menu, select the style of the line (solid, dash, dot, dashdot, dashdotdot). 4. Click Apply. 5. Click OK to close the Oscillograph Setup window.

Digital Output Tab The Digital Output tab (Figure 1-37) enables you to configure the display properties of digital output in the F6150. The output of each signal is not based on criteria.

Figure 1-37 Oscillograph Setup — Digital Output Tab Follow the steps above to configure the Digital Output parameters.

Digital Input Tab The Digital Input tab enables you to configure the properties of digital inputs criteria based on Pass, Fail, Op, NoOp, and Not Tested signals.

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Figure 1-38 Oscillograph Setup — Digital Input Tab Follow the steps above to configure the Digital Input parameters.

Test Defaults To review test specification defaults before configuring new tests, select Setup  Test Defaults. The Test Defaults dialog box appears, with the following three tabs: • • •

System Parameters Run/Auto Run Miscellaneous

System Parameters Enables you to select phase rotation and names and nominal or rated values of relay frequencies, voltages, and currents.

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Figure 1-39 System Parameters Tab The table sets separate pass/fail tolerances for expected operating value (Q) or operating time (T) for each type of test variable: current, voltage, frequency, and impedance. These values are used as defaults when a new relay function and relay test are created, but can be modified as needed in individual tests. Percent tolerances are overridden by an absolute minimum ± deviation: Qabsmin for deviation in unit value results and Tabsmin for deviation in time units. • • •



%Q Tolerance — Percent tolerance for tests measuring operating current, voltage, frequency, or impedance. %T Tolerance — Percent tolerance for time tests. Qabsmin. Minimum tolerance in absolute test units, which overrides percent tolerance. Percent tolerance of a small expected value (or zero, as in 0 Ohms) is not meaningful. For example, it may easily be smaller than the resolution of the F6000 source or the relay measuring circuit. Qabsmin sets a minimum units value for ± tolerance. Tabsmin — Minimum tolerance in absolute time units for fast acting relays.

Run/Auto Run Controls the way in which testing proceeds when test failures are encountered.

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Figure 1-40 Run/Auto Run Tab This tab includes separate specifications for when a single test module is run (which can test several points on a characteristic) and for when multiple tests are run in a nonstop sequence (Auto Run). The occurrence of a large number of failed tests may indicate a setup problem, requiring the test to be stopped. Click the Auto Save Test Results check box to ensure that results are saved in Auto Run. In the Auto Save Name section, if the name is for all test definitions, click the Use Global Auto Save Name check box and enter a name (or accept the default entry in the field). If the name is for a particular test definition, do not check the box and enter a name for the test in the field.

Miscellaneous Enables you to set display time formats for the program and for reports. It also enables you to perform alarm maintenance, maintain log settings, and set the transient duration.

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Figure 1-41 Miscellaneous Tab • •

Format — Click the drop-down menus to set date and clock formats. Relay parameter modifications — Relay parameters can be changed, modified, or deleted only when this box is checked. This applies to existing relays, as well as copied and pasted relays.

Figure 1-42 Relay Maintenance Schedule

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The value in the Next Test Due field is calculated from the Last Tested and Test Interval values. If a test is due, a blinking button (Figure 1-43) appears in the field. Click the button to stop the blinking.

Figure 1-43 Blinking Maintenance Button

Global Report Definitions F6TesT includes two defined report formats: Long Definition and Short Definition. These formats define the items to include in the report and header and footer information. To modify an existing format or create a new one: 1. Choose Setup  Global Report Definitions. The Report Template dialog box opens (Figure 1-44).

Figure 1-44 Report Template Dialog Box

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2. Select a definition name using the drop-down menu at the top of the dialog box. 3. Check items in the data tree to be included in the test report and uncheck items to be excluded. 4. Enter text for the report header and footer. If desired, click the button to the right of the Logo field to browse to a bitmap file to be included as a logo in the report. 5. If you do not want to use a default header, enter text in the Custom Page Header field. 6. Click Close to modify an existing template or New to create a new template. 7. If you click New to add a new template, enter a name in the Report definition field. 8. Click Save.

Directories This menu option is available only when no database is open. It displays the path for the default database directory and enables you to change the path. To change the default database directory path: 1. Select Setup  Directories. The Default Database Directory dialog box appears (Figure 1-45).

Figure 1-45 Default Database Directory Dialog Box 2. Delete the current default database directory path. The OK and Apply buttons are no longer grayed out. 3. Enter the new default database directory path or click Browse and browse to the new directory. 4. Click Apply or OK.

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Change Language This menu option enables you to change the language used in F6TesT. Currently, the following languages are supported: • • • • • • •

English Spanish Portuguese Simplified Chinese Traditional Chinese Korean French

To change the language: 1. Select Setup  Change Language. The Language Selection dialog box appears (Figure 1-46).

Figure 1-46 Language Selection Dialog Box 2. Select a new language from the drop-down menu. 3. Click OK.

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Tools Menu The Tools menu (Figure 1-47) includes the following options:

Figure 1-47 Tools Menu

The options that appear on this menu depend on the tab that you’re currently on.

Offline Simulation Mode Offline Simulation Mode enables tests to be run as if an F6000 instrument and relay were connected. The feature is enabled when a checkmark appears to the left of the menu item. Offline Simulation Mode can be used for demonstration or training. It can also be used for creating and testing test plans when no F6000 or relay is connected.

DB Compacting Preferences Database compacting recovers disk space allocated to deleted records and optimizes the location of the remaining database records. Database compacting can be run automatically or on demand. Repacking or compacting a large database can take a long time, so it is done infrequently.

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To set preferences for this performance feature: 1. Select Tools  DB Compacting Preferences. The DB Compacting Preferences dialog box appears (Figure 1-48).

Figure 1-48 Database Compacting Preferences Dialog Box 2. Select the Manual Compact or Auto Compact option. • •

Manual compact makes the Compact Database button active so compacting can be initiated from the dialog box. Auto compact makes the options in the Auto Compact Prefs group active. You can specify that automatic compacting should occur each time the database is closed or when it reaches a specified size.

3. Click OK.

F6000 Software Tools Select F6000 Software Tools to open a submenu with standard F6000 support programs. These programs enable you to configure the instrument from F6TesT. Refer to the F6000 Instrument User Guide (Doble document no. 72A-1589) for more information. Some options require communication with the F6000 instrument. Menu options include: •

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F6000 Flash Loader — Calls the Flash Loader utility (Figure 1-49) to install revised firmware in the F6000 instrument.

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Figure 1-49 Flash Loader Dialog Box •

F6000 Key Code — Launches an update utility that installs options available for the F6000 instrument (Figure 1-50). To see the list of options, select the F6000 Options menu.

Figure 1-50 Doble F6X Key Code Upgrade Dialog Box •

F6000 IP Set — Opens a dialog box (Figure 1-51) that enables you to enter the IP address the instrument uses for Ethernet communications.

Figure 1-51 Set F6000 IP Address Dialog Box •

F6000 Version — Displays the current firmware version installed in the F6000 instrument.

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• •

F6000 Options — Displays the Options installed in the F6000 instrument. F6000 CPU ID — Displays the CPU ID of the connected F6000 instrument.

Characteristics Select Characteristics to open a submenu with the following options: •

Edit Characteristics — Enables you to add or change characteristics for relay functions:  Differential  Over Current  Over Voltage  Over Frequency  Under Voltage  Under Frequency  Volts per Hertz F6TesT uses these characteristics to automatically calculate expected values for test points.





Characteristic Batch Copy — Enables you to copy relay characteristics created in one database to another database. See “Copying Relay Characteristics between Databases” on page 2-14. Characteristics Cross Reference — Enables you to edit the Characteristics Cross-reference table. See “Characteristics Cross-Reference” on page B-3.

Relay Maintenance Schedule This menu option enables the user to display information about relays by manufacturer, model, and maintenance dates.

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Figure 1-52 Relay Maintenance Schedule Dialog Box

Relay Mfrs & Models Each F6TesT database has its own list of relay manufacturers and models. This option enables you to modify this information. To modify the manufacturer information, select Tools  Relay Mfrs & Models. The Relay Mfrs & Models dialog box appears (Figure 1-53).

Figure 1-53 Relay Mfrs & Models Dialog Box

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From here, you can add or delete manufacturers and model numbers. New model numbers and manufacturers can be added when a relay is added to the database. It is advisable to use the global dialog for this purpose, however, to ensure consistent names and numbers and to avoid duplicate entries (such as “SEL” and “Schweitzer” or “SEL321” and “SEL-321”).

To add a manufacturer: 1. In the drop-down menu, make sure that the desired manufacturer is not already listed. 2. Click Add Mfr to add a new manufacturer. (Once a manufacturer name is added, it can be deleted, but not edited.) 3. Add optional contact information in the Contact Information field. 4. Add a model number, if desired. 5. Click Save. To add or change a model number: 1. Click a model number cell (either an empty cell or an existing Model Number cell). 2. Enter an alphanumeric name. If a model number is modified, the new model number applies to all associated relays. 3. Click Save.

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To delete a manufacturer or model number: 1. Select a manufacturer or model number. 2. Click Delete. You cannot delete a manufacturer or a relay model if it is associated with a relay record in the database.

Reports This option enables you to generate global reports for relays. To generate a report: 1. Select Tools  Reports from the menu bar. The Reports dialog box appears (Figure 1-54).

Figure 1-54 Reports Dialog Box

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2. Select the Report Type. Choices include: • • •

List of relays Test plan summary Test result details

3. From the Report Format drop-down menu, select either the long or short definition, or select a customized format if one exists (see “Global Report Definitions” on page 1-40 for more information). 4. To filter the report further, select any or all of the following options: a. To display only the default test definitions for each test, click the Default for auto run check box. Default test definitions are set in the Test Definitions dialog box that appears when you open a test definition. For more information, refer to Chapter 5, “Running Tests” for more information on test definition defaults.

b. From the Evaluation drop-down menu, select an operating range for the relay to further refine the data. Choices are:  All  Pass  Fail  Op  NoOp c. In the Date section, select All, Last Tested, or Tested Date Range. If you select Tested Date Range, from and to drop-down menus (Figure 1-55) appear that enable you to select the dates to be included in the report.

Figure 1-55 Tested Date Range Selector

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To select a date, click on the date in the calendar. Click the forward or backward buttons to scroll through the months. 5. Select the tests for which you want reports. To do this: •

Click the grey box next to the relay(s) for which you want to generate a report and then deselect the test(s) or test plan(s) you don’t want. A red check mark appears in the grey box next to the relay and all children (see Figure 1-56). or



Start at a lower level and select only the test(s) or test plan(s) that you want.

Figure 1-56 Reports — Selected Relays You can deselect any of the test plans, tests, or test definitions by clicking the grey box next to the test plans, tests, or test definitions that you don’t want included in the report. To select one test or test definition, click the grey box next to it. The relay and test plan are automatically selected. 6. Click Preview so see what the report looks like. Click Print to print the report. Click Export to export the report data to a specified format and location. The following dialog box appears, enabling you to select the format and location to export the report data to.

Figure 1-57 Reports Export Dialog Box

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7. Select the format and destination and click OK. 8. Click Close to close the Reports dialog box.

Convert Database Software upgrades sometimes involve a change in the database schema. As a result, a new version of F6TesT may be unable to open a previous database. In such cases, an Invalid F6 Database error is reported. Once a database is converted to the new schema, it may not be possible to convert it back to the old schema. It is prudent to make a backup copy of the database before converting it.

To convert the old database to the current schema: 1. Select Tools  Convert Database from the menu bar. The Database Conversion dialog box appears (Figure 1-58).

Browse Buttons

Figure 1-58 Database Conversion Dialog Box 2. Use the browse button to the right of the first field to find and select the old database. 3. Use the browse button to the right of the second field to find the new and current master database (..\F6TesT\F6_Master.mdb) located in the application folder. 4. Click Proceed. The converted database can now be opened.

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Template Library This option enables you to view templates that are associated with each F6TesT test. Select Tools  Template Library. A dialog box similar to the following appears.

Figure 1-59 Template Library Dialog Box Click the browse button (

) to navigate to another directory.

Power System Model The Power System Model automatically creates prefault, fault, and postfault states in SSIMUL for each fault calculation. See Appendix D, “Power System Model”, for instructions on using the Power System Model.

Vector Calculator See Appendix E, “Vector Calculator”, for instructions on how to use the Vector Calculator.

Help Menu There are two selections in the Help menu: 1. F6TesT Help, which opens the online F6TesT User’s Guide. 2. About F6TesT, which displays the version number of F6TesT.

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2. Relay Characteristics Expected operating points are determined by either a formula or a look-up table based on manufacturer or user-entered specifications. As Figure 1-9 on page 1-11 shows, there are different types of characteristics. The Characteristic library, contained in the sample database, is used to define time characteristics (common to overcurrent, over/under voltage, and over/under frequency functions) and differential characteristics. This includes characteristics defined by standard or manufacturer-supplied equations or by user-entered lookup tables (for example, values transcribed from published curves that have no equation). When a relay record is created, a characteristic is selected from the library to determine expected operating values. Because standard mho and offset mho impedance characteristics are common to all distance relays, they are selected and customized at the relay level. General impedance characteristics, such as quadrilateral and other arc-line combinations, are also defined only at the relay level. Simple differential characteristics that are not found in the library may also be customized at the relay level. The F6TesT sample database includes a library of time and differential characteristics.

Characteristics Library To examine a characteristic or add a new one: 1. Select Tools  Characteristics  Edit Characteristics. The Characteristics screen appears (Figure 2-1). Characteristics are arranged by relay function and manufacturer.

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Figure 2-1 Characteristics Window 2. Use the drop-down menu at the top of the window to select a relay function. Available characteristics are displayed on three screens, each of which can be accessed from a button at the top of the window: •





Characteristic Equations. These are generic equations for each function that are independent of manufacturer. They are applied to a specific manufacturer by selecting Characteristic Constants to set parameter values. Characteristic Constants. These are characteristics that are customized for a manufacturer and stored by function. A general characteristic equation is selected and applied by giving values to its parameters. Look-Up Table. If a relay does not have a known characteristic equation, a table can be created to specify the characteristic. For example, values can be entered from a published curve. Test values are then calculated by interpolation.

Characteristic Equations A characteristic equation is a general formula or template for equations specific to a manufacturer and relay function. Parameterized formulas for a function, such as overcurrent, can apply to all manufacturers and relays.

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To select an equation: 1. Select the relay function type (except Differential) from the drop-down menu. 2. Click Characteristic Equations. The Characteristic Equations screen appears (Figure 2-2). 3. Select an equation name from the drop-down menu. The related equation appears in the Trip time window. If the desired equation does not exist: 1. Click New. 2. Enter the equation name in the Equation Name field. 3. Enter the equation in the equation field. Two reserved variables must be present: • •

M: multiple of pickup setting T: time dial setting If M is not required, as in definite time characteristics, add M and then subtract M at the end of the equation.

4. Click Parse Equation & Show Constants. If the syntax is correct, the variables or constants, other than M and T, are displayed. 5. Click Save. The new equation is added to the database, ready to be used for creating specific characteristics. To copy a formula under a different name: 1. Select the equation. 2. Select Edit Copy. 3. Select Edit Paste. 4. In the Equation Name field, enter a new name. 5. Click Save. 6. Click Close.

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Figure 2-2 Characteristic Equations Screen

Characteristic Constants The next step is to define a specific relay characteristic by selecting one of the previously defined general equations and supplying the constants: 1. Select the relay function type (except Differential) from the drop-down menu. 2. Click the Characteristic Constants button. The Characteristic Constants screen appears (Figure 2-3).

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Figure 2-3 Characteristic Constants Screen 3. Click New. 4. Select a manufacturer from the drop-down menu. If the manufacturer is not in the list: a. Enter the manufacturer’s name. b. Press Tab or Enter. A dialog box appears, asking if you want to add this name to the list of manufacturers. c. Click Yes. 5. Enter a Characteristic Name. 6. Select a general equation from the Equation Name drop-down menu (this is the equation on which the characteristic will be based). The Trip Time equation and constants for that equation appear. 7. Enter a description in the Characteristic Description field. Optional. 8. In the Time Dial Settings group, enter the minimum, maximum, and default times. 9. Enter the Definite Minimum Time, the multiple at which the characteristic becomes flat, and the values of the constants.

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The value for Definite Minimum Time Starts at M= is normally on the order of 10 to 30, particularly for IEC curves. For definite time curves, it should be 1.0; for general inverse curves where the value is not specific, use a high number, such as 1000.

10. Click Save. The new manufacturer-specific equation is added to the database and is available for relay function elements. 11. Check the Display Graph box ( ) in the upper right corner of the screen to view the characteristic. A graph for the selected characteristics appears (Figure 2-4).

Figure 2-4 Characteristic Constants Graph

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To show multiple graphs: 1. Click the Show Multiple check box. A list box appears under the check box (Figure 2-5).

Figure 2-5 Show Multiple List Box This list box enables you select the equations that you want to appear on the graph. 2. Click Add. The following fields appear under the list box.

Figure 2-6 Add New Characteristic Dialog Box 3. Select a Characteristic Name from the drop-down menu. 4. Enter a value in the Time Dial field. 5. Click OK. The new characteristic appears in the list box above. 6. Repeat this process until you have added all necessary characteristics. 7. In the list box, double-click each characteristic that you want to appear in the graph. The graph should look similar to that in Figure 2-7.

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Figure 2-7 Multiple Graph Display

Guidelines for Characteristics Some manufacturers have a single general characteristic for each function in all their relays. For example, SEL uses the following equation for all US Extremely Inverse overcurrent characteristics:

Constants apply the equation to a specific application.

In a case like this, it is useful to assign it a name, such as “SEL US Curve 3 Extremely Inverse,” to identify the manufacturer and curve. Since general curves for all manufacturers are in the same general equation list, it is helpful to include the manufacturer’s name, especially when comparing curves.

