Extent of Implementation of Continuous Improvement Program Thesis Chapters 1 to 3
This is a thesis study which seeks to know the extent of implementation of the CIP in selected areas of Marikina city. T...
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the significance of the study, and its scope and delimitations.
Background of the Study The Philippine Education System is into a never ending search for solution on poor quality education in the country. It has resorted to various innovations in the system with the goal of improving the quality of education and enhancing the literacy of the students. The system has been into reinventing education, restructuring the Basic education Curriculum, reengaging teachers on maximum time-on-task and re-evaluation of duties and functions of the people in the education structure. The reinvention of school governance must thereby give more independent status of operations guided by self-regulation in compliance with DepEd standard of excellence. As learning institutions move toward the future, they face new challenges and difficulties to reach the level of achievement they are expected to give. Since there is no magic formula for success, they are constantly undergoing a trial-and-error loop in search of excellence. School improvement has been the focus of every administrator due to the numerous complexities of its operations specially in the public sector where resources are limited while private sectors would compete by increasing its student population in its goal of sustainability. In the onset, it may be simple
to note that improvement may be totaled to making linkages and asking help from different sources if the school resources are tight. The reality is, funding can be hard due to different technical considerations specifically when monetary values are involved for disposition. However, administrators are keeping the risk just to comply with required standards that in an event they handled the school, there must be contained development at their hand of legacy. Most of the time, administrators would work for linkages with other governmental and non-governmental organizations for aid and services. Linkages will outsource the need of the school when needed and even extent its development to expansion. Donations, scholarships and grants are one of the best actions over decades as source of funds of most schools specifically if the movement is on project based implementation. Stakeholder’s involvement has really posted the best of making the school a better arena for educating students and making the most of the internal sources of the school. Although there is no single direction that leads to success, the continuous improvement program of the Philippine- Australia Human Resource and Organisational Development Facility (PAHRODF) is believed as an accurate tool for achieving performance. In 2013, several schools from the different regions were chosen to pilot the Continuous Improvement Program. These includes Quezon City ( 8 schools), Marikina (2 schools), Mandaluyong ( 2 schools), Bulacan (4 schools), Pampanga (4 schools), Laguna (4 schools), Rizal (2 schools) and Misamis Oriental (4 schools). The birth of the Continuous Improvement is traced back from the evolution of the Total Quality Management in Japan after World War II. In
the book of Subburaj Ramasamy (2009), Continuous Improvement comes from the Japanese word Kaizen which also means gradual and orderly. It is one of the tools of Total Quality Management (TQM), a holistic and an umbrella concept for definite success and prosperity of organizations. As of today, periodic implementation of trainings for administrative efficiency on the implementation of the continuous improvement are being conducted to meet the demands of time where education of the youth has been the total focus to make them gain better competitive advancement in earlier life and be a successful citizen of the country with the help of the school for their developmental being. In the enclosure to DepEd Order No, 83, s 2012 which is the Implementing Guidelines on the Revised School Based Management of the Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 (RA 9155), the vision of change is based on ACCES or A Child and Community- Centered Education System. In view of the SBM review and revision, ACCES served to clarify the guiding principles derived from the concepts of “right-based” education and community as stewards or “rights bearer” in education. From the Philosophical underpinnings, ACCES espoused Four Principles of a school system that guides the SBM processes. Among these principles, Continuous Improvement on the curriculum and the learning systems anchored on the community and the learners’ contexts and aspiration is one. This is under the Principle of Community Based- Learning. The other principles
performance and Results, and Convergence to Harness Resources for Education.
At present, enhancing the quality of basic education in the Philippines is one of the topmost priority. This is because there are many students who finished basic education that do not possess sufficient mastery of the basic competencies. Hence, the Department of Education headed by Brother Armin Luistro implemented the Continuous Improvement (CI) which is geared towards the attainment of the Department’s Mission and Vision. The vision states, We dream of Filipinos who passionately love their country and whose competencies and values enable to realize their full potential and contribute meaningfully to building the nation. We are a learner- centered public institution that continuously improves itself to improve its mission. To attain this vision, the department clearly laid down what every concern individual should do to carry out its mission. This is, To protect and promote the right of every Filipino to quality, equitable, culture-based, and complete basic education where: Students learn in a child-friendly, gender-sensitive, safe, and motivating environment; Teachers facilitate learning and constantly nurture every learner; Administrators and staff, as stewards of the institution; Ensure an enabling and supportive environment for effective learning to happen; Family, community, and other stakeholders are actively engaged and share responsibility for developing life-long learners.
The Continuous Improvement in schools aims to effectively raise the
quality of basic education in the country. Schools need to gain the competencies for continuous improvement to enable desired changes addressing their unique needs. According to the World Bank Philippine Skills Report in 2009, There is a serious gap in critical skills of graduates such as problem solving, initiative and creativity, and to a lesser extent, gaps in job specific technical skills. Poor quality education is also reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or higher education. Assessment done by the prestigious organization Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) concluded that the problem about the present curriculum is squeezing 12 years of basic education into just 10. That students are overloaded with subjects which resulted to poor quality of basic education .International Test Results like 2003 TIMSS rank the Philippines 34th out of 38 countries in H S II Math and 43 rd out of 46 countries in HS II Science; For Grade Four, the Philippines rank 23 rd out 25 participating countries in both Science and Math. In 2008, even only with the Science High School participating in the advanced Mathematics Category, the Philippines was ranked lowest. These problems have been taken very seriously by the Department of Education that is why various programs are implemented to continuously improved the learning output. At present, improved teacher standards have been achieved by employing National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) and the Teacher Strengths and Needs Assessments (TSNA). Also, Competency-Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB-PAST) has been developed to improve the Performance Appraisal System.
