Ethics Notes Srikrishna Panchal

August 12, 2017 | Author: ukesh_kumar | Category: Noble Eightfold Path, Attitude (Psychology), Socrates, Virtue, Emotional Intelligence
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Jnana Prabodhini Competitive Examinations Centre

UPSC - GS 4 : Ethics Notes By Dr. Srikrishna Panchal (IAS)


Systematic study of Human actions from the point of view of their rightfulness or wrongfulness as means for the attainment of ultimate happiness (of society) (Greek word – ethos – character) Moral principles that govern a person’s behavior or the conducting of an activity, applied to organization, society, profession, individual. 

Morality Principles concerning distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior (Moralis – means manner, custom, proper behavior in Greek) Ethics- Rules and regulations, code of conduct, norms - Societal perspective Morality – Deeper level – individual level

 Values - Things that are important or valued by someone Doctor – Public Service, Soldier – Patriotism, Gandhiji – non-violence Individual values or organizational values 1. Intrinsic values – Truth, Beauty, Goodness, Temperance, Courage etc End in itself 2. Extrinsic values – Wealth, Physical fitness, Intelligence Sometimes intrinsic or extrinsic values are interchangeable from individual perspective like Positive – Negative, Permanent – Transient.  Beliefs Internal feeling that something is true, even though that belief may be shallow, unproven and irrational. Eg . All Chinese are selfish, All doctors have bad hand-writing, 1) Core beliefs-Thought process 2) Dispositional beliefs-Influenced by society Essence of Ethics Ethics tries to provide answer to these, 1) How to live a good life? 2) Our rights and responsibilities 2) Right and wrong 4) Moral decisions – what is good and bad? What is not Ethics?

Morality, Religion (Triple Talaq. Untouchability), Law (British laws, Hitler, S.A. – Apartheid), Culture

Ethics 1. Standards, rules, norms by external sources (society, profession, community) 2. External 3. Social obligation 4. Within cultural norms

JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

Morality 1. Principles or habits with respect to right or wrong conduct 2. Internal 3. Individual belief 4. Transcends cultural norms

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Conflict between ethics and morality Lawyer – Defending a criminal Doctor – Euthanasia Ethical and Immoral Soldier – Kill someone/ Defend country - Professional Ethics (CDM soldiers refused to shoot) Determinants of Ethics Person


1. Stage of moral 1. Culture development (S.A.-Privy, Indian, USA) 2. Childhood 2. Organization (NHRC,IB,RAW) 3. Adulthood 3. Profession 4. Family influences 4. Family (Respecting guests, Generosity) 5. Peer influences 5. School (Thugs/ Dacoits, Parrots) 6. Life experience 7. Religion (Purushartha - Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha)


1. Ancient 2. Medieval - Slave 3. Pre-modern 4. Modern – War, norms

Some people feel that values keep changing with time and situation, while others strongly believe that there are certain universal and eternal human values. Give your perception in this regard with due justification. (Generosity, Truth, Compassion, Love)   Consequences of Ethics Individual Level 1) Satisfaction of basic human needs – family, Friendly behavior, marriage 2) Creating credibility- Eg. E. Shreedharan (efficient and honest), Dubey Provides identity to the individual 3) Integration – society 4) Helps in bringing social order, Social harmony  1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Administration Decision making Reflective judgment- Acceptable by all Grey areas (Rules, code of conduct) Response to dynamic administration and fast changing world Efficient and responsive administration in Diverse situation (Poor, Rich, Able, Disabled, Privileged, underprivileged, Honest, Corrupt)

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 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Political Level True Democracy No corruption at higher and middle level Trustee of the people Criminalization of politics Coalition government – Ethical conduct (Indian Situation)

 1) 2) 3) 4)

International Level Ethical diplomacy - No hidden agenda (Iraq, Libya, Iran, Syria, African countries) Ethics of War – Collateral damage, Intervention, Human rights Financial assistance – corrupt regime, Genocide, Religious intolerance Panchasheel of Nehru – non aligned movement

 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Organizational level Convergence of individual interest with organizational interest Controlling corruption Nepotism Black money Tax evasion Work culture

 1) 2) 3) 4)

Social level Eradication of corruption Caste, Religious and communal, Regional, Local, Community identities Compassion Reduction of violence against women, theft, cheating, robbery and other crimes.

 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Environment Conservation Resource recycling (use of plastic, spitting, urination in open, throwing wastes) Pollution control (Public transport) Afforestation Animal rights (protecting animals)

Essence /Intrinsic Properties of Ethics

1) Not sustained in isolation

O, C, N, S

2) Part of culture – Arctic – Eskimos - killing elderly people Conserving resources – from Indian perspective 3) Situational – Depends on the context. Doctor – Saving even enemies 4) Professional Ethics Soldier- Protect the country JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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5) Individual

Operates at different level Organization


IR LDC – Standards

Subjective, Interrelated –Environmental Ethics Not always lead to desirable consequences