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On the other hand, some manufacturers have overcurrent relays, each of which uses different equations and/or constants for similar characteristics. In such cases, it is helpful to prefix the equation name with the manufacturer and to add a suffix using the model number or the series model family. Table 2-1 shows examples of this convention for three General Electric models. Table 2-1 Same-Characteristic Equations and Constants Characteristic Name

Equation and Constants

GE Very Inverse (DFP100)

Time = T * (A / (M^P – 1) + C) A = 3.992; P = 0.02; C=0.0982

GE IEEE Very Inverse (DIAC)

Time = T * (A / (M^P – 1) + C) * D A = 19.61; P = 2; C = 0.491; D = 0.2

GE IEC Very Inverse (DIAC)

Time = T * A / (M^P –1) A = 13.5; P = 1

Look-up Table Use a look-up table (Figure 2-8) when the relay characteristic does not have an equation. To create a look-up table: 1. Click Look-Up Table. 2. Select a manufacturer from the drop-down menu or enter a new manufacturer. 3. Enter a characteristic name and description. The lookup table characteristic is added to the list of characteristics applied to the specified manufacturer. If a characteristic already in the list is selected, an error is reported if the name exists in the list of characteristics defined by a characteristic equation. Only table-defined characteristics can be displayed and modified in the lookup table.

When you click outside the Characteristic Name field after entering a new name, the Key In button is enabled (except when Differential is selected in the drop-down menu at the top of the screen). 4. Click Key In to define the number of columns (minimum 12) and enter values for Tap, Time Dial, and times in the table cells. 5. Click Save. 6. Check the Display Graph box to view a graph of the new characteristic.

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Figure 2-8 Lookup Table

Importing from a Spreadsheet There are two ways to import data into a look-up table: • •

Copying and pasting using the Windows clipboard Using the F6TesT Import function

To import data using the clipboard: 1. Open a spreadsheet program such as Excel. 2. Select a row-column region conforming to the F6TesT lookup table. 3. Press Ctrl + C. The spreadsheet data is copied from the clipboard. 4. Switch to F6TesT and the appropriate lookup table. 5. Click in the upper left cell of the table in F6TesT. 6. Press Ctrl + V. The spreadsheet data is pasted from the clipboard. To use the Import function: 1. Click Import. An Open File dialog box appears. 2. Browse to the spreadsheet file.

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3. Click Open. An Import Details group (Figure 2-9) appears just below the Key In and Import buttons in the look-up table.

Figure 2-9 Import Details Group on the Lookup Table 4. Enter the Workbook Sheet Number, starting cell address (the upper left corner of the block,) and ending cell address (lower right corner). 5. Click OK. The spreadsheet can be open during this process to make it easier to determine the worksheet number and start and end cell numbers.

Differential Characteristics The Characteristic Library uses a look-up table for differential characteristics (Figure 2-10).

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Figure 2-10 Differential Characteristics Page Expected values are usually stated in terms of differential current vs. restraint or bias current, that is, Idiff vs. Ibias. In some cases, the manufacturer may state the characteristic in terms of Is vs. Ip, secondary current vs. primary. Table values can be entered in either form and values can be viewed in either form with expected values translated from one form to the other. It is also possible to test when the characteristic is unknown. To add a new look-up table: 1. Select a manufacturer. 2. Enter a name and, optionally, a description. 3. Select the differential type: Ibias vs. Idiff or Ip vs. Is. 4. Enter the data in the table cells. Ibias, Idiff, Ip, and Is are not absolute currents, but are multiples of a reference current, Iref, defined for the specific relay function. Iref is usually the tap setting for relays that use tap settings or the nominal current divided by the ratio compensation for relays that use ratio compensation. Further, Iref, in turn, is a multiple of the nominal current In defined for each relay winding. (That is, currents are expressed in units of the nominal or rated current referred to the differential measurement circuit.) For simplicity, set Iref = 1*In.

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Displaying and Comparing Relay Characteristics After characteristics have been created using either an equation or a look-up table, check the Display Graphic checkbox to show the characteristic curves (Figure 2-11). The current characteristic can be compared with other characteristics from the same or different manufacturers for any time dial setting, as follows: 1. Check the Show Multiple check box. 2. Click Add. 3. Select a Characteristic Name from the drop-down menu. 4. Enter a time dial value. The name is entered in the list. 5. To graph the curve, click a name in the list. 6. To remove a curve, click Remove.

Figure 2-11 Displaying and Comparing Characteristic Curves

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Copying Relay Characteristics between Databases Relay characteristics created in one database can be copied to another database using the Tools Characteristics Batch Copy (Figure 2-12). To perform a batch copy: 1. Enter the source database name or click Browse and navigate to the source database. 2. Select the manufacturer from the Manufacturer Name drop-down menu. The boxes for functions available for that manufacturer are enabled and checked. 3. Check the characteristics functions for display and uncheck unneeded ones. The related characteristics, including the characteristic name, its associated equation, and the characteristic description, appear in the left pane. 4. Click a Characteristic Name. Selected characteristics are highlighted and appear in the right pane. 5. Click Browse and navigate to the destination database. 6. Click Perform Copy.

Figure 2-12 Characteristic Batch Copy

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After the copy process is complete, you can open another batch copy dialog box and select the previous destination database as the source database to compare the characteristics. When a relay is copied from one database to another, existing characteristics in the target database are checked. If a characteristic does not exist, the characteristic is copied from the source database into the target database.

Characteristics Cross Reference This option opens tables for editing cross-references of existing F6TesT characteristics to characteristics being imported from other external file types. See Appendix B, “Importing Functions.”

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3. Creating a Relay Many of the dialog boxes and windows described in this chapter open with the default values defined in the Test Defaults dialog box (see “Test Defaults” on page 1-36). To review these settings before adding a relay to a location, select Setup  Test Defaults from the menu bar.

Adding a Relay to a Location To add a relay record: 1. Right-click a location in the location tree and select Append. F6TesT displays the table view for the location and appends the relay record in the next available row in table view. The default record name is highlighted, indicating that the name can be changed (Figure 3-1).

Figure 3-1 Appending a New Relay Record 2. Change the Relay Id, if desired, and enter a serial number for the relay.

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3. Press Enter. The cursor jumps to the Model field. 4. Select a relay model from the drop-down menu. If the model is not included in the list: a. Enter the number in the Model column. A dialog box appears, asking if you want to add the model number to the relay model list. b. Click Yes. 5. Press Enter. 6. Double-click the Relay Id to open the relay table view.

Relay Parameters and Functions The next step is to define the relay parameters and functions using Relay Table View. The view presents relay data in the following four tabs (Figure 3-4): • • • •

Test Plan Relay Parameters Connections & Signals Notebook

To open Relay Table View, double-click the relay record in the Location Table View.

Connections & Signals Relay connections and signals must be configured before individual tests can be created. To configure the connections: 1. Click the Connections & Signals tab. The Connections & Signals tab includes the following additional tabs: • • • • •

Analog Signals Digital Inputs and Triggers Digital Outputs Wired Logic Inputs IEC GSE Subscriptions

2. Click the Digital Inputs and Triggers tab (Figure 3-2) to define logic inputs from the relay to the F6000:

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a. Enter a name in the Signal Name field. b. Select a sense condition from the Input Type & Condition drop-down menu. c. If desired, enter descriptive information in the Name and Terminal fields.

Figure 3-2 Connections and Signals Tabs 3. Click Save. 4. Click either the Analog Signals tab or the Digital Outputs tab to configure those connections: •

Analog Signals — Select this tab in Ramp and SSIMUL test modules to predefine a source configuration. This facilitates source selection for these test modules when using a nonstandard, predefined source configuration. Other test modules use only automatic source configuration, and this tab does not apply. You can also select this tab to document a normal connection of the relay to the power system, even if it is not used for testing.

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Digital Outputs — If needed, assign an F6000 digital output to change state when the test executes — for example, to simulate a breaker close contact to the relay, allowing it to reset when the test completes, or to simulate a transfer trip receive signal.  Wired Digital Output  IEC GSE Simulations Digital Inputs and Triggers — The two subtabs enable you to select the trigger inputs in Relay level. These trigger inputs are used in each test module.  Wired Logic Inputs  IEC GSE Subscriptions

Notebook The test originator can use the Notebook tab (Figure 3-3) to enter general instructions. Later, a user can enter comments.

Figure 3-3 Notebook Tab

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To add comments: 1. Click the Notebook tab. 2. Enter instructions in the Originator Comments text box. 3. Click Attach to attach a file. For example, an attached file can be the relay instruction manual or a connection diagram, which is opened from the Notebook page using an application such as Microsoft Word, Adobe Acrobat, or Visio.

Test Plan When table view is opened, the Test Plan tab is selected (Figure 3-4). Test plans are not relay parameters (see Chapter 4, “Creating Test Modules”).

Figure 3-4 Relay Test Plan Tab View

Relay Parameters Initially, the Relay Parameters tab (Figure 3-5) displays the values entered with the Test Defaults dialog box (see “Test Defaults” on page 1-36). These parameters are nominal frequency, voltage, and current, and can be modified. The maximum test voltage and current are required to limit the test to values that do not damage the relay and that are within the range of the F6000 sources. Note that nominal current, In, is the basis for multiples that determine expected relay operation.

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Figure 3-5 Relay Parameters Tab To review and update relay parameters: 1. Click the Relay Parameters tab. 2. Edit the parameters in the General section or the Protected Object Parameters section at the bottom of the tab. 3. Click Apply. Individual relay functions must be defined before any tests can be created. The defined functions are listed in the table to the right. The buttons below the table apply to a selected item. There are five types of relay functions: •

• •

3-6

Time Characteristics — these include current, voltage, and frequency, and are linked to defined characteristic equations or lookup table characteristics. Generic — these can define custom variables that aid in testing relays. Impedance — these use a mho or general characteristic selected for each function.

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• •

Differential — these may be linked to lookup table characteristics. Directional — these use a polarizing voltage or current to control operation.

Function Window Each type of relay function has its own set-up, displayed on a separate screen. To access the setup for a function: 1. Select the function in the table on the right. 2. Click Show. F6TesT displays the window for the function. Figure 3-6 is an example of impedance.

Figure 3-6 Relay Function Screen for Impedance A relay can have several test functions, such as overcurrent, directional, and differential, and each function can have multiple elements to test. For example, an overcurrent function can have low set (I>), high set (I>>), and instantaneous (I>>) pickup points. Low set is usually a time-based element and high set a definite time element. Furthermore, these elements can be applied to single-phase, phase-phase, or sequence current.

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For example, a current function (Figure 3-7) shows a matrix of possible test elements: rows are setting elements; columns are phase or sequence current quantities. The graph on the right shows the test element matrix for Impedance, where rows are zones and columns are phase elements.

Figure 3-7 Overcurrent and Impedance Functions

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Adding a Function The following steps can be used to add all functions except Impedance, for which the procedure can be slightly different. See the next section for the procedure.

To add a function: 1. Click Add. The Add Relay Function dialog box appears (Figure 3-8).

Figure 3-8 Adding a Relay Function 2. Enter a descriptive function name. 3. Select the function type from the drop-down menu. 4. Click Next. The appropriate Add or Modify Function screen appears. 5. Edit the definition in the screen. 6. Click Modify.

Adding an Impedance Function Using the Relay Library The Impedance function enables you to select a relay manufacturer and model for the function. The manufacturer and model must have a relay library. Currently, the following manufacturers have a relay library. • • •

ABB AREVA ENERTEC

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• • • • • • •

ERLPhase GE ICE PROTECTS SCHLUMBERGER SIEMENS TOSHIBA

To add an Impedance function: 1. Follow step 1 and step 2 above. 2. Select Impedance from the Function Type drop-down menu. A Relay Library check box appears (Figure 3-9).

Figure 3-9 Add Relay Function With Relay Library 3. Check the Relay Library check box. A list of models for the relay manufacturer appears.

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Figure 3-10 Add Relay Function With Manufacturers and Models If the manufacturer/model you want is not listed, check the All Manufacturers check box. A list of all available relay libraries appears. If the manufacturer/model you want is still not listed, refer to “Relay Mfrs & Models” on page 1-47 for information on adding the manufacturer relay library. 4. Select the relay you want and click Next. A window appears that displays the library model window (Figure 3-11).

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Figure 3-11 Relay Library Model Window 5. Click the Back to F6TesT button. The function is created and appears in the Relay Functions list on the Relay Parameters tab. 6. Select the function and right-click. The following pop-up menu appears.

Figure 3-12 Relay Function Pop-up Menu

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7. Select Open function. The following window appears.

Figure 3-13 Relay Library — Relay Function Window 8. Select Edit library model from the pop-up menu. The library model appears (Figure 3-14).

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Figure 3-14 Library Model Window 9. Change the values as necessary and click Update Function button.

Copying a Function To create a function based on an existing function: 1. Select the function in the table on the right side of the tab. 2. Click Copy. With a copy of the selected function on the clipboard, the Paste button is enabled. 3. Click Paste. The copy is pasted into the first available row in the table of functions. The copy is named “Copy of...”. 4. Select the copy. 5. Enter a new name. 6. Press Enter.

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Time Characteristic Functions The Time Characteristics screen (Figure 3-15) consists of Pickup Settings table at the upper left and a graph on the right that displays the selected settings. Buttons below the table open a windows for creating and changing individual settings.

Figure 3-15 Time Characteristic Screen The Pickup Settings table has a row for each possible test element and columns for phase or sequence quantity protected. For current, up to three overcurrent elements are allowed: I>, I>>, I>>>. For voltage and frequency, there are 8 levels: • •

4 low set levels: V>

To view a setting, select a cell in the Pickup Settings table. To change the scaling, use the Scale Mode drop-down menu below the graph.

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To add a new setting or modify an existing one: 1. Click an empty cell or the setting to be modified and select Modify. The Modify screen appears (Figure 3-16).

Figure 3-16 Modify Screen — Adding a Pickup Setting 2. From the Characteristic drop-down menu, select characteristics for the relay manufacturer. Characteristics are limited to those defined in the Characteristics dialog box (see Chapter 2, “Relay Characteristics”) for the relay manufacturer and the specific relay function; e.g., overcurrent. 3. Enter the pickup setting as either a multiple or in absolute units. The curve is displayed on the right. 4. Click OK. You are returned to the Time Characteristic screen (Figure 3-15). Right-clicking on the graph opens a menu that enables you to edit the graph’s tolerance, grid lines, zooming, and scale. The composite graph of an element is viewed by clicking its column heading. For example, clicking the Ph-N heading when I>, I>>, I>>>, I>>>>, and I>>>>> elements are present shows a graph similar to Figure 3-17.

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Figure 3-17 Composite Graph

When displaying the composite graph, all elements are referred to the lowest set element, as shown in Figure 3-17. Thus, if pickup settings are I> = 2A, I>> = 15A, and I>>> = 30A, then on the graph, 3A corresponds to a multiple of 3/2 = 1.5, 15A corresponds to a multiple of 15/2 = 7.5, and 30A corresponds to a multiple of 30/2 = 15.

Generic Functions The Generic function screen (Figure 3-18) enables you to define custom variables that aid in testing relays. This screen enables you to create the label, assign a value, select a type (voltage, current, frequency, etc.), and enter comments. Variables can be Primary or Secondary; values can be entered as formulas. Variables can also be used in test modules.

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Figure 3-18 Generic Function Screen To create a variable: 1. Indicate whether the variable is to be Primary or Secondary. 2. Indicate the time unit 3. Double-click in the Label field and enter a label for the variable. 4. Enter a value for the variable. You can enter an absolute value or you can enter a formula. For more information on entering formulas, refer to Chapter 1, “Getting Started”. 5. Enter any comments. 6. Select a type for the variable from the Type drop-down menu. 7. If the variable is to be used in test modules, click the gray box next to the variable. 8. To automatically recalculate any changes that are made on the Relay Parameters tab (such as VTR and CTR ratios), check Enable automatic formula recalculation check box.

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If you do not check this box, the values on this screen will not be updated.

9. Click Save to save your changes. 10. Click OK to exit the Generic function screen and return to the Relay Parameters tab. If you append or insert rows on one side of the screen, a scroll bar appears to the right of the columns. To display all rows without having to scroll, click the plus sign ( ) at the top of the column of gray boxes. The entire section is displayed (Figure 3-19).

Figure 3-19 Generic Function Screen — All Rows Displayed To return to the previous display, click the minus sign ( ).

Impedance Functions The Impedance Function screen (Figure 3-20) includes an Operating Time table on the left, with up to eight distance zones and columns for zone elements to test phase quantities.

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Figure 3-20 Impedance Function Screen Enter the Protected Line Impedance data, if known. This is used for optionally drawing a line on the R-X diagrams. The angle value is also used as a default when defining the characteristic angle of the individual zone elements. To modify an existing zone element, select its column in the table and click Modify. The curves for each zone element are superimposed on the graph. To see the curves one at a time, select a cell and check the Show Selection Only check box. To add a new zone: 1. Click in an empty cell. 2. Click New Zone. The Add or Modify Zone dialog box appears (Figure 3-21).

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Figure 3-21 Adding a Zone 3. Select Mho or General from the Characteristic Type drop-down menu. 4. For Ph-N impedance elements, enter the residual compensation in one of the three modes, depending on the relay setting (Figure 3-22).

Figure 3-22 Modes of Residual Compensation 5. Enter the zone characteristics:

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a. For mho, enter the Forward Reach and Offset from Origin (Figure 3-23).

Figure 3-23 Modifying an Mho Characteristic b. For General, use the General Characteristic screen (Figure 3-24). To add a new zone element: 1. Click in the cell where you wish to add the element. 2. Click Modify. The Add or Modify Zone dialog box appears (Figure 3-21). 3. Continue with step 3 on page 3-21 above. To delete a zone: 1. Select the elements to be deleted. 2. Click Delete. 3. Click Yes.