A January 13, 2011 press release by the Department of Education, Bro. Armin Luistro said, “Part of DepEd’s major thrust in 2011 is to beef up its basic education performance.This will include system-wide reforms like BESRA which will be critical if we want all our Filipino children to be literate and imbued with life skills.”
BESRA is a package of policy actions organized under five key reform thrusts (KRT) to facilitate the attainment of the EFA goal and objectives. It aims to systematically improve basic education outcomes nationwide. Its KRTs include continuous school improvement facilitated by active involvement of stakeholders; better learning outcomes achieved by improved teacher standards; desired learning outcomes enhanced by national
assurance; improved impact on outcomes resulting from complementary early childhood education (ECE), alternative learning system (ALS) and private sector participation; and institutional culture change in DepED to facilitate school initiatives and assure quality. Luistro explained that DepEd is entrusted with the great responsibility of ensuring that the almost 25 million students under its care get the best education the State can provide. DepEd is now fully implementing decentralization in education management through school-based management (SBM) – where school heads are given the responsibility to secure resources for the school through networking with community stakeholders. Likewise, they are held accountable for the desired outcomes.
Another effort to improve the learning difficulty of learners is to assure that pupils received proper nutrition. This is part of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Thus, The Busog, Lusog, Talino (BLT) School Feeding Program is implemented. In this program, DepEd, through its regional offices, identifies students nationwide who are malnourished. SBFP beneficiaries are selected based on this database. For school year 20122013, the program covered 40,361 (or a mere 7.56%) of the 534,054 identified malnourished students from kindergarten until Grade 6. The small coverage is largely attributed to budget constraints, DepEd Assistant Secretary Tonisito M.C. Umali said. DepEd’s SBFP budget for food is P15 per child and P1 per child for operational expenses, multiplied by 120 feeding days. This sums up to about P1,920 per child. To top all the improvements, the Department of Education considered overhauling the basic and secondary curriculum through the K-12 program. Quoted from the statement of his excellency, President Benigno Aquino III said, “We need to add two years to our basic education, those who can afford pay up to fourteen years. Thus, their children are getting the best universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want atleast 12 years for our public school children to give them an ever chance of succeeding.” With this statement, more effort should be given emphasis to Continuous Improvement Programs in schools . The researcher, being a Master Teacher and a Team leader of the Continuous Improvement Program of Sto. Niño Elementary school, aimed to conduct the study
focusing on the continuous improvement program to be able to find ways on its
performance and school leadership as well . Statement of the Problem This study attempted to determine the extent of the implementation of Continuous Improvement (CI) and its effect on the learners’ academic performance and school leadership in the selected schools of .NCR and Rizal. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: 1.
What is the extent of implementation of the Continuous
Improvement (CI) Program as perceived by the school administrators and teachers in the Public Schools in the following dimensions? a. Task and Timeline b. Budget and Resources c. Stakeholder Analysis d. Evaluation of Implementation Risks 2. What is the level of Learners’ Academic Performance in the National Achievement Test? 3.
What is the level of school leadership of the respondent school
based on the school head’s rating in the search for the most outstanding principal of the year 2014-2015? 4.
Is there a significant difference between the extent of
implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program as perceived by the two groups of respondents? 8-11 5.
Is there a significant relationship between the extent of
implementation of the continuous improvement program and the level of learner’s academic performance? 6.
Is there a significant relationship between the extent of
implementation of the continuous improvement program and school leadership in the selected public schools of NCR and Rizal? 7. Based on the findings of the study, what quality education assessment tool can be developed for the implementation of Continuous Improvement Program?
Significance of the Study The researcher believes that the significant findings of the study will benefit the following groups of persons: To the Schools Division Superintendents, the result of this study could give them significant inputs on how to evaluate their C.I Programs based on the quality assessment tool. The results of this study could give baseline information or insights whether or not the CI program is properly implemented and can be of real help in the school’s total development. To the school heads, the results of this study could motivate and encourage them to sustain improvement projects in their school with the help of linkages and stakeholders from where they can outsource funds through their leadership. To the teachers, the results of this research can make them realize that an improvement is a continual process and follows certain steps. That, they can start in their own classrooms and be a helping arm of the school heads in attaining better outcome. To the pupils, who are the main beneficiaries of school improvement,
the results of this study will pave the way to a better learning. Thus, will prepare them to become 21st century learners where they will be endowed with values and competencies that will prepare them to become citizens ready to build the nation. To the parents and other stakeholders, their collaboration with the school principals and teachers will further improve the educational system where they can help directly or indirectly in attaining quality education which every school is mustering. Lastly, the results of this study could give inputs to future researchers in conducting similar study using other variables for further improvements of the CIP implementation. Scope and Delimitations of the Study This study was limited to the determination of the extent of implementation of the Continuous Improvement Program and its effect on the learners’ academic performance and school leadership in the two divisions of NCR and selected schools of Rizal during the school year 20142015. The Continuous Improvement Program covers four areas namely: Task and Timeline, Budget and Resources, Stakeholder Analysis and Evaluation of Implementation Risk; The Learners’ Academic Performance was gauged in terms of the National Achievement Test and school leadership was taken into account as part of the study. There were forty (40) school heads and 721 teachers who were the respondents of the study.