Corporate Ethics

1) Dilemmas – Saving only one life, Saving president’s life /children, Wife – mother Criteria for choosing any one of above category 2) Ethics also relates to interaction with non-Human components Bio-Ethics Environmental Ethics Animal Ethics - Origin of ethics is justice - Maintained by sense of responsibility, not accountability - Transcend the narrow law, rule book, code of conduct and regulations   Dimensions of Ethics 1) Meta Ethics : After or Beyond Addresses question such as ‘What is goodness?’ and ‘how can we tell what is good from what is bad? 1. Origin of ethical principle – Divine or Human 2. Whether moral values are eternal truths or simply human conventions 3. What do the words good, bad, right and wrong means? 4. What moral judgments are universal or relative of one kind or many kinds. (Sitting above ethics and analyzing various concept of ethics) 2) Normative Ethics : Concerned with criteria of what is morally right and wrong Normative ethics is a branch of ethics, concerned with criteria of what is morally right and wrong. It includes the formulation of moral rules that have direct implication for what human actions, institutions and ways of life should be like. Prescriptive Ethics - Prescribe to act in particular way. Example – Kantion categorical imperative , Nishkama karma of Bhagavad-Gita, Gandhian ethics a) Virtue Ethics – It focuses on character of the agent instead of formal rules (ethical rules) or consequences of action. It stresses the importance of developing good habits of character like – Wisdom, Courage, Temperance and Justice Oldest of Normative Ethics (Greek philosophers Aristotle, Plato, Socrates) Stresses the importance of developing good habits of character virtue ethics is persons oriented than action of duty oriented. A right act is the action a virtuous person would do in same circumstances. Virtue ethics is concerned with whole of person’s life, rather than particular episodes or actions JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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Importance – Way to build a good society is to help its members to be good people, rather than to use laws, regulations and rules. Plato Proposed cardinal virtues – 1) Prudence/wisdom 2) Justice – Treat all equally, impartially 3) Courage 4) Temperance Aristotle – Golden means and common virtues Tendency to avoid extreme positions Virtue – moderation, mean between two extremes Example – courage is a virtue, lies between two extremes of cowardice and (fool hardiness) rashness b) Consequentialism (Teleology) It is class of Normative ethics holding that consequences of one’s conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. a) Utilitarianism b) Ethical egoism – Desirable consequences for the individual performing action c) Ethical altruism – end results are favorable to everyone except the agent d) Hedonism – Maximum the pleasure and minimize the pain. c) Deontological ethics (Duty-based) – concerned with what people do not with the consequences of their actions. It gives importance to rightness or wrongness of actions themselves as opposes to rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions It is based on principles that, Do the right thing, Do it because it’s right thing to do, Don’t do wrong things, Avoid them because they are wrong - Gandhian Ethics (Nonviolence, Truth, Faith in Purity) - Kantian Ethics - Nishkama Karma 3) Applied Ethics : a) Bio Ethics b) Business Ethics – CSR c) Military Ethics – collateral damage d) Political Ethics e) Environmental Ethics f) Publication Ethics

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Applied ethics is the philosophical examinations, from moral standpoint, of particular issues in private and public life that are matters of moral judgment. Applications of ethics to our day to day issues e.g. Animal rights, commercial surrogacy, euthanasia, Abortion, Nuclear plants Use philosophical methods to identify the morally correct course of action in various fields of human life 4) Descriptive Ethics : (comparative ethics) Studies people’s belief about morality Describes different ethical theories objectives and compares them    

Descriptive ethics- What do people think is right ? Normative ethics – how should people act? What is the correct action? Applied ethics – Application of moral knowledge to practical problems Meta ethics – What is the meaning of ethical terms, right, wrong , lore compassion

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Contribution of Moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the World Philosophy is the study of the principles which underlie all knowledge.

Virtues and Good conduct – Virtues are good traits of character & vices are bad traits of character. 1) Character and conduct of a person are intimately related. 2) Moral character of a person is formed when he does good actions consistently and persistently. 3) Virtue can be cultivated. 4) Virtues denote excellence of human character, while vices are defects of character. 5) Virtues – Morality of being. 6) Actions and duty – Morality of doing. 7) Virtuous person is not only Good but he also does good acts.

 Socrates and Plato 1) Plato and Socrates adopted the “Method of dialectic” – Reasoning with Q & A session. Socrates – All men are equal. Dialectic method is a mature method to elicit knowledge. 2) Sophists at that time used propaganda to gain emotional response from the audience, instead of moral reasoning. They had degraded the culture of dialogue in Greek. 3) Both Socrates and Plato were against democracy. Socrates considered oral method as most effective method to teach philosophy. Socrates’ questioning revealed people’s ignorance & aroused people’s interest in fundamental philosophical questions. 4) Socrates – philosophy remained totally centered around values. Plato’s doctrine of cardinal virtues is based on his concept of virtue. Socrates had said that virtue is knowledge. It means that insight into the nature of moral virtues is essential for becoming virtuous. Plato rejected the idea that mere knowledge of virtue is not enough. Thus, Plato gave more importance to practice of virtues rather than preaching / knowing. 5) Plato hated arts and democracy. Four cardinal virtues. 1) Wisdom 2) Courage 3) Temperance 4) Justice Morally good life can be achieved by following these four cardinal virtues. They are also called fundamental virtues and other virtues depend upon them and are therefore subordinate to them. - Four cardinal virtues have both individual and social significance. Human beings are rational and social animals. According to him, morality of society is the same as it is for the individual.

 Aristotle 1) Aristotle distinguishes moral virtues from the intellectual virtues. Aristotle gave emphasis to teleogy in philosophy and politics. (Teleogy is a method to study and direct the actions based on the final purpose or end result of any being or action). 2) We can develop virtue by practicing it, as a skill. Knowledge, bravery, perseverance by themselves do not make morally good character or man. Their ethical significance depends on motives and values to which they are related. Hence doctrine of golden mean is central in Aristotle’s concept of virtues. 3) He considers justice as supreme virtue.

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  Justice : 1) Distributive justice, Equitable distribution of wealth and honours. 2) Remedial justice, Fair transactions among members of community. *

Virtue is a matter of striking a mean between two vices. Excess



Rashness Prodigality Buffoonery Shyness Boastfulness

Courage Liberality Wittiness Modesty Truthfulness

Cowardice Meanness Boorishness Shamelessness Understatement

 Happiness : Utilitarianism (J.S. Mills) : 1) Happiness is state of mind. 2) Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness.