General Characteristic Use the General Characteristic screen to construct a variety of closed shapes bounded by arcs and lines to represent an operating characteristic, such as a quadrilateral or mho characteristic with blinders. If you select General in the Characteristic Type drop-down menu of the Add or Modify Zone dialog box, the next display is the General Characteristic screen (Figure 3-24). Use the buttons and columns to define lines and arcs:

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Figure 3-24 General Impedance Characteristic Screen •



Line Segments — A Line Polar segment is defined by point coordinates and the slope of a line passing through it. The angle is measured with respect to 0×, pointing east in the diagram. For example, column 1 is Line Polar, with the point at Z = 0 ohms, –q = 0×, and slope = -6×; that is, a line going through the origin in a southeasterly direction. For Line Cartesian, the point is defined by its R-X coordinates; the slope is the same. Arc Segments — Add a circular arc segment, in either polar or Cartesian form, by defining the center of the circle (point coordinates), the radius (in ohms), and the starting and ending angles. Enter line and arc segments in sequence, starting with any segment, moving to the next adjacent segment counterclockwise. This corresponds to the table columns from left to right. Selecting a column and clicking Insert adds a segment before the selected column. Selecting a column and clicking Delete deletes the column pair.

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Predefined Shapes — You can select a predefined shape (quad, triangle, bullet, lens, or tomato), enter relay setting data, and the characteristic line and/or arc segments are automatically added to the table. For example clicking the first Quad button in Figure 3-24 displays the dialog box in Figure 3-25.

Figure 3-25 Predefined Shapes Quad Button Dialog Box When you enter the relay data and click OK, the segments are added to the table, after first clearing the previous contents. You can edit the settings further by inserting, appending, or deleting line or arc segments and/or changing the values. Click Advanced Z-time Curve Settings in the Impedance Function screen (Figure 3-20) to display a dialog box that enables you to define how the operating time slows down as it approaches the zone reach point (Figure 3-26). This is used to calculate the maximum acceptable operating time in the Z-Time test module.

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Figure 3-26 Advanced Z–Time Curve Setting

Directional Functions Overcurrent relays can have directional elements, which use a polarizing voltage or current to control operation. The function is defined in the Directional Function screen (Figure 3-27). The screen includes a table of values for each phase and a phasor diagram that shows the relationship between the operating and polarizing quantity.

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Figure 3-27 Add or Modify Directional Function Screen To configure a directional relay function: 1. Select the function in the Relay Functions table. 2. Click Show. The Add or Modify Direction Function screen appears (Figure 3-27). 3. Check the Phase check box at the top of the column for each phase to be tested. 4. Modify the settings in the table. Make selections from the drop-down menus in the first two rows and enter data directly into the fields of the other rows. 5. Display each test by clicking its option button to the right of the phasor diagram. 6. Click Close. 7. Click Yes to save your changes. You are returned to the Relay Functions window.

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Differential Functions To configure a differential relay function: 1. Select the function in the Relay Functions table. 2. Click Show. The Differential Relay Function screen appears (Figure 3-28). The screen has three tabs: • • •

Differential Function Compensation Settings Transformer Parameter

Differential Function Tab The screen opens with the Differential Function tab displayed (Figure 3-28) and no test elements defined.

Figure 3-28 Differential Function Screen

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To configure the function: 1. Set the reference current to 1. The reference current is a multiple of In, the nominal relay current specified on the Relay Parameters window. 2. From the drop-down menu in the Ibias or Restraint calculation group, select an applicable formula for the relay (or select Unknown). 3. Fill in parameter values for a, b, and c for the formula. To enter low set and high set pick-up values in the table: 1. Select a pickup cell in the Differential Settings table. 2. Click Modify. The Modify Differential Setting and Characteristics screen appears for setting pick-up values (Figure 3-29).

Figure 3-29 Setting Pick-up Values 3. Enter the minimum operate current or the pickup setting. 4. Enter the nominal relay trip time. 5. From the Characteristics drop-down menu, select the characteristics applicable for the relay. The drop-down menu includes characteristics previously defined in the characteristics lookup table (see Chapter 2, “Relay Characteristics”). If no characteristics are defined for the relay:

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a. Select General Ibias vs. Idiff, General Ip vs. Is, or Unknown. a. Enter the data points for the characteristics in the same way as for a characteristic in the differential lookup table. 6. Enter the tolerances. 7. Click OK. The Differential Function tab appears again. The graph (Figure 3-30) shows the composite characteristic (lower curve), including the pickup setting, low set, and high set (if present). If the bias formula is Unknown, no graph can be shown.

Figure 3-30 Graph with Boundary of the Restraint Region

Compensation Settings Tab To configure Compensation settings: 1. Click the Compensation Settings tab (Figure 3-31). 2. Select the 1-Phase or 3-Phase option button. 3. Select the number of relay windings from the drop-down menu. 4. Modify the nominal current for special applications, such as 1A for Winding 1 and 5A for Winding 2. Default is the value stated in Relay Parameters. 5. If necessary, enter ratio compensation and tap setting for each winding.

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Entering ratio compensation automatically calculates the tap setting, and, conversely, entering the tap setting calculates the ratio compensation.

Figure 3-31 Compensation Settings Tab in the Differential Function Window 6. For a three-phase relay, select the vector compensation required, depending on the wye-delta configuration. Most three-phase numerical relays compensate for the Sqrt(3) factor for wye-delta vector compensation. In this case, leave the box checked.

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Transformer Parameters Tab The Transformer Parameter tab (Figure 3-32) is not currently functional.

Figure 3-32 Transformer Parameter Tab

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4. Creating Test Modules This chapter describes how to add test plans and tests to a relay, as well as how to define individual test modules. The relay parameters and functions and their characteristics must first be defined as described in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. A relay can have multiple test plans, each test plan can have one or more tests, and each test, in turn, can be defined with multiple test definitions.

Test Plans To create a test plan: 1. Expand the location tree to find the desired relay. 2. Right-click the relay and select Append from the pop-up menu. F6TesT adds the new test plan to the first available row in the Test Plan tab. The default plan name, New Test Plan, is highlighted, indicating that the name can be changed (Figure 4-1). The name also appears in the location tree under the selected relay.

Figure 4-1 Adding a Test Plan to a Relay

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3. Enter a new name. 4. Press Enter.

Tests Adding tests to a plan is similar to adding test plans to a relay. To create a test: 1. Expand the display of the relay in the location tree and select the test plan. The tests already configured for the plan appear in the Test tab in Table View. 2. Right-click the test plan (or anywhere in Table View) and select Append from the pop-up menu. The new test is added to the first available row in the Test tab. The default name, New Test Module, is highlighted, indicating that the module name can be changed (Figure 4-2).

Figure 4-2 Adding a Test to a Test Plan 3. Enter a new name. 4. Press Enter. 5. Select one of the supported tests (Table 4-1) from the drop-down menu in the Test Type column. 6. Press Enter. 4-2

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7. Enter a test description in the Comments column. Comments can be changed later; the Test Type cannot be changed.

Test Types Table 4-1 Supported Test Types Test Type

Description

DiffChar

Searches for boundary points using characteristics of a current operated differential relay.

Directional

Manipulates polarizing and operating quantities to search for directional lead, lag, and maximum torque angle.

Extern

Launches a user-specified program in the specified drive and path. Also connects to a relay.

I-Char

Measures operating time of an overcurrent element at selected test points, evaluating each test point (pass/fail) based on expected time.

Notebook

A two-section notepad for test instructions, comments, etc. Files can be attached for viewing with other software; e.g., a Microsoft Word or Adobe Acrobat document containing schematics or manufacturer instructions.

Ramp

Uses linear ramp of source value to find operate points similar to ProTesT; e.g., tests for relay pickup, relay drop out, synchronization, directional test, or voltage regulator test.

SSIMUL

A state simulation test that approximates a real fault event, with stepped steady-state values of voltage and current.

VF-Char

Measures operating time of an overfrequency/overvoltage or underfrequency/undervoltage element at selected test points, evaluating each test point (pass/fail) based on expected time.

VpHzRamp

Tests the pickup and dropout of Volt per Hertz relays by simultaneously ramping the voltage amplitudes and frequency.

WaveSim

Measures the power swing between dz and dt.

Z-Char

Searches for zone characteristics of a distance element, using a binary search method. At a given test angle, a sequence of test points searches along a radius from the center of the R-X plane. To test a static mho characteristic, use Constant Current or Constant Voltage. To test the dynamic or expanded characteristic, use Constant Source Z and enter power model values for source impedance.

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Table 4-1 Supported Test Types (Continued) Test Type

Description

ZMTA

Impedance Maximum Torque Angle applies only to mho-type characteristics and is a special form of the Z-Char test. The sequence of test values sweeps out circular arcs with their center at the R-X diagram origin rather than searching along radial lines.

Z-Time

Measures operating time of a distance element for selected test points and evaluates each test point based on expected time. It is used for testing characteristic boundary points of a distance relay zone and for plotting the operating time for faults along a fixed angle.

Test Definitions After creating a test, you need to create one or more test definitions. When there are multiple definitions, one is selected as the default to be used by AutoRun. To set up a test definition: 1. In table view, double-click the test record. If the test does not have any definitions, the following dialog box appears (Figure 4-3). The test definition that you create automatically becomes the default.

Figure 4-3 Save Test Definition Dialog Box If the test has existing test definitions, the Test Definitions dialog box opens the Test Definitions dialog box (Figure 4-4).

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Figure 4-4 Test Definition Dialog Box 2. Select Create Test Definition in the Test Definitions dialog box (Figure 4-2). The Save Test Definition to dialog box appears (Figure 4-5) The Set as Default check box is checked; if you do not want the new test definition to be the default, uncheck this box.

Figure 4-5 Save Test Definition Dialog Box — Set as Default 3. Enter a test name in the Test Definition Name field. 4. If you plan to use AutoRun, enter a test name to which the test results will be saved and, optionally, a description. 5. Click OK. 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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6. If you are creating a new test definition, the definition tabs appear (Figure 4-7). If you are opening an existing test definition, double-click the test name to open the definition. A screen appears with the test definition. The layout of the screen depends on the selected test type, but usually includes several tabs for defining various aspects of the test model. Figure 4-7 shows the tabs for a typical window. The tabs are discussed in the following order: • • • • • • •

Test Elements Test Configuration Test Points Measurements Test Tab Reports Notebook

Test Elements Tab Use the Test Elements tab to select a relay function and check the elements to be tested. The available selections include only elements previously defined for the relay function in Relay Parameters. At least one element must be checked.

Overcurrent Figure 4-6 shows the Test Elements tab for overcurrent. Select the overcurrent function from the drop-down menu and click the elements to be tested.

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Figure 4-6 Overcurrent Test Elements Tab

Impedance Figure 4-7 shows the Test Elements tab for impedance tests. Select from the Zone elements defined for that function under Relay Parameters.

Figure 4-7 Test Elements Tab for Impedance Tests

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Directional Figure 4-8 shows the Test Elements tab for a directional test. Select a phase or sequence element.

Figure 4-8 Test Elements Tab for Directional Test

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Differential Figure 4-9 shows the Test Elements tab for differential tests.

Figure 4-9 Test Elements Tab for Differential Tests For differential tests, F6TesT performs tests on a pair of windings at a time. 1. Select a function name from the drop-down menu. 2. Select the primary and secondary windings from the drop-down menus. Some relay types require that the winding with the higher tap setting be tested as the primary. 3. Check the low set and high set elements to be tested.

Test Configuration Tab The Test Configuration tab has four buttons at the top of the page, depending on the test type selected: For time characteristics

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Fault Calculation Test Timing and Trigger Selection Digital Outputs Source Configuration

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For impedance tests

Test Method Test Timing and Trigger Selection Digital Outputs Source Configuration

Fault Calculation Button The layout of the screen when Fault Calculation is selected varies depending on the selected characteristic.

Current, Voltage, and Frequency Time Characteristics Use the Fault Calculation screen (Figure 4-10) for current, voltage, and frequency time characteristics to enter the values for polarizing and some operating quantities.

Figure 4-10 Fault Calculation Tab for Current, Voltage, and Frequency Time Characteristics

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Fault Calculation automatically uses the nominal voltage defined under Relay Parameters as the default prefault voltage. The test current is normally the user-entered test current or is calculated based on the test point multiple of setting. A prefault current can also be entered, and the actual test current takes this into consideration. The maximum test current or voltage is automatically calculated, based on the relay parameter values previously entered, but may be changed to a lower value. The maximum also depends on the instrument limits. For an overcurrent element, if directional control is selected in Relay Parameters and checked in the Relay Elements tab, the fault voltage amplitude and angle are entered, as shown below. Ph-N voltage values are used for testing AN, AB, and CN elements, while Ph-Ph, 3Ph values are used for testing AB, BC, CA, ABC and 3I2 elements. For 3I0 elements, a Ph-N fault is applied, but the polarizing values are based on the entries for 3I0 element, not on the general fault values above. The value of the operating current is the residual current (3I0 and not I0). F6TesT calculates the actual test values output by the test instrument. The polarizing voltage or current applied here is used only for testing time overcurrent response and to do a quick directional test, by applying a forward or reversed fault; more accurate directional response is tested in a separate module.

Directional Overcurrent Characteristics Use the Fault Calculation screen (Figure 4-11) for directional overcurrent characteristics to enter voltage only. Prefault current is zero. Fault values for pickup are calculated based on tap settings defined under Relay Parameters. Ph-N voltage values are used for testing AN, BN, and CN elements, while Ph-Ph, 3Ph values are used for testing AB, BC, CA, and ABC elements.

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Figure 4-11 Fault Calculation Tab for Directional Overcurrent Characteristics The operating and polarizing quantities for zero-sequence and negative-sequence elements are entered separately. The type of operating and polarizing quantities determine how the voltage and current outputs are calculated. If separate output sources are used, the values entered are output directly. The Z0/Z1 ratio determines the ratio of derived polarizing voltage, V0/V1 or V0/V2. A higher value results in higher zero-sequence voltage compared to negative sequence voltage. This can prevent the negative-sequence element from operating when testing the zero-sequence element when a common trip output is used. Similarly, a lower value of Z0/Z1 gives more negative-sequence voltage and can prevent the zero-sequence element from operating when testing negative-sequence elements.

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Differential Characteristics Figure 4-12 shows the Fault Calculation screen for Differential characteristics.

Figure 4-12 Fault Calculation Tab for Differential Characteristics Expected restraint and operate values, or primary and secondary currents, Ip and Is, are determined based on a bias formula and characteristic lookup table. Decide on the characteristic format, Idiff vs. Ibias or Ip vs. Is, and select the test method.

Idiff vs. Ibias This is available only if the Ibias equation is defined in the relay parameters. The test applies different levels of bias current and varies Idiff around the expected operate point to measure pickup and search for the actual operating point. F6TesT calculates the necessary values for F6000 current sources, injecting Ip and Is to create the bias and differential. Select which way to apply the test: 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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• •

Set Ip at 0° and Is at 180° (Idiff = the sum) or set both Ip and Is at 0° (Idiff = the difference). Set Ip at 0° and rotate the angle of Is from 90° to 180°. The test proceeds by applying an initial bias and changing Idiff from a restraining value by a binary search into the expected operating region. The search proceeds up and down to find the boundary between restraint and operation.

Is vs. Ip The test applies fixed levels of one source and varies the other, starting in the middle of the restraint region where high side and low side currents are balanced. Ip is set at 0° and Is at 180°. This can be done in the following two ways, or a combination of both: • •

Fix Ip and search for Is. On a graph of Is vs. Ip (Figure 4-13), this detects the lower boundary of the restraint region. Fix Is and search for Ip. This detects the upper boundary of the operate region, using lower Is current than would be required if Ip were held constant. If the combination is selected, two tests are performed, first fixing Ip, then fixing Is, to map out both upper and lower boundaries of the restraint region, as shown.

The restraint region is bounded between the upper and lower curves (Figure 4-13).

Figure 4-13 Is vs. Ip Graph

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To perform this test: 1. Fill in the maximum test current, either in multiples or in amperes. 2. Indicate whether a voltage must be applied. 3. Enter the search accuracy for the test. 4. To speed up the binary search, leave the Ignore Characteristic During Search check box unchecked if the actual results are expected to be very close to the theoretical values. For unknown characteristics or a guessed reference characteristic, binary search may be faster if the box is checked.

Test Method Button Impedance Characteristics Figure 4-14 shows the Test Configuration tab for impedance tests with the Test Method button selected. All Z characteristics (Z-Time, Z-Char, ZMTA) allow three methods of testing: • • •

Constant Current Constant Voltage Constant Source Z

Use this tab to select a method and specify prefault values and methods for relay polarization or initializing.

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Figure 4-14 Impedance Test Method Parameters

Constant Current A fixed test current is applied and voltage is calculated, corresponding to the impedance. Set the maximum test voltage (Max. Acceptable Voltage). For a remote fault (high impedance), the required test voltage may be too high, so F6TesT automatically limits the voltage to the maximum specified value and recalculates the test current corresponding to the impedance of the test point. If this occurs, the background for the Actual test value field in the Test tab becomes white (Figure 4-15).

Constant Voltage A fixed test voltage is applied, for phase-neutral or phase-phase tests, and current is calculated corresponding to the test point impedance. Set the maximum test current (Max. Acceptable Current), which must be within the limits of the F6000 sources. For close-in faults (low impedance), the required test current may be too high, so F6TesT automatically sets the test current to this limit and recalculates the test voltage. If this occurs, the background for the Actual test value field in the Test tab becomes white (Figure 4-15).

