EST GEST JUD TL 44

June 22, 2018 | Author: Cep online | Category: Criminal Procedure, Criminal Law, Prosecutor, Felony, Punishments
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Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl? Mefestbred Hesijl> jiusjadr pjrteiuljr> pbrouaeijad y jiieùf pdpuljr> jiusjadr prevjad. Bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl? ab dheied d j efstjfiej ab pjrtb. Abfufiej> qubrbllj> jtbstjad. Bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf pbfjl? bspbiejl rbhbrbfiej j lj rbfufiej. Bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf ievel? bl jitdr ievel. Bl dhrbiemebftd ab jiiedfbs. Bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf ievel. Bl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad. Lj rbcblaíj. Bl rbspdfsjclb ievel. Sbprbsbftjieùf y abhbfsj ab ljs pjrtbs. Abhbfsj ab dheied y cbfbheied ab ousteiej `rjtuetj SBHBSBFIEJY [email protected] Idfstetuieùf Bspjúdlj, ab 30 ab aeiebmcrb ab :507, iuyj ÿltemj mdaeheijieùf sb gj prdauiead pdr Sbhdrmj abl jrtíiuld :92, ab 30 ab sbptebmcrb ab 3;::

Sbjl Abirbtd ab :1 ab sbptebmcrb ab :773, pdr bl qub sb jprubcj lj Lby ab Bfoueiejmebftd Iremefjl, iuyjs ÿltemjs mdaeheijiedfbs sb gjf prdauiead pdr Lby Dr`êfeij :9/3;:2, ab 2 ab ditucrb, ab mdaeheijieùf ab lj Lby ab Bfoueiejmebftd Iremefjl pjrj bl  hdrtjlbiem  hdrtj lbiemebftd ebftd ab ljs `jrjf `jrjftíjs tíjs prdi prdibsjlb bsjlbss y lj rb`ul rb`uljieùf jieùf ab ljs mbaeajs ab efvbste`jieùf tbifdlù`eij, y pdr Lby 1:/3;:2, ab 2 ab ditucrb, ab mdaeheijieùf ab lj Lby ab Bfoueiejmebftd Iremefjl  pjrj lj j`ele j`elezjie zjieùf ùf ab lj oustei ousteiej ej pbfjl y bl hdrtj hdrtjlbiem lbiemebftd ebftd ab ljs  `jrjftíjs  `jrjf tíjs prdib prdibsjlbs sjlbs Lby 2;/:57:, ab 9; ab aeiebmcrb, pdr lj qub sb rb`ulj bl Bstjtutd Dr`êfeid abl Mefestbred Hesijl, iuyj ÿltemj mdaeheijieùf sb gj  prdauiead  prdau iead pdr lj Lby Lb y 1/3;: 1 /3;:;, ;, ab a b :; mjrzd mjrzd,, pjrj pj rj lj l j bobiuie bo biuieùf ùf bf lj Rfeùf Burdpbj ab rbsdluiedfbs ouaeiejlbs ab abidmesd. Lby Dr`êfeij :;/:552, ab 39 ab fdvebmcrb, abl Iùae`d [bfjl, iuyj ÿltemj mdaeheijieùf sb gj prdauiead pdr Lby 1/3;:2, ab 30 ab jcrel, abl Bstjtutd ab lj víitemj abl abletd. Lby :/:558, ab :; ab bfbrd, ab Jsestbfiej Ouríaeij @rjtuetj, iuyj ÿltemj mdaeheijieùf sb gj prdauiead pdr Lby 3/3;:0, ab 3: ab  oufed, ab mdaeh mdaeheiji eijieùf eùf ab lj Lby :/:5 :/:558, 58, ab :; ab bfbrd, ab jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj

[email protected]ÍJ Dre`bf ab lds adiumbftds bfljzjads? J`bfiej Bstjtjl abl Cdlbtíf Dheiejl abl Bstjad. Fdvebmcrb 3;:0

DCOBQEXDY Eabfteheijr j ljs aesteftjs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl Bstuaejr lj jiieùf pbfjl y ljs hdrmjs ab bobrietjrlj Bstuaejr bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf ievel bx ableitd Aehbrbfiejr bftrb efvbste`jad y bfijusjad

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

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LJY [JSQBY BF BL [SDIBYD [BFJL? MEFEYQBSED HEYIJL> JIRYJADS [JSQEIRLJS> [BSORAEIJAD U JIIEÙF [D[RLJS> JIRYJADS [SEXJAD. BL BOBSIEIED AB LJ JIIEÙF [BFJL? AB DHEIED D J EFYQJFIEJ AB [JSQB. ABFRFIEJ> ZRBSBLLJ> JQBYQJAD

:.: Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl J. Idfibptd Bl idfibptd ab pjrtb bs ufd ab lds mês idftrdvbrteads bf bl prdibsd pbfjl. Gjy qub tbfbr bf iubftj qub sef bl prefieped ab juaebfiej celjtbrjl fd pubab gjcljrsb ab prdibsd bf sbftead prdped. Lj aditrefj, sef bmcjr`d, gj vbfead aesiutebfad jibrij ab lj bxestbfiej d fd ab pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl> prbherebfad jl`ufds prdibsjlestjs rbhbrersb j lds suobtds abl prdibsd pbfjl. Bl prdclbmj ab ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl sb pljftbj bf uf sestbmj mextd idmd bl bspjúdl, bf bl qub uf ùr`jfd ouresaeiiedfjl aere`b lj efvbste`jieùf y dtrd ùr`jfd bstjtjl, bl Mefestbred Hesijl, hdrmulj y sdstebfb lj jiusjieùf bf bl oueied, prdmdvebfad lj jiieùf ab lj ousteiej bf abhbfsj ab lj lb`jleaja y abl eftbrås pÿcleid tutbljad pdr lj lby.  Ouftd jl Mefestbred Hesijl, sb bfiubftrjf bf fubstrd prdibsd pbfjl, bf lj mesmj pdseieùf, lds ieuajajfds qub hdrmuljf y sdstebfbf lj jiusjieùf. Qjlbs jiusjadrbs jitÿjf iujfad gjf sead dhbfaeads pdr bl abletd, pdr uf eftbrås prdped> efilusd bf bl ijsd abl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pdpuljr, jufqub sb jitÿj pdr bl eftbrås `bfbrjl, sb abhebfab j lj vbz uf eftbrås pbrsdfjl. Bf iujlquebr ijsd, idmd jpuftj Mdrbfd Ijtbfj, pjrbib qub bf bl prdibsd pbfjl gjf ab bxester ads suobtds qub mjftbf`jf pdseiedfbs idftrjpubstjs? idmd pjrtb jitevj, uf jiusjadr qub pdstulb lj idfabfj ab ufj pbrsdfj pdr bftbfabr qub gj idmbtead uf gbigd ableitevd, y idmd pjrtb pjsevj uf jiusjad, hrbftb j quebf bsj idfabfj sb peab, qub diupj lj pdseieùf idftrjrej, abhbfaeåfadsb ab lj jiusjieùf pjrj dctbfbr su jcsdluieùf d ufj idfabfj mês rbauieaj, bobrietjfad su abrbigd j lj lecbrtja. Bl prdibsd pbfjl tebfb idmd pjrteiuljreaja qub bf ål sb bobrietjf fd sdld jiiedfbs pbfjlbs bf cusij abl ijste`d abl iulpjclb ab uf gbigd u dmeseùf idf ijrêitbr ab abletd, sefd qub tjmceåf sb bobrietjf jiiedfbs ievelbs pjrj lj rbstetuieùf, rbpjrjieùf b efabmfezjieùf abl pbroueied ijusjad pdr bl abletd.