Aristotle : 1) Happiness is about living well or doing well. 2) True happiness means living as rational being.

 Consequentialism : This moral theory holds that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgement about that action. Thus, from a consequentialist stand point, a morally right action is one that produces good outcome, or consequence. Moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome, and that the ends justify the means. Utility - The good to be maximized. Happiness or pleasure.

 Utilitarianism : Consequences of the action produce favourable outcomes to everyone. 1) Utilitarianism says that Supreme ideal of life is pleasure – not the individual pleasure but universal happiness. Maximum happiness for maximum number. 2) It is form of Ethical Hedonism. Hedonism – Pleasure is the highest good.

 Jeremy Benthem : Gross or Quantitative utilitarianism. 1) 2) 3) 4)

All pleasures are similar and they do not have qualitative differences. If quantity of pleasure is same there is no qualitative difference between two pleasures. Each man desires for his own happiness and therefore general happiness is good for all. Moral standard – * Ethical egoism – Greatest happiness of one individual. * Ethical altruism - Greatest happiness of all except himself / herself.

* Utilitarianism - Happiness of maximum number of people. 5) Benthem argues that by nature man is selfish and egoistic, and he can be altruistic only when, by being altruistic he satisfies his own desires also. (One classic criticism of utilitarianism is that it is ethics of swine.) JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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  John Stuart Mill : 1) Human beings have faculties much more elevated than swine, and require different types of gratification of higher faculties in order to be happy. 2) Mill believes that intellectual pleasures are better than sensuous pleasures. He said that man seek satisfaction of higher capacities. 3) It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. 4) In law, a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others. In ethics, he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so. 5) All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to understanding and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason. 6) Morality is not the doctrine of how we make ourselves happy, but how we make ourselves worthy of happiness.

 Immanuel Kant 1) Kant’s concept of moral duty is wider, it is an outcome of an individual’s rational thought. He formulated a moral theory grounded in idea of duty. It is a deontological theory. Kant was absolutist, he believed that people’s actions should be guided by moral laws, and these moral laws should be universal. 2) According to Kant, our focus should be on what we ought to do. This ‘ought to’ is called dutifulness. What we wish to do is of no significance. So, Kant says people should follow such rational universal principles without thinking about their emotions or sentiments which usually misguide them. 3) From this reasoning, Kant derives universally valid moral rule of action known as the ‘categorical imperative.’ Kant’s aim was to establish a set of absolute moral rules, developed through application of reason. In other words moral rules should follow the principle of reciprocity. 4) Categorical imperative thus refers to an absolute, unconditional requirement that asserts its authority in all circumstances, both required and justified as an end in itself. Categorical imperative says that the truly moral or ethical acts are not based on self-interest or greatest utility, but on a sense of duty. 5) Kant also stated that always treat humanity, never simply as means, but always at the same time as an end. 6) Kant traces the origin of moral law to man’s rationality or reason. He rejects education, civic constitution, inner perfection and god’s will as sources of moral law. Kant’s emphasis on abstract laws leads him into extreme positions. Kant’s ethics rest on abstract laws or pure principle without regard to results which can follow from rigid adherence to principles.

 John Rawls : 1) Book – Theory of justice. It is variant of old social contract theory. 2) Two fundamental principles of justice necessary for just and morally acceptable society. a) Each person with equal right with a similar system of liberty for all. b) Social and economic inequalities arrangement. 1) Benefit to least advantaged. 2) Positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity. Principle (b) is similar to what is called positive discrimination. JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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3) ‘Veil of ignorance’ – Rational choice within a veil of ignorance. All players in social game would be placed in particular position. Rawls calls it the ‘original position.’ Rawls argues that given his assumptions people would prefer liberal societies with freedom and liberties based on equality of opportunities, but with allowance to problems of various disadvantaged groups.

 Morality of self-interest : Hobbes (Psychological egoism) He maintains that all people act only in ways that improve their own self-interest. 1) Every voluntary action is a desire for one’s own welfare. 2) Psychological egoism asserts that all human action is motivated by selfish-desires’. It signifies that concern for another’s happiness is a means to one’s own happiness. Thus, it rules out the existence of noble and generous actions. Pity – We pity others because we imagine ourselves in their place. We help others to ensure that others will help us in our bad times. Charity – It is actually a demonstration of power according to Hobbes. We show ourselves to be more resourceful than others. 3) Hobbes proposes a strong government with powerful law enforcement and effective system of punishment. The threat of being caught and punished should function as deterrence to crime.

Ayn Rand (Ethical egoism) 1) Ethical egoism suggests that we seek our own pleasure completely and as such it is reliable with the happiness goal. Therefore, ethical egoism is correct moral theory. 2) She criticizes that altruism corrodes men’s capacity to know their life’s value and they totally become ignorant of reality. She infers that highest value is the organism’s self-preservation.

 Nishkama Karma in Bhagwad Gita : 1) It is the act done as a duty without expecting the fruit for self. Sakam karma is involvement in work with an expectation of quick return. Nishkama Karma is involvement for the sake of duty, without any expectations. Being bothered with what we do in the present instead of being worried about what its outcome will be in future. 2) In Sakam Karma, we are constantly conscious of desired results and the benefits to the self. Our concentration thus moves to the end result which is not present but the future. This takes our attention & energies away, from the present i.e. work thus resulting in dissipation of energy. As emphasis is more on result if there is failure to achieve this then it leads to much more agony & dissatisfaction.