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Constant Source Z Fill in the source impedance values (Figure 4-14) in the power system model, which calculates voltage and current quantities for each impedance test point. A maximum current is specified, which limits the test for close-in faults. If the test point requires a current that exceeds this limit, the backgrounds for the Actual Voltage and Actual Current fields in the Test tab become white (Figure 4-15). These points are not tested and have a result of ITH, meaning the current is too high. This test method tests the dynamic or expanded mho characteristics. A fixed test voltage is applied, for phase-neutral or phase-phase tests, and current is calculated corresponding to the test point impedance. Set the maximum test current (Max. Acceptable Current), which must be within the limits of the F6000 sources. For close-in faults (low impedance), the required test current may be too high, so F6TesT automatically sets the test current to this limit and recalculates the test voltage. If this occurs, the background for the Actual test value field in the Test tab becomes white (Figure 4-15).

Constant Source Z Fill in the source impedance values (Figure 4-16) in the power system model, which calculates voltage and current quantities for each impedance test point. A maximum current is specified, which limits the test for close-in faults. If the test point requires a current that exceeds this limit, the backgrounds for the Actual Voltage and Actual Current fields in the Test tab become white (Figure 4-15). These points are not tested and have a result of ITH, meaning the current is too high. This test method tests the dynamic or expanded mho characteristics.

Figure 4-15 White Background in Actual Value Field 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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Figure 4-16 Constant Source Impedance

Separate Arc Resistance Some ground distance relays, particularly quadrilateral characteristics, require a separate calculation for the arc resistance (Figure 4-17). Check the appropriate boxes to do this. When using separate arc resistance, the directional line may not be at the correct angle. In this case, check Test Directional Line and test the directional line test points. These apply to the Z-Char and Z-Time test modules. For a Z-Char test module, enter the percent Search Acc. Leave Ignore Reference Characteristic During Search unchecked, so that testing uses the expected value and tolerance to speed up the search. When Ignore Reference Characteristic During Search is checked, the search starts from the midpoint of the test line (Figure 4-17).

Figure 4-17 Separate Arc Resistance Settings

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DC Transients and Fault Inception Angle F6TesT as a default (Minimum Offset) starts the fault state at a fault inception angle to make the DC transient zero, except for three-phase faults. Select Maximum Offset (Figure 4-18) to calculate the fault inception angle so that the current starts at 90°. A fixed fault inception angle starts the fault at the specified fault voltage angle. For phase-to-phase faults it uses the angle of the phase-to-phase voltage. Random starts the fault state at random fault inception angle values within the specified range of angles.

Figure 4-18 DC Transients Settings The time constant, L/R, allows the current to change smoothly from zero value to realistically simulate real-world conditions and controls the rate at which the DC transient decays.

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WaveSim Characteristics Figure 4-19 shows the WaveSim Test Configuration tab.

Figure 4-19 WaveSim Test Configuration Tab

Test Method 1. Click the Test Method button 2. From the Type of Simulation drop-down menu, select the type of simulation you want to use in the test. Choices include: • • •

Classical power swing : constant | E |, f, Z User-specified load, faults, dz/dt, Zs Transient Ground Fault

3. In the Time Unit section, select the time unit to be used for the test. Choices include: • • •

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Seconds Milliseconds Cycles

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4. From the CT Direction drop-down menu, select the starting point. Choices include: • •

Towards Bus Towards Line

5. Indicate whether Values are Secondary or Primary.

Test Timing and Trigger Selection Button Figure 4-20 shows the controls displayed when the Test Timing and Trigger Selection screen is selected. Select at least one pickup signal from the triggers defined under Relay Parameters. If the relay has a single trip output, the same trigger can be used for each phase tested.

Figure 4-20 Test Timing and Trigger Parameters •

Maximum Fault Duration is the amount of time to wait before NoOp (no operation) is recorded for each test point.

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A second Maximum Fault Duration is specified as a multiple of tmax, the maximum expected operating time. This is particularly useful for limiting the time duration for test points with high currents and a fast operating time to allow the program to automatically select transient current mode for the high-current test points and continuous mode for lower currents with longer operating times. For example, if there are test points that require 40 A current with a maximum expected operate time of 30 cycles, enter a multiple of 1.5 to limit the duration to 45 cycles. Fault Duration multiple overrides the Maximum Fault Duration as long as it is smaller.



Time Between Shots is the wait between test points, with the fault no longer applied, to allow the relay to reset.

Digital Outputs Button The Digital Outputs button enables users to set digital output in each test module based on test requirement.

Figure 4-21 Digital Outputs Dialog Box

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Source Configuration Button In all test modules except Ramp and SSIMUL, F6TesT automatically sets the source configuration of the test instrument according to: • • •

Instrument Model Value of the Required Test Injection Test Module Type

To view the source configuration, click the Source Configuration button in the Test Configuration tab. F6TesT opens a separate Analog Signals dialog box (Figure 4-22) to display the configuration.

Figure 4-22 Analog Signals Dialog Box In simulation mode, select either the F6150 or the F6150A. If an instrument is connected, model selection is disabled. To enable the F6150 use transient current whenever applicable, click the Maximized output Va check box. If any of the state durations (particularly the expected fault state) does not exceed the maximum transient duration (default is 1.5s, but it can be changed by the user), then the transient current sources will be used.

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Instrument Model Figure 4-23 shows the source configuration for the F6150 and the F6150A for three voltages and a current on the left bank and three currents on the right bank. F6150

F6150A

F6150 can have up to six currents or voltages on the left bank and up to six current sources on the right bank.

F6150A can have only up to four currents or voltages on the left bank and up to four current sources on the right bank.

Figure 4-23 Sample Source Configuration for the F6150 and the F6150A The F6150A model has one less amplifier on both the left and right banks. For more information on F6000 sources, refer to the F6000 User Guide.

Value of the Required Test Injection For current values up to the maximum continuous range, F6TesT uses a normal mode; for higher currents, F6TesT uses the transient mode current. A transient source current for phase A is shown on the PC screen as IA but displayed on the F6000 instrument as TA.

Test Module Type F6TesT automatically configures the F6000 sources according to the following: •

Z-Time, Z-Char, ZMTA. Three voltages on the left bank and three currents on the right bank. F6150

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VF-Char. Three voltages. F6150



F6150A

I-Char and Directional. At least three voltages and three currents for fault types AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA, ABC and Negative Sequence, as shown below, plus the operating and polarizing quantity for zero-sequence and negative-sequence directional relays, if required. The polarizing quantity may be an internally derived voltage from the three-phase voltages, in which case a fourth source on the left-hand bank is not required, or it may be a separate voltage (VP) or current (IP) source. The operating current may be internally derived from the three-phase currents or may be a separate source (IN). The figure below shows the configuration for a separate polarizing current (a separate polarizing voltage is shown as VP) and a separate operating current.

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F6150

F6150A

For the I-Char test module, user-defined source configuration is also available for testing at high currents up to 180 A (by paralleling current sources) and low-amplitude high-burden relays (using the convertible sources on the left bank), as shown below. For F6150A, only two currents may be combined. Under these configurations, testing is done only for Ph-N and I0 fault types. If both left-hand and right-hand currents are configured, only the left-hand currents follow the test currents. The right-hand currents should, however, be shorted and not left open.



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DiffChar. Six currents for three-phase relay testing and two currents for single-phase relay testing, all on the right-hand bank. A single voltage is used if the Use Voltage option is checked in the Test Configuration tab.  Three-Phase Differential Testing

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F6150

F6150A

Differential three-phase testing is not supported for F6150A, since 6 current sources are required on the right bank but only 4 are available.

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Single-Phase Differential Testing F6150

F6150A

Test Points Tab The Test Points tab in the Test Definition screen applies to time characteristic tests (I-Char, VF-Char), Z-Time, and Differential. After you choose test elements and select fault calculation and triggers, choose test points.

Time Overcurrent Test Points Figure 4-24 shows the Test Points tab for Time Overcurrent tests. The Test Points List group shows tabs for all possible fault types; only those selected under Test Elements are enabled. The graph shows the reference characteristics and the test points for the selected tab. The view is similar for voltage and frequency tests, except for the additional selection of undervoltage, overvoltage, or frequency.

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Figure 4-24 Test Points Tab The Test Points List group has several fault type tabs that can be active or inactive. Only fault type tabs that have relay elements activated are active. On each active Test Points tab, you can add test points in several ways: • • •

On the graph. Double-click on the graph or click once and then click Add Point to List. One at a time. Enter either multiple or amplitude in the edit area and click Add Point to List. Multiple points in an arithmetic sequence. 1. Click Add Multiple Points. The Add Multiple Test Points dialog box appears (Figure 4-25).

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Figure 4-25 Add Multiple Test Points Dialog Box 2. Enter the Start Value, End Value, and Number of Points. The value is stated in either multiples or units, depending on the current scale selected at the lower left. 3. Click OK.

Z-Time Test Points Test points are selected to capture operation near zone boundaries, based on the zone tolerances (Figure 4-26). Select a series of points along a radius that travels through the zones: just inside Zone 1, just outside Zone 1 (in Zone2), just inside Zone 2, just outside Zone 2 (in Zone 3 or no operation if there is no Zone 3). The easiest way to do this is to click Add Boundary Test Points. Then enter From Angle, To Angle, and Delta angle. In the two-zone case shown below, test points are generated for each angle at 95% and 105% of each zone boundary. The graph displays the points as dots and an x for an expected NoOp point. Using the Add Boundary Test Points button allows the test points to be defined as a percentage relative to the zone elements.

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Figure 4-26 Fault Calculation for Z-Time Test Points To add test points to the right in front of and behind the relay: 1. Enter the angles, such as From Angle = 260, To Angle = 260, and Delta = 0. 2. Select Zone 1 and click Apply. This uses the absolute minimum impedance tolerance for the calculation. The resulting test point table (Figure 4-27) shows the details for each point, including angle, %Zone, and expected operating time.

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Figure 4-27 Fault Type and Test Points List Points can be added one by one using one of the following methods: • • •

• •

Double-click on the graph. Click on the graph, then click Add Point to List. Enter values of R and X, then click Add Point to List. Pressing Enter or Tab before clicking Add Point to List moves the graph cursor to the desired position on the graph. Enter values of Z and Angle, then click Add Point to List. Select the desired zone from the drop-down menu, enter values of Angle and %Zone, then click Add Point to List. This method defines the test points in relative terms of the specified zone.

To test the borders of a quadrilateral characteristic, select points on either side of a border, both inside and outside the zone boundary, as shown in Figure 4-28.

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Figure 4-28 Determining the Borders of a Quadrilateral Characteristic To perform a timing test for various fault locations along the line: •

Select the zone and enter test points at a fixed line angle at different values of %Zone (Figure 4-29).

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Figure 4-29 Selecting Fault Locations along a Line On the Test tab, select the R-X Plane or Z–T Plane option button in the Graph Type area at the left (Figure 4-30) to change the view. Z-T Plane shows the Z-vs.-time characteristics.

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Figure 4-30 Z-T Plane

Differential Test Points In the Test Points tab for Differential tests (Figure 4-31), test points can be added one at a time or as a sequence of multiple points. Regardless of how the test is specified, Idiff vs. Ibias or Is vs. Ip, the graph can be displayed in either format. In the Idiff vs. Ibias graph shown, the lower line shows the restraint boundary; values of Idiff below this are restraining, values above should cause relay operation. The dashed line represents the maximum value of Idiff that satisfies the Ibias equation for any Ibias value.

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Figure 4-31 Test Points Tab for Differential The Ip vs. Is view shows the primary-side and secondary-side compensated currents in the differential measuring circuit. The Ip vs. Is view (not enabled for three-phase) shows the primary-side and secondary-side uncompensated injection or actual test currents. As bias points are added, the expected Idiff pickup is calculated, along with a range of minimum and maximum values based on the tolerance limits defined for the relay. To add a single test point, enter a value of Ibias current and click Add Point to List. Alternatively, you can add multiple points as described in “Time Overcurrent Test Points” on page 4-28. When both low set and high set elements are being tested, it is recommended that test points in both regions of operation be selected, especially near the breakpoint or knee where the slope increases. For a multiphase relay, the test points selected apply to all phases tested. When the graph displays the Ip vs. Is plane, the value of Ip is entered in either the Multiple of Iref or Amperes field (Figure 4-32).

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The corresponding value of Is is calculated based on the curve. Calculations are based on the lower curve; the upper curve is a mirror image of the lower curve. Add a point to the lower curve to add a mirror point to the upper curve.

Figure 4-32 Ip vs. Is Plane

Z-Char Test Lines The Z-Char test performs a binary search along a test line between the start of the test line and the other end of the line to find the operating point. The test is repeated at a sequence of lines to verify the relay characteristic (Figure 4-33). To specify the test points: 1. Select Radial Lines as the Test Line Method. 2. Enter the Test Line Origin Point. The default is the R-X origin (0, 0). For radial lines, all test lines emanate from the specified Test Line Origin Point, which must lie within all zone characteristics, the default of which is the R-X diagram origin (0, 0). The end of each test line is the graph boundary. 3. Define a test line by entering the From Angle, the To Angle, and the Delta angle. A maximum of four arcs can be defined so that finer angle steps can be used near the MTA. 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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Figure 4-33 Z-Char Test Lines, Radial Lines To define test lines one by one: 1. Select User Drawn Lines as the Test Line Method. 2. Use the mouse cursor to select a starting point and an ending point. 3. Click Add Test Line. The line must intersect at least one zone characteristic. A point is added only to zones where the test line intersects. Test lines can also be entered directly and/or modified in the table in either polar or rectangular form. User Drawn Lines (Figure 4-34) is useful when testing more complex characteristics, such as quad or bullet.

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Figure 4-34 Z-Char Test Lines, User-Drawn

Test Graph Features This section describes additional features of the test graph: • •

Changing points using the test graph Modifying display properties of the graph

Graph Pop-up Menu Right-click anywhere in the test graph to display a pop-up context menu for setting the graph properties (Figure 4-35).

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Figure 4-35 Pop-up Menu for the Test Graph Table 4-2 describes the functions available from the graph pop-up menu. Table 4-2 Graph Pop-Up Menu Options Change Scale

Opens the Graph Scale dialog box for manually setting the scale. If performed in the Test Points or Test Lines tab, the scale changes can be saved together with the rest of the test. The scale changes affect a general fault type. For example, changes made in the scale for fault type Ph-N affect fault types AN, BN, and CN but not other fault types, such as AB, BC, CA, and ABC. Scale changes made in the Test tab are generally not saved. However, for test modules (as ZMTA) that have no Test Points or Test Lines tab, but have only a Test Tab to show the graph, changes to scale made in the Test tab can be saved.

Polar Grid

Displays a submenu for specifying which grid lines are to be displayed: X axis, Y axis, or both. In some test modules, the polar grid can be selected.

R – X Grid

In impedance modules, the graph is displayed in an R-X grid. R (Resistance) is the horizontal axis and X (Reactance) is the vertical axis.

Setup

Opens the Graphics Setup dialog box to set properties for the individual test graph. This dialog box is selected from the Setup menu to define default properties for all test graphs, as described in “Graphics Setup” on page -25. When used at the test level, the new settings remain only while the test is open. The graphic properties revert to the default settings.

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Show Test Lines

Shows the test lines when Test tab is enabled.

Tolerance

When checked, displays the characteristic tolerances.

Maximize Graph

Enlarges a graph to fill the entire display window.

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Table 4-2 Graph Pop-Up Menu Options (Continued) Restore Graph

Restores a graph to its original size.

Zoom In

When checked, enables zoom-in mode. Clicking on the graph zooms in on the graph.

ZoomOut/Unzoom

When checked, enables zoom-out mode. Clicking on the graph zooms out the graph. Selecting ZoomOut also disables ZoomIn.

Show Reference Characteristic

The characteristic of relay under test. The relay will be tested with respect to this characteristic. By default, this option is checked.

Show Actual Characteristic



Straight line between points



Curve lines between points

Draw Protected Line Impedance

Displays the protected line impedance.

The options that appear in the graph pop-up menu depend on whether you’re on the Test tab or the Test Points tab.

Selecting and Highlighting Test Points Cursor actions in the graph are reflected in the test points table, and vice versa: • • •

Click a single test point in the graph to highlight the corresponding point row in the table. Click a point in the table to highlight the point in the graph. Scrolling up or down the table with the arrow keys in the table changes the current point on the graph.

Deleting Test Points To delete a point on the Test Points tab in an I-Char, VF-Char, Z-Time, or DiffChar test module: 1. Select a point and click Delete Selected Point. 2. Click Yes. For example, if a test point on the Ph-N tab is deleted, the associated test points for AN, BN, and CN on the Test tab are also deleted. Clicking Delete All Points eliminates all points that belong to the currently displayed fault tab in the Test Points tab, as well as on the Test tab. For example, deleting all test points on the Ph-Ph tab deletes all points in the Test tab for fault types AB, BC, and CA. 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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The Z-Char test module does not have a Test Points tab, but it does have a Test Lines tab. To delete duplicate test points on the Test tab: 1. Select a test point. 2. Click Delete Selected Point.

Editing Test Points The values of Texp, Tmin, and Tmax are calculated automatically based on the relay characteristics and the tolerances: •

To override a value, double-click and mark the value with the cursor and type a new value. If the original value is NoOp, use the backspace key to delete it before entering a new value. The entries are validated in such a way that Tmin should not be more than Texp and Tmax should not be less than Texp.

• •

To increase all the values, enter Tmax first, then Texp and Tmin. To decrease the values, modify Tmin first, then Texp and Tmax. To e nter a value of NoOp (no operation), double-click the cell and type the letter N (either uppercase or lowercase).

In ZMTA, only the ±Tolerance column can be edited. In Directional, Expected Values of MTA, Lead and Lag, and ±Tolerance columns can be edited. F6TesT version 2.0 does not support editing of test point expected values in DiffChar and Z-Char test modules.

Sorting Test Points Test points are initially ordered according the way they were added to the test points list. To sort the test points, click the column heading to be used as the sort key. This arranges the points in ascending order. Only one sort key may be used at a time. Sorting may be done in either the Test Points tab or the Test tab. Sorting is done all at once for each fault type group. That is, sorting fault tab BN also sorts fault tabs AN and CN in the Test tab as well as fault tab Ph-N in the Test Points tab. Similarly, sorting fault tab Ph-Ph in the Test Points tab automatically sorts fault tabs AB, BC, and CA in the Test tab.