C. [jrtbs jitevjs d jiusjadrjs Ljs pjrtbs jiusjadrjs diupjf lj pdseieùf jitevj bf bl prdibsd pbfjl, efstjfad aurjftb lj hjsb ab efstruiieùf lj prêiteij ab ljs aele`bfiejs qub sbjf fbibsjrejs pjrj prbpjrjr bl oueied y lj jadpieùf ab ljs mbaeajs prbiesjs j bstb hef y hdrmuljfad lj jiusjieùf idftrj ufj pbrsdfj abtbrmefjaj ufj vbz jcebrtd bl oueied drjl. Yjlvd bf bl supubstd ab qub bl dhbfaead rbfufieb d sb rbsbrvb bl bobrieied ab ljs jiiedfbs ievelbs, ljs pjrtbs jiusjadrjs bobrietjf jsemesmd lj jiieùf ab rbstetuieùf, rbpjrjieùf d efabmfezjieùf abl ajúd ijusjad. Ljs pjrtbs jiusjadrjs sdf bl Mefestbred Hesijl, bl jiusjadr pjrteiuljr, bl jiusjadr prevjad, bl jitdr pdpuljr y bl jitdr ievel.

j. Mefestbred Hesijl Bl Mefestbred Hesijl bs uf ùr`jfd abl Bstjad qub, sb`ÿf bl jrt. :31 IB, tebfb bfidmbfajajs ljs se`uebftbs hufiedfbs? prdmdvbr lj jiieùf ab ousteiej bf abhbfsj ab lj lb`jleaja, ab lds abrbigds ab lds ieuajajfds y abl eftbrås pÿcleid tutbljad pdr lj lby, ab dheied d j pbteieùf ab lds eftbrbsjads, jsí idmd vbljr pdr lj efabpbfabfiej ab lds Qrecufjlbs y prdiurjr jftb bstds lj sjteshjiieùf abl eftbrås sdiejl. Qjlbs hufied-

baetdrejl    }         ibp

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

fbs sb bobribf pdr mbaed ab ùr`jfds prdpeds, idfhdrmb j lds prefiepeds ab ufeaja ab jitujieùf y abpbfabfiej obrêrqueij, y idf suobieùf, bf tdad ijsd, j lds ab lb`jleaja b empjriejleaja. Lds hufiedfjreds abl Mefestbred Hesijl tbfarêf lj dcle`jieùf ab bobrietjr, idf jrrb`ld j ljs aespdseiedfbs ab lj Lby, tdajs ljs jiiedfbs pbfjlbs qub idfseabrbf prdibabftbs, gjyj d fd jiusjadr pjrteiuljr bf ljs ijusjs, mbfds jqublljs qub bl Iùae`d [bfjl rbsbrvj bxilusevjmbftb j lj qubrbllj prevjaj. Bf lds abletds pbrsb`ueclbs j efstjfiejs ab lj pbrsdfj j`rjvejaj tjmceåf pdarê abfufiejr bl Mefestbred Hesijl se jqubllj hubrb mbfdr ab baja, pbrsdfj idf aesijpjieaja fbibsetjaj ab bspbiejl prdtbiieùf d absvjleaj. Lj jusbfiej ab abfufiej fd empbaerê lj prêiteij ab aele`bfiejs j prbvbfieùf (jrt. :;2 LBIre).

Jtbfieùf Jrt. :31.: IB?

“Bl Mefestbred Hesijl, sef pbroueied ab ljs hufiedfbs bfidmbfajajs j dtrds ùr`jfds, tebfb pdr meseùf prdmdvbr lj jiieùf ab lj ousteiej bf abhbfsj ab lj lb`jleaja, ab lds abrbigds ab lds ieuajajfds y abl eftbrås pÿcleid tutbljad pdr lj lby, ab dheied d j pbteieùf ab lds eftbrbsjads, jsí idmd vbljr pdr lj efabpbfabfiej ab lds Qrecufjlbs y prdiurjr jftb åstds lj sjteshjiieùf abl eftbrås sdiejl. 3. Bl Mefestbred Hesijl bobrib sus hufiedfbs pdr mbaed ab ùr`jfds prdpeds idfhdrmb j lds prefiepeds ab ufeaja ab jitujieùf y abpbfabfiej  obrêrqueij  obrêrq ueij y idf suobie suobieùf, ùf, bf tdad ijsd, j lds ab lb`jleaja b empjriejleaja. 9. Lj lby rb`uljrê bl bstjtutd dr`êfeid abl Mefestbred Hesijl. 1. Bl Hesijl @bfbrjl abl Bstjad sbrê fdmcrjad pdr bl Sby, j prdpubstj abl @dcebrfd, díad bl Idfsbod @bfbrjl abl [dabr  Ouaeiejl”..  Ouaeiejl”

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Bl jrt. 585 LBIre bstjclbib lj pdseceleaja ab qub lds Hesijlbs fd jsestjf jl oueied iujfad lj pbrsbiuieùf abl abletd lbvb bxeoj lj abfufiej abl dhbfaead d pbrouaeijad, y jsí bstjclbib qub? bl Hesijl jsesterê j lds oueieds pdr abletd lbvb sebmprb qub j bllds sbj ietjad. Yef bmcjr`d, bl Hesijl @bfbrjl abl Bstjad empjrterê efstruiiedfbs sdcrb lds supubstds bf lds qub, bf jtbfieùf jl eftbrås pÿcleid, lds Hesijlbs pdaríjf abojr ab jsester jl oueied y ab bmeter lds efhdrmbs j qub sb rbhebrbf lds jrtíiulds 589.: y 581.3 , iujfad lj pbrsbiuieùf abl abletd lbvb bxeoj lj abfufiej abl dhbfaead d pbrouaeijad. Bf bstds ijsds, lj abiljrjieùf abl abfufiejftb bf bl oueied jhermjfad lds gbigds abfufiejads tbfarê vjldr ab jiusjieùf, jufqub fd lds ijlehequb fe sbújlb pbfj. Lds prefiepeds qub re`bf lj jitujieùf abl Mefestbred Hesijl sdf lds ab lb`jleaja b empjriejleaja? -

[dr bl prefieped ab lb`jleaja, lb`jleaja, bl Mefestbred Hesijl jitujrê idf idf suobieùf j lj Idfstetuieùf, j ljs lbybs y abmês fdrmjs qub eftb`rbf bl drabfjmebftd ouríaeid ve`bftb, aeitjmefjfad, efhdrmjfad y bobrietjfad, bf su ijsd, ljs prdibabftbs u dpdfeåfadsb j ljs efabceajmbftb jitujajs, bf lj mbaeaj y hdrmj bf qub ljs lbybs ld bstjclbzijf (jrt. 8 abl Bstjtutd Dr`êfeid abl Mefestbred Hesijl).