CHAPTER II CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This chapter deals with the review of related literature and studies, the conceptual model of the study, the research hypothesis, and the definition of terms used in the study. Review of Related Literature and Studies To intensify the knowledge and clarify the perception of the problems, a number of books and periodicals were read to gather insights which were used by the researcher in conceptualizing this study. Those which have been found relevant are hereby presented. Related Literature. Continuous improvement is an ongoing effort of school management to improve education transfer, services or system and processes. These efforts can seek “incremental” improvement over time or “breakthrough” improvement all at once that will aid in making the teaching and learning more effective. Among the most widely used tools for continuous improvement is a four-step quality model—the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle, also known as Deming Cycle or Shewhart Cycle. Plan: Identify an opportunity and plan for change based on new inventions in education arena, innovations and systematic outcome; Do: Implement the change on a small scale as trial over a period of time to specifically focused on its execution; Check: Use data to analyze the results of the change and determine whether it made a difference; and Act: If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and continuously assess results
that may be adopted towards school development. If the change did not work, begin the cycle again. Other widely used methods of continuous improvement
measuring and systematizing processes; and reducing variation, defects and cycle times (Smiley, 2012). A culture of continuous improvement is one in which individuals are growing, learning and contributing to the overall goal. Schools, work environments, communities and families have the potential to foster continual improvement. Through ongoing communication, information sharing, assessments and rewards, individuals and groups can progress towards personal and organizational goals. Harvey (2012:12) discussed the steps for developing a culture of continuous improvement namely: 1) Communicate expectations - In a school environment, expectations may include
homework. All expectations should be communicated clearly and regularly in order to develop a culture of continuous improvement; 2) Deliver information and training - Continuous development requires advancement in knowledge and skills. Schedule ongoing training sessions. Identify the individual skills required for continuous improvement and provide opportunities for group members to strengthen those skills. Training sessions may take place daily, weekly or periodically, depending on the particular skill; 3) Assess knowledge and skills - Whether in teaching a group of students or managing a corporate team, use assessment tools to gauge the progress of individuals. In a school, one might gauge progress by
administering regular exams; 4) Explain to everyone why they matter - People need to know that their contributions make a difference. Their ideas, questions and thoughts are all important contributions that can potentially generate new and more productive ways of doing things. 5) Provide encouragement in order to develop a culture of continuous improvement - Praise individuals when they show progress in the mastery of a specific skill. This is especially important when they have worked hard to learn and improve. 6) Show consistency in approach - Whatever strategies you use for engendering growth and development, stick with the plan if it is working. Individuals need to know that the rewards program they find so motivating will, in fact, be present 6 months down the line when they have
experimentation and mistakes - People learn through a process of trial and error. Let students or team members feel that while excellence is the ultimate goal, achieving it may involve experimentation and imperfection. In another book authored by Hamilton and Wardwell (2012: 225), continuous improvement in a management context means a never-ending effort to expose and eliminate root causes of problems. This is also true in school management and administration. Usually, it involves many incremental or small-step improvements rather than one overwhelming innovation to see to it that affectivity rises in a certain period at a different level. From a Japanese perspective continuous improvement is the basis for their business culture. Continuous improvement is a philosophy, permeating the culture of education system, which seeks to improve all factors related to the transformation process (converting inputs into outputs)
on an ongoing basis. It involves everyone, management and labor activities, human resources, in finding and eliminating waste in machinery, labor, materials and execution of services methods. The Japanese word for continuous improvement, kaizen, is often used interchangeably with the term continuous improvement. From the Japanese character kai, meaning change,
character zen, meaning
means improvement. According to Mallad (2012: 53), the driving force behind continuous improvement is dissatisfaction with the status quo, no matter how good the school is perceived to be. Standing still will allow the competition to overtake and pass any complacent institution of learning specifically in private operations. The founder of Honda has been quoted as saying, "In a race competing for a split second, one time length on the finish line will decide whether you are a winner or a loser. If one understands that, he cannot disregard even the smallest improvement." Although continuous improvement involves making incremental changes that may not be highly visible in the short term, they can lead to significant contributions in the long term. This long term goals in education are planned ahead via framework as basis for improvement check and monitoring activities. It is very important in school management that administrators will be able to tract its place and make a head over what they wanted to be in the future. Although education is not merely a business benefit, the molding of minds is more than important in the society which should be given utmost consideration through improvement strategies. In the same vein, school organizational performance can improve from
knowledge gained through experience. Lessons learned from mistakes in administration mean those mistakes are less likely to be repeated, while successes encourage workers to try the same thing again or continue to try new things. While this learning process occurs throughout the school system it is particularly important for accomplishing the long-term improvement associated with continuous improvement. In order for continuous improvement to be successful, the organization must learn from past experience and translate this learning into improved performance. Performance in school includes ability to increase graduates apart from perpetual increase in enrolment over the years and to come. Most of the time, drop-outs are also measuring records while the teachers’ ability to motivate and train students in participation to national and international undertakings and contest are also to consider. School improvement is not merely increasing its resources like library holdings, buildings, supplies and material resources. Include in the improvement considerations are intangible development through the employee job performance and teachers’ commitment to the school (Ninge, 2012:94). Sean (2013: 66) postulated that part of the learning process is trying new approaches, exploring new methods and testing new ideas for improving
experimentation can be an important part of its organizational learning. Naturally, many of these worker-led experiments will fail, so it is important to recognize that there is some risk associated with this experimentation. If school management is uncomfortable with risk, it may be reluctant to allow any real degree of experimentation. Obviously, management of schools
cannot risk disabling the service process itself or endanger the well-being of the workforce, but the complete absence of risk can reduce the vision of those involved in the continuous improvement process. Improvements will generally come in modest increments of progress. Therefore, school management must recognize that some experiments will fail as part of the learning process, and avoid the temptation to harshly judge the perpetrator as having new but unsuccessful ideas. Some even feel that it is critical to establish an environment that reinforces the notion that risk is good. Again, this involves consistency in school management's attitude toward change and the empowerment of employees. This is more likely happening in the introduction of new system in the education fields. According to Bruce (2013: 87), the achievement of continuous improvement requires a long-term view and the support of top management. But it is also important that all levels of management actively support and become involved in the process. Proper support structures of training, management, resource allocation, measurement, and reward and incentive systems must be in place for successful adoption. This includes a willingness to provide financial support and to recognize achievements. It is desirable to formulate goals with the workers' help, publicize the goals, and document the accomplishments. These goals give the personnel something tangible to strive for, with the recognition helping to maintain worker interest and morale. Improvement is a matter that involves everyone in the organization. It is not only the duty of the heads but also of those in the rank-and-file, thus, the cooperation of everyone is enjoined for its successful implementation.
Hans (2013: 64) concluded that continuous improvement requires that all employees in the school must be involved in the process. Every employee must be motivated to accept the concept of continuous improvement process as a means by which the school can achieve a competitive advantage in the education arena. All involved must push continuously at the margins of their expertise, trying to be better than before in every area. Private schools have been very successful with the use of teams composed of workers and school heads. These teams routinely work together on problem solving. Moreover, the workers are encouraged to report problems and potential problems to the teams; their input is as important as that of school heads who monitors the progress. In order to establish a problem-solving orientation, workers should receive extensive training in statistical process control, quality improvement, and problem solving. On the same stance, school heads must have the motivating factor to continue with the process overboard through leadership enhancement training and workshops. According to Oswald and Warren (2013: 322), problem solving is the driving force behind continuous improvement. Actually, it can be said to become a way of life or a culture that must be assimilated into the thinking of management and workers alike. Workers are trained to spot problems that interrupt, or have the potential to interrupt, the smooth flow of work through the system. When such problems do occur, it is important to resolve them quickly. Also, workers are trained to seek improvements in the areas of manual services reduction, set-up time and cost reduction, increasing output rate, and generally decreasing waste and inefficiency. In
every improvement system, the most affected are those in the first line services which causes unacceptable changing implementation. It is therefore important that higher management must provide support system that will hone the first line services to resilient the changes that may occur in the process of improvement. This is done through reward system and training and development strategies. Unfortunately, workers in a continuous improvement system have more stress than their counterparts in more traditional systems. This stress comes not only from the added authority and responsibility but also from the fast pace inherent in the system. There is little slack built into the system and a continual push to improve. For this reason, schools stressing continuous improvement have suffered severe criticism from some labor unions. This is an integral part of the improvement but the most important is be able to meet the labor demands halfway without compromising the improvement plan. It is also important that improvement plans are communicated to several ranks including the duty of having them participate directly or indirectly to the process of improvement. Generally, school personnel are happier to change if they have personal or actual participation towards its change. They tend to have sense of ownership over the change activities thus, support will be easy (Khalid, 2013:44). Walter (2013: 60) discussed that organizational performance can be evaluated by giving focus on all its processes or procedures that underlies its operation. The increase in outputs, efficacy and effectiveness must be in place and must be in continual height together with aiming to beat the target set forth in the organization planning stage. Organization performed well,
literally, if one’s target are met and even exceeded for a certain period of time. In as much as progress arises, it must be unremitted to consider a rate of balance as among the period covered in the target or else, such performance will be affected. Performance measurement are essential to identify how well an organization works and how it made itself beneficial to the administrators, employees and clients. Relatively,
performance, or Instructional Accountability, has become an increasingly complex game of numbers in rating schools who have improved in their system every school years. As authorities look at these numbers it is important to remember that they do not represent a direct linear comparison where ranking is absolutely the measurement of success, although commonly a basis of it. They are a measure of growth and improvement rather than absolute performance. It is also important to recognize that test scores are only one way of judging a school with its ability to train students to answer national and international examinations that led to ranking analysis. It is always encouraged to visit the schools, talk to the teachers and find out which school will be the best fit for a child. A first ranking school does not mean it can make improvement to a child which is not inclined to its area of specialization. Thus, performance measurement is necessarily being able to bring out the best to every learners at a different condition. It is then the outcome of making the school as specifically identified in its expertise as to whether it is academic in nature, technology enhancement, skills development or its combination. In the premise of Magarso (2013:84) about the education performance
index in Asian nation, it was stressed that the number of graduates and drop out are always in the scenario. Graduates is the ability of the schools to motivate the students to finish their studies on a year round analysis while the drop outs are those who were not able to finish their studies on time. On the other hand, it was cited that aside from these indicators, the need to evaluate the school facilities that made the environment of learning more acceptable and tolerable despite number of problems in the education sector. It is also noted that sustainability issue must be emphasized in identifying how well the school perform. Although ability and skills of teachers were not questioned, it was strongly recommended that this area is a must to empower the school in its aim of quality education. School performance according to Sarrabi (2013:30) includes the following cycle for improvement: 1) to standardize an operation in the school and activities are planned in a yearly basis for everyone’s reference. This is by showing to the stakeholders the entire activity of the school so that they can tract if such was done in the period through setting up a target in each action; 2) Measure the operational factors including time, quality, quantity and some considerable influences in the school activities to be attained; 3) gauge measurement against performance requirements where comparison of the actual to target activities are evaluated; 4) innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity. This is by monitoring activities before the target are met and make analyzation if it can be accomplished because as a matter of contingency, the school may innovate and stretch its capability to be able to meet the target through a much simpler procedure; 5) Standardize the new innovative operation by making a check mark or
frame work to serve as baseline information towards development plan and activities in the future; and 6) continue with the cycle until such time that a new innovation is found to be more effective and go back to the first step. Wedan (2013:192) discussed that in the modern climate of high-stakes testing and educational accountability, the success of a school is measured by the school's achievement of set performance indicators. These indicators are intended to demonstrate how effectively the school is preparing pupils to perform in the real world. While specific regulations vary from state to state, in many areas, schools are graded upon whether or not they meet these pre-set indicators and, in some instances, funding decisions are made based upon the proven success of the educational institution. The most commonly used performance indicator is standardized test results. Standardized tests are intended to measure student comprehension in relation to other pupils in the same academic year. In theory, schools that are effective will produce students who score proficient on standardized tests. Most states monitor individual school building as well as school district standardized test scores and look for trends in test passing or failing. In some schools, these scores are tied to job retention or bonus granting. Many teachers argue against the validity of standardized test scores, insisting that these tests are not a true measure of the complete academic knowledge of student test takers and, as such, should not be seen as the only