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Depending on the test module type the columns may be sorted as follows: Test Type

Sort Key Available

Z-Time

Z, Angle, Zone Name

Z-Char

Zone, Zexp, Angle

I-Char

x Iset, Itest(A), or Texp

V-Char

x Vset, Vtest(V), or Texp

F-Char

x Fset, Ftest(Hz) or Texp

DiffChar

Any of the current columns

Measurements Tab Figure 4-36 shows the WaveSim Measurements tab.

Figure 4-36 WaveSim Measurements Tab

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1. Click Insert to add a row of data between two existing rows. 2. Click Append to add a row of data after the last row. 3. Select a row and click Delete to remove the row. 4. Click Clear Results to clear the fields. 5. In the Error to be calculated field, click Percentage to display results as percentages or Absolute to display results as the actual numbers. Note that the column headings for -Tol[%], +Tol[%], and Error[%] change to indicated whether values are percentages or absolutes. 6. Click No Error Calculation or No Evaluation check boxes to remove or restore the Error and Eval columns from the display.

Test Tab The Test tab (Figure 4-37) shows test points, expected values, and the record of actual test results with pass/fail evaluation, depending on the test type. Once Test Elements, Test Configuration, and Test Points have been defined, the Test tab is the only tab that you need to use when running or rerunning a test.

Figure 4-37 Test Tab in the Test Definition Window

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Phasor Diagrams The phasor diagram (Figure 4-38) is a separate window opened from the Test tab that shows the voltage and current phasors and their values for each test point, before, during, or after testing.

Figure 4-38 Phasor Diagram To view a Phasor diagram, click the Show Phasors check box and select a test point. • •

If separate external sources are selected from the I0 tab, the source column can include Vpol, Ipol or Iop. If internally derived quantities are selected, the derived quantities are shown below the source table (Figure 4-39).

Figure 4-39 Derived Quantities Table

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The fault voltages may be shown in wye or delta. The prefault voltages and the symmetrical components of voltages and currents may be displayed by checking their associated boxes. This applies to the Z, I-Char, VF-Char and Directional test modules. The Differential and SSIMUL test modules have different phasor diagrams. Ramp does not have one.

I-Char and VF-Char Time Characteristics The Test tab is the same for current, voltage, and frequency time characteristics (Figure 4-40). The graph shows passing test results as green squares on the characteristic graph and failed test results in red. The Test Points and Results table shows the details for each test point, copied from the Test Points tab, along with the actual time result, %Error, and Pass/Fail evaluation. If a test has no results, these columns are empty. In an I-Char test, a check box in the lower left is labeled Voltage Output. For a directional overcurrent relay, voltage polarization is required for pickup. Uncheck the box to suppress the voltage to see if the relay operates or restrains. This is a quick check to verify the directional element.

Figure 4-40 Test Tab for I-Char

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Directional Test The objective of the directional test (Figure 4-41) is to find the boundary of operation and no operation of the relay, which should be near the specified lead and lag angles from the MTA. Defaults are Lead = MTA + 90°, Lag = MTA – 90°. A binary search is performed using a series of test shots to find the lead and lag operating points. A test shot consists of a prefault state and a fault state. The MTA is calculated by getting the arithmetical average of the actual lead and lag values.

Figure 4-41 Test Tab for a Directional Test Select the relay elements to test and F6000 source to use (for example, IA for testing Phase A, even for an ABC, AB, or CA fault). An AB fault has fault currents IA and IB, which can cause both relay elements A and B to operate. If a common output contact is used for both elements, only F6000 relay current IA should be checked when testing element A, to prevent element B from interfering with the test. Both IA and IB may be checked if each element has a different output contact.

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The graph on the right displays the expected directional characteristics and the voltage phasors for a selected fault type. The fault voltage and polarizing voltages are highlighted. When the test runs, performing a binary search, the operating current phasor is assumed to be at the same angle as the moving test line. At the end of the search the actual lead, lag, and MTA lines are drawn. While the test is running, the graph displays the currently running fault type. When the test is not running: •

• •

Click an element tab (A, B, C, Zero Seq, or Neg Seq) to show the first fault type that is checked. Otherwise, it shows the first fault type in the list. Right-click the graph to select from the pop-up menu other fault types for viewing (Figure 4-41). Use the controls below the graph to reorient the graph by selecting the reference quantity and its angle with respect to the horizontal.

All other lines and phasors are drawn relative to this reference. The actual angles of the F6000 test currents and voltages may be different from those shown on the graph. They can be viewed by checking the Show Phasors box to display the phasor diagram, as well as on the F6000 display.

Differential Test The Test tab for a Differential test shows test points plus actual test results, %Error, and pass/fail evaluations. Test points appear as follows: • • •

Green squares for points that passed the test Red dots for points that failed the test x for points that have not been tested

Figure 4-42 shows a Test tab for a Differential test.

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Figure 4-42 Test Tab for a Differential Test Before running a test, select a phase by checking the boxes for the relay elements to be tested. For three-phase testing, all three boxes — A, B, and C — can be checked; for single-phase testing, only one box can be checked at a time. An Is vs. Ip test that tests both upper and lower boundaries of the restraint region appears like the one in Figure 4-43. The middle line (where Ip = Is and Idiff = 0) is the center of the restraint region; the upper and lower curves bound the restraint region. Values outside should cause the relay to operate.

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Figure 4-43 Test Tab with Ip vs. Is Selected To display the test phasors during or after the test, check the Show Actual Currents and Phasors check box to open the Phasors screen (Figure 4-44).

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Figure 4-44 Separate Screen for Phasors and Currents

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Figure 4-45 shows two different phasor diagrams for three-phase testing: • •

The screen on the left when Relay currents are selected The screen on the right when Differential current is selected

Figure 4-45 Phasor Windows for Three-Phase Testing

Testing Relays with Unknown Characteristics or Bias Equations If the bias equation or characteristic of the relay, or both, is not known, no expected values can be calculated. Low set and high set pick-up values can, however, be defined at the relay level. With any of these unknowns, testing can be performed only using the Ip vs. Is reference and the last three test methods. Test points are defined in the usual way by entering values of Ip, but without Exp, Min, and Max values. Actual test results are shown in the tables and plotted on the graph, but there is no error calculation and no pass/fail evaluation (Figure 4-46).

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Figure 4-46 Testing Relays with Unknown Characteristics or Bias Equations

Z-Time Test Figure 4-47 shows the Test tab for a Z-Time test. Test points are plotted on the graph together with the reference characteristics. The table on the left shows the details for each point, copied from the Test Points tab, along with the operate time and Pass/Fail evaluation, if test has been performed. To see additional results, drag the table scroll bar to the right: • •

%Error, the actual zone which operated (based on the operate time) Test voltage and current that were applied

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Figure 4-47 Test Tab for Z-Time Test The Z-Time characteristic graph for test points along a common angle, typically the line angle, can be shown before or after testing by selecting the Z-T plane (Figure 4-48).

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Figure 4-48 Test Tab with Z-T Plane Selected

To perform a Spiral test, click the Spiral option button in the Run Tests group in the bottom left corner of the tab.

Use a Spiral test to show a large number of test points, starting from the center and proceeding outward in a spiral manner until the graph area is filled. If no testing has yet been performed, no test points are shown. The number of horizontal and vertical divisions of the graph can be selected before running the test (Figure 4-49).

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Figure 4-49 Test Tab with Spiral Test Selected

Z-Char Test The Test tab for Z-Char (Figure 4-50) graphs results as dots (circles, squares, diamonds, etc.) for each of the zones. The table shows the details for each point: • • • •

Expected test points Actual test points found by the binary search Pass/Fail evaluation Actual voltage and current for each point

In some cases, duplicate test points exist due to common zone boundaries.

To delete points on the Z-Char Test Points tab: 1. Select the point. 2. Click Delete Selected Point.

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3. Confirm the deletion in the dialog box that appears.

Figure 4-50 Test Tab for Z-Char

ZMTA Test The Z Maximum Torque Angle (ZMTA) test applies only to mho characteristics. The test is a special form of Z-Char test module, applying a fault arc sweep (instead of straight test lines) over a range of angles, from outside to inside the static zone of protection. Like all Z tests, the prefault and fault conditions are specified with the Test Method button in the Test Configuration tab. The Test tab graph (Figure 4-51) displays the calculated expected MTA and the lead and lag angles on the zone boundary.

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Figure 4-51 Test Tab for a ZMTA Test When the test runs, the first test probe is at MTA + 45°. After each reset time (specified on the Test Configuration tab, Test Timing and Trigger Selection screen, Time Between Shots field), the test angle is adjusted closer to the MTA and the test is rerun until the difference in angle between successive test probes is less than the specified search accuracy angle. The test then shifts to MTA – 45° and finds the other boundary. The test sequence is run for each zone selected for test. The simple average of both lead and lag angles gives the calculated MTA, which is compared to the expected. The expected MTA or characteristic angle for the relay is defined at the relay level in the Add or Modify Zone (or Mho Characteristic) dialog box (see “Impedance Functions” on page 3-19).

WaveSim Test The WaveSim test measures the power swing between dz and dt. The WaveSim test is configured in the Test tab (Figure 4-52).

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Figure 4-52 WaveSim Test Tab To configure the WaveSim test: 1. Select Limit current amplitude to or Specify Electrical center. 2. Click Refresh Graph. 3. Click Display Waveform. An oscillograph similar to the following appears.

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Figure 4-53 WaveSim Oscillograph 4. Make any necessary changes and click Apply. 5. Click Close to close the oscillograph. For more information on using the oscillograph, refer to “Oscillograph Setup” on page -25.

Ramp Test of Voltage, Current, Phase Angle, or Frequency The Ramp Test (Figure 4-54) performs a steady-state pick-up or drop-out test by ramping an Action quantity from an offset value toward a limit value, similar to the Linear Ramp Macro in ProTesT® software.

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Figure 4-54 Test Tab for a Single Stepped Ramp Test The ramp test is not linked to any relay parameters or functions, except for the default frequency that can be changed; however, it does use the signal triggers defined on the Digital Inputs and Triggers subtab of the Connections & Signals tab (see “Connections & Signals” on page 3-2). The test is configured using tools in the Test tab. Action quantity may be one of the following: • • • • •

Voltage amplitudes Current amplitudes Voltage phase angles Current phase angles Frequency of voltage and/or current

To set up a Ramp: 1. On the Test Configuration tab, select Auto Ramp or Manual Ramp. 2. Select Voltage, Current, or Frequency.

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3. Select either Amplitude or Phase Angle. If you selected Frequency in step 1, these fields are disabled. 4. Select Stepped or Pulsed. If you selected Frequency in step 2, the choices are Stepped and Smooth.

This option is not available for Manual Ramp.

The test allows for three kinds of ramp: a single ramp from an offset toward a limit (stepped); a double ramp, which ramps toward a limit, stops on relay pickup, waits a bit, and ramps back in the opposite direction to dropout (pulsed); and frequency ramp of voltage and/or current sources (smooth). A stepped ramp is a simple linear ramp that proceeds in staircase fashion (Figure 4-55).

Figure 4-55 Stepped Ramp A pulsed ramp returns to offset after every ramp step (Figure 4-56). Pulsed ramp is useful for testing high-set overcurrent elements to avoid thermal damage to relays. It also more closely simulates relay dynamic behavior.

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Figure 4-56 Pulsed Ramp With a smooth ramp (Figure 4-57), the frequency of one or more AC sources is ramped from an offset value until the relay operates or until a limit frequency is reached (recorded as No Op).

Figure 4-57 Smooth Ramp 5. Enter the Number of Ramps and check the With Timer check box (Frequency only), if desired.

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6. Click the Source Configuration button. The following dialog box appears.

Figure 4-58 Source Configuration Dialog Box To create a current linear ramp, select an F6000 source configuration. The Sources table changes accordingly, adding or deleting rows to correspond to the number of voltages and currents, with source signals named VA, VB, VC, IA, IB, IC, and so on. 7. In the Sources table (on the Test tab), enter volts and amperes, phase angles (Ph-N), and frequency values. The ramp quantity is identified by entering A for Action in the appropriate cell; for example, for a current ramp, IA is given Action amplitude. For phase angle ramp, relative phase angle action like A-120 or A+75 may be entered for other phases but one of them must be Action. 8. Fill in the parameters that control the Action ramp: •



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Offset and offset duration (length of time to remain at the offset before the ramp begins) values can be zero or some prefault value for current; for voltage, normal prefault voltage would normally be used, but zero may be used also; for frequency, enter normal base frequency. Delta value and Delta Time specify the ramp increments; each step is held for Delta Time before the next step. This allows the relay to detect the change.

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The Limit value determines when the ramp stops, if the relay has not already output a trip signal. For current, the limit value (or the offset, whichever is higher) also determines the source range required for the Action source. Normally an offset somewhat below the expected pickup and a limit not too much higher is used. If the relay does not operate, a NoOp result is recorded. An action multiplier is available in the Amplitude column of the source table in the Test tab. The form is A*n, where n is a constant from 0.001 to 1000, in increments of 0.001.

9. Click the Digital Output button. The following dialog box appears.

Figure 4-59 Digital Outputs Dialog Box For information on using the Digital Outputs dialog box, refer to “Digital Output Dialog Box” on page 4-74. A ramp can go either up or down. For example, a current ramp can start low (load current) and ramp to a high limit (fault current), or a voltage ramp can start high (normal voltage) and ramp down toward a lower limit (undervoltage fault). For a negative ramp direction, enter a negative Delta value.

Pulsed Ramp For a Pulsed ramp there are two additional Action details: Pulse Duration and Wait (Figure 4-60).

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Enter the offset and offset duration as you would for a simple ramp; this should be a normal, non-operating value. The initial current would be close to the pickup setting. The ramp proceeds from there to the limit. After each ramp step, however, the test value returns to the offset for a Wait time, which should be long enough for the relay windings to cool down and for the relay to return to a quiescent state before the next incremental pulse.

Figure 4-60 Action Details for a Pulsed Ramp

Double Ramp Enter parameters for double ramp Action (Figure 4-61) in the same manner as for a single ramp. After the Ramp 1 Limit, enter a Wait time to allow relay output to stabilize before starting Ramp 2 in the opposite direction. The wait time begins when the trip signal occurs. Ramp amplitude can either start low, go higher, then go back down, or it can start high, go lower, then go back up.

Figure 4-61 Action Details for a Double Ramp

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1. On the Test Configuration tab, select a trigger name from the drop-down menu (defined on the Connections & Signals tab; see “Connections & Signals” on page 3-2) to identify which F6000 input is used and the transition, such as Open to Close. 2. Specify the Delay and Duration. These values enable the trigger signal to be conditioned to ensure a solid pickup by the relay. When each ramp step occurs, the F6000 can disable the trigger input for the sense Delay time, to allow relay output to stabilize. Once the signal input is armed, if a trip signal occurs, a sense Duration timer is started; if the trip signal drops out before the timer expires, no trip is recorded. This allows debouncing of contact chatter. These values are sometimes useful for older electromechanical relays to allow the ramp to yield a good test result. Numerical relays do not require this, so Delay and Duration can normally be set to zero. 3. Select time units in cycles, milliseconds, or seconds. Changing the time units converts all time values to the selected unit. 4. In the Measurements area at the bottom left, enter a descriptive name for Test Objective, the expected value (setpoint), and ± tolerance percentages. The expected values are named variables, Exp1 and, in a double ramp, Exp2, which can be used in formulas in other cells of the test definition. For example, in a double ramp, the third row of the measurement table uses a default formula of Exp1/Exp2 to compare the expected values. (You can change this default formula.) The formula used to compare the expected values is also used to compare the actual values.

VpHzRamp Test – Volts per Hertz Ramp VpHzRamp is a special ramp test module designed to test pick-up and drop-out of Volt per Hertz relays by simultaneously ramping the amplitude and frequency of the voltage sources (Figure 4-62). The voltage sources are limited to three in the current version.

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Figure 4-62 VpHz Ramp To configure this tab: 1. Enter the prefault voltage and frequency. This calculates the initial value of Volts per Hertz. 2. Enter the ramp time steps (delta t). Changing the value of delta t at a later time also changes the value of dV/dt and df/dt.

3. Enter voltage steps (delta V) or the rate of change of voltage (dV/dt) in Ramp Parameters. Entering one calculates the other. 4. Enter the voltage limit. 5. Enter the frequency step (delta f) or the rate of change of frequency (df/dt). Changing one calculates the other. The frequency limit, which depends on the frequency rate of change and the voltage limit, is calculated along with the V/f limit and maximum duration of the ramp.

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The Delay and Duration triggers are similar to those of the standard ramp. 6. In the Measurements area, enter the Volts/Hertz at which the relay is expected to pick up or drop out. The tolerances can be entered in percent or in absolute values of V/Hz. The equivalent voltage and frequency levels are calculated. After running the test: • • •

The relay’s operating frequency and voltage are measured. The value of Volts/Hertz is calculated. The error is calculated and an evaluation is made.

The graph of the V/Hz ramp (Figure 4-63) can be shown any time after the Action conditions are entered. The graph shows the expected and actual results using vertical lines that intersect the voltage, frequency, and Volts/Hz curves.

Figure 4-63 V/Hz Ramp Graph

SSIMUL Test – State Simulation The SSIMUL test is similar to the SSIMUL macro in ProTesT software. It uses stepped sine wave quantities to simulate an evolving fault, represented by up to 25 states. A maximum of six voltages and six currents can be used and independent timer sense events can be recorded.

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SSIMUL is not linked to any Relay Parameters or functions; however, it can use the signal triggers defined on the Digital Inputs and Triggers subtab of the Connections & Signals tab (see “Connections & Signals” on page 3-2). When an SSIMUL test is created, a Test tab with one prefault state is provided. Additional states must be added for fault and postfault. The SSIMUL test is configured in the Test tab (Figure 4-64).