Karma Yoga : Deals with importance of performing one’s duties in his life. 1) Action is superior to inaction. Man gets bound by his action except if it is a sacrifice. The concept of sacrifice is more at the level of mind. One should grow beyond likes and dislikes while performing actions. One should keep performing actions, but with a selfless attitude.

  JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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Buddhist and Jainism ethics : 1) The religious unrest in India in the 6th century B.C. The teaching of Upanishads , an alternative to the system of sacrifices, were highly philosophical in nature and therefore not easily understood by all. Therefore, what was needed in larger interests of people was a simple, short and intelligible way to salvation for all people. 2) Such religious teachings should also be in a language known to them. This need was fulfilled by teachings of Buddha and Mahavira. Other than religious factor, social and economic factors also contributed to rise of these two religious. Economic improvement of Vaisyas and Kshatriyas had resented domination of priestly class.

Buddha : 1) Buddha neither accepts god not rejects the existence of god. He laid great emphasis on law of karma. He argued that the condition of man in this life depends upon his own deeds. Even under the grevest provocation he did not show the least anger or hatred and instead conquered everyone by his love and compassion. 2) His religion was identical with morality and it emphasized purity of thought, word and deed. He was a rationalist who tried to explain things in the light of reason and not on the basis of blind faith. 3) Though he did not make a direct attack on caste system, he was against any social distinctions and threw open his order to all. Therefore, Buddhism was move a social than religious revolution. It taught the code of practical ethics and laid down the principle of social equality. * Four noble truths – 1) 2) 3) 4)

The world is full of suffering. The cause of suffering is desire. If desires are got rid off, suffering can be removed. This can be done by following eightfold path.

* Ashtanga Marg (Eightfold Path)Right view (Knowledge) Right will (resolve)


Right speech Right actions (Conduct) Right livelihood


Right effort Concentration Right mindfulness (memory) Right concentration * Precepts (Rule of personal conduct / Principles) 1) Not killing or causing harm to other living beings. 2) No stealing or not taking that is not – given. No exploiting or manipulating or taking advantage of people. 3) Avoiding sexual misconduct. 4) Abstaining from drink and drugs that cloud the mind. Being in state of mindfulness or awareness. Mindfulness is central value to be established in one’s life to live harmoniously and ethically. * Concept of middle path – Avoid extreme forms of austerity and luxury. JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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Jainism The term Jainism is derived from the term “Jin” meaning a person who has overpowered his sensual vices and had obtained full control over his worldly desires. * Three principles of Jainism (Triratnas – three gems) 1) Right faith – Belief in teachings and wisdom of mahavira. 2) Right knowledge – Acceptance of theory that there is no god and that the world has been existing without a creator and that all objects possess a soul. 3) Right conduct – Right conduct refers to Mahavira observance of five great vows – Not to injure life Not to acquire property

 Not to lie  Not to lead immoral life

 Not to steal

 Mahavira (Jainism) regards all objects, both animate and inanimate have souls and various degree of consciousness. They possess life and feel pain when they are injured. Mahavira rejected the authority of Vedas and objected to vedic rituals. He advocated a very holy and ethical code of life. Even the practice of agriculture was considered sinful as it causes injury to earth, worms and animals. Similarly the doctrine of ascetism and renunciation was also carried to extreme lengths by practice of starvation, nudity and other forms of self-torture.

 Essential features of Jainism : 1) Religious tolerance 3) Harmony between self and one’s environment. 5) Path to liberation consist of three jewels (ratna-traya)

2) Ethical purity 4) Spiritual contentment

  Gandhian Ethics – 1) The entire gamut of his philosophical thought is based on two moral cardinal values, namely Truth and Non-violence. 2) Gandhian concepts such as, social equality, universal love, non-possession, purity of means, value oriented education, satyagraha, classless society, removal of untouchability, global peace are having great relevance and significance in modern times. 3) Gandhiji defined religion as a belief in the ordered and moral government of the universe. Gandhiji took every aspect of human life only from moral stand point. He even suspended noncooperation movement in 1921 as he believed that people are not morally qualified to conduct the movement. He declared that there is no religion higher than truth and righteousness. He further opined that if we lose the moral basis, we cease to be religious. 4) His humanism believes in doing good to others as the way of highest moral life. He expressed his feelings clearly in Harijan. “For me, morals, ethics and religions are convertible terms. A moral life without reference to religion is like a house built upon sand. And religion, divorced from morality is like ‘sounding brass’ good only for making noise & breaking heads." 5) Gandhiji advocated some cardinal virtues of life which are essential to lead a moral and pious life. Indian ethics speaks of five virtues : 1) Ahimsa (non violence) 4) Aparigraha (non-possession)

2) Asteya (Non stealing) 3) Satya (Truthfulness) 5) Brahmacharya (Celibacy)

Gandhiji added 6) Abhaya (fearlessness) JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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1) Ahimsa – Gandhiji gave a new interpretation to the concept of non-violence. According to him non-violence is law of human nature and race. One should not harbour any evil thought. Real harmony in society lies in Ahimsa but not in Himsa. Good derived out of violence is temporary and evil it does is permanent. 2) Satya (Truthfulness) 1) His life was a series of experiments with truth. To him truth is not merely truthfulness in word, but in thought and deed. He identified absolute truth with god. He stated that lust, anger, greed, infatuation, pride and falsehood are to be avoided to practice truth. 3) Asteya (Non-stealing) 1) Asteya means not taking away the property or anything belonging to anybody unless it is given by the person concerned. Jainism and Buddhism give more importance to Asteya. These religions exerted much influence on Gandhiji. He stated that people must reduce their wants. He described those people as thieves who irrationally acquires more than what they need to survive. 4) Aparigraha (Non – Possession) 1) For Gandhiji it means contentment. Rich have a store of things which they do not need, millions are starved to death for want of sustenance. He emphasizes that love and aparigraha go together. 5) Brahmachrya (Celibacy) 1) Gandhiji says that Brahmacharya means control in thought, word and action of all senses at all times in all places. An individual who practices Brahmacharya is free from all passion. 6) Abhaya (Fearlessness) 1) According to him, a seeker can not seek truth without fearlessness not seek truth without fearlessness moral bravery is highest heroism. A seeker is ready to sacrifice, patiently and fearlessly everything including life for the sake of good of other people. Universal religion :

 The study of great religious scriptures helped Gandhiji for attaining religious and moral life.

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Attitude Refer to a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular object with some degree of favour or disfavor. Object – Includes people, things events, issues. Attitudes are the feelings and beliefs that determine the behavior of persons. Content/ components of attitude 1) Cognitive 1) Refers to beliefs, thought and attributes we associate with an object 2) Opinion or judgment is formed on the basis of available information Snake , Smoking, Using helmet, Capital punishment 2) Affective 1) Refers to feelings or emotions (fear, sympathy, pleasure, hate linked to an object. 2) Affect is a common component in attitude change, persuasion, social influence and even decision making 3) Behavioral component 1) Refers to tendency or a predisposition to act in a certain manner. Predisposition may be caused by affect or cognitive components , Affect may override cognitive components in certain cases. These three components are interlinked Attitude – Structure CAB’s have dynamic implications for information processing, retrieved and judgment 1) Attitude strength -Ve X Ambivalence Neutral + Ve e.g- Chocolate, Death penalty central attitude – often related to important values 2) Attitude ambivalence 1) Meaning that they simultaneously process both positive and negative attitudes toward the object in question 2) Our evaluation are often mixed, consisting of both positive and negative reactions - Arranged marriages, Preference to boys, Corruption- tax evasion Ambivalence attitude – Cognitive dissonance 3) Attitude accessibility 1) Ease with which attitudes can be retrieved from memory 2) How readily available is an attitude about an object, issue or situation 3) More accessible – more predictive of behavior. How messages are processed. more stable across time - Traffic police asking for bribe JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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 Categories of attitudes Explicit – conscious cognition Implicit – unconscious cognition Explicit/ Conscious 1) Person is aware of his or her attitude 2) Mostly affected by recent or accessible events Implicit / unconscious Derived from past memories deeply rooted in unconscious cognition 1) We do not deliberately think over it. It just comes out from our self without an intention 2) Affection component is strong here 3) Cultural biases have appreciable impact on implicit attitudes - Looking at deity at roadside - Offering seat to old aged person Functions 1) Utilitarian : Rewards- Positive attitude, Punishment – Negative attitude 2) Knowledge Function : Stereotyping, Help organize new info 3) Ego defensive : 1) Social reform movement, 2) Denial, repression, projection rationalization, 3)Shoemaker company – God, 4) Difficult to overcome 4) Value expressive : To express one’s central values, Gandhiji’s clothes, Products Behaviour Prediction Theory of reasoned action 1) Accessibility 1) Social influence – have effect on behavior 2) Attitude- behavior relationship may not be strong always 3) Cognitive capacity is low – sleepy 4) Implicit attitude is there More accessibility – more predictable behavior 2) Strength – Strength of attitude determines behaviour 1) Labour reforms – Labour class though small (labour unions) have strong attitude, Narmada Bachao, Banning meat in Mumbai – Jain 3) Extemal influence 1) Social factors influence behavior Freedom struggle (Satyagrah, Violent methods) , Protests 4) Behaviour specific attitude 1) Rather than thing/ Object specific many times attitude is behavior specific. Swimming pool – object, swimming activity – more specific attitude  Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice – Attitude, Discrimination – Behaviour 1) Prejudice is based on negative stereotypes ( Udta Punjab, Marathwada drought) 2) Sterotypes can be good or bad e.g Maharashtrian are rationalistic Jains arte traders, Marwaries are kanjus, Tamils mathematics lover, Army – gender 3) Patriarchy, Racism, casteism, - Expressed through implicit attitudes.

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  Moral and Political attitude 1) Moral : Deeper conviction , Vegetarianism, Non- violence, religious attitude 2) Political attitude : 1)Left - Radical , 2) Moderate – Swami Vivekanand, Gandhiji 3) Progressive, 4) Reactionary – Hindu Rashtra- Nepal ISIS, Taliban United Kingdom – Conservative will be progressive in India Saudi Arabia – Driving but wear Burkha One attitude may change its spectrum over the period of time 3) Democratic attitude – Democracy as a way of life. Not just political inst. 

Determinants of Political attitude Economic status- Capitalist, Socialist, Marxism, e.g. Begger, Ambani Age : Youth – radical, Old age – Conservative Conception about human nature, Political ideologies – Individual, society Disposition – 1) Discipline/Indiscipline, 2) Odour/ Scent, 3) Military personnel -Powerful state, 4) HR Activist, 5) Germany/ Japan- Taliban Social Influence 1) Attitude change is important in administration 2) Change in behavior on real/perceived pressure from others - Open defecation - Girl education - Abolition of Sati - Widow remarriage - Job – IT company, Clerk, Old cab - Hospital – Government , Private Why important in India? – Change in Attitude - Vatpornima – following Culture, social Influence 3) Persuasion 4) Cognitive dissonance – Pakistan-India is aggressive country 5) Self perception- Reforms, Juvenile home – Send to service in old age homes, Behavior Change  attitude change 6) Conformity, compliance, obedience 7) Authority sometimes overrides your conscience 8) Peer pressure overrides your obedience also 9) Conscience Obedience Peer pressure Environmental factors decides your behavior 10) Hitler, Mass movement, Mass hysteria

  Attitude Change 1) Attitude Formation 1) Classical conditional

2) Operant conditioning

3) Observation learning

2) Attitude Change 1) Dissonance theory , 2) Learning theory, 3) ELM, Importance – a) IEC in public awareness, b) Mass campaigns, c) Advertisement   JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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   Social Influence Six principles of social influence 1) Reciprocity – People give back 2) Consistency – Consistent with their previous actions, opinions and assertions 3) Social proof - By looking at what similar others have done 4) Liking – Physical attractiveness, similarity, praise 5) Authority – Parental authority 6) Scarcity – Less accessibility items and opportunities – become more desirable, Censored subject – more viewership Social norms are group –held beliefs about how members should behave in given context. 

Persuasion Attempt to change a person’s attitude Who- source, What – message, Whom- audience 1) Important criteria that can determine effectiveness of persuasion are – credibility and likeability 2) Best method for persuasion differs from situation to situation Central Vs Peripheral persuasion - Rational - Putting emotions - Direct - indirect measures

Resisting persuasion 1) Attitude inoculation- People who have been exposed to counter arguments have more persuasion resistance (e.g. Tobacco, Dowry) 2) Forewarned 1) Forewarned of persuasion attempts 2) Experiences psychology reactance that motivates them to resist such attempt 3) When people do the exact opposite of what they are being persuaded to do – called negative attitude change or boomrang effect Prior to confrontation – Prospect held a weak attitude toward the subject 3) Stockpile- Person with physical, cognitive and social resources are more likely to resist persuasion. Healthy, well read person may be able to resist it better 4) Defences against influence Tricks

Public and Administrative attitude and Governance in India 1) Perception, orientation and attitude of public as well as administrators play a significant role in governance of a country - Administration vis-a vis public - People’s perception in administration - Administration’s attitude towards people - Reconciling of public and administration 2) People will respect administration only when it responds to aspirations of people

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Emotional Intelligence Capacity for recognizing our own feeling and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. Emotional Intelligence refers to emotional management skill which provides competence to balance emotions and reason, so as to maximize long term effectiveness and happiness Thinking part (Head) Feeling part (Heart) EQ Why necessary? EQ can lead to healthy relationship and to have the ability to respond to challenges of one’s life and career in positive manner. Two view points about EQ Traditionalist

High Performers

say that emotions 1) Distract us 1) Motivate us 2) Increase our vulnerability 2) Increase our confidence 3) Cloud our judgment 3) Speed our analysis 4) Inhabit free flow of data 4) Build trust 5) Must be controlled 5) Provide vital feedback 6) Must be managed 

Domains of Emotional Intelligence/Composition 1) Self awareness- A deep understanding of one’s emotions and drives 2) Self Regulation – Adaptability to changes and control impulses 3) Self motivation – Ability to enjoy challenges and to be passionate toward work 4) Empathy – (Recognizing emotions of others) social awareness skill, the ability to put oneself in another’s shoes 5) Social skills - supportive communication skills, abilities to influence and inspire. Emotional Intelligence is foundation for critical skills

The Development of Emotional Intelligence 1) Early expression of emotions by parents helps learning 2) Early abuse hinders learning 3) Poor ability to read other’s emotions may lead to the development of poor social skills. Value of taking time for self awareness requires abilities 1) To recognize appropriate body cues and emotions 2) To label cues and emotions accurately 3) To stay open to unpleasant as well as pleasant emotions 4) Includes the capacity for experiencing and recognizing multiple and conflicting emotions

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Developing empathy 1) Empathy one is a feeling different from sympathy. When one is sympathetic, one implies pity but maintains distance from another person’s feelings. 2) Empathy is more of a sense that one can truly understand or imagine the depth another person’s feelings. It implies feeling with a person rather than feeling sorry for a person e.g. Research on married couples - Empathy appears to include matching the physiological changes of other person Developing empathy links to - Greater emotions stability - Greater interpersonal sensitivity - Greater affiliation

EQ Composition Emotional Intelligence is made up of four core skills What I See What I do Personal Competence - Self Awareness Self Management Social Competence - Social Awareness Relationship Management

Relevance of Emotional Intelligence Civil Services 1) Demand for improved governance 2) Increased awareness of masses 3) Widespread application of information technology 4) Issues get politicized easily and quickly 5) Inadequacy of basic necessities 6) Fast changing social structure and rules 7) Inequality, rising population, unemployment

Emotional Intelligence can help Civil Services 1) To achieve amicable work environment 2) Improvement in behavior and performance of individual workers 3) Improvement in organization performance

Emotional Intelligence at work place Workplace – About people and relationship Using EQ at work place – 1) Recruitment – desirable and high-performance worker 2) Predicting performance – Predict job performance and direct workers to jobs where they are most likely to succeed 3) Negotiation - Being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solution 4) Performance management- how your self – Perception compares with other’s view about your performance, provides focus for career development and positive behavioral changes. 5) Peer relationship – Networking – using other people. More EQ  Mutual beneficial relationship

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Emotional Intelligence and work Attitude Whether one can be viewed as an effective manager and leader 1) Job satisfaction- High EQ – Positive feeling – Higher satisfaction 2) Organizational commitment – Optimistic individuals – Higher level of commitment 3) Work family conflict – Balance family interference with work 4) Job performance – EI contribute to effective

Self awareness The ability to recognize how you’re feeling and why you are feeling that way and the impact your behavior has on others

Assertiveness The ability to clearly express your thought and feelings, stand your ground and defend a position

Independence The ability to be self-directed and self controlled in your thinking and actions and to be free of emotional dependency. Independent people are self-reliant in planning and making important decisions

Self Regard The ability to appreciate your perceived positive aspect and possibilities as well as to accept your negative aspect and limitations and still feel good about yourself.

Self Actualization The ability to realize your potential. This component of EI is manifested by becoming involved in pursuit that lead to a meaningful rich and full life (How many hrs/weeks do you spend at work? With family? With friend? Alone) - Quality time, Hobbies and Interest, most for hobby?

Empathy The ability to understand what others might be feeling and thinking It is the ability to view the world through another person’s eyes.

Social Responsibility The ability to demonstrate that you are a cooperative, contributing and constructive member of your social group (Three things for people in need try to do one thing in this week).

Interpersonal Relation The ability to forge and maintain relationships that are mutually beneficial and marked by give and take and a sense of emotional closeness.

Stress Tolerance The ability to withstand adverse events and stressful situation without falling apart by actively and positively coping with stress. It is associated with the capacity to be relaxed and composed and to calmly face difficulties without getting carried away by strong emotions.

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Impulse Control The ability to resist or delay an impulse, drive or temptation to act. Impulse control entails a capacity for accepting your aggressive impulse, being composed and controlling aggression, hostility and irresponsible behavior. ( next week - pay close attention to anger or frustration as it begins to build, monitoring and understanding your feelings)

Happiness The ability to feel satisfied with your life, to enjoy yourself and others and to have fun. Happiness combines self-satisfaction, general contentment and the ability to enjoy life. Happiness is associated with a general feeling of cheerfulness and enthusiasm. It is byproduct and/or barometric indicator of your overall degree of EI and emotional functioning.

Optimism The ability to look at the brighter side of life and to maintain a positive attitude even in the face of adversity. Optimism assumes a measure of hope in one’s approach to life.

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Aptitude and Foundational values for Civil Service Adherence to high-level public service values can generate substantial public trust and confidence. Values are essential components of organizational culture and instrumental in determining, guiding and informing behavior. Values – are complex personal judgements based on knowledge as well as emotional reaction. Emotion - cognitive assessments that are relatively stable and guide behavior.  Values for Civil Service 1) Public servant’s duties today remain many, complex and often contradictory. 2) Clarity over an organisation’s values is essential – for organizational coherence, team spirit.  Values most commonly associated with public service  1) Honesty and integrity 4) Diligence 7) Effectiveness and Economy

2) Impartiality 5) Respect for the persons 8) Responsiveness

3) Respect for the law 6) Accountability

 Public Values   In Government, public values are those values that provide normative consensus about : 1) The rights, benefits and prerogatives to which citizens should (and should not) be entitled. 2) The obligations of citizens to society, the state and one another. 3) Principles on which governments and policies should be based. Public values – Part of overall managerial philosophy, they are oriented toward outcomes that meet local needs. Pleuralism - Several values and value orientations can simultaneously exist in society. All can be equally valid, correct and fundamental.  Aptitude (Inherent ability)  Component of competency to do a certain kind of work at certain level, which can also be considered ‘talent’. 1) Aptitude may be physical or mental. 2) It is a present condition that is indicative of individual’s potentialities for future. 3) Aptitude implies the prediction about the individual’s future performance. Attitude – Has to do with character. Aptitude – With competence Character is relatively permanent whereas aptitude can be changed and developed.  Administrator  Aptitude – Good policing, Solving Communal issues Attitude - Tendency to be biased toward particular section. Negative attitude towards minority may influence decisions.  Attributes of Good Administrator  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Capacity to use his institutional resources. A good team – worker. A good initiator. Avoiding using power or authority for their own sake. Capacity to build his own strength by building the competence of his organization. A good listener. Willingness to assume responsibility. A steadily enlarging ability to deal with more problems.

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  Integrity  Moral Soundness, Undivided or unbroken completeness. 1) It indicates soundness of moral principles, the character of uncorrupted virtues, uprightness, honesty and sincerity. 2) Accountability is necessary to ensure integrity.  Impartiality  Treatment of different views or opinions equally and fairly. 1) Impartiality means acting solely according to merits of case. 2) It means serving governments of different political parties and general public equally well and in the same spirit. 3) Public servant should consider the best evidence – based knowledge. 4) Political patronage : Refers to awarding of benefits and privileges in exchange for political support. Hiring, promotions, awarding of contracts. 5) Partisanship : Act of supporting a party, person or cause. 6) Political neutrality : 1) Free and frank advice to government impartially. 2) Implementation of decisions.  Objectivity Decisions and actions should be based on observable phenomena and should not be influenced by emotions, biases or personal prejudices.  Sympathy Understanding and Sharing the feelings of others (Especially feelings of sorrow or anguish)  Empathy 1) Understanding and entering into another’s feelings. 2) It refers to ability to imagine oneself in another’s place and understand the other’s feelings, desires, ideas and actions. 3) Ability to empathize is directly dependent on your ability to feel your own feelings and identify them (In order to emphathize with others, we need to become aware of what we are actually feeling) Empathy – Recognized as a universal virtue. Sympathy 1) You are sorry for them. 2) You don’t specifically understand what they are feeling.

Empathy 1) Placing yourself in that person’s place. 2) Have a good sense of what they feel and understand their feelings to a degree.

 Compassion  1) The humane quality of understanding the suffering of others and wanting to do something about it.) Compassion involves a sense of empathy. It does not end with pity. 2) It gives rise to active desire to alleviate another’s suffering. It is considered in almost all major religious traditions as among the greatest of virtues.  Equity and Equality  1) Equality is usually taken to mean that everyone should be treated the same (due to fundamental equality of all persons), whereas an Equity approach holds that groups and individuals should be treated according to their particular circumstances and requirements. Therefore, according to Equity principle, groups can be treated differently in the application of policy or the law, so as to compensate for these obstacles and to produce just or fair outcomes. *** JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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Public / Civil Service values and Ethics in public administration 1) Civil services acts as most important tool for governance of our country. 2) Public Servants play a vital role in sustaining India’s democratic institutions and fostering economic prosperity and social well being.

Importance of Ethics in Public administration : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Effective policy making and regulation. Need of effective coordination between different institutions of governance. Efficient public service delivery system. Scope of administrative and managerial capacity of services. Necessity of non-partisanship in case of political instability and uncertainties. Acting as continuity in the administration.

Need of services throughout the country. Public servants are expected to maintain standards of professionalism, impartiality, efficiency, responsiveness and accountability. Public servants should build trust and assure public in their decision making process.

 Philosophies of Public Interest 1) Intuitionist Philosophy :

1) This philosophy does not provide any guideline for action. (Intuition – Instinctive knowing without the use of rational processes) In case of conflicting situation administrator chooses an alternative by intuition. This philosophy tries to justify our earlier existing practices. 2) Perfectionism 1) This philosophy favours promotion of excellence. It advocated excellence at the expense of social equality. According to this philosophy, public resources should be spent in such a way that best members of society benefit the most from expenditure. 3) UtilitarianismPublic policy should make maximum good outcomes even at the cost of few worse-off. 4) Theory of justice - John Rawls These principles provide ethical framework for determination of public interest.

 Human Rights – These can be defined as, inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is human being. Features of Human Rights 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Universal (Everywhere applicable) Egalitarian (same for everyone) May exist as natural rights or legal rights. Inalienable Equal for everyone and non-discriminatory.

They act as cornerstone of public policy around the world. JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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  Egalitarianism (Equalitarianism) This doctrine advocates equality of mankind. It desires political and economic and social equality. It advocates. 1) Removal of economic inequalities. 2) Decentralisation of power. 3) People should have same political, economic, social rights.

 Value conflicts : 1) It occurs when there is disagreement between strong personal beliefs with organizational values. Many controversies occur because of divergent beliefs about what is right and what is wrong. Many policy decisions thus are in between competing values. 2) The differences may be religious, cultural or personal upbringing . e.g. Promotion to equal opportunity might result in conflicts among values like efficiency, merit, individual achievement.

Elements of framework for Ethical behavior in administration – 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Acting in public interest. Codification of ethical norms and practices. Mechanism for enforcement for ethical codes. Norms for qualifying and disqualifying a public functionary from office. Disclosing personal interest to avoid conflict between public interest and personal gain. Public interest is central to policy decisions and debates. Public interest refers to general well-being and welfare of people.

 Ethical Dilemmas : 1) It needs a choice among various principles, mostly in difficult and important contexts. 2) Personal self-interest should be secondary to common good in all situations, especially when such circumstances give rise to conflict of interest. 3) Ethical dilemma arises when one has to choose between ethical values and rules in order to determine the right thing to do.

Categories : ‘Personal cost’ ethical dilemmas – Arise from situations in which compliance with ethical conduct results in a significant personal cost. ‘Right versus Right’ ethical dilemmas. They arise from situations of two or more conflicting sets of valid ethical values.

Conjoint Ethical Dilemmas : Arise when decision-maker is exposed to a combination of the above-indicated ethical dilemmas. 1) Ethical dilemmas can arise, when two equally striking options are justified as ‘right’ in certain situations. 2) Ethical dilemmas mostly arise when specific instructions conflict, or produce adverse unplanned consequences in a given situation. 3) Ethical dilemmas are likely to occur when individual tries to choose options among defined sets of principles, moral values and beliefs. 4) Ethical standards are not codified, so there are always chances that dilemma arises. And there is always disagreements about proper behaviour. In ethical dilemma right or wrong is not clearly identifiable. JPCEC – Ethics notes - Shrikrishna Panchal

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 Resolving ethical dilemma in administration – 1) Ethical dilemma presents a difficult situation with mutually exclusive alternatives and choosing one option means negating other that is equally important. In case of failure to take decision it reflects indeterminancy and state of confusion. 2) To resolve these dilemma an order of logical reasoning sets is proposed to integrate and rearrange the process to deal with them. - Accountability

- Rule of law

- Integrity (Professional) - Responsiveness to society

3) Law establishes the minimum standard for morality. 4) Responsiveness entails that public institutions be responsive to society and pay attention to needs and demands of people. Administration should facilitate access to services and create an enabling environment for sustainable human and social development. 5) Common ethical dilemmas for public servants – 1) Corruption 4) Policy dilemmas

2) Administrative secrecy 5) Administrative discretion

3) Public accountability 6) Information leaks

 Accountability : It means official are responsible and answerable for their actions & decisions and there is liability to give satisfactory account of exercise. In case of failure there can follow some kind of punishment. 1) Strength of accountability and transparency is expressed by its efficiencies and effectiveness. 2) Accountability is important in evaluating ongoing effectiveness of public officials. 3) Accountability ensures that officials are performing to their full potential, being responsive, provide quality services and increases confidence in government. 4) Accountability is important in good governance. 5) Control must not in the least be inhibitive of managerial initiative and risk taking – Qualities which are vital for growth and development.


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