Related Studies. The study of Cruz (2012) focused on the assessment of strategies employed by the school administrators in improving the school performance. In the study, it was cited that the school’s ability to ask funding
from the external stakeholders are one of the utmost consideration in school improvement. The support system that the stakeholders are giving can be a source of fund that is at the disposal of the administrators. On the other hand, there were stakeholders that specifically identify the improvement focus of the funding that they are willing to give. On the other hand, the internal supports in the activities of the school are on the next rank. At times, change are being resisted from inside but the importance is the ability of the administrators to cope up with such differences. Another strategy is ask funding from private partners and non-governmental organizations that are willing to share what they have to give credence to the education system. Finally, administrators also give effort of improving the status of the school to the community to ask for a better government subsidy. The study of Cruz and the present study seems the same in the area where the focus is school performance identification although the location and respondents including variables are not the same. Canayon (2012) studied the management of school improvement towards an institutional framework. The study put its concentration on making a framework to serve as guide in the improvement work plan of the school. The input contains the effort of the school management to maintain the sustainability of the school financial resources, library resources are also evaluated, human capital and skills training needs are considered and technological capability are also looked into. Further, manner of procurement and financing scheme are evaluated to serve as tool in analyzation of the school’s ability to manage properly what it has owned or
is planning to own. The process of the study includes the focus group discussion on the prepared framework to give meaning to the model and it jive with the aim of the school. Finally, the output is the evaluated and recommended framework for the school improvement. The discussion in the study of Canayon is the same as the present study because the consideration is on the manner of improving the school which is similarly situated in the study of the continuous improvement program of the Department of Education. Meanwhile, the studies differ in terms of specific variables, output and respondents therewith. Maruff (2012) made a study on school heads’ administrative strategies towards attaining improvement of school at Cebu City. The descriptive method of research was used in this research with two sets of questionnaire used to gather the perceptions of the respondents. The highest rating was given to the planning stage, decision-making stage and implementation stage. It was indicated that it was very often practiced that school administrators would include in the planning goings-on the consortia with other institutions for the school development purposes. Relatively, decision making are also concentrated on funding for the school improvement which upshot to its implementation. On the other hand, monitoring and evaluation is a little weaker since it goes with what the school already have for development but fail to further evaluate the existing conditions of improvement. Thomas (2012) conducted a research on the improvement procedures employed by administrators as it affects the development of the school. The aim of the study was to make a system analysis of the school’s
improvement procedure and how its development are absorbed in a way that it can help in meeting the most important aim of education which is transfer of knowledge. The results revealed that improvement management is necessary in order to provide the best for the leveling of the institution. Data revealed that among the school administrators, they are more likely convinced that scholarship grants are the best they have employed to meet the student’s needs. Scholarship funding by the national and local governments are very much employed while the private sector’s participation are recognized as well. Education related institutions may have some significant contributions but they often choose their recipients at their own specified level which the school has no control of. As regard facilities improvement, the administrators are very much inclined in having repairs and maintenance but building structures are costly on their part. Most of the time, structures are funded by the local government and national fund but the school has no direct hand on it. Relatively, funding agencies are asked by the administrators for help to be able to sustain the number of needs that the school have. Although loans and aid are available for utilization, it is always an utmost consideration to have the revolving fund as healthy as possible to meet the demands of time. Technology focused is considered by the administrators as one of the utmost on the list with the help of several governmental organizations which have linked to techno-system and design. Private sectors also can help at the degree that the private firm is able or willing to give. Finally, so much of the funding agencies are willing to shell out resources for technology based projects. Both the study of Maruff and Thomas have similar topic with the present
study as to their discussions on school improvement system which is also the focus of the present study. On the other hand, the location, variables and respondents are different. In the study conducted by Giocando (2010) presented during the 2011 research forum on annual agency in-house review proceedings in the Kalinga-Apayao State College, it was found out that most schools in the region needs further rehabilitation and that assessment must be done periodically to help the management improve its services. Thus, tools in the assessment of operation is proposed. Focused group discussions were done so that stakeholders were involved in the process of making the tool. The principals and school managers involve agreed to use the assessment tools in their respective schools. The tool will help the administrative units to assess their performance to be able to maintain or improve their services in terms of sustainability, responsiveness, timeboundness and manner of dealing with clients. It will also serve as guide to the managers in deciding protocols in each day to day activities. It was also identified that ethical standards in the service to clients must be maintained. The study also revealed the following insights: 1) management of the school operations must delegated to someone who is capable, qualified and honest, person and 2) adequate facilities to maintain the good services are needed and enhanced efficiency of the personnel in doing their job must be given consideration. The study of Giocando similarly chosen to have an assessment tool for better operational services just like the present study. Personnel who manned the management and facilities are also considered in both studies.
However, they differ in areas and variables included in the research. The study of Blimpo (2012) presented in the International Research Forum of School Management in the University of Mumbai determined how well the school management of Yudaras Wittayalai School In Mai was managed in accordance with the regulations given by the authorities and achieve its development fund. The study involved 200 respondents from the lower and upper secondary education levels and 150 teachers, Results showed that physically, the school was clean and neat with appropriate settings; and maintained regularly. The billboards also helped students have knowledge of school processes and periodic operations. Information on officials and how they can be reached are also posted and can be accessed through a functional trunklines. Also, the bulletin board, detailing its regulation, showed the steps of school services per respective office. In addition, its time frame, opening at 6:00am and closing at 7:00 pm, was established for the needs of the students, and for the access of the parents after work. With this special function, the school was able to get a development fund from the Asian Development Bank to increase the capability of the school to enrollment and quality service to students. The bank account management considered the transparency and accountability framework of the school that ensure proper execution of services and better feedback from clients. The present study and that of Blimpo is similar in focus of school development. However, Blimpo gave utmost importance to specific funds given to the institution for its sustainability and improvement while the present study did not only focus on physical and financial resources but of
the leadership and academic level of the pupils. In another related study, Wangari (2012) evaluated the Watweruwan School program and presented the results to the Research Institute of Donghua University. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the programs implemented by the school administrator during the academic year of 2011 and suggest framework for its development plan. Respondents included 296 students, parents and teachers. The study evaluated whether the current program management of the school to meet quality education was achieved and realized. Evaluation results revealed conserving context, input processes, and production indicated in the performance in all aspects. Details of the performance include: 1)students, parents, and teachers understand the aim of the program and develop attitude of camaraderie and school support system; 2) personnel budget and material are adequate, 3) on duty teachers give or help in the school activities; 4) clean and greening projects are implemented by the student councils; 5) and students are have the intense initiation of development strategies. The study concluded that school program was able to reach or achieve its aims for the quality achievement of the school, the framework established was further acceptable for implementation. Although Wangari and the present study considered development of school, they differ in their output since the present study proposed an assessment tool while Wangari suggested framework for its development plan. As cited by Migosi (2012), a specific school must be provided with more convenient atmosphere to stay and be a learning conducive area for the
students and teachers considering that they are the focus of the education institutions. This problem has sprouted several instances and challenges to schools in Metro Davao specifically the facilities available which are so limited in nature which the respondents found to be fairly satisfactory. Number of teachers are also a problem, the ratio and proportion of teachers and students are fairly satisfactory in every room. The idea of maximization of place was primarily considered by the school instead of better service. The study further recommends to put up a additional buildings and improve facility. The buildings may be acquired through the help of special education funds of the locality. Tables and chairs which are light and movable may also be purchased. Another proposal is to have a covered open area to facilitate bigger activities. Tanseco (2013) conducted a study on the school improvement management of Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College. The study tried to identify the strengths and weaknesses in school management of the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College in terms of instruction, research, extension and production for the college. The study proposed the professionalization of the faculty and employees by training them on instructional services with separate training programs, and personnel development plans. It was also proposed to establish a functional research team which will serve as the arm of the school in establishing its research activities. Extension services committee may also be establish to uphold the continuous implementation of the extension office. Finally, the production office may be divided in several areas like agriculture, sciences and technology areas to ensure channeling of
grants, aids and to avoid overlapping of work of project
managers per production activities. The study of Migosi and Tanseco focused on school development scheme and its sustainability which is also the intention of the study but they differ in other areas of variables and output of the respective studies. The study of Calim (2011) presented in the 2011 Multidisciplinary Research Forum in the University of Northern Philippines focused on the creation of a strategic plan for the Iloilo Polytechnic State College where the main concern is private-public partnership as means for development. The faculty and administration personnel were found to have high acceptability on private institutions help for the school development; thus, the need to semi-privatize the operations which involves quality production and marketing is a must so that the school may be able to do its job while private partners take charge of the other undertakings. In the same ground, private partners may collaborate with other national and international agencies for the benefit of the school specifically in tie-up operations abroad which the school cannot handle on its own due to budget constraints. The strategic plan includes the creation of a committee to handle the overseeing and bidding of procurement and in the renewal of the contracts signed in behalf of the school. The committee will also be involved in the improvement mechanism for the benefit of the students and other clients
students/faculty, tie-up and research activities. In the study of Rosa (2011) on correlating school administrator’s role in school improvement and the teacher’s evaluation process revealed that a moderate relationship exist between school administrators’ overall school
improvement and on teachers’ evaluation. This is based on support given by the administrators and the trust of the teachers to them. These findings were clarified through themes where there is a need to understand the evolving priorities of the school in measuring the school performance and teachers’ evaluation. An unanticipated findings that emerge from the study was the variance in foundation relationships among school administrators and teachers, main office administrators, and union leadership which further used as tool in school improvement. The study of Calim and Rosa are similarly situated with the present study due to their mirroring on the role of school leaders on the school development in either partnership with stakeholders or focusing on support to teachers’ ability improvement. Meanwhile, the studies differ in other selections of variables and also on the chosen location of the study. Another study from Leithwood (2010) shows a great link of educational leadership to students’ academic performance. The study demonstrates a strong positive link between the leadership of the school administrators and motivation of the students to be able to increase their academic performance and level of learning outcomes. This was proven by the uninterrupted achievement of the students in test administered to them, including examinations conducted by local and national regulations to identify how well the school perform in molding the students skills and testing abilities. Further, it was noted that school personnel should be given proper training with the conduct of training needs analysis to address their upliftment as part of the school development. Acosta (2010) conducted a study on school heads ability to improve
school performance. Based on the study, a little evidence was found to be considered as relationship between school performance and school heads’ educational attainment and work experience. However, relationship was evidenced on the community association and friendly attitude of the school heads’ to the stakeholders. On the other hand, a mixed evidence on the relationship between formal training of principalship and professional development programs attended have great tick to schools’ ability to perform. Enhancement program was further recommended where the education department should be in-charge therewith. Leithwood and Acosta’s study have similarity with the present study due to their intention for school improvement in a continuous manner towards school performance management. On the other hand, they differ in their intended proposed output to addressed the weaknesses in the school administration.
Theoretical Framework of the Study The study is anchored on the Kaizen Management as a successful approach in implementing change. Kaizen (the translation of kai (“change”) zen (“good”) is “improvement”) is a method which became famous from Imai’s 1986 book Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success. The processes indicated in this approach includes the following:
Feedback: The core principle of CIP is the (self) reflection of
Efficiency: The purpose of CIP is the identification, reduction, and
elimination of suboptimal processes. 31
Evolution: The emphasis of CIP is on incremental, continual steps
rather than giant leaps. Key features of kaizen include:
Improvements are based on many small changes rather than the
radical changes that might arise from Research and Development
As the ideas come from the workers themselves, they are less likely
to be radically different, and therefore easier to implement
Small improvements are less likely to require major capital
investment than major process changes
The ideas come from the talents of the existing workforce, as
opposed to using research, consultants or equipment – any of which could be very expensive
All employees should continually be seeking ways to improve their
It helps encourage workers to take ownership for their work, and can
help reinforce team working, thereby improving worker motivation. The elements above are the more tactical elements of CIP. The more strategic elements include deciding how to increase the value of the delivery process output to the customer (effectiveness) and how much flexibility is valuable in the process to meet changing needs. This was the basis of the researcher in citing Kaizen Management as one of the theoretical foundation of this study. Another basis is the CIP or Continual Improvement Process. The CIPconcept is also used in Environmental Management Systems (EMS), such 32
as ISO 14000 and EMAS. The term "continual improvement" is used in ISO 14000, and is understood to refer to an ongoing series of small or largescale improvements which are each done discretely, i.e. in a step-wise fashion. Several differences exist between the CIP concept as it is applied in quality management and environmental management. CIP in EMS aims to improve the natural consequences of products and activities. Secondly, there is no client-orientation in EMS-related CIP. Also, CIP in EMS is not limited to small, incremental improvements as in Kaizen, it also includes innovations of any scale. This theory is another basis which structured the necessary procedure towards improvement undertakings of schools. The researcher cited the said concept so that areas of Philippine Education Continuous Improvement Process may be taken in its chunk for innovation in attaining its overall goal of quality and accessible education.
Frame 1 Kaizen Management as successful approach implementing change
Continual Improvement Process refer to an ongoing series of small or large-scale improvements which are each done discretely, i.e. in a step-wise fashion Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 (RA 9155)
Frame 2 1. Implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program
Task and Timeline Budget and Resources Stakeholders Analysis Evaluation of Implementation Risks
2. Learners’ Academic Performance National Achievement Test 3. School Leadership
Quality Education Assessment Tool 33
Figure 1. Theoretical Framework of the Study Figure 1 presents Frame 1 showing the Kaizen Management, Continual Improvement Process, and Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 (RA 9155) which serve as theoretical structure of the study. On the Frame 2 shows the extent of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program,
Achievement Test and also the school leadership during the school year 2014-2015. Finally, Frame 3 presents the education quality assessment tool to be proposed by the researcher. The connecting arrows show the relationship that may arise from each of the frames that would be the basis of the researcher in developing an assessment tool after the conduct of the study. Each frame will have significant effect that would help in the improvement of the implementation of the CIP in public schools. Continuous improvement is very necessary for school administrators and teachers if they want to achieve the mission and vision of the Department of Education.
Conceptual Framework of the Study Figure 1 Illustrates the conceptual framework which serves as guide of the study. Specifically, it shows the input, process and output. The first frame shows the input of the study: the respondents of the study where the number of which shall be determined using the Slovin’s
Formula and shall be chosen by stratified random sampling in the selected schools. Contains also are the questionnaires, school data, learner’s academic performance and school performance. In the second frame, the process, includes the following: distribution, administration and retrieval of the questionnaires and tabulation of data gathered. Further, the statistical treatment of data and the analysis and interpretation of the data and information gathered will be the next process.
Respondents: School administrators
Process Validation of questionnaires
Distribution, Administration and Retrieval of the Questionnaires
Tabulation of Data
Learner’s academic performance based on NAT School leadership
Statistical treatment of data Analysis and interpretation of data on information gathered
Output Extent of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program in different dimensions. Level of Learners’ Academic Performance based on NAT Level of school leadership based on the school heads’ rating in the search for most outstanding principal of the year. Difference between the extents of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program as perceived by the two groups of respondents Relationship between the extent implementation of the continuous improvement program and level of learner’s academic performance Relationship between the extent of implementation of the continuous improvement program and school leadership Proposed Quality Assessment Tool
Feedback Figure 1. Conceptual Model of the Study
For the third frame as output, the following was included: Extent of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program in different dimensions; Level of Learners’ Academic Performance; Level of school performance for the school year 2014-2015; Difference between the extents of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program as perceived by the two groups of respondents; Relationship between the extent implementation of the continuous improvement program and level of learner’s
implementation of the continuous improvement program and school performance; and the Proposed Intervention program. Research Hypotheses On the basis of the statement of the problem and the research framework, the hypotheses that were used for this study are the following: 1.
There is no significant difference between the extent of
implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program as perceived by the two groups of respondents. 2. There is no significant relationship between the extent of implementation of the continuous improvement program and the level of learner’s academic performance. 3. There is no significant relationship between the extent of implementation of the continuous improvement program and school
leadership in the selected public schools of NCR and Rizal.
Definition of Terms In order to arrive at a common understanding, the following terms used in the study are hereby defined: Academic Performance. It refers to the ability of the students to knowledge that can help them in their journey of attaining better education. It may also refer to the grades and rating the students acquire over a period of time of teaching. School Leadership. How school leaders guide and improve the school’s performance, communicating and role-modeling the DepEd VMG. Setting school goals, measuring and recognizing good performance and encouraging continuous improvement, complying with legal and regulatory requirements, promoting and ensuring ethical behavior, supporting key communities. Continuous Improvement. It refers to a long-term approach to work that systematically seeks to achieve small, incremental changes in processes in order to improve efficiency and quality in the institutional management. National Achievement Test. It refers to the examination being given to student every period to know the extent of the knowledge they have learned in their respective school. Implementation Plan. Spells out the WHAT (needs to happen), WHO (will do it), WHEN (it will be completed), and OUTCOME (expected results); determines tasks and timeline; Prepare budget and resource requirements
Perform stakeholder analysis; Evaluate of implementation; and do risk assessment.
CHAPTER III Research Design This chapter presents the method of research used, the sources of data, the data gathering instrument, the data gathering procedure and the statistical treatment of data. Methods of Research The study will make use of the descriptive methodology of research in survey form towards its accomplishment. Descriptive method of research is used to collect data at a certain specified demography and on a criteria set to identify the problem of the study considering people’s behavior, practices, beliefs, intentions, attitudes, opinions, judgments, interest, perceptions and the like then such data are analyzed, organized and interpreted accordingly (Calderon
researchers to label an understanding on a certain event or phenomena. Johnson and Christensen (2012) discussed descriptive research as focused mainly on providing an accurate description or picture of the status or
characteristics of a situation or phenomena considering a criteria towards analysis of its concepts and systems. In this study, the descriptive research will be used to make an assessment of the extent of the implementation of Continuous Improvement (CI) and its effect on the learners’ academic performance and school performance in the selected schools of Marikina City. Further, learners’ academic performance and school performance, will be given attention in the study. Sources of Data The main sources of data were the selected public schools in the Divisions of Marikina, Quezon City and Rizal. There were two groups of respondents for the study namely the school administrators and teachers. The school administrators were selected through a total population taking all of them as respondents. On the other hand, with the utilization of Slovin’s formula, the researcher has identified the number of teacherrespondents and select them through a stratified random sampling method where an equal number of respondents were taken from each stratum of the recorded population. Only those teachers with plantilla positions were considered for the study and the distribution of which are presented in Table 1. Table 1 Distribution of the School, School Administrator and Teacher Respondents Per Division
Sam No. of Divisions/Schools
Quezon City Cubao North F.V E.S Balara ES Lagro ES Krus Na Ligas Corazon Aquino ES Batasan Hills National H.S North FV H.S Balara N.H.S Sub-Total Marikina City Sto. Nino ES Parang ES Concepcion IS Concepcion ES Barangka ES Kalumpang ES SSS Kapitan Moy ES San Roque ES Fortune ES Marikina ES Sto. Nino HS Fortune HS Sta. Elena HS San Roque HS Tanong H.S Marikina Heights HS Marikina Science HS Kalumpang HS Parang HS Sub-Total Burgos ES Justice Vicente Santiago ES San Mateo ES Sto Nino ES Ampid NHS Burgos NHS Francisco P. Felix Ext. Guinayang NHS
1 1 1 1 1
100 100 100 100 100
87 133 88 86 203
17 27 18 17 41
1 1 9
100 100 100
210 89 1425
42 18 286
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 1 1
100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
117 91 76 52 35 84 61 38 103 61 50 91 139 38 73 51 46 35 97 1418 51
23 18 15 10 7 17 12 8 21 12 10 18 28 8 15 10 9 7 19 283 10
1 1 1 1 1 1
100 100 100 100 100 100
71 63 28 107 30 41
14 13 6 21 7 8 40
Sn. Mateo NHS Silangan NHS Teresa NHS Sub-Total Overall Total
1 1 1 11 40
100 100 100 100 100
148 76 71 757 3600
30 15 14 152 721
The data in the table show that there were 40 administrators from the Divisions of Marikina City, Quezon City and Rizal who were involved in the study. Likewise, it could be seen in the table that there were 3,600 total teacher’s population from the three school divisions, hence, 721 or 20 percent were identified as teacher respondents based on the school data. Data Gathering Instruments The main instruments which were used in the study were the survey questionnaire and school data. The questionnaire consisted of inquiry that helped in making an assessment tool on the extent of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program which served as basis for enhancement of its operation. It also consists questions relative to the know-how of the administrators in Continuous Improvement (CI) Program: Task and Timeline; Budget and resources; Stakeholders Analysis; and evaluation of implementation risks as variables measured. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher, reviewed by her adviser and validated by the experts composed of supervisors, principals and the former vice-president and dean of the graduate studies in Marikina. The comments, suggestions and corrections were provided by the validators and helped in improving the contents of the final copy of the questionnaire.
Data Gathering Procedure Following the final printing of the questionnaires, the researcher sought permission to conduct the study through a letter from the Schools Division Superintendents of NCR and Rizal. After the request to conduct the study was granted, a letter to the school principals in the three divisions where the study was administered was secured. Thereafter, the researcher went to the respective schools to administer the questionnaires. Retrieval was done after giving an ample time for respondents to answer the questions posted. The data gathered were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted for the completion of the study.
Statistical Treatment of Data The data gathered were treated using the following statistical tools: Weighted Mean. This was used to determine the extent of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program as perceived by the school administration and teachers in the Public Schools. The following shows the scale used in interpreting the data:
Numerical Value 4 3 2 1
Range 3.50-4.0 2.50-3.49 1.50-2.49 1.00-1.49
Level’s Descriptive Value Very High Extent (VHE) High Extent (HE) Low Extent (LE) Very Low Extent)
T-test. This was used to know if there was a significant difference between the extents of implementation of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program as perceived by the two groups of respondents. Pearson r. This was used to identify if there was a significant
relationship between the extent implementation of the continuous improvement program and level of learner’s academic performance. The same tool was used to search if there was a significant relationship between the extent implementation of the continuous improvement program and school leadership in the selected public schools of NCR and Rizal.