Figure 4-64 Test Tab for an SSIMUL Test To set-up a SSIMUL test: 1. From the Source Configuration drop-down menu in the upper right, select an F6000 source configuration. When the test is run, synchronized amplitude and phase transitions occur on each state change, approximating a realistic fault condition.

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2. In the table for the first state, enter amplitude, phase, and frequency. State No. 1 is normally the prefault state, representing normal secondary injection to the relay or relay panel being tested. a. If the same frequency applies for all states, leave the box checked. The frequency appears only in State 1. It is possible to have different frequencies for each of the sources. b. If the frequency is to change during the test, uncheck the box. A frequency column appears for each state. When the box is unchecked, the frequency becomes the same for all sources. Changing the frequency of one source changes the frequency of all sources. Instead of entering a number in the emplitude, phase, and frequency fields, you can enter INH (inherits) to indicate that a parameter in the current state is the same as that of the preceding state.

3. Enter the Maximum Duration for the state. The time unit can be selected as cycles (referred to the relay’s nominal frequency), milliseconds, or seconds. The minimum duration for each state is 1 cycle. When moving from one state to the next, after expiration of the time duration and if the instantaneous amplitude value of a preceding state current source differs from the new state, a DC component is produced in the currents to smooth the transition, such as when moving from a prefault to a fault condition. The DC component decays at a rate dictated by the specified L/R Time constant. Normal values are 10 ms for high-voltage systems. The time constant increases for locations close to generating stations. When no trigger transition is specified, the state runs for the specified maximum duration. When a Trig Transition is specified and the trigger condition is met during execution of a state, the state ends immediately and transitions to the next state. A trigger can be selected from digital inputs, LN1 through LN8 or one of the triggers previously defined at the relay level. The trigger sense condition can be selected for triggers LN1 through LN8 but not for predefined triggers. 4. Click Append State to add a state to the right end of the table or click Insert State to insert a state to the left of a selected state.

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5. In each new state table, enter an amplitude and phase for each source, the state duration, and a descriptive state name in place of the default name. If most of the values are the same as another state, use copy and paste of contiguous cells. The Test tab in Figure 4-64 shows four states for the sources named in the source table. Normally, three states can represent simple Prefault, Fault, and Postfault (breaker operate) conditions. Here, the fourth state represents a reclose into restored normal conditions (transitory fault). A different scenario could be reclosure into a fault condition, with a fifth state for breaker operation. Multiple reclosures can be used to test lockout after a number of failed reclosures. To bring a state in view in the table, either: • •

Use the horizontal scroll bar to move the display right and left. Use the arrows to the right of the State No/State Name field to select the state.

To delete a state, select any cell in the state and click Delete State.

Fault Rotate The Fault Rotate button applies to three-phase voltages and/or currents only. For an ABC phase rotation, the previous values of phase A go to phase B, the previous values of phase B go to phase C, and the previous values of phase C go to phase A.

Display Phasors The Display Phasors button opens a dialog box with a phasor diagram for each state (Figure 4-65).

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Figure 4-65 SSIMUL Phasor Diagram Window Only three states can be displayed at one time. Click a state in the State table to display it and the next two states. To change the graphic properties of the display: 1. Right-click in any of the three phasor displays. A pop-up menu appears (Figure 4-65). 2. Select either Wye or Delta for the voltage display. 3. To set the line style and colors for individual voltages and currents, select Phasor Display Property. The Phasor Line Properties dialog box (Figure 4-66) appears.

Figure 4-66 Phasor Line Properties Dialog Box 4. Select the desired sources, line styles, and colors. 72A-1968-01 Rev. E 3/2011

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5. Click OK.

Time Units Select or change the time units displayed for state duration: seconds, milliseconds, or cycles. Any previously entered values are converted to the display units.

Run Mode Select the Run Mode from the drop-down menu. • • •

Start Now — Starts state playback as soon as the Run button is clicked. GPS Go At — Enters a GPS time code when the test is run, to determine when playback begins. GPS Preset Until — Asserts the Prefault condition immediately, but playback of succeeding states waits until the appointed satellite time.

Use GPS Go At or GPS Preset Until when performing satellite-synchronized, end-to-end testing. Satellite-synchronized testing requires voice contact with the crew at the other end to agree on a common start time and confirm that a GPS antenna is connected.

Digital Output Dialog Box In the Digital Output dialog box (Figure 4-67), select digital outputs defined for the relay and set the value for each state of SSIMUL: 1. From the Signal Name drop-down menu, select the name of the signals that you want to see. A blue line appears across the columns to the right. 2. Click the blue line in the first state. The first level displayed is low; that is, the default status defined on the Digital Outputs subtab of the Connections & Signals tab (see “Connections & Signals” on page 3-2). 3. Click a second time to change the level to high. Another click toggles it to low. Low represents an open contact output; high represents a closed contact.

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Figure 4-67 Digital Output Dialog Box for SSIMUL Test

Oscillograph The Oscillograph window displays the analog voltage and current waveforms as well as the digital outputs and timers. It also enables you to visualize and more closely analyze the test results. To display an oscillograph for the SSIMUL test:

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1. Click the Oscillograph button. The following window appears (Figure 4-68).

Figure 4-68 Oscillograph Window for SSIMUL Test The vertical lines indicate the boundary between states. 2. Make any modifications to the oscillograph as necessary. Check or uncheck the grey check boxes to select analog and digital signals and timers that you want to include in the oscillograph. You can change the display type, whether to superimpose voltage or current, and whether the display is instantaneous or RMS. 3. When finished, click Apply. 4. Click Close to close the oscillograph window.

Measurement Tab The Measurement tab (Figure 4-69) enables you to set up timers to record operation of trigger inputs and relays. At least one timer is created as a default. To add another timer: 1. Click Append. Another line appears in the table. 2. Enter a descriptive name in the Timer Name field.

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3. Click in the Start field and select from the drop-down menu a state in which to start the timer. 4. Click in the Stop field and select from the drop-down menu a trigger name to stop the timer.

Figure 4-69 Measurement Tab for SSIMUL Test When the test is run, the time is recorded if the relay operated. Pass/fail criteria can be applied. Use multiple timers to record multiple events. When changes are made in the Test tab, it may be necessary to manually update the start state.

Using the EXTERN Module The F6TesT EXTERN module is similar to the EXTERN macro in ProTesT in that it enables you to connect to a relay or launch external applications. It also enables you to export and import test data (in ASCII format) to or from those applications to create test reports. The tests and reports can be run manually via a Windows or DOS program or automatically via Autorun. To run the EXTERN module:

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1. Double-click the EXTERN module listed on the Test tab for the appropriate test plan. The Save Test Definition to dialog box appears. See “Test Definitions” on page 4-4 for information on test definitions. 2. Once the test definition has been selected, click OK. The following tabs appear.

Figure 4-70 EXTERN Tabs

The EXTERN Test Tab The EXTERN Test tab (shown in Figure 4-70) enables you to: • • • • • • •

define the start-up path for the external program enter the name of the external program to be executed enter any arguments for program execution define a path for ASCII input to the program define a path for output from the program indicate whether output is to be appended to an existing file, rather than overwriting it set Autorun parameters

To run a test:

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1. In the Working Directory field, enter the start-up path for the external program. This can be any directory on your computer. The default is the current database path. 2. In the Program name field, enter the command line name to execute the program. The program must have an .exe extension. 3. In the Arguments field, enter the name of a file that the application will open during the test. The file name must be enclosed in double quotes (for example, TestFile.txt). 4. In the File to External Program field, enter the name of an ASCII input file for the test. Data will be written to that file from the Originator side of the Notebook tab. 5. In the File from External Program field, enter the name of the output file that will be generated from the external application. If the application writes text output to a file, it will be imported into the User side of the Notebook tab. 6. If data is to be appended to an existing output file, check the Append Data from External Program check box. This appends data from the external program to the User Comments panel of the Notebook tab. 7. Click the Run button in the toolbar (see Figure 1-13). For more information on the Run toolbar, see “Running the Test” on page 5-4. For information on using the Autorun feature, see “Using Autorun” on page 4-83.

The EXTERN Notebook Tab The EXTERN Notebook tab (Figure 4-71) provides a two-column notepad for originator test instructions and user comments. When EXTERN is run, the ASCII text in the Originator Comments panel is written to the program Input Filename indicated on the Test tab. User comments generated by the test are written and/or appended to the User Comments

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Figure 4-71 EXTERN Notebook Tab To attach files to the output filename, click the Attach File button and browse to the file(s) to be attached. Figure 4-73 on page 4-82 shows the process of running the EXTERN module.

The EXTERN Reports Tab The EXTERN Reports tab (Figure 4-72) enabes you to run a report for an existing test definition. You can also enter a description for the selected test definition and select a template for the report. For more information, see “Reports Tab” on page 4-83.

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Figure 4-72 EXTERN Reports Tab The flow chart in Figure 4-73 on page 4-82 shows the flow.

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Figure 4-73 EXTERN Module Flowchart

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Using Autorun The Autorun feature on the Test tab (“Test Tab” on page 4-44) enables you to specify test to run automatically. The following options are available: •

Wait for external program to terminate The specified external program is executed. EXTERN does not wait for the external program to terminate; it can be terminated automatically or manually by the user. The user can proceed to the next test or stop Autorun manually while the external program is running.



Proceed to next test immediately after The specifed program is executed. It then waits for the user-specified time to wait (1 second to 1000 seconds; default is 1000 seconds). EXTERN then proceeds to the next test, regardless of the results of the program execution. If necessary, the user can proceed to the next test manually before the wait time expires. The time remaining is displayed in a label box.



Proceed to next test when... The external program (usually a scripting program) must create or clear the specified file (for example, PassFailCheck.txt) at the beginning of the test. EXTERN should clear this file, if it exists. Occasionally, EXTERN checks the contents of this file and if it finds a PASS, it will proceed to the next test. If it finds a FAIL, it displays a message that tells the user that the external program failed.

Reports Tab You can prepare a formatted report for each test definition on the Reports tab (Figure 4-74).

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Figure 4-74 Reports Tab To specify a report: 1. Select a report template definition from the drop-down menu. The drop-down menu shows the two default templates included with F6TesT 2.21. The templates are defined in the Global Report Definitions dialog box (see “Global Report Definitions” on page 1-40). 2. Click Preview to view the report in a separate window. If the test definition selected for viewing is different from the currently open test definition, the graphs cannot be displayed. 3. Click Print. Figure 4-75 shows a sample report.

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Figure 4-75 Sample Report Format

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To export the report: 1. Click Export. An Export dialog box appears (Figure 4-76) with the .pdf format (default) selected.

Figure 4-76 Export Dialog Box Other format options include: • • • •

MS Word Rich Text Format (.rtf) Tab-separated text Text

2. Select an export format. 3. Select a destination. 4. Click OK. The Export Options dialog box appears.

Figure 4-77 Export Options Dialog Box 5. Select any export options and click OK. 6. Browse to the appropriate storage location. 7. Enter and name for the report or accept the default name. 8. Click Save.

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Notebook Tab The Notebook tab provides a two-column notepad for originator test instructions and user comments. Notebooks are available at the relay level and for each test module. You can document relay identification and settings or provide online instructions for relay setup, manual calibration, and visual inspection. You can attach a file, create a link pointing to a file, or copy the file to the Notebook folder. See “Notebook” on page 3-4 for information on configuring the Notebook tab.

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5. Running Tests Selecting a Test To select a test: 1. Expand the Location and Relay in the location tree and select the test plan. The tests are listed in Table View (Figure 5-1).

Figure 5-1 Selecting a Test 2. Double-click the test. The Test Definitions dialog box appears (Figure 5-2).

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Figure 5-2 Test Definitions Dialog Box 3. Select the desired test definition and click Open. The Test Definitions screen that is appropriate to the test type appears (Figure 5-3). 4. Click the Test tab to see the test points and any test results from a previous run.

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Figure 5-3 Test Tab Showing Values from Previous Tests 5. Click the Test tab and other tabs to review the settings made when the test was defined. Make any desired changes to the settings. Refer to the appropriate sections in Chapter 4, “Creating Test Modules” for the different test types.

Simulation Mode If no F6000 instrument or relay is available, it is possible to verify the operation of a test by using Simulation Mode. To enable this mode, select Tools  Simulation Mode from the menu bar. Select this option to run a test with no instrument connected. Simulated test values are generated and posted in the Test tab and on the characteristic graph.

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Running the Test Once the test and test points have been selected, start the test by pressing F12 or using the controls in the Run toolbar (Figure 5-4). Run the test

Pause the test

t Auto Run on a test sequence

Stop the test

Figure 5-4 Run Toolbar 1. Click Run (single arrowhead) to start the test. The Run dialog box appears above the test points table and displays a red Stop icon (Figure 5-5).

Figure 5-5 Run Dialog Box 2. To abort the test, do any of the following: • • • •

Click the red Stop icon in the Run dialog box. Press any key on the keyboard. Click the small red Stop button in the Run toolbar. Click the gray X in the upper right corner of the Run dialog box.

If too many points result in a failed evaluation, the test may also stop automatically, as configured in the Test Defaults dialog box. 3. Click Pause (double vertical bars) in the Run toolbar to pause a running test between test points. 4. Click the Run button to resume.

Hiding Table Columns For some test types, the Results table does not display all columns at the same time. Less important columns can be hidden while the test is running, however, to allow focusing on columns of interest.

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5. Running Tests

To hide a column: 1. Right-click on the table and select Hide Selected Columns during test from the pop-up menu. The Hide Columns dialog box appears (Figure 5-6).

Figure 5-6 Hide Columns Dialog Box 2. Check the columns to be hidden while the test is running. 3. Click OK. During the test, the unchecked columns are shown in the test results table.

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AutoRun Once a test plan has been populated with tests, it is possible to run more than one test in a nonstop sequence. To run multiple tests in a plan: 1. Select Setup  Test Defaults  Run/Auto Run to verify the Run/Auto Run defaults. 2. Select the test plan in the location tree to display the individual tests in Table View. 3. Check the box to the left of each test to be run in nonstop sequence. It is also possible to quickly check or uncheck all tests by right clicking anywhere on the test name column and selecting either Check All or Uncheck All from the pop-up menu. Six of the eight tests in Figure 5-7 have been selected for Auto Run.

Figure 5-7 Marking Tests for AutoRun If a selected test has more than one Test Definition in the Test Definitions dialog box, F6TesT runs the definition marked Default.

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To change the default: a. Double-click the test. The Test Definitions dialog box appears (Figure 5-2). b. Select the new default definition. c. Click Set as Default (Figure 5-8).

Figure 5-8 Changing a Default Definition for AutoRun 4. Click Auto Run (double arrowhead) on the Run toolbar or press Alt + F12. The sequence begins.

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6. Changing Relay Parameters When parameter changes are made, previous test results and test points that reference these parameters can potentially be affected. For test modules that would be affected, a dialog box appears after you make changes, similar to that shown in Figure 6-1, asking you whether you want to make the changes.

Figure 6-1 Test Elements Tab to Apply Changes To apply modified parameters, click OK.

Example This example, for Z-Time, Z-Char, ZMTA, I-Char, VF-Char, DiffChar, and directional test modules, clarifies how recalculation works.

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Test points are stored in the database in relative terms. For example, a multiple of 2.0 of Iset remains as a multiple of 2.0 of Iset, but the current value in Amperes and the operating time may change. Figure 6-2 shows the test points and the reference graph after testing.

Figure 6-2 Reference Graph After Testing If the settings are changed as in Figure 6-3, opening the previous test and going to the Test tab directly (without first applying the changes from the Test Elements tab) displays the graph and points in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-3 Original and New Settings

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The reference characteristic curve and the current values (in Amperes) in the table are automatically calculated from the new settings and the test point current multiples. The time values remain unchanged, however, because they are stored in the database and are directly retrieved without being immediately recalculated when opening the test.

Figure 6-4 Test Points Graph Without Recalculation Return to the Test Elements tab and click OK. The test points are now recalculated and again fall on the reference graph (Figure 6-5) and previous test results are cleared.

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Figure 6-5 Reference Graph with Previous Test Results Cleared

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A. Reference Tables Test Preparation Table A-1 Checklist Test Preparation for a New Relay Step

Reference

If adding a new manufacturer or relay model: Open list of Relay Manufacturers and Models. Add items as needed.

See “Relay Mfrs & Models” on page 47.

Create a Location Record.

See “Location” on page 12.

If the characteristic does not exist in the database: Add characteristics or lookup table for manufacturer and relay model.

See Chapter 2, “Relay Characteristics.”

Add a Relay Record to a Location.

See Chapter 3, “Creating a Relay.”

For the relay: Define Connections and Triggers for testing. At least one Digital Input and Trigger must be defined.

See “Connections & Signals” on page 3-2.

Under Relay Parameters: Add a Relay Function with one or more elements, creating a matrix of elements and phases, or zones and phases.

See “Relay Parameters” on page 3-5.

Add a Test Plan and to that add a Test module and select test type; e.g., I-Char, Z-Time DiffChar.

See “Test Plans” on page 4-1.

For the test module, create a Test Definition.

See “Test Definitions” on page 4-4.

For the test definition: Select one or more elements to test.

See “Test Elements Tab” on page 4-6.

Under Test Configuration, set the Fault Calculation or Test Method, used to determine relay response. Select a Trigger output and set test timing.

See “Test Configuration Tab” on page 4-9.

Select Test Points for the test.

See “Test Points Tab” on page 4-28.

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Table A-1 Checklist Test Preparation for a New Relay (Continued) Step

Reference

Select Location, Relay, and Test Plan. Select a test module and open a Test Definition.

See Chapter 5, “Running Tests.”.

Select the Test tab. If the test has been prepared, the test elements, test points and expected values are displayed, and the results of any previous test with pass/fail evaluation.

See Chapter , “Selecting a Test.”.

Review values before running. This reveals the source of the test points and expected values. Make changes as needed. Select which test elements to run. Connect an F6000 instrument. Click the Start button the Run toolbar.

See “Running the Test” on page 5-4.

Review the test results and make any necessary adjustments.

Abbreviations Table A-2 Abbreviations Used in F6TesT 2.21 Abbreviation

A-2

Description

NoOp

The relay did not operate. This may also be an expected value.

Op

The relay operated. This result is displayed if there is no expected value.

Src

Source Error was encountered while running a test shot. This results when the burden presented to the source exceeds its capability.

ITH

Current Too High. This occurs when the required current is above the limit of the F6000 Instrument Source Configuration.

VTH

Voltage Too High. This occurs when the required voltage is above the limit of the F6000 Instrument Source Configuration.

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A. Reference Tables

Table A-2 Abbreviations Used in F6TesT 2.21 (Continued) Abbreviation

Description

TTD

Transient Time Duration is too long. This occurs if the test current value requires a transient mode and the time required for one of the states is greater than 1.5s.

FDS

Fault Duration Short. This occurs if the specified maximum fault duration is less than the maximum expected operate time for a test point being run.

NF

Not Found. The characteristic point being searched for was not found during the binary search.

Shortcut Keys Table A-3 Keyboard Shortcuts Used in F6TesT Shortcut

Description

Ctrl + N

Create and open a new F6TesT database.

Ctrl + O

Open an existing database.

Ctrl + S

Save test definition.

Del

Delete selected records (location, relay, test plan, test), table cell or selected text.

Ctrl + X

Cut and copy to clipboard of selected records or text.

Ctrl + C

Copy to clipboard of selected records.

Copy to clipboard of selected records.

Paste the clipboard contents to the selected location, relay, test plan, table cell or text area. This also works between two different databases.

Ctrl + I

Insert record before selected record.

Ctrl + A

Append record after the last record.

Ctrl + F

Find.

Esc

Cancel.

F1

Opens the online help file.

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Table A-3 Keyboard Shortcuts Used in F6TesT Shortcut

A-4

Description

F10

Close test module and return to List View.

F12

Run currently open test module.

Alt + F12

Auto Run all checked test modules beginning from currently selected module.

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B. Importing Functions This appendix describes the procedures for importing functions based on .rio file types. Importable functions include impedance and overcurrent. Impedance functions can be directly imported. Overcurrent functions can also be directly imported if the imported function characteristic has been mapped in a cross-reference table to an existing F6TesT characteristic.

Importing a Function To import a function: 1. Open the target relay for the functions. 2. Click the Relay Parameters tab. 3. Click Import. A Select RIO Files dialog box appears. 4. Select the file with a .rio extension. 5. Click Open. An RIO dialog box appears (Figure B-1), listing the available functions in the .rio file. The list may contain one or more overcurrent or impedance functions. The name of the function is taken directly from the Device Name field in the RIO file. A sequential number is then added if more than one element is present. The function names can be edited now or after importing.

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Figure B-1 Relay Parameters Dialog Box 6. Click the buttons for the functions to be imported. A red check mark () appears on each button clicked. 7. Click Apply. The functions and elements contained in each function are imported and the functions are added to the Relay Functions list (Figure B-2).

Figure B-2 Relay Functions List

Only active elements that belong to the functions are imported. If the characteristic being imported is not listed in the Characteristics Cross-Reference table (see “Characteristics Cross-Reference” below), another dialog box appears, listing the function elements with no direct equivalent characteristic. Select the most suitable characteristic from the drop-down menu.

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B. Importing Functions

Opening/Viewing Functions after Import After import, the procedure for opening and viewing the functions is the same as described in “Relay Parameters” on page 3-5.

Characteristics Cross-Reference To edit the characteristics cross-reference table, select Tools  Characteristics  Characteristics Cross-Reference. The open database is automatically selected. The table has two tabs, Predefined and User-Defined (Figure B-3).

Figure B-3 Predefined Tab 1. Select the Predefined tab. This tab contains standard Definite Time and IEC characteristics. 2. Select, by manufacturer, an F6TesT characteristic that corresponds to the four predefined characteristics. These are then configured for use during an import. For example, for Alstom, select ALS IEC Standard Inverse under the IEC Inverse column. When later importing a predefined IEC inverse characteristic for an Alstom relay, the ALS IEC Standard Inverse characteristic is automatically imported. 3. Select the User-Defined tab (Figure B-4).

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Figure B-4 User-Defined Tab This tab contains some characteristics normally found in .rio files. The table enables you to map these characteristic names to existing F6TesT characteristics. For example, the last row shows that the Basler I2T-46N characteristic is mapped to the BE1 - I2T-46N characteristic of manufacturer Basler. To select or change the F6TesT characteristic mapped to a .rio characteristic: 1. Click the cell in the right column. 2. Select the characteristic from the drop-down menu of available characteristics that belong to the manufacturer. 3. Click Apply.

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C. Cut, Copy, and Paste Operations The following cut, copy, and paste operations are allowed: • • •

• •

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Copy a location from any level with sublocations and relays and paste to the root level of the same database or to another database. Copy a relay from one location and paste to the same location or to another location within the same database or to another database. Copy a function from one relay and paste to another relay. The following conditions apply:  If the function is pasted to a relay with the same manufacturer, all data will be simply copied and pasted.  In case of different manufacturers, if the function depends only on characteristic data that are defined within the function itself, such as impedance elements, directional, and some differential characteristics, simply copy and paste the function. In the case of differential relay characteristics, they should not refer to a characteristic in the main characteristics section. Copying and pasting a test plan, including all tests, to the same relay. Pasting a test to a different relay, but only if the target relay has a function to which the test can refer. For example, an overcurrent test I-Char can be copied and pasted if the target relay contains at least one overcurrent function. After pasting, the following actions apply:  If there is only one function to which the test can refer, that function is selected.  If all checked test elements are available in the function, select the same test elements and apply all previous test points. Extra elements of the function that are not in the copied test are not checked.  If some elements in the copied test are missing from the function, only the available elements are checked and applied to all previous test points.  If the target relay has more than one possible function to choose from, copying will proceed, but the function dropdown box will be blank. Upon opening the test, select the function to which you wish to apply the test, then proceed as above.

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 When using Cut instead of Copy, the source record will be deleted after the Paste operation. If the Paste operation is not done or not finished, the source record will not be deleted.



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Copying, cutting, and pasting two or more main records (locations, relays, test plans, tests).

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D. Power System Model The Power System Model calculates amplitude and phase angle quantities to simulate power system events in an SSIMUL macro. It is available when an SSIMUL macro is open and can be used to test entire protection schemes. When using the Power System Model, the primary impedance values are entered for the near end source, line, and far end source. Impedance can be entered in rectangular, polar, or per unit terms. Current and Potential Transformer ratios are entered to compute secondary values for fault calculations. The Power System Model represents a two-machine equivalent with lumped impedance parameters for line and source values. The model simulates faults with varied fault locations, resistance, and load flows. You can then create tests that model power system events to test the complete relay system for each case modeled. You can test relay reach and direction for the various zones and combinations of zones. ProTesT classifies them as Op or No Op, depending on whether zone protection was enabled. For a Zone 1 relay with ± 5% accuracy, an operation (Op) should always occur at 95% of setting. For a fault at 106% of setting, no operation (No Op) should occur. These two cases confirm the accuracy of the relay. Other dynamic relay tests you can perform are operating time tests at different system impedance ratios — the ratio of the source impedance behind the relay to the set impedance of the relay. Other application tests include: • • •

Switch onto fault Blown fuse, memory, adaptive characteristics Programmable logic tests

With dynamic relay testing, you can quickly model and play back these events with the SSIMUL macro. To work with the Power System Model, obtain the source impedance and line impedance for both ends of the line. Enter only the primary values for impedance. F6TesT calculates secondary impedance values from the PT and CT ratios.

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Enter impedances as positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence components. If the negative-sequence impedance is not available, set it to the positive-sequence impedance. If the source impedance is not available, use the following guidelines: • •



Set the positive-sequence impedance, negative sequence, and zero sequence equal to each other. For a strong source, set the source impedance to line impedance ratio (ZS/ZL) between 1 and 5. For example, for a ZS/ZL ratio of 2, set the source impedance equal to twice the line impedance. For a weak source, set the source impedance to line impedance ratio (ZS/ZL) between 5 and 10. For example, for a ZS/ZL ratio of 6, set the source impedance equal to six times the line impedance.

To access the Power System Model, select Tools  Power System Model. A window similar to the following appears.

Figure D-1 Power System Module The section at the top of the window can contain the following five power system configurations: •

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Single line

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D. Power System Model

• • •

Parallel lines Single line with tap Parallel lines with tap

A fault location sign ( ) indicates where the fault is. Users can use the Fault tab (Figure D-3) to select the fault location or they can drag-and-drop the fault location sign in the top section. Each source has a drop-down menu that enables the user to select source impedance. Options include: • • • •

Strong (SIR = 0.1 Medium (SIR = 1) Weak (SIR = 5) Enter source Z

If you select Enter source Z, the following dialog box appears, enabling you to enter the impedance for each source.

Figure D-2 PSM Source Z Dialog Box In addition, each breaker has a control panel button ( ) below it that enables users to open an F6 Control Panel that displays the voltages and currents of that particular breaker. There is no load current flowing; the coordinate is Cartesian. System Frequency is 60 Hz (default) or 50 Hz.

Impedance Tab The Impedance tab contains two tabs: Primary Ohms and Secondary Ohms. The Primary and Secondary Ohms tabs enables users to enter impedance (accurate to within three digits after the decimal points) for lines AB, CD, ET, and mutual impedance between lines AB and CD.

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Table D-1 shows the default values for Impedance. Table D-1 Default Values for Impedance Impedance

Positive Sequence

Zero Sequence

Magnitude ()

Angle (°)

Magnitude ()

Angle (°)

Line AB

0.06

90

0.10

90

Line CD

0.08

90

0.12

90

AB||CD mutual

n/a

n/a

0.05

90

Line ET

0.01

90

0.02

90

Once the values have been entered on the Primary tab, F6TesT calculates the secondary values and automatically updates the Secondary tab. Likewise, if values are entered on the Secondary tab, F6TesT calculates the primary values and automatically updates the Primary tab. In addition, users can enter PT and CT ratios. Default values for each of these is 1:1. •







Enter the CT and PT ratios as a primary quantity to one secondary quantity. For example, a 2000:5 CT has a ratio of 400. The CT and PT ratios are used to calculate the secondary impedance and fault voltages and currents seen by the relay. Enter the base MVA and the voltage level of the line (in kilovolts). Base MVA and voltage are required only when using Per Unit impedance quantities. F6TesT recalculates Base Ohms when switching from one coordinate system to another. Select the appropriate coordinate system for the primary impedance. The Power System Model converts impedances to the desired coordinate system. Changing the coordinate system of the Primary Ohms does not change the coordinate system of the Secondary Ohms. Select the appropriate coordinate system for the secondary impedance. The Power System Model converts the impedances to the desired coordinate system. Changing the coordinate system of the Secondary Ohms does not change the coordinate system of the Primary Ohms.

Fault Tab The Fault tab (Figure D-3) enables you to specify the fault element, type, and location. D-4

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D. Power System Model

Figure D-3 PSM Fault Tab Fault tab items include: •

Fault Element Select from drop-down menu:  Bus C  Bus D  Bus T  Bus E  Line AB  Line CD  Line CT  Line ET  Line TD

The items that appear in the menu depend on the type of model selected.



Location If Bus C or Bus D is selected from the Fault Element drop-down menu, this field should be disabled. By default, the location for all faults is at 50% from A if the fault is on AB; 50% from C if the fault is on CD. Numeric values only are allowed.

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Fault Type Enables you to move the fault on the line. The percentage is the distance from the near end to the fault. For example, entering 60 places the fault 60 percent of the line length from the near-end or 40 percent from the far end. The Power System Model also allows you to enter percentages up to 999% to test different zones of protection. To create a fault at more than 100% of the line, set the far-end source equal to 0 for realistic values. The following options are available from the drop-down menu.  Ph-G  Ph-Ph  Ph-Ph-G  3-Ph

Model diagrams for each of these selections appear at the bottom of the window. The diagram selected changes per selected fault. Values can be entered for Cartesian or Polar coordinates.

Relay Tab The Relay tab (Figure D-4) enables you to configure relays. The number of relays that appear on the tab depends upon the system configuration. Relays are listed as: • • • • •

D-6

Relay A Relay B Relay C Relay D Relay E

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D. Power System Model

Figure D-4 PSM Relay Tab The Relay tab contains two tabs: • •

Polarizing Fault Data

The Polarizing tab enables you to set the polarizing quantity on the selected Polarizing sources. If you select VN as the polarizing source, the quantity is in VA+VB+VC; if you select IN as the polarizing source, the quantity is in IA+IB+IC. When The Fault Data tab (Figure D-5) shows voltages and currents for the selected relay. These figures can be in either Cartesian or polar coordinates. Click the SS1 File button to save the data to an SS1 file.

Figure D-5 Relay Tab Fault Data

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Load Flow Tab The Load Flow tab (Figure D-6) enables the user to enter load flow data in different ways. For paralleled lines under load condition, current will be flowing on lines AB and CD.

Figure D-6 PSM Load Flow Tab Parameters Tab In the following list, users can enter any three fields and the other fields will be calculated: Voltage at S1 Voltage at S2 Voltage at S3 Voltage at Bus A Voltage at Bus B Voltage at Bus C Voltage at Bus D Current on Line CD

For a load flow of two parallel lines, users must enter any two of the following values:

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Voltage at Bus C Voltage at Bus D Current on Line AB Current on Line CD

The Power tab on the Load Flow tab (Figure D-7) enables users to enter the power of the line.

Figure D-7 PSM Load Flow Tab Power Tab The Load Data tab on the Load Flow tab (Figure D-8) enables you to display the voltages and currents at each relay before the fault. These quantities are calculated based on the entered source voltages and impedances.

Figure D-8 PSM Load Flow Tab Load Data Tab

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Model Menu The Model menu (Figure D-9) enables users to model different power systems. The Model menu options are:

Figure D-9 PSM Model Menu Figure D-10 shows a Single Line model.

Figure D-10 PSM Single Line Model Figure D-11 shows a Parallel Line model.

Figure D-11 PSM Parallel Line Model Figure D-12 shows a Single Line with Tap model.

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Figure D-12 PSM Single Line with Tap Model Figure D-13 on page -10 shows a Parallel Line with Tap model.

Figure D-13 PSM Parallel Line with Tap Model

Setup Menu The Setup menu (Figure D-14) enables you to navigate to the F6 Control Panel. When you click Setup, the following dialog box appears.

Figure D-14 PSM Setup Dialog Box If the default path to the F6 Control Panel is not correct: 1. Click the Browse button to browse to the correct directory. 2. Select the source name scheme. 3. Click OK.

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E. Vector Calculator The Vector Calculator consists of a vector table and keypad. Vectors are displayed graphically in the vector (or phasor) view area. A vector formula you enter with the keypad is displayed in the Formula Box. If the formula is evaluated, the result is shown in the Answer Box.

Figure E-1 Vector Calculator – Main Screen

Vector Table The vector table contains five columns: •

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The Vector column contains data entry fields for vectors V1 through V9.

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The second and third columns define the vector values. The headings for these columns depend on whether you select Polar or Rectangular form on the keypad. For Polar form, the columns are labeled Magnitude and Angle; for Rectangular form, the columns are labeled Real and Imaginary. The Graph column contains buttons that enable you to choose whether each vector appears in Normal View. If a vector entry has been saved from a formula created in the Formula Box, the formula appears in the Formula column of the vector table. The Source Name column allows you to add a source name to relate the vector to a power system source (VA, I1, and so on).

Keypad The Keypad consists of the following key groups, each of which is described below: • • • • •

Function keys Vector keys Operator keys Number keys Recalculate Formulae

Function Keys The function keys appear in the first two rows of the keypad: •

• • •

• •

E-2

Polar and Rect — These keys switch between Polar and Rectangular form for all vector values, including the Answer Box. This enables values to be entered in one form and redisplayed in the other form. Back (Backspace) — Deletes the preceding value in the cell being edited. Same as Backspace on a keyboard. CFB (Clear Formula Box) — Clears the formula in the Formula Box and the result in the Answer Box. SV (Save Vector) — The next vector selected by a vector key (see below) will be overwritten by the value in the Answer Box, and the corresponding formula will also be saved in the table. CV (Clear Vector) — The next vector selected by a vector key will be cleared. CAV (Clear All Vectors) — Clears all values in the vector table.

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Vector Keys Click keys V1 to V9 to specify a vector table entry. These are used in two ways: 1. When creating a formula in the Formula Box, clicking a vector key inserts a vector name into the formula, as an alternative to typing the vector name. 2. Clicking SV and then a vector key saves the Answer Box result to that vector. Clicking CV and then a vector key clears the contents of that vector.

Operator Keys Click an operator key to enter it in the Formula Box. You can enter values from the keyboard or the keypad. Table E-1 describes the operator keys. Table E-1 Operator Keys Keys

Description

+-

Add or subtract vectors as complex numbers. For example, in rectangular form, V1 + V2 results in a vector with a real value equal to the sum of the real parts of V1 and V2 and an imaginary value equal to the sum of the imaginary parts of V1 and V2.

*/

Multiply and divide vectors as complex numbers. For example, in polar form, V1*V2 results in a vector magnitude equal to the product of the magnitudes of V1 and V2, and an angle equal to the sum of the angles of V1 and V2. V1/V2 results in a vector magnitude equal to [V1]/[V2] (quotient of the magnitudes) and angle equal to V1 angle – V2 angle.

=

Evaluate the formula in the Formula Box and place in the Answer Box. The Answer is shown in either the polar or rectangular form, depending on whether the Polar or Rect function key is selected.

(

Begin a parenthetical expression. Multiple levels are allowed; i.e., a parenthetical expression may contain a parenthetical expression. To evaluate without error, every open parenthesis must be balanced by a close parenthesis.

)

End a parenthetical expression.

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Table E-1 Operator Keys (Continued) Keys

Description

SQRT (square root)

Enter a number whose square root is to be calculated. The function SQRT (nnnn) appears in the Formula Box.

CONJ (conjugate)

Changes the sign of an angle from positive to negative or vice versa. Click CONJ to enter the operator and opening parenthesis before an expression. Then insert the closing parenthesis at the end of the expression.

a

Enters “a*” operator into the Formula Box at the insertion point, to rotate the following vector 120°. If the following vector is entered from the keyboard as a polar or rectangular value, it should be enclosed in parentheses: a*([email protected]) which evaluates to [email protected]

a2

Enters “a2*” operator into the Formula Box at the insertion point, to rotate the following vector value 240°. Note that “a*a2*” rotates the vector 360°.

Number Keys Table E-2 describes the number keys. Table E-2 Number Keys Keys

E-4

Description

0-9

Use to enter values in the Formula Box. You can also enter values from the keyboard. Negative values are also valid (do not space on either side of the -).

. (decimal point)

Two decimal places are allowed for all values.

@

In the Formula Box, enter @ followed by a number to indicate the angle of a vector. For example, in polar form, 1.0 @-30 is a valid entry for magnitude and angle of a vector (do not space on either side of the @).

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Recalculate Formulae Key Recalculates all formulas in the vector table, starting at the top.

Viewing Vectors Two graphic displays show the vector table and Formula Box as vectors: 1. Normal View. If the button in the Graph column displays a red checkmark, the vector is graphed on a circular plot. Vector tails begin at the origin. 2. Formula View. If a vector formula in the Formula Box has been evaluated and a result is displayed in the Answer Box, the vector operations are graphed, showing the resultant vector in red. Vector tails begin at the origin. To evaluate a formula, press the equal sign (=) on the keypad.

Menu Bar Menu bar options are: • • • • •

File Edit View Formulae Help

Each of the options is discussed below.

File File menu (Figure E-2) items are:

Figure E-2 File Menu

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Setup Opens the Vector Setup dialog box (Figure E-3).

Figure E-3 Vector Setup Dialog Box •



Color Setup. Select the colors for vectors V1 through V9 in the graphs. You can also select colors for the axes, bounding circle in Normal View, and background. For printing, it may be desirable to set the background color to white and the axis and circle to black, for better readability. Features. Enables you to disable or enable auto button states and tooltips. Auto Button States. When this is enabled (the default), it grays out the operator keys after an operator key is pressed, to prevent you from creating an erroneous expression by entering more than one operator in the Formula Box. The operator keys become available again after you enter a vector, number, or function. Disabling Auto Button States prevents the operator keys from graying out after one of them is pressed, allowing you to create a potentially erroneous expression by entering more than one operator in a row. Tool Tips. Tool Tips are the small yellow boxes that appear when you hover your mouse over a button, to explain the function of the button. Tool Tips are on by default.

Print Opens the standard Windows Print Setup dialog box.

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Exit Exits the program.

Edit Edit Menu (Figure E-4) items are as follows. They apply to highlighted data, either cells in the vector table or data in the Formula Box.

Figure E-4 Edit Menu

Cut Cuts the selected data and retains it on the clipboard. Shortcut key: Ctrl + X

Copy Copies the selected data and retains it on the clipboard. Shortcut key: Ctrl + C

Paste Inserts data from the clipboard. You can do multiple pastes from one cut or copy. Shortcut key: Ctrl + V

Delete Deletes the selected data.

View View menu (Figure E-5) items are:

Figure E-5 View Menu

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Scaling If you have voltages and currents in the Source Name column of the vector table (e.g., VA, VB, VC, and IA, IB, IC), by default all of them are scaled to the largest magnitude in the list. If you select Scaling, the voltage and current with the largest magnitudes are shown to the same scale, with the others proportional by type.

Figure E-6 Scaling Off – Vectors Scaled to the Largest Magnitude For example, in Figure E-6, with Scaling off, all vectors are scaled to the largest magnitude (20), with the others proportionately smaller. In Figure E-7, with Scaling on, voltage vectors are scaled to the largest magnitude (20), and current vectors are shown to the same scale, even though the largest current vector is only 15.

Figure E-7 Scaling On – Vectors Scaled by Type to the Largest Magnitude

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Zoom In To zoom in on an area of a graph: 1. Click just outside the area. Holding down the left mouse button, drag diagonally downward to create a dashed box outlining the area (Figure E-8).

Figure E-8 Dashed Box Outlining Area to Zoom 2. Release the mouse button to zoom in on the outlined area (Figure E-9).

Figure E-9 Zoomed Area Alternate method: 1. Select View  Zoom In  Normal View or Formula View. A red cross appears at the origin of the graph. 2. Outline the area to be expanded:

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a. Press Shift + Down Arrow, then Shift + Right Arrow, or vice versa. b. Move the box outlined by the four red crosses until it encloses the area you wish to zoom. 3. Press Enter.

Zoom Out Right-click in the graph and select Zoom Out. Alternate method: Select View  Zoom Out  Normal View or Formula View.

Formulae Formulae menu (Figure E-10) items are:

Figure E-10 Formulae Menu

Standard Formulae Opens the Formulae Manager dialog box (Figure E-11), from which you can enter and recall formulae to be saved. To add a formula: 1. Type the formula in the Formulae column. 2. Add any desired comments in the Comment column. 3. Click OK. You can add more than one formula and comments at a time and save them all simultaneously by clicking OK.

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E. Vector Calculator

Figure E-11 Formulae Manager Dialog Box To remove a formula: 1. Place the cursor in the line containing the formula or comment. 2. Click Remove. Any entries below the deleted formula move up one row. 3. Click OK. To insert a formula in the Formula Box: 1. Place the cursor in the line containing the formula or comment. 2. Click Export. The formula appears in the Formula Box. 3. Click OK. The Formulae menu also contains a list of the five most recently used formulae, which you can enter by selecting the desired formula.

Help Help menu (Figure E-12) items are:

Figure E-12 Help Menu

Contents Opens the Help window.

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F6TesT 2.21 User’s Guide

About Vector Calculator Opens the version information and copyright dialog box.

Toolbar A vertical toolbar appears at the upper left of the Vector Calculator screen. Figure E-13 shows the toolbar with icon labels. Cut Copy Paste Delete Print Help Exit

Figure E-13 Vector Calculator Toolbar

Performing Calculations To enter a vector value in the vector table: 1. Select Polar on the function keypad to enter magnitude and angle or select Rect to enter real and imaginary values. 2. Click in the desired cell of the vector table. 3. Enter the value using the Vector Calculator keypad or the keyboard. 4. Press Enter to complete the entry or use the mouse to select another cell. 5. Click the Graph button to view the vector in Normal View. To clear a value in the vector table, place the cursor in that cell and click CV. To clear all values, click CAV.

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E. Vector Calculator

Source Name Column If a vector corresponds to a Doble test source or a power system source, enter the source name—for example, VA, VB, VC, I1, l2, l3. The source name can be used in the Formula Box. For example, type VA-VB to obtain the vector difference between the two vectors, perhaps to represent fault voltage in a phase-to-phase fault. You can assign a source name of up to four characters, such as VFLT, for fault voltage.

Formula Column The Formula column contains read-only data fields, showing a vector formula from the Formula Box that was used to evaluate the vector in the vector table. For example, if VA-VB is entered in the Formula Box and evaluated by clicking the equal sign, the value and the formula can be saved as a vector in the table. To do this, click SV on the keypad, followed by a vector key—for example, V7.

Performing Formula Box Calculations To enter a vector value in the Formula Box: 1. Click in the Formula Box. 2. Do one of the following: •

Enter a vector value using the keypad: [email protected]



Enter a vector value using the keyboard: -33.5-j58.02



Enter a vector from the vector table by name. For example, click V2 on the keypad or type V2 on the keyboard. If V2 has a source name, such as VB, you can enter VB on the keyboard.

3. Press the equal sign (=) to evaluate the formula. The result appears in the Answer Box and in the Formula View. Click CFB to clear the Formula Box, Answer Box, and Formula View.

Formula Operators Use formula operators as follows:

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F6TesT 2.21 User’s Guide

Standard Operators Enter the addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and division (/) operators from either the keypad or the keyboard. Use parentheses around vector values entered in polar or rectangular form: a*(-33.5-j58.02)

a, a2 Click a on the keypad as a multiplier to rotate the following vector 120°: a*V1 Click a2 to rotate the following vector 240°: a2*(VA-VB)

SQRT Click SQRT to insert the square root value into a formula. The Square Root dialog box opens (Figure E-14), requesting a positive real number for the square root extraction.

Figure E-14 Square Root Dialog Box

Parentheses Use parentheses to create an expression as a formula operand, such as for addition or multiplication: (-33.5 -j58.02) + ([email protected]) 3*(1 + SQRT(2))

Evaluate Click the equal sign (=) on the keypad or keyboard. The formula is evaluated and the result appears in the Answer Box, in either a Polar or Rectangular format. Change the format by clicking Polar or Rect on the keypad.

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E. Vector Calculator

Save the Answer in the Vector Table Select SV (Save Vector) on the keypad, followed by a vector select key, i.e., V3. The Answer Box value is stored in the selected vector table entry and the formula used to calculate it is stored in the formula cell for reference only. For example, calculate phase-to-phase voltage and phase-to-phase current from phasors in the vector table and use the ratio to evaluate the impedance, using source name assignments for vectors in the table: (VA-VB)/(l1-l2). The impedance vector can be saved in the table also.

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Index A Abbreviations A-2 Analog tab 1-34 Architecture 1-8 AutoRun 5-6 Autorun 4-83

B Battery simulator source turning off 1-15 turning on 1-15 Bias equations 4-52

C Calculations performing E-12 Change Scale 4-40 Characteristic constants 2-4 Characteristic equations 2-2 Characteristics cross reference 2-15 cross-reference B-3 differential 2-11 guidelines 2-8 library 2-1 WaveSim 4-20 Compensation Settings tab 3-29 Connections and Signals 3-2 Context menu 1-13

D Data views 1-8 72A-1968-01

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Database files creating 1-17 DB Compacting Preferences 1-43 Defining individual test lines 4-38 DiffChar 4-26 Single-Phase Differential Testing 4-28 Three-Phase Differential Testing 4-26 Differential Tests 4-48 Differential characteristics 2-11, 4-13 Differential Function tab 3-27 Differential functions 3-27 Differential test points 4-35 Digital Input tab 1-35 Digital Output dialog box 4-74 Digital Output tab 1-35 Digital Outputs 4-22 Directional 4-25 Overcurrent Characteristics 4-11 Tests 4-47 Directional functions 3-25 Double ramp test 4-66 Draw Protected Line Impedance 4-41

E Edit menu 1-20 Copy 1-22 Find 1-24 EXTERN module Notebook tab 4-79 Reports tab 4-80

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Test tab 4-78 using 4-77 using Autorun 4-83

F F6TesT abbreviations A-2 installation 1-2 installing 1-1 removal 1-2 shortcut keys A-3 Fault Rotate 4-72 FDS A-3 File menu 1-17 Close 1-18 Delete Saved Graphs 1-19 Exit 1-20 New 1-17 Open 1-18 Print Setup 1-19 Recently Opened Databases 1-19 Save As 1-18 Formula bar 1-16 Formula box calculations performing E-13 Formula column E-13 Formula functions 1-16 Formula keywords 1-16 Formula operators E-13 Function window 3-7 Functions adding 3-9 copying 3-14 importing B-1

G General Characteristic screen 3-22 General Properties tab 1-33 Generating global reports 1-49

Index-2

Generic functions 3-17 Graph pop-up menu 4-39

H Help menu 1-53 Highlight formula 1-16

I I-Char 4-25 time characteristics 4-46 Idiff vs. Ibias 4-13 Impedance function adding 3-9 Impedance functions 3-19 Importing from spreadsheet 2-10 Installation 1-2 Instruments supported 1-1 Is vs. Ip 4-14 ITH A-2

K Keys function E-2 number E-4 operator E-3 vector E-3

L L/R time constant 4-19 Location 1-12 adding a relay 3-1 Locations cut, copy, and paste 1-13 delete, insert, append, and find 1-14 Login 1-5 Look-up tables 2-9

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M

P

Maximize Graph 4-40 Measurement tab 4-76 Measurements tab 4-43 Menu bar 1-12, E-5 Menus 1-12 context 1-13 Edit 1-20, E-7 File 1-17, E-5 Formulae E-10 Help 1-53, E-11 Module 1-25 Setup 1-26 Tools 1-43 View E-7 Module menu 1-25 Close 1-26 Open 1-26 Save 1-26 Multiple copy 1-23 Multiple cut 1-23 Multiple delete 1-23

Phasor diagram viewing 4-45 Polar grid 4-40 Power System Model 1-53 Fault tab D-4 Impedance tab D-3 Load Flow tab D-8 Model menu D-10 Relay tab D-6 Setup menu D-11 Pulsed ramp 4-65

R

N NF A-3 NoOp A-2 entering a value of 4-42 Notebook tab 4-87

O Offline Simulation mode 1-43 Op A-2 Oscillograph 4-75 context-sensitive menu 1-31 Oscillograph cursors 1-32 Oscillograph properties setting 1-33 Oscillograph setup 1-30 Analog tab 1-34 Digital Input tab 1-35 Digital Output tab 1-35 General Properties tab 1-33

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R – X grid 4-40 Ramp test 4-60 Recalculate Formulae key E-5 Relay 1-12 Relay characteristics comparing 2-13 copying between databases 2-14 displaying 2-13 Relay functions Differential 3-7 Directional 3-7 Generic 3-6 Impedance 3-6 Time characteristics 3-6 Relay library 3-9 Relay Maintenance schedule 1-46 Relay reports 1-50 Relays adding to a location 3-1 cut, copy, and paste 1-13 delete, insert, append, and find 1-14 individual functions 3-6 parameters and functions 3-2 Reports tab 4-83 Requirements 1-1 Restore Graph 4-41 R-X Plane 4-34

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F6TesT 2.21 User’s Guide

S Same Characteristic Equations and Constants 2-9 Selecting a test 5-1 Setup 4-40 Setup menu 1-26 change language 1-42 Communication Setup 1-27 directories 1-41 Graphics Setup 1-28 Oscillograph Setup 1-30 Test Defaults 1-36 Shortcut keys A-3 Show Actual Characteristic 4-41 Show Reference Characteristic 4-41 Show Test Lines 4-40 Simulation mode 5-3 Single-Phase Differential Testing 4-28 Source Configuration button 4-23 Source Name column E-13 Spreadsheet importing data from 2-10 Src A-2 SSIMUL – State Simulation Test 4-69 Startup 1-5 Supported instruments 1-1 System requirements 1-1

T Table columns hiding 5-4 Template library 1-53 Test Configuration tab 4-9 current characteristics 4-10 Fault Calculation 4-10 frequency time characteristics 4-10 Test Method 4-15 voltage characteristics 4-10 Test defaults 1-36 miscellaneous 1-38 Run/Auto Run 1-37 Index-4

system parameters 1-36 Test Definitions setup 4-4 Test Elements tab 4-6 Differential 4-9 Directional 4-8 Impedance 4-7 Overcurrent 4-6 Test graph features 4-39 Test lines define individually 4-38 Test Method window 4-20 Test module type DiffChar 4-26 Directional 4-25 I-Char 4-25 VF-Char 4-25 Z-Char 4-24 ZMTA 4-24 Z-Time 4-24 Test plan summary reports 1-50 Test plans 1-12, 3-5, 4-1 creating 4-1 cut, copy, and paste 1-13 delete, insert, append, and find 1-14 Test points deleting 4-41 editing 4-42 everriding a value 4-42 highlighting 4-41 increasing values 4-42 selecting 4-41 sorting 4-42 Test Points tab 4-28 Test relays 4-52 Test result detail reports 1-50 Test tab 4-44 phasor diagrams 4-45 Test timing 4-21 Test types 4-3 supported 4-3 Tests

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Index

adding 4-2 cut, copy, and paste 1-13 delete, insert, append, and find 1-14 running 5-4 selecting 5-1 Three-Phase Differential Testing 4-26 Time Overcurrent Test Points 4-28 Time Characteristics functions 3-15 Time units 4-74 Tolerance 4-40 Toolbars 1-12, 1-14 Battery 1-15 Tools menu 1-43 Characteristics 1-46 Characteristics Cross Reference 2-15 Convert Database 1-52 DB Compacting Preferences 1-43 F6000 Software Tools 1-44 Offline Simulation Mode 1-43 Power System Model 1-53 Relay Maintenance Schedule 1-46 Relay Manufacturers & Models 1-47 Reports 1-49 template library 1-53 Vector Calculator 1-53 Transformer Parameters tab 3-31 Trigger Selection button 4-21 TTD A-3

VF-Char 4-25 time characteristics 4-46 VpHzRamp Test 4-67 VTH A-2

W WaveSim Test Method 4-20 WaveSim characteristics 4-20 WaveSim test 4-58 Window Function 3-7

Z Z-Char 4-24 Z-Char test 4-56 Z-Char test lines 4-37 Z-Char Test Points tab deleting points on 4-56 ZMTA 4-24, 4-57 Zoom In 4-41 Zoom Out/Unzoom 4-41 Z-Time 4-24 Test Points 4-30 Z-Time test 4-53

U Unknown characteristics 4-52

V Vector Calculator toolbar E-12 Vector calculator keypad E-2 Vector Table saving answer in E-15 Vector table E-1 Vectors viewing E-5 72A-1968-01

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Index

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Index

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Index-8

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