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[dr bl prefieped ab empjriejleaja bl Mefestbred Hesijl jitujrê idf plbfj dcobteveaja b efabpbfabfiej bf abhbfsj ab lds eftbrbsbs qub lb bståf bfidmbfajads (jrt. 0 abl Bstjtutd Dr`êfeid). Bl Mefestbred Hesijl tbfarê qub jprbiejr tdajs ljs ieriufstjfiejs javbrsjs y hjvdrjclbs jl efiulpjad, efstruyåfadlb ab sus abrbigds mebftrjs fd sb gjllb jsestead ab abhbfsdr. Bf rbjleaja, bl Mefestbred Hesijl abhebfab bf bl prdibsd pbfjl eftbrbsbs pÿcleids, qub sb idfirbtjf tjftd bf bl ijste`d abl iulpjclb idmd bf lj jcsdluieùf abl efdibftb.

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Yb`ÿf bl jrtíiuld 9 abl Bstjtutd Dr`êfeid abl Mefestbred Hesijl, mdaeheijad pdr lj Lby 31/3;;0, ab 5 ab ditucrb, idrrbspdfab jl Mefestbred Hesijl (bftrb dtrjs hufiedfbs)? -

Bobrietjr ljs jiiedfbs pbfjlbs y ievelbs aemjfjftbs ab abletds y dpdfbrsb j ljs bobrietjajs pdr dtrds, iujfad prdibaj.

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Eftbrvbfer bf bl prdibsd pbfjl, efstjfad ab lj jutdreaja  ouaeiejl lj jadpieùf ab ljs mbaeajs ijutbljrbs qub prdibajf y lj prêiteij ab ljs aele`bfiejs bfijmefjajs jl bsiljrbiemebftd ab lds gbigds d efstruybfad aerbitjmbftb bl prdibaemebftd bf bl êmcetd ab ld aespubstd bf lj Lby Dr`êfeij rb`uljadrj ab lj Sbspdfsjceleaja [bfjl ab lds Mbfdrbs, puaebfad drabfjr j lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl jqublljs aele`bfiejs qub bstemb dpdrtufjs.

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Xbljr pdr lj prdtbiieùf prdibsjl ab ljs víitemjs y pdr lj prdtbiieùf ab tbste`ds y pbretds, prdmdvebfad lds mbijfesmds prbvestds pjrj qub rbiecjf lj jyuaj y jsestbfiej bhbitevjs.

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Bobribr bf mjtbrej ab rbspdfsjceleaja pbfjl ab mbfdrbs ljs hufiedfbs qub lb bfidmebfab lj lb`esljieùf bspbiíheij, abcebfad drebftjr su jitujieùf j lj sjteshjiieùf abl eftbrås supbredr abl mbfdr.

Lby 2;/:57:, ab 9; ab aeiebmcrb, pdr lj qub  sb rb`ulj bl Bstjtutd Dr`êfeid abl Mefestbred Hesijl

Bl jrtíiuld 2 abl Bstjtutd Dr`êfeid abl Mefestbred Hesijl, tjmceåf mdaeheijad pdr lj mbfiedfjaj Lby 31/3;;0, ab 5 ab ditucrb, aespdfb qub bl Hesijl pdarê rbiecer abfufiejs, bfveêfadljs j lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl d abirbtjfad su jrigevd, iujfad fd bfiubftrb hufajmbftds pjrj bobrietjr jiieùf jl`ufj, fdteheijfad bf bstb ÿltemd ijsd lj abieseùf jl abfufiejftb. E`ujlmbftb, y pjrj bl bsiljrbiemebftd ab lds gbigds abfufiejads d qub jpjrbzijf bf lds jtbstjads ab lds qub idfdzij, pubab llbvjr j ijcd u drabfjr jqublljs aele`bfiejs pjrj ljs qub bstå lb`etemjad sb`ÿf lj Lby ab Bfoueiejmebftd Iremefjl, ljs iujlbs fd pdarêf supdfbr lj jadpieùf ab mbaeajs ijutbljrbs d lemetjtevjs ab abrbigds. Fd dcstjftb, pdarê drabfjr bl Hesijl lj abtbfieùf prbvbftevj. Qdajs ljs aele`bfiejs qub bl Mefestbred Hesijl prjitequb d qub sb llbvbf j ijcd cjod su aerbiieùf `dzjrêf ab prbsufieùf ab jutbfteieaja. Lds prefiepeds ab idftrjaeiieùf, prdpdriedfjleaja y abhbfsj efsperjrêf lj prêiteij ab bsjs aele`bfiejs. a ele`bfiejs. J tjl hef, bl Hesijl rbiecerê abiljrjieùf jl sdspbigdsd, quebf gjcrê ab bstjr jsestead ab lbtrjad y pdarê tdmjr idfdiemebftd abl idftbfead ab ljs aele`bfiejs prjiteijajs. Lj aurjieùf ab bsjs aele`bfiejs gjcrê ab sbr prdpdriedfjaj j lj fjturjlbzj abl gbigd efvbste`jad, sef qub pubaj bxibabr ab sbes mbsbs, sjlvd prùrrd`j jidrajaj mbaejftb abirbtd mdtevjad abl Hesijl @bfbrjl abl Bstjad. baetdrejl    }         ibp

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Fd dcstjftb, ljs aele`bfiejs ab efvbste`jieùf bf rbljieùf idf lds abletds j qub sb gjib rbhbrbfiej bf bl jpjrtjad iujtrd abl jrtíiuld :5 abl Bstjtutd Dr`êfeid (abletds bf lds qub eftbrvebfb lj Hesijlíj idftrj lj Idrrupieùf y lj Iremefjleaja Dr`jfezjaj), tbfarêf ufj aurjieùf mêxemj ab adib mbsbs sjlvd prùrrd`j jidrajaj mbaejftb Abirbtd mdtevjad abl Hesijl @bfbrjl abl Bstjad. Qrjfsiurread bl dpdrtufd pljzd, se lj efvbste`jieùf gucebrj bveabfiejad gbigds ab se`feheijieùf pbfjl y sbj iujl hubsb bl bstjad ab ljs aele`bfiejs, bl Hesijl prdibabrê j su ouaeiejlezjieùf, hdrmuljfad jl bhbitd lj dpdrtufj abfufiej d qubrbllj, j mbfds qub rbsultjrj prdibabftb su jrigevd. Qjmceåf pdarê bl Hesijl efidjr aele`bfiejs prbprdibsjlbs bfijmefjajs j hjieletjr bl bobrieied ab ljs abmês hufiedfbs qub bl drabfjmebftd ouríaeid lb jtrecuyb. [dr dtrj pjrtb, iujfad bl Mefestbred Hesijl tbf`j fdteiej ab uf gbigd jpjrbftbmbftb ableitevd, cebf aerbitjmbftb d pdr sbrlb prbsbftjaj ufj abfufiej d jtbstjad, prjiteijrê ål mesmd u drabfjrê j lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl qub prjitequb ljs aele`bfiejs qub bstemb pbrtefbftbs pjrj lj idmprdcjieùf abl gbigd d ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja ab lds pjrtíiepbs bf bl mesmd. Bl Hesijl abirbtjrê bl jrigevd ab ljs jitujiedfbs iujfad bl gbigd fd rbvestj lds ijrjitbrbs ab abletd, idmufeiêfadld idf bxprbseùf ab bstj ieriufstjfiej j quebf gucebrb jlb`jad sbr pbrouaeijad u dhbfaead, j hef ab qub pubaj rbetbrjr su s u abfufiej jftb bl Oubz ab Efstruiieùf. Bf dtrd ijsd efstjrê abl Oubz ab Efstruiieùf lj efidjieùf abl prdibaemebftd qub idrrbspdfaj idf rbmeseùf ab ld jitujad, pdfebfad j su aespdseieùf jl abtbfead, se ld gucebrb, y lds bhbitds abl abletd. Abftrd abl prdibsd ab plbfjred, ljs jitujiedfbs abl a bl Mefestbred Hesijl pubabf idfirbtjrsb bf ljs se`uebftbs? -

Sbspbitd jl sumjred, jl Mefestbred Hesijl sb lb jtrecuyb lj efspbiieùf aerbitj ab lds sumjreds pdr abletds pÿcleids, abcebfad ajrlbs lds efstruitdrbs ljs fdteiejs qub lbs peaebrbf, sef qub lj efvbste`jieùf pubaj abiljrjrsb sbirbtj pjrj bllds (jrt. 9;8 LBIre).

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Bf lj hjsb eftbrmbaej, iujfad fd gjyj jiusjadr prevjad prevjad y bl Mefestbred Hesijl idfseabrb qub bf bl sumjred sb gjf rbufead lds suheiebftbs blbmbftds pjrj gjibr lj ijleheijieùf ab lds gbigds y pdabr bftrjr bf bl trêmetb abl oueied drjl, ld gjrê prbsbftb jl Oubz ab efstruiieùf pjrj qub sef mês aeljiedfbs sb rbmetj ld jitujad jl Qrecufjl idmpbtbftb (jrt. 833 LBIre)> pdarê sdleietjr lj rbvdijieùf abl jutd ab idfiluseùf abl sumjred d su idfhermjieùf y, bf su ijsd, bl sdcrbsbemebftd, se bftebfab qub idfiurrb jl`ufd ab lds supubstds lb`jlmbftb bstjclbieads, d lj jpbrturj abl oueied drjl.

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Iujfad sb mjfab jcrer bl oueied drjl, bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej idmufeijrê lj ijusj jl Hesijl, d jl jiusjadr prevjad se vbrsj sdcrb abletd qub fd pubaj sbr pbrsb`uead ab dheied, pjrj qub bf bl tårmefd ab iefid aíjs ijlehequbf pdr bsiretd lds gbigds (jrt. 815 LBIre).

Sbspbitd jl prdibaemebftd jcrbvejad, bl jrt. 009 ab lj LBIre bstjclbib qub bl Hesijl sb idfstetuerê bf ljs jitujiedfbs pjrj bl bobrieied ab ljs jiiedfbs pbfjl y ievel idfhdrmb j lj Lby. Xbljrê pdr bl rbspbtd ab ljs `jrjftíjs prdibsjlbs abl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad y pdr lj prdtbiieùf ab lds abrbigds ab lj víitemj y ab lds pbrouaeijads pdr bl abletd. Bf bstb prdibaemebftd, idrrbspdfab jl Mefestbred Hesijl, ab mjfbrj bspbiejl, empulsjr y sempleheijr su trjmetjieùf sef mbrmj abl abrbigd ab abhbfsj ab ljs pjrtbs y abl ijrêitbr idftrjaeitdred abl mesmd, ajfad j lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl efstruiiedfbs `bfbrjlbs d pjrteiuljrbs pjrj bl mês bheijz iumplemebftd ab sus hufiedfbs, eftbrvefebfad bf ljs jitujiedfbs, jpdrtjfad lds mbaeds ab prubcj ab qub pubaj aespdfbr d sdleietjfad abl Oubz ab Efstruiieùf lj prêiteij ab lds mesmds, jsí idmd efstjr ab bstb lj jadpieùf ab mbaeajs ijutbljrbs d su lbvjftjmebftd y lj idfiluseùf ab lj efvbste`jieùf tjf prdftd idmd bstemb qub sb gjf prjiteijad ljs jitujiedfbs fbibsjrejs pjrj rbsdlvbr sdcrb bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl. Bl Hesijl @bfbrjl abl Bstjad empjrterê iujftjs ùrabfbs b efstruiiedfbs bstemb idfvbfebftbs rbspbitd j lj jitujieùf abl Hesijl bf bstb prdibaemebftd. prd ibaemebftd.

8;

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Qjf prdftd idmd bl Oubz drabfb lj efidjieùf abl prdibaemebftd pjrj ljs ijusjs jftb bl Qrecufjl abl  Ourjad, bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej ld pdfarê bf idfdiemebftd abl Mefestbred Hesijl, quebf idmpjrbibrê b eftbrvbfarê bf iujftjs jitujiedfbs s b llbvbf j ijcd jftb jqubl. Hefjlmbftb aerbmds jquí qub bl Mefestbred Hesijl gj ab bftjcljr lj jiieùf ievel ouftjmbftb idf lj pbfjl, gjyj d fd bf bl prdibsd jiusjadr pjrteiuljr> pbrd se bl dhbfaead rbfufiejrb bxprbsjmbftb su abrbigd ab rbstetuieùf, rbpjrjieùf d efabmfezjieùf, bl Mefestbred Hesijl sb lemetjrê j pbaer bl ijste`d ab lds iulpjclbs (jrt. :;7 LBIre).

c. Jiusjadr pjrteiuljr  Bl jiusjadr pjrteiuljr bs lj pbrsdfj híseij d ouríaeij, aesteftj abl Mefestbred Hesijl, qub pdr gjcbr sead dhbfaead d j`rjvejad pdr bl abletd, sb idfstetuyb bf pjrtb jitevj bf bl prdibsd pbfjl efstjfad bl ijste`d abl rbspdfsjclb iremefjl. Bl jrt. ::; ab lj LBIre aespdfb qub lds pbrouaeijads pdr uf abletd qub fd gucebrbf rbfufiejad j su abrbigd pdarêf mdstrjrsb pjrtb bf lj ijusj se ld geiebrjf jftbs abl trêmetb ab ijleheijieùf abl abletd, y bobrietjr ljs jiiedfbs ievelbs y pbfjlbs qub prdibajf d sdljmbftb ufjs u dtrjs, sb`ÿf lbs idfvefebrb, sef qub pdr blld sb rbtrdibaj bf bl iursd ab ljs jitujiedfbs. Juf iujfad lds pbrouaeijads fd sb mubstrbf pjrtb bf lj ijusj, fd pdr bstd sb bftebfab qub rbfufiejf jl abrbigd ab rbstetuieùf, rbpjrjieùf d efabmfezjieùf qub j su hjvdr pubab jidrajrsb bf sbftbfiej hermb, sebfad mbfbstbr qub lj rbfufiej ab bstb abrbigd sb gj`j bf su ijsd ab ufj mjfbrj bxprbsj y tbrmefjftb. Iujfad bl abletd idmbtead tbf`j pdr hefjleaja empbaer u dcstjiulezjr j lds mebmcrds ab ljs idrpdrjiedfbs ldijlbs bl bobrieied ab sus hufiedfbs pÿcleijs, pdarê tjmceåf pbrsdfjrsb bf lj ijusj lj Jamefestrjieùf ldijl bf iuyd tbrretdred sb gucebrb idmbtead bl gbigd pufeclb. Bf abhefetevj y idf ijrêitbr `bfbrjl, pdabmds abier qub bstêf lb`etemjads pjrj bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pdpuljr? -

Lds bspjúdlbs y bxtrjfobrds dhbfaeads pdr bl abletd abletd (jrts. :;: y 30; LBIrem).

-

Ljs pbrsdfjs ouríaeijs dhbfaeajs.

-

Ljs bfteajabs qub, qub, sef sbr pbrsdfjs híseijs, lj lby lbs dtdr`j bl abrbigd pjrj idmpjrbibr bf oueied, oueied, abceajmbftb rbprbsbftjajs, iujfad sbjf dhbfaeajs pdr bl abletd.

-

Bl Bstjad y lds lds abmês bftbs pÿcleids, pÿcleids, bf iujftd pubabf sbr suobtds pjsevds abl abletd (jrts. 103 y ss. I[).

i. Jitdr pdpuljr  Ye`uebfad j @embfd Ybfarê, lj jiieùf pdpuljr pubab abhefersb idmd “bl abrbigd qub jsestb j tdads lds suobtds fd tetuljrbs ab uf abrbigd, eftbrås d cebf ouríaeid vulfbrjad, j efidjr uf prdibsd y j abauier bf ål ufj prbtbfseùf, bf fdmcrb ab lj sdiebaja, mbaejftb lj iujl sb rbidfdzij ufj abtbrmefjaj setujieùf d abrbigd sucobtevd y/d sb idfabfb j ufj abtbrmefjaj pbrsdfj jl iumplemebftd ab ufj prbstjieùf”. Jsí tbfbmds qub absab su rbidfdiemebftd bf bl jrtíiuld :32 ab lj Idfstetuieùf, bf lds abletds ab ijrêitbr pÿcleid, pbrsb`ueclbs ab dheied, iujlquebr ieuajajfd bspjúdl pubab bobrietjr lj jiieùf pdpuljr y idfstetuersb bf pjrtb, ouftd jl Mefestbred Hesijl, eftbrvefebfad idmd tjl aurjftb tdad bl prdibaemebftd. Qdads lds ieuajajfds bspjúdlbs, gjyjf sead d fd dhbfaeads pdr bl abletd, pubabf qubrblljrsb, bobrietjfad lj jiieùf pdpuljr bstjclbieaj bf bl jrtíiuld :;: ab lj LBIre., idf ljs lemetjiedfbs qub vbrbmds mês jabljftb jl jfjlezjr bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl bf dtrd bpí`rjhb ab bstb tbmj.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

8:

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Empdrtjftb Jrt. :32 I.B.? “Lds ieuajajfds

pdarêf bobribr lj jiieùf pdpuljr y pjrteiepjr bf lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej mbaejftb lj efsetuieùf abl Ourjad, bf lj hdrmj y idf rbspbitd j jqubllds prdibsds pbfjlbs qub lj lby abtbrmefb, jsí idmd bf lds Qrecufjlbs Idfsubtuaefjreds y trjaeiedfjlbs trjaeiedfjlbs””

Fd pubab bobrietjr lj jiieùf pbfjl bl qub gucebsb sead idfabfjad ads vbibs pdr sbftbfiej hermb idmd rbd abl abletd ab abfufiej d qubrbllj ijlumfedsjs, fe bl Oubz d Mj`estrjad, sjlvd qub sb pbrse`jf gbigds ableitevds idmbteads idftrj su pbrsdfj d cebfbs, d idftrj ljs pbrsdfjs d cebfbs ab su iùfyu`b, jsibfaebftbs, absibfaebftbs d gbrmjfds idfsjf`uífbds d utbrefds y jhefbs. Bs prbibptevj lj jsestbfiej ab jcd`jad y prdiurjadr. [dr ÿltemd, gjy qub gjibr rbhbrbfiej jl jrtíiuld 08: ab lj LBIre qub, bf rbljieùf idf bl prdibaemebftd jcrbvejad, aespdfb qub bl bobrieied pdr pjrteiuljrbs, sbjf d fd dhbfaeads pdr bl abletd, ab lj jiieùf pbfjl d ab lj ievel abrevjaj abl mesmd gjcrê ab bhbitujrsb bf lj hdrmj y idf lds rbquesetds sbújljads bf bl Qítuld EE abl Lecrd EE (rbljtevd j lj qubrbllj), bxprbsjfad lj jiieùf qub sb bobrietb. Yef pbroueied ab ld qub sb aespdfb bf bl jpjrtjad jftbredr, bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej efstruerê jl dhbfaead d pbrouaeijad pdr bl abletd ab lds abrbigds qub lb jsestbf idfhdrmb j ld aespubstd bf lds jrts. :;5 y ::; LBIre. y abmês aespdseiedfbs, puaebfad mdstrjrsb pjrtb bf lj ijusj sef fbibseaja ab hdrmuljr qubrbllj. Jsemesmd, lb efhdrmjrê ab lj pdseceleaja y prdibaemebftd pjrj sdleietjr ljs jyuajs qub idfhdrmb j lj lb`esljieùf ve`bftb pubajf idrrbspdfabrlb.

a. Jiusjadr prevjad Bl jiusjadr prevjad bs lj pjrtb jiusjadrj fbibsjrej bf lds prdibsds pbfjlbs pdr gbigds ableitevds pbrsb`ueclbs sdld j efstjfiej ab pjrtb (ijlumfej b efourej), bf lds qub qubaj bxilueaj lj eftbrvbfieùf abl Mefestbred Hesijl. Bstds prdibsds pbfjlbs sb efeiejf pdr mbaed ab qubrbllj, j trjvås ab lj iujl bl jiusjadr prevjad sb idfstetuyb bf pjrtb bf bl prdibsd. Bs fbibsjred gjcbr eftbftjad, idf ijrêitbr prbved, lj idfielejieùf idf bl qubrblljad. Lj lb`etemjieùf jitevj idrrbspdfab jl dhbfaead pdr lj ijlumfej d efourej y se fd bstuvebsb bf bl plbfd bobrieied ab sus abrbigds ievelbs, bftrjrê bf oub`d lj rbprbsbftjieùf. Ye bl dhbfaead pdr bl gbigd ableitevd gucebrj hjllbiead pdarê bobrietjr lj jiieùf pbfjl su gbrbabrd y, se lj ijlumfej d efourej trjsibfaebrb j bllds, lds jsibfaebftbs, absibfaebftbs, iùfyu`b y gbrmjfds abl j`rjvejad. Bl jiusjadr prevjad gj ab efstjr bl iursd ab ljs jitujiedfbs, sdleietjfad abl ùr`jfd ouresaeiiedfjl lj prêiteij ab ljs aele`bfiejs qub idfseabrb fbibsjrejs pjrj hufajr lj jiusjieùf b eftbrvefebfad j ld ljr`d ab tdad bl prdibaemebftd. 83

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Bl jrtíiuld 302 ab lj LBIre bstjclbib qub, se lj qubrbllj hubsb pdr abletd qub fd pubaj sbr pbrsb`uead sefd j efstjfiej ab pjrtb, sb bftbfabrê jcjfadfjaj pdr bl qub lj gucebrb eftbrpubstd iujfad abojsb ab efstjr bl prdibaemebftd abftrd ab lds aebz aíjs se`uebftbs j lj fdteheijieùf abl jutd bf qub bl Oubz d bl Qrecufjl jsí ld gucebsb jidrajad. Jl bhbitd, j lds aebz aíjs ab gjcbrsb prjiteijad ljs ÿltemjs aele`bfiejs pbaeajs pdr bl qubrblljftb, d ab bstjr pjrjlezjaj lj ijusj pdr hjltj ab efstjfiej abl mesmd, mjfajrê ab dheied bl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub idfdiebrb ab lds jutds qub jqubl peaj ld qub idfvbf`j j su abrbigd bf bl tårmefd heojad bf bl pêrrjhd jftbredr. Yb tbfarê tjmceåf pdr jcjfadfjaj lj qubrbllj iujfad pdr mubrtb d pdr gjcbrsb efijpjietjad bl qubrblljftb pjrj idftefujr lj jiieùf, fd idmpjrbiebrb fef`ufd ab sus gbrbabrds d rbprbsbftjftbs lb`jlbs j sdstbfbrlj abftrd ab lds trbeftj aíjs se`uebftbs j lj ietjieùf qub jl bhbitd sb lbs gjrê, aêfadlbs idfdiemebftd ab lj qubrbllj (jrt. 308 LBIre).

b. Bl jitdr ievel Juf iujfad lds pbrouaeijads fd sb mubstrbf pjrtb bf lj ijusj, fd pdr bstd sb bftebfab qub rbfufiejf jl abrbigd ab rbstetuieùf, rbpjrjieùf d efabmfezjieùf qub j su hjvdr pubab jidrajrsb bf sbftbfiej hermb, sebfad fbibsjred qub lj rbfufiej ab bstb abrbigd sb gj`j bf su ijsd ab ufj mjfbrj iljrj y tbrmefjftb. Bs pubs bstb pbrouaeijad pdr lds gbigds ableitevds y sus abrbigdgjcebftbs quebfbs dstbftjf lj idfaeieùf ab jitdrbs ievelbs bf lds tårmefds qub lub`d vbrbmds.

I. [jrtbs jiusjajs d pjsevjs pjsevjs Ljs pjrtbs jiusjajs sdf jqublljs hrbftb j ljs qub sb peab lj idfabfj. Ydf bl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad y bl rbspdfsjclb ievel.

j. Bl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad Bf uf sbftead jmpled, Aditrefj y Ourespruabfiej bftebfabf pdr efvbste`jad d bfijusjad lj pbrsdfj abtbrmefjaj j lj qub sb gjib lj jtrecuieùf, mês d mbfds hufajaj, ab lj idmeseùf ab ufds gbigds pufeclbs. Jgdrj cebf, absab uf pljftbjmebftd mês bstreitd, bl fjiemebftd abl bstjtus ab efvbste`jad d bfijusjad sb absiucrb bf iujlquebrj ab lds prdibsds pbfjlbs bf bl jitd ab lj idmpjrbibfiej híseij ab jqubl jftb bl Oubz ab Efstruiieùf, bf lj qub sb pdfb bf su idfdiemebftd bl gbigd ab lj efiulpjieùf (j ål fds rbhbrerbmds mês abtbfeajmbftb bf dtrd bpí`rjhb ab bstb tbmj).

c. Bl rbspdfsjclb ievel Juf iujfad abl rbspdfsjclb ievel trjtjrbmds mês bxtbfsjmbftb bf dtrd bpí`rjhb ab bstb tbmj idfvebfb prbiesjr jgdrj qub bl rbspdfsjclb ievel bs lj pbrsdfj híseij d ouríaeij idftrj lj qub sb aere`b bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf ievel abftrd abl prdibsd pbfjl, bs abier, lj pbrsdfj qub, bf su ijsd abcbrê gjibr hrbftb j lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, lj rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd d lj efabmfezjieùf ab pbroueieds ijusjads pdr bl gbigd pufeclb. Yuibab fd dcstjftb qub lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel bf bl prdibsd pbfjl fd sb abrevj abl abletd, sefd ab lj idmeseùf abl gbigd elíietd iuyj rbspdfsjceleaja sb aeluieaj bf bl prdibsd, ld qub prdauierê bl rbsjriemebftd y lj efabmfezjieùf fd pdarê abrevjr ab lj ijleheijieùf qub sb rbjleib ab jqubllj idfauitj, sefd abl idfirbtd hjitum ouríaeijmbftb rblbvjftb. Lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel pubab sbr aerbitj y sucseaejrej.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

89

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

• Sbspdfsjclb ievel aerbitd

Qdaj pbrsdfj iremefjlmbftb rbspdfsjclb ab uf abletd ld bs tjmceåf ievelmbftb se abl gbigd sb abrevjrbf ajúds d pbroueieds. Ye sdf ads d mês lds rbspdfsjclbs ab uf abletd lds oubibs d trecufjlbs sbújljrêf lj iudtj ab qub abcj rbspdfabr ijaj ufd. Lds jutdrbs y lds iùmpleibs, ijaj ufd abftrd ab su rbspbitevj iljsb, sbrêf rbspdfsjclbs sdleajrejmbftb bftrb sí pdr sus iudtjs, y sucseaejrejmbftb pdr ljs idrrbspdfaebftbs j lds abmês rbspdfsjclbs. Lds jsb`urjadrbs qub gucebrbf jsumead bl rebs`d ab ljs rbspdfsjceleajabs pbiufejrejs abrevjajs abl usd d bxpldtjieùf ab iujlquebr cebf, bmprbsj, efaustrej d jiteveaja, iujfad, idmd idfsbiubfiej ab uf gbigd prbvestd bf bl Iùae`d [bfjl, sb prdauzij bl bvbftd qub abtbrmefb bl rebs`d jsb`urjad, sbrêf rbspdfsjclbs ievelbs aerbitds gjstj bl límetb ab lj efabmfezjieùf lb`jlmbftb bstjclbieaj d idfvbfiedfjlmbftb pjitjaj, sef pbroueied abl abrbigd ab rbpbteieùf idftrj quebf idrrbspdfaj. • Sbspdfsjclb ievel sucseaejred

Sbspdfsjclb ievel sucseaejred, bs jqubllj pbrsdfj qub, sef sbr bl jutdr abl gbigd pufeclb, y bf abhbitd ab jqubllj, vj j rbspdfabr ab ljs idfsbiubfiejs ab fjturjlbzj ievel abrevjajs abl mesmd. Lj rbspdfsjceleaja sucseaejrej sb gjrê bhbitevj? prembrd, bf lds cebfbs ab lds jutdrbs, y abspuås, bf lds ab lds iùmpleibs. Ye sb bxe`ebrj bf bl prdibsd pbfjl lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel ab lj jutdreaja, j`bftbs y idftrjtjads ab lj mesmj d hufiedfjreds pÿcleids, lj prbtbfseùf abcbrê aere`ersb semultêfbjmbftb idftrj lj Jamefestrjieùf d bftb pÿcleid prbsuftjmbftb rbspdfsjclb ievel sucseaejred.

LJY [JSQBY BF BL [SDIBYD [BFJL [jrtbs jiusjadrjs

[jrtbs jiusjajs

Mefestbred Hesijl

Efvbste`jad d bfijusjad

Jiusjadr pjrteiuljr 

Sbspdfsjclb ievel

Jiusjadr prevjad Jitdr ievel

:.3 Bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl? ab dheied d j efstjfiej ab pjrtb. Abfufiej> qubrbllj> jtbstjad J. Idfibptd Bf bl Abrbigd [bfjl bspjúdl jpjrbib idmd fdrmj rb`uljadrj ab ljs jiiedfbs y dmesedfbs qub rbvestjf lds ijrjitbrbs ab abletd, bl Iùae`d [bfjl, qub bs adfab sb bfiubftrjf tepeheijads d absiretds tdads lds abletds, jsí idmd ljs pbfjs idf ljs qub sb pubab ijste`jr j lds rbspdfsjclbs ab lds mesmds> tdad blld sef pbroueied ab lbybs bspbiejlbs ab ijrêitbr pbfjl. Lj pbfj qub sb sbújlj pjrj ijaj abletd bs ld qub idfdibmds idmd bl ijste`d qub abcb iumpler quebf efhref`b ljs fdrmjs abl Iùae`d [bfjl. Jgdrj cebf, ´queåf pubab ijste`jr4 Bstj bs lj iubsteùf qub sb pljftbj jftb lj idmeseùf ab uf gbigd ableitevd. Ye bl pjrteiuljr, dhbfaead pdr bl abletd, fd pubab gjibrld jl qubajr prdgeceaj lj vbf`jfzj, ´queåf ld gjib pdr ål4 Bstj pdtbstja sb jtrecuyb jl Bstjad y sb abfdmefj “ eus pufebfae”. pufebfae”. Bl “eus “ eus  pufebfae”” bs lj pdtbstja pbfjl abl Bstjad ab abiljrjr pufeclbs iebrtds gbigds b empdfbrlbs sjfieùf.  pufebfae 81

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Bf bstb sbftead empleij bl abrbigd j ijste`jr abl Bstjad> ål bs bl ÿfeid ijpjz ab idfabfjr j ljs pbfjs qub sb sbújljf bf lj lby, bl ÿfeid qub pubab ijste`jr, y bl ÿfeid qub bobrib bl “ eus pufebfae”. pufebfae”. [jrj qub bl Bstjad pubaj bobribr bstj hufieùf, bs fbibsjred qub rbjleib ufj jiteveaja bfijmefjaj j lj jvbre`ujieùf abl gbigd y sus ieriufstjfiejs, jsí idmd lj jvbre`ujieùf abl rbspdfsjclb d rbspdfsjclbs y lj ijleaja ab su rbspdfsjceleaja. Bstj jiteveaja qub absjrrdllj bl Bstjad bs ld qub idfdibmds pdr prdibsd pbfjl, y tebfb qub er fbibsjrejmbftb rb`uljad bf lj lby (prefieped ab lb`jleaja). Bl prdibsd pbfjl bs bl drabf ab jitujr bstjclbiead pdr bl Bstjad, pjrj abtbrmefjr bf ijaj supubstd idfirbtd, lj bxestbfiej d efbxestbfiej ab rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl, jpleijfad ljs fdrmjs abl abrbigd pbfjl. Lj abtbrmefjieùf abl abletd llbvj jpjrbojaj lb`jlmbftb lj empdseieùf ab ufj pbfj, bf iuyj efaeveaujlezjieùf eftbrvebfbf abtbrmefjads hjitdrbs qub sdf ljs ieriufstjfiejs mdaeheijtevjs ab lj rbspdfsj celeaja iremefjl, yj sbjf jtbfujftbs ab lj pbfj, j`rjvjftbs d mextjs d abl jrcetred ouaeiejl bf iujftd pbrmetead pdr lj lby. Qdads bstds blbmbftds tebfbf qub sbr jpdrtjads, bsiljrbieads y bfoueiejads abftrd abl prdibsd pbfjl, idmd idfstetutevds d idmpdfbftbs abl gbigd pufeclb. Bf idfsbiubfiej, bl prdibsd pbfjl sur`b ab lj idmeseùf ab uf abletd, pjrj, idmd ÿltemd hef, empdfbr ufj pbfj jl rbspdfsjclb abl mesmd. Jsí pubs, se fd gjy abletd fd gjy prdibsd y se fd gjy rbspdfsjclb fd gjy pbfj> bs idmd se tdad bl prdibsd pbfjl bstuvebrj prd`rjmjad ab ufj hdrmj lefbjl?

ABLEQD

[SDIBYD

[BFJ

C. Hjsb ab efstruiieùf Bf bstj hjsb bs adfab sb prjiteijf aele`bfiejs bfijmefjajs j lj jvbre`ujieùf abl gbigd ableitevd y sus ieriufstjfiejs. Abtbrmefjf lj prubcj y bl sdmbtemebftd abl ablefiubftb j oueied. Bf bstj hjsb bl Oubz fd  ouz`j, sdld efvbste`j y prbpjrj ld qub bf su aíj sbrê bl oueied drjl y jsí, fd sb qubcrjftj bl prefieped ab empjriejleaja y dcobteveaja ab lds Oubibs. Bstj hjsb sb efeiej pdr abfufiej, qubrbllj d pdr bl idfdiemebftd abl Oubz d abl Mefestbred Hesijl ab qub sb gj idmbtead uf gbigd pufeclb (ijste`jclb). Bs ld qub sb lljmj “fdteiej “fd teiej iremefes”.

I. Hjsb ab oueied oueied drjl Yb rbjlezj jftb dtrd ùr`jfd aesteftd abl efvbste`jadr. Bf bllj, sb aeitj sbftbfiej idfabfjfad d jcsdlvebfad j lds rbspdfsjclbs ab lds gbigds qub sb ouz`jf. Bf bstj hjsb bs emprbsiefaeclb qub jl`uebf mjftbf`j lj jiusjieùf idftrj jl`ufj pbrsdfj. Bf bl prdibaemebftd bspjúdl bxestb uf ùr`jfd qub mjftebfb ljs jiusjiedfbs, aesteftd abl Oubz? bl Mefestbred Hesijl, qub vebfb dcle`jad pdr lj lby j bobrietjr tdajs ljs jiiedfbs pbfjlbs qub fjibf ab lds abletds ab ijrêitbr pÿcleid, jufqub gjyj pjrteiuljrbs qub lj bobrietbf. Iujfad gjcljmds ab jiieùf pbfjl, fds bstjmds rbherebfad jl mdad ab efeiejieùf abl prdibaemebftd pdr bl bobrieied ab ufj jiieùf qub vj j dcle`jr jl ùr`jfd ouaeiejl j qub efvbste`ub (efstruiieùf) y sbftbfieb (oueied drjl), empdfebfad ufj pbfj jl iulpjclb. Bl ùr`jfd bfijr`jad ab ijste`jr (empdfbr ufj pbfj), bs bl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub sbftbfiej. [brd bl  Oubz, j lj vestj ab ljs prubcjs, pubab aesirbpjr ab quebf bobrib lj jiieùf y jcsdlvbr jl prbsuftd jutdr abl gbigd pufeclb. Bs abier, lj jiieùf dcle`j jl Oubz j `bfbrjr bl prdibsd gjstj jl hefjl bf lj sbftbfiej, puaebfad bstj sbr idfabfjtdrej d jcsdlutdrej. Bl prdibsd pbfjl bspjúdl, jabmês ab pbrsb`uer bl ijste`d ab lds iulpjclbs, tjmceåf bs bl ijuib lb`jl pjrj dctbfbr lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd d efabmfezjieùf abl pbroueied qub uf gbigd pufeclb dre`efj bf bl dhbfaead (víitemj abl abletd)> ab jgí baetdrejl    }         ibp

82

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

qub bl jrt. :;; ab lj LBIre bstjclbzij qub ab tdad abletd fjib jiieùf pbfjl pjrj bl ijste`d abl iulpjclb y pubab fjibr tjmceåf jiieùf ievel pjrj lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, lj rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd y lj efabmfezjieùf ab pbroueieds ijusjads pdr bl gbigd pufeclb.

A. [brsdfjs qub pubabf bobrietjr lj jiieùf pbfjl Idmd vbfemds jpuftjad bf bl sestbmj prdibsjl bspjúdl bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl pÿcleijmbftb sb jtrecuyb fd sdld jl Mefestbred Hesijl sefd qub trjtêfadsb ab abletds pÿcleids sb jametb lj pdseceleaja abl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pdpuljr bf lds tårmefds yj bxprbsjads. [jrjlbljmbftb y idmd tjmceåf gbmds sbújljad yj, abtbrmefjads abletds, lds abfdmefjads abletds prevjads bxe`bf ab lj eftbrvbfieùf fbibsjrej y ÿfeij ab lj jiusjieùf prevjaj bxiluyåfadsb lj jiieùf pÿcleij. J lj vestj ab tdad bstd pdabmds aestef`uer bftrb bl bobrieied dheiejl ab lj jiieùf pbfjl, bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pdpuljr y bl bobrieied ab lj jiusjieùf pjrteiuljr y bl prevjad ab lj jiieùf pbfjl.

j. Bobrieied Dheiejl Lds hufiedfjreds abl Mefestbred Hesijl tbfarêf lj dcle`jieùf ab bobrietjr, idf jrrb`ld j ljs aespdseiedfbs ab lj Lby, tdajs ljs jiiedfbs pbfjlbs qub idfseabrbf prdibabftbs, gjyj d fd jiusjadr pjrteiuljr bf ljs ijusjs, mbfds jqublljs qub bl Iùae`d [bfjl rbsbrvj bxilusevjmbftb j lj qubrbllj prevjaj. Bf lds abletds pbrsb`ueclbs j efstjfiejs ab lj pbrsdfj j`rjvejaj tjmceåf pdarê abfufiejr bl Mefestbred Hesijl se jqubllj hubrb mbfdr ab baja, pbrsdfj idf aesijpjieaja fbibsetjaj ab bspbiejl prdtbiieùf d absvjleaj. Lj jusbfiej ab abfufiej fd empbaerê lj prêiteij ab aele`bfiejs j prbvbfieùf (jrt. :;2 LBIre).

c. Bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pdpuljr  Idfhdrmb jl jrtíiuld :;: LBIre, lj jiieùf pbfjl bs pÿcleij. Qdads lds ieuajajfds bspjúdlbs pdarêf bobrietjrlj idf jrrb`ld j ljs prbsirepiedfbs ab lj Lby. Jgdrj cebf, bl bobrieied ab bstj jiieùf tebfb ufj sbreb ab límetbs. Jsí (idfhdrmb jl jrt. :;3 LBIre), fd pdarêf bobrietjr lj jiieùf pbfjl? :.¿ Bl qub fd `dib ab lj plbfetua ab lds abrbigds ievelbs. 3.¿ Bl qub gucebrb sead idfabfjad ads vbibs pdr sbftbfiej hermb idmd rbd abl abletd ab abfufiej d qubrbllj ijlumfedsjs. 9.¿ BE Oubz d Mj`estrjad. Lds idmprbfaeads bf lds fÿmbrds jftbredrbs pdarêf, sef bmcjr`d, bobrietjr lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr abletds idmbteads idftrj sus pbrsdfjs d cebfbs d idftrj ljs pbrsdfjs d cebfbs ab sus iùfyu`bs, jsibfaebftbs, absibfaebftbs, gbrmjfds idfsjf`uífbds d utbrefds y jhefbs. Lds idmprbfaeads bf lds fÿmbrds 3.¿ y 9.¿ pdarêf bobrietjr tjmceåf lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr bl abletd idmbtead idftrj ljs pbrsdfjs d cebfbs ab lds qub bstuvebsbf cjod su `ujraj lb`jl. Qjmpdid pdarêf bobrietjr jiiedfbs pbfjlbs bftrb sí (sb`ÿf bl jrt. :;9 LBIre)? :.¿ Lds iùfyu`bs, j fd sbr pdr abletd idmbtead pdr bl ufd idftrj lj pbrsdfj abl dtrd d lj ab sus geods, y pdr bl abletd ab ce`jmej. 3.¿ Lds jsibfaebftbs, absibfaebftbs y gbrmjfds pdr fjturjlbzj, pdr lj jadpieùf d pdr jhefeaja, j fd sbr pdr abletd idmbtead pdr lds ufds idftrj ljs pbrsdfjs ab lds dtrds.

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baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

i. Bobrