Examples of Successful Advertising Campaigns and Slogans in the 20th Century

September 14, 2017 | Author: RaMMaL | Category: Intel, Coca Cola, Heinz, Advertising, Business
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Examples of Successful Advertising Campaigns and Slogans in the 20th Century...


Examples of successful advertising campaigns and slogans in the 20th century De Beers (See www.debeersgroup.com) Diamond are forever, 1940s The campaign the effectively invented the diamond solitaire as the engagement ring of choice and established it as s symbol of eternal love. Prior to this campaign, love had been symbolized by all different manner of tokens, few of which were as expensive as diamond. An example of the success of this campaign worldwide: prior to the 1960s, less than 10% of the women in Japan wore diamonds. After a custom-made a custom-made advertising campaign by De Beers evoking the Japanese need to maintain ties to their past and culture, with the premise that diamonds are a perfect symbol of one's love that combines the simplicity of Shinto with the chic of the West, over 60% of Japanese women wear diamonds today, all of which were sold by De Beers. See also brand case study: 'Diamond Mind'.

Nike (See www.nike.com) Just do it, 1988 One of the more successful advertising campaigns of the later 20th century. It appealed to the mood of the times for action, particularly sporting action, to achieve some purpose in life without hesitation and deliberation. The slogan, combined with the Nike 'swish' logo, became a global icon.

Pepsi (See www.pepsi.com) Twice as much for a nickel…1930s-1940s The jingle that accompanied this was played an estimated 6 million times on radio. Later, the direct price comparison was removed when Pepsi could no longer keep their price so low. You've got a lot to live, Pepsi's got a lot to give, 1960s This had clear implications for the generation of Americans living through the trauma of the Vietnam War. Come alive…the Pepsi Generation, 1964 This slogan had problems in Germany and China where it had connotations of bringing back the dead. Overall Pepsi, Coca-Cola's great rival, is drunk in many countries as CocaCola, but without the huge advertising budgets. Pepsi also relies heavily on celebrity endorsements uses comparative advertising under the guise of consumer tests ('The Pepsi Challenge': Taste the Difference). The latter led

Coke to change the flavour, prompting massive protest, which Coca-Cola turned brilliantly to its advantage. Broadway Melody All Talking! All Singing! All Dancing! This was the first movie with soundtrack and ushered in the era of 'talkies', bringing to an end the era of silent movies. The phrase has now become generalized to mean a multi-functional or multi-purpose product or service. Coca-Cola (See www.coca-cola.com) Thirst knows no Season, 1922 The pause that refreshes, 1929 Things go better with Coke, 1963 The Real Thing, 1970 Being the 'real thing' has been a constant message in Coca-Cola advertising since the 1940s, partly because it has so many rivals in the cola market. I'd like to buy the world s Coke, 1971 Coke Adds Life, 1976 Coke is it!, 1982 Invented in 1886 by John Pemberton, Coca-Cola is perhaps the most heavily and most successfully advertised product in history. Its first recorded advertising budget in 1890 was $11,000. It has had many legendary campaigns, including the invention of the modern Santa Clause, with his Falstaffian appearance and red and white (the colours of Coca-Cola) robes for a Macey's store campaign in the 1930s.

Exxon Corp – Esso Motor Fuel (See www.exxon.com) Put your Tiger in Your Tank Exxon started to use a tiger in various images from the 1950s. Esso first used the tiger in the early days of branded petrol that followed the end of rationing after World War II. The tiger image had adapted over time, to meet the changing times. In the 1960s, the tiger assumed the aura of a cartoon, contrasting humorously with the fashion at the time for baffling scientific improvements to the performance of petrol. 'Put a tiger in your tank' became one of the most famous campaigns in advertising history, complete with merchandised 'comical' tiger tail to fix around the petrol cap along with the bumper-sticker proclaiming 'I've got a tiger in my tank' : 2,500,000 tails were sold. Esso, the UK brand for Exxon, started to use tiger images in the 1950s, but it was only in the 1960s that it became a craze. A cartoon tiger was used and a whole range of merchandise using the tiger was given away at filling stations. The campaign was also taken to France ('Mettez un tigre dans votre moteur') and to Germany ('Pack den Tiger in den Tank'). In the UK, the campaign then gave way to a real and beautiful tiger, carrying a subtler environmental message.

Republican Party Presidential Campaign for Dwight Eisenhower I like Ike, 1952 This slogan appeared on millions of election campaign buttons and posters and in songs. With the alliteration, it was simple but devastatingly effective. Eisenhower, the supreme commander of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, was elected twice, at a time of extreme anti-communist hysteria in the US. New York State Department of Commerce I love New York, 1977 The most famous campaign in repositioning a city started when New York was in severe decline in the 1970s, facing bankruptcy and bedeviled by high crime rates. New York, from the 1980s onwards, rebuilt its reputation as one of the world's most dynamic cities. New York Times (See www.nytimes.com) All the news that's fit to print, 1896 This famous slogan, devised by Adolph Ochs, has appeared on the front of every edition of the New York Times since 1897. British Conservative Party campaign poster (See www.saatchi.com) Labour Isn't Working, 1978 Saatchi and Saatchi A campaign that introduced the power of advertising into the world of British politics, seen to have been a decisive contributor to the downfall of the Labour government and the beginning of 18 years in power for the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher, who became Britain's first women prime minister. The campaign actually began before the general election of 1979, and was given greater poignancy when Labour called the election during the infamous 'winter of discontent'. The irony is that the supposed dole queue featured in the ad was, in fact, a group of Young Conservatives from Hendon, who were asked to participate in the shoot. Only about 20 of them turned up, and Saatchi & Saatchi, which became the ad agency of choice for the Conservatives for the next 9 years, had to reproduce images of the same people to create the impression of a snaking queue. The campaign cost only around £100,000, but gained huge media attention, particularly amplified by the reaction of outraged Labour cabinet ministers. After the election of 1979, Lord Thornecroft, Tory party treasurer at the time, claimed that the poster had 'won the election for the Conservatives'.

UK Egg Marketing Board Go to Work on an Egg, 1957 Allegedly, the British novelist Fay Weldon wrote the copy, which was brought to life by the British comedian Tony Hancock. Despite the salmonella scare of 1988,

eggs have remained popular with the British public and for a time had their own little lion logo. Firestone Where the rubber meets the road, 1976 A phrase that passed into popular business idiom. Martini (See www.martini.com) The right one, 1970 With a slogan created by Barry Day, the campaign was intended to shift Martini's image from being a woman's drink to being a drink for everyone, particularly younger people. Accompanied by this song and travelogue style adverts in lush and exiting locations, it epitomized the kitsch glamour of the 1970s. A self-mocking 1990s campaign with a bossy woman giving makeovers to the British public to make them glamorous enough to drink Martini didn't restore sales to its 1970s peak. In the UK the line ' anytime, anyplace, anywhere' has become generalized as the 'Martini' approach, often with bawdy connotations. Any time, any place, any where Try a taste of Martini The most beautiful drink in the world, It's the bright one, the right one. There's much more to the world than you guess, And you guess it the day you say yes To the bright taste, the right taste Of Martini Any time, any place, anywhere… Composed by Chris Gunning

Benetton Clothing (See www.benetton.com) United colors of Benetton, 1980s These poster ads by Oliviero Toscano became increasingly shocking as they portrayed AIDS victims, the clothes of dead soldiers, and new babies soaked in blood from the womb, black stallions mounting white mares. Luciano Benetton summarized his views: 'The purpose of advertising is not to sell more. It's to do with institutional publicity, whose aim is to communicate the company's values… We need to convey a single strong image, which can be shared anywhere in the world'. Oliviero Toscani pursues this: ' I am not here to sell pullovers, but to promote an image…' Benetton's advertising draws public attention to universal themes like racial integration, the protection of the environment, and Aids. Eastman Kodak cameras (See www.kodak.com) You press the button – we do the rest, early 1900s A phrase that ushered in the age of popular mass photography, led by the Kodak 'Brownie' camera. As with Hoover, people for a while started to call cameras Kodak.

Steinway Pianos The Instrument of the Immortals, 1919 Ray Rubicam developed the famous slogan under contract to N.W. Ayer & Son. He noticed that almost of the greatest pianists and most of the great composers since Wagner had used Steinway pianos. Steinway had not exploited these excellent references: in fact most of Steinway's ads up to 1919 consisted of photographs of ladies sitting at pianos in lovely drawing rooms. The phrase The Instrument of Immortals was developed. Steinway were initially sceptical. However, they agreed to run it once. The ad brought an immediate response. Although Steinway initially considered commercial slogans to be vulgar, they reconsidered and Steinway sales went up almost 10 percent, "The instrument of the Immortals" remained the Steinway hallmark for decades. Steinway has since this time been regarded by practitioners and public as the world's greatest piano maker. Intel Corp (See www.intel.com) Intel Inside, 1990s A brilliant advertising technique for making the invisible memorable and valuable. It was targeted at the end consumer rather than the manufacturer, who had been the target up to that point. In a relatively short time, Intel Inside® has grown to be one of the world's largest, most successful co-operative brand marketing programmes in history. Before this campaign, companies such as Intel were selling their semiconductor products directly to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), with their primary customers being the computer design engineers responsible for building computers. With Intel's new i386™ microprocessor, the successor to the 286 microprocessor, Intel had developed a product far superior to everything in the industry. Despite the benefits of the improved product, many OEMs shunned using the new technology in their mass-produced computers, fearing that their customers (primarily corporate information technology managers who purchased large numbers of computers) would not react well to higher prices. Intel realized it needed a way to break through the barrier and reach the OEMs customer directly – the IT Manager – to help them understand the value of the i386 chip. To solve this problem, a team at Intel proposed a revolutionary advertising campaign, designed to stimulate the IT Manager's demand for the advanced technology. In the ads, a large red X was spray-painted over '286' and the i386 processor was touted as a better investment for the future. The campaign was successful and it taught Intel that communicating technical information to endconsumers was not only possible, but also highly desirable. It was the first time that Intel had directed the ad campaign at PC consumers rather than at PC makers. The response was exactly what Intel wanted, but over time it proved to increase awareness and sales for new technology among computer companies across the board, not just for Intel. It became a new approach to advertising even the driest aspects of technology. Intel needed to build long-term awareness for their brand, creating a mindset of quality, innovation and reliability. Rather than just market the technology, they would market Intel technology, influencing consumers to pay attention to the Intel ingredient inside the computer. With this new thinking, Intel developed a cooperative advertising

program to which OEMs would add a small Intel Inside® logo to their print ads. By attaching the logo, OEMs would add strength to their own brands by being identified with the strength of the Intel® brand. Officially started July 1, 1991, Intel Inside now consist of more than 2, 700 organizations worldwide licensed to use the Intel Inside logo, as well as TV spots, computer logos, and an e-commerce programme. Since the programme started, more than $7 billion in Intel Inside brand advertising has been generated. The Intel Inside programme manufacturers more than 150 million Intel Inside logo systems stickers each year for multiple Intel brands, colours, sizes, systems and product packaging. Every five minutes, the Intel Signature ID audio 'bong' plays somewhere in the world. Advertising with the Intel Inside logo ran in more than 130 countries in 2001. Intel is now among the world's most valuable brands.

Wendy's Where's the beef? 1984 Director: Josef Sadelmaier Dancer Fitzgerald Sample Agency, NY This ads contains three famous words that became a catchphrase in North America. 'Where's the Beef?' became an infectious slogan after octogenarian Clara Peller bellowed it in a TV ad for then struggling Wendy's hamburger chain. An elderly woman stood at a fast-food restaurant with two friends, Mildred Lane and Elizabeth Shaw, staring at a tiny hamburger on a huge bun. A Wendy's rival supposedly made the burger. 'Where's the beef?' Peller barked out. It became a national demand for substance and quality. It was echoed all over national television when Vice-President Walter Mondale used the phrase to imply a lack of substance in democratic nomination rival Gary Hart. Wendy's credited the ad with helping boost sales by 31% and profits by 24%. In 1984 Peller made her final appearance in a Wendy's commercial. Wendy's dropped her in 1985 after she appeared in a TV commercial for Campbell Soup's Prego Plus spaghetti sauce. In it, she indicated that she had 'found' the beef – in a product other than a Wendy's hamburger. She died in 1987. The Wendy's campaign slogan entered the U.S. national lexicon. Its popularity is such that the phrase is still being used, particularly to demand substances when it is not obvious.

Philip Morris (See www.nonsmoking.se/english/marlboro.html) Come to where the flavour is. Come to Marlboro Country, 1950s The most successful (and most controversial) sustained ad campaign of all time. Originally intended to reposition Marlboros as a male cigarette by associating it with cowboys and the rugged outdoors (it was, before the 1950s, viewed as a woman's cigarette). Camel Cigarettes I'd walk a mile for a Camel, 1944-1969

The Richard J. Reynolds company created Camel cigarettes in 1913. The cigarette pack was simple. The front panel showed one single-humped, riderless camel on a desert landscape with two pyramids and three palm trees. The brand's name in silvered blue Arabic style letters appeared across the sky. The name of the camel that modeled for the pack was Old Joe. Camel advertisement of the 1920s spoke of the quality and mildness of its tobacco. They showed smokers of good taste and breeding in evening attire, at dinner parties, on ocean liners, or at tennis or polo matches. All were urged to 'Have a Camel'. In the 1930s the company used advertisements that implied that Camels relieved stress and tension. It became popularly believed that cigarettes were 'good for nerves'. The R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company began to make health claims in their advertisements. Doctors endorsed Camel cigarette smoking! Endorsements by athletes stated, 'They [Camels] Don't Get Your Wind'. The advertisement implied that cigarettes were harmless by stating 'So mild...You can smoke all you want'. In 1942, the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company put up a billboard in New York's Time Square. It became the most famous billboard overnight. It was two storeys high. The brand name was in giant letters. The slogan read 'I'd Walk a Mile for a Camel'. The sign remained for twenty-five years and served as a prototype for smaller versions around the country. In 1988, Camels celebrated their seventy-fifth birthday and initiated the company's most effective and infamous advertising campaign. The R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company turned Old Joe (formerly used for French advertising) into a 'smooth character'. Joe Camel was suave, confident, independent, wealthy, and appealing to woman. He became the quintessential party animal, in a tuxedo and sunglasses, with a cigarette dangling from his lips, surrounded by woman. The company budgeted about $75 million a year to advertise and promote Joe Camel. They put up a huge illuminated billboard in Times Square a block away from where the first Camel sign was. The company also promoted Joe Camel's likeness in a line of merchandise. Anti-smoking advocates saw Joe Camel as proof of the tobacco industry's desire to target children. The R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company denied the allegations, claiming the campaign was directed at persuading young adults to switch from other brands. In any event, the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco company succeeded in gaining younger customers, mainly from the leading Marlboro brand. By 1993 the Camel's market share in the 24-and-under sector had risen to 7.9% from 4.4% in 1988. However, the brand's total market share had risen only 1% to just over 4. In 1998 67.2% of Camel smokers were under 50. By 1992 78.3% were under 50. In 1991 Camel's market share among underage smokers increased from less than 1% to 32.8%. However, its share of the adult market barely budged. In 1989 only 8.1% of adolescents preferred Camels. By 1993 this figure was up to 13.3%. On May 28, 1997 the Federal Trade Commission charged the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company with illegally targeting minors with its 'Joe Camel' advertising campaign. The company denied that it focused on under-age smokers. Despite their reluctant to drop the campaign, R.J. Reynolds backed down in the face of overwhelming public dismay and accusations that they were encouraging children to smoke. In 1997, Joe Camel died at the age of 23. 'We must put tobacco ads like Joe Camel out of our children's reach forever', said President Bill Clinton.

Kellogg's (Rice Krispies) (See www.kellogs.com) Snap! Crackle! Pop! 1940s

Coined in the US in the late 1920s, this simple and enduring slogan was accompanied by a hummable ditty. The advent of commercial television in the late 1940 and 1950s gave this slogan and campaign a vast audience and enduring brand recognition for this Kellogg's cereal over the years. While the look and appearance of the characters has changed over the years, the slogan is etched in the mass memory of consumers.

AT&T, Yellow Pages Let your fingers do the walking, 1973 – Designed to inform people about Yellow Pages, and how to use it, as it became a nationally available product. It then became a global symbol adopted by several telephone companies across the world using the Yellow Pages directory. Yellow Pages are now available on the Internet, giving a new dimension to the use of fingers to obtain information.

Listerine Mouthwash Often a bridesmaid, never a bride, 1925 Stop Halitosis! 1921 Milton Feasley, of Lambert and Feasley This famous as campaign appeared in magazines such as Ladies' Home Journal. The now famous slogan, 'Often a bridesmaid but never a bride' – quickly became an adage, still in use today. Many people believed that it is an old saying. Ad Caption Edna's case was really a pathetic one. Like every woman, her primary ambition was to marry. Most of the girls of her set were married – or about to be. Yet no one possessed more grace or charm or loveliness than she. As her birthday crept gradually toward that tragic thirty-mark, marriage seemed farther from her life than ever. She was often a bridesmaid but never a bride. That's the insidious thing about halitosis (bad breath). You, yourself, rarely know when you have it. . . (From the 1925 ad for Listerine that introduced the American public to halitosis)

Hoover Beats as it sweeps as it cleans, 1920s Hoover in the UK became the eponymous word for a vacuum cleaner. It even became and active verb ('hoovering the carpet'). In 1926, Hoover introduced the famous 'beats-as-it-sweeps-as-it-cleans' feature which cleverly incorporated the three established but separate methods of cleaning carpets: beating, sweeping

and suction cleaning. This innovation set the standard for the rest of the market to follow and was a feature of Hoover cleaners until the 1980s. Although Hoover's vacuum cleaners were very expensive, they carried the royal warrant and were used on the prestigious ocean liners of the late 1930s. They were also cleverly marketed under such headlines as 'No millionaire can buy better' (1947) and 'All woman are equal in this' (1933), implying that if you had scrimped and saved for the 'Hoover' you were at least equal in this respect to royalty and the well-to-do. In 1935, Hoover's success was guaranteed by the launching of a Britishbuilt, compact, upright cleaner that retained the features and quality of their larger model, but at half the price. The subsequent success of the 'Junior' model (a version of which was still selling in the mid-1980s) was indicated by a biasing of the British cleaner market towards the upright format, in contrast to the rest of Europe. New designs and materials. In the mid-1930s, Hoover USA pioneered the use of professional industrial design in vacuum cleaners by employing Henry Dreyfuss, one of the first industrial designers, to consider the design, manufacture and ease of use of their vacuum cleaner as a whole. The result was a new generation of cleaners, starting with the model 150 (1936), and the 160 (1938), which used fewer components, new light alloys and plastics and had more benefits for the user. This development indicated the fact that by the late 1930s, at least in America, the electric vacuum cleaner was a common-enough product and required a 'design overhaul' to stimulate the next generation of sales. The basic component layout and manufacturing approach of these new models continued until the first 'clean-fan' plastics uprights in the mid-1960s, such as the Hoover Dial-A-Matic (UK-Convertible).

Maxwell House Good to the last drop, 1959 Maxwell House Coffee is actually named after a hotel, the Maxwell House, in Nashville, Tennessee. Completed after the US Civil War, the Maxwell house become one of the best known hotels in the United States for 100 years. Presidents who stayed there included Rutherford B. Hayes, William Henry Harrison, Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. While staying at the Maxwell House Hotel, President Theodore Roosevelt enjoyed the 'house blend' of coffee so much that he raved about it being 'good to the last drop'. The Check-Neal Company, which supplied the hotel's coffee, wisely saw a good marketing opportunity. They began packaging and selling the hotel's house blend as Maxwell House Coffee, using President's Roosevelt's remark in its advertising. Both the coffee and the slogan caught on with the American public. The hotel was destroyed by fire in 1961, but its name lives on in the Regal Maxwell House Hotel at a different location in Nashville. And, of course, the name lives on in Maxwell House Coffee, which is still advertised as 'Good to the Last Drop'.

Rolls-Royce (See www.rolls-royce.com) The best car in the world, 1929 At 60 miles an hour the loudest noise…comes from the electric clock, 1958

Written by David Ogilvie, this slogan saw sales of Rolls-Royce cars jump by 50% in the following year. Since 1907, the name of Rolls-Royce has bee synonymous with refined and distinctive motor cars that have made it one of the world's most celebrated marques. The famous Rolls-Royce badge has two interlocking letter R's and these simple initials of the founders, Sir Henry Royce and the Hon. Charles Rolls, have acquired significance as an immediately recognized symbol of quality, evoking ideas of precision, integrity, and attention to fine detail. The Spirit of Ecstasy mascot, which has adorned the motor cars since 1911, likewise identifies characteristics of Rolls-Royce with a romantic presentation of elegance and craftsmanship. Engineer Royce had focused his unquenchable enthusiasm to improve the mechanical aspect of automobiles. He had firm views on the need for quality and a Victorian fancy for expressing his aims in stirring phrases. 'Small things make perfection, but perfection is no small thing', declared Mr. Royce. 'Whatever is rightly done, however humble, is noble', he added. And one of his memorable observations was: 'The quality remains long after the price is forgotten'. Those seeking to emphasize value over price in their marketing often use this phrase.

Clairol (hair colorant) Does she … or doesn't she 1956 Shirley Polykoff A tantalizing question during the early days of the sexual revolution. Sex became a major part of advertising after this campaign. The first Miss Clairol ads were originally written 'Does she…or doesn’t she? Hair colour so natural only her mother knows for sure!' However, Clairol was concerned about alienating the older generation that the world was changed to 'hairdresser'. The final ad read. 'Does she … or doesn’t she? Hair colour so natural only her hairdresser knows for sure!' Polykoff insisted the models in the Miss Clairol ads resemble the 'girl next door' rather than the high-glamour women typically portrayed in the 1950s ads. The idea was to make hair colouring respectable and mainstream. The print ads typically included a child to undercut the sexual undertones, making it clear that respectable women colour their hair, not just women of easy virtue as was believed at the time. Also, showing the mother's hair next to the child's hair emphasized the precise colour match by comparison. Clairol's sale increased by an amazing 413% in just six years. More than 50% of adult U.S. women began using hair colour, up from 7% prior to Polykoff's Miss Clairol campaign. Through her ads, Shirley Polykoff helped transform Clairol from a small business (a tiny division of Bristol-Myers) to a huge inter-national brand by assisting in the creation of a hair-colouring industry. Heineken (See www.heineken.com) Refreshes the parts other beers cannot reach, 1980s A brilliantly conceived and inventive set of adverts that used humour and smartness interchangeably. For nearly 20 years, Heineken promoted itself as the beer that '…refreshes the parts other beers can't reach'. To prove the point, their ads showed situation where the unachievable was achieved with the help of either bottled or canned Heineken. For example, Larry Hagman, who played the legendary screen villain, J.R. Ewing, in the long running soap opera Dallas, which dominated TV screens in

the 1980s. The incorrigible J.R. is progressively made saintly by drinking Heineken. There were multiple variations on this theme, often tailored to local audiences.

Avis (See www.avis.com) When you're only No. 2 you try harder. Or else. 1963 The first campaign to promote the No. 2 market position (against Hertz's No. 1 position). This was new technique at the time and gave Avis a platform to advance their customer service.

BMW (See www.bmw.com) The Ultimate Driving Machine, 1975 Puris and Ammirati The campaign that helped define a decade of conspicuous consumption, particularly in the 1980s. The campaign focused on BMW's performance and was unashamedly elitist. The ads targeted the affluent and successful professionals who responded to advertising that tapped into their sense of superiority. The effort that started in the 1970s spanned three decades. BMW remains one of the world's more successful car companies.

Volkswagen (See www.volkswagen.com) Think Small, 1959 Doyle Dane Bernbach, NY. Part of the campaign that introduced the Volksswagen to America with stunning success. It would appear that Volkswagen Beetle had little in its favor when entering the US market in the late 1950s. It was still strongly associated with Hitler and the Nazi party who had promoted it as the People's Car (actually designed by Porsche). It was also the complete opposite of the wide bodied, big finned and fendered American automobiles popular at the time. The copywriter, Julian Koenig, together with Helmut Krone and Bernbach himself developed an understated, self-deprecating, counter-intuitive advertising in the age of conspicuous consumption that had characterized in the 1950s. Often regarded as the most influential advertising campaign of all time.

Schlitz The Beer that made Milwaukee Famous, 1895 Milwaukee is actually famous for brewing and is known in America as the 'beer capital of the world'. Cheap, abundant ice from Lake Michigan favoured brewing before the advent of artificial refrigeration. Ice also stimulated long-distance shipping of beer, since rail cars needed to be packed with enormous quantities of ice to prevent spoilage of the beer en route. Compared to other major brewing cities, such as Chicago, Milwaukee's population (and that of its outlying regions) was relatively small. Milwaukee brewers were forced to turn to outside markets to

expand sales. This unique problem ultimately transformed Milwaukee's breweries into export-minded organizations. The strategy of long-distance distribution did not cease for Milwaukee's brewers until they had covered the America market. The large beer-consuming population of Chicago and the easy and inexpensive lake transportation acted as an early stimulant to Milwaukee's brewing industry. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 boosted sales of Milwaukee breweries enormously. Schlitz's frequent shipments of beer to the devastated city earned it the slogan, 'The Beer that made Milwaukee Famous'. And Schlitz enjoyed a 100% jump in sales. Grateful Chicago was instantly bonded to Schlitz and before local breweries could rebuild, Schlitz captured the city's beer market. Within a year the company adopted the slogan 'The Beer that made Milwaukee Famous' for all aspects of its marketing.

Guinness (See www.guinness.com) Guinness Is Good for You, 1929-1963 Guinness's advertising agency (S.H. Benson) did some market research during the 1920s to find out what people liked about Guinness. People responded that they felt good when they had their print and the slogan 'Guinness is Good For You' was born. The slogan is still used in some countries (Africa) that do not regulate advertising claims. Some advertising even features athletes implying that their athleticism can be attributed to Guinness. In the UK, post-operative patients used to be given Guinness, as were blood donors. In Ireland, Guinness is still made available to blood donors and stomach and intestinal post-operative patients. Guinness is known to be high in iron content. Guinness used the artist John Gilroy to craft a memorable and enduring set of images to develop the idea that Guinness was good for you. Gilroy's first known Guinness poster was produced in 1930. Working with copywriters like Ronald Barton and Robert Bevan, Gilroy produced more than 100 press advertisements and nearly 50 poster designs for Guinness over 35 years. He is perhaps best remembered for his posters featuring the girder carrier and the wood cutter from the Guinness for Strength campaigns of the early 1930s and for the Guinness animals. The animals, including a lion, toucan, gnu, and kangaroo, appeared, with their long-suffering zookeeper, on poster, press advertisements, show cards and waiter trays from the 1930s to the 1960s. Gilroy continued to produce Guinness advertisements well into the 1960s even though he left Benson's employment as an in-house artist in the 1940s to pursue freelance work. Guinness today is more focused on the psychological than upon the physical, particularly in relation to men.

H.J. Heinz (See www.heinz.com) 57 Varieties, 1896 Henry John Heinze, son of Lorenz Heinze of Bavaria who emigrated to the US, was born in 1844. He began the company selling horseradish from the family vegetable patch to his neighbors. Later, they started putting ground horseradish into bottles. In 1869 he took a partner and founded the firm of Heinz (dropping the 'e') and Noble that sold bricks and horseradish. The company flourished and two years later Heinz opened a food-processing factory where bottled horseradish and bottled pickles were made. After a promising start, the firm was bankrupted in the

depression that marked the post-Civil War period and the early 1870s. Heinz borrowed $3,000 from his brother John and his cousin Frederick to relaunch as F. & J. Heinz. The new firm introduced tomato ketchup, pepper sauce, vinegar, apple butter, fruit jellies and mincemeat to the US market. In 1886 he visited London and persuaded the famous firm of Fortnum & Mason to sell his goods in the UK, still at that stage the world's richest market. In 1888 Henry bought out hid brother's interest, re-named the firm H.J. Heinz & Company and then bought a new site and started planning to build a new factory. It was in 1896 that he originated the famous '57 Varieties' slogan which became one of the more famous brand signatures in the world of fast-moving consumer goods. Corporate folklore at Heinz has it that, in 1896, Henry John Heinz noticed an advertisement for '21 style of shoes'. He decided that his own products were not styles, but varieties. Although there were many more than 57 foods in production at the time, because the numbers 5 and 7 held a special significance for him and his wife, he adopted the slogan '57 Varieties'. So, in fact the numbers 57 isn't related to the number of products offered by Heinz. In 1928, it was decided to produce a canned food that became a flagship of the Heinz company, baked beans in tomato sauce. The introduction of baked beans was so successful that it was followed by spaghetti and a variety of soups. During the Second World War the Heinz factory produced food for the armed forces. Heinz became a listed public company in 1946 and continued its global expansion. H.J. Heinz Company today is an enterprise involving more than 45,800 people in over 200 major locations worldwide, with leading brands on three continents, offering a lot more than 57 varieties – actually more like 5,700 different products in total. It is the world's largest tomato producer.

Apple (See www.apple.com) '1984', Chiat day A landmark television as heralding the high point of the first wave of the PC market, and directed by Ridley Scott, this ad cost $1.6 million to make and was inspired by George Orwell's 1984. The ad, where a young lady silences Big Brother with the aid of a hammer, was only ever shown once, during the US Super Bowl in January 1984, to announce the launch of the Apple Macintosh on 24th January 1984, promising 1984 would not be like 1984. Despite only being shown once, the ad had one of the highest audience recall figures in America. This ad is often seen to be the beginning of advertising as a major event rather than just a campaign. The ad launched the Apple Macintosh without even showing the product. The memorable line, 'Why 1984 won't be like 1984', was written for an Apple II newspaper ad, then rejected, then recycled by copywriter Steve Hayden and art director Brent Thomas in 1983. The main purpose of the campaign was to stop customers from buying the IBM PC until there were sufficient quantities of the Apple Macintosh on the shelves. The ad was almost not shown. When Apple initially dragged its feet on approving a 60-second version of '1984' at a pre-screening for their board of directors, one board member called for the agency to be fired. Shortly before the Super Bowl, the company decided to sell off its airtime. However, the valuable time could not be unloaded, and the spot ran. Nearly 20 years later, clients spend millions to advertise during the Super Bowl. Storyboard and text of '1984' Scene reminiscent of 'brainwashing' cinema scene in Orwell's 1984. Voice 1: Today, we celebrate the first glorious anniversary of the Information Purification Directives. We have created, for the

first time in all history, a garden of pure ideology where each worker may bloom secure from the pests of contradictory and confusing truths. Our Unification of Thoughts is more powerful a weapon than any fleet or army on earth. We are one people, with one will, one resolve, one cause. Our enemies shall talk themselves to death and we will burry them with their own confusion. We shall prevail! A female athlete throws a hammer through the screen and smashes the 'Big Brother' face. Voiceover: ' on January 1984 Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like 1984'.

Pears Soap Cleanliness is next to Godliness, 1880 This was the brainchild off Thomas Barratt, the son-in-law of Andrew Pears, inventor of the famous soap. Barratt was an early advertising genius. He persuaded prominent skin specialist, doctors and chemist to give glowing testimonials to Pears Soap. Such endorsements were boldly displayed in magazines and newspapers, handbills and on posters. Lillie Langtry, a highly actress of the day, cheerfully gave Barratt a commendation for Pears Soap. Barrat entered the lucrative American market by persuading the enormously influential religion leader Henry Ward Beecher to equate cleanliness, and Pears Soap in particular, with Godliness. Barrat promptly bought up the whole of the front page of the New York herald to display the New York herald to display the glowing testimonial.

UK Army recruitment poster, 1914 Your country needs you The resolute face of Kitchener pointing at potential recruits had a massive effect on the British psyche, sending thousands of young volunteers to slaughter of the trenches. Kitchener drowned, and conscription was introduced in 1916, the volunteer force having been largely wiped out since the beginning of hostilities. The poster campaign remains one of the enduring icons of the 20th century.

US War Department poster, WWII Loose Lips Might Sink Ships, 1941-45 With German and Japanese submarines patrolling American waters after 1942, there was huge concern over security and the need for secrecy to protect shipping. German U-Boats had made a devastating raid on American fleets in the Atlantic and, of course, there was also Pearl Harbour. This poster was part of a campaign to discourage loose or careless talk about all military matters, both in the public and in the private domain. UK Recruitment Poster

Daddy, what did You do in the Great War? 1916 By Savile Lumey A poster commissioned by the British Parliamentary Recruiting Committee in 1915. by 1915 the mood had changed from naïve patriotism to a sense of duty and dark resolution. This ad focused on creating a guilty conscience in those who shirked the call to arms. The little girl has apparently put her father on the spot: was he a 'shirker' during the war, or did he enlist and 'do his bit'? The look in his face suggests he is one of the men who may have elected not to serve his king and country. A contemporary response quoted by Eric Partridge in his Catch Phrases was 'Shut up, you little bastard. Get the Bluebell and go and clean my medals'.

UK Minister of Agriculture, WWII Dig for Victory, 1940-45 An outstanding example of a public information campaign resulting in positive action. At a time of endangered food supply, the UK started the war with 850,000 allotments and ended with 1.4 million and became almost self-sustaining in food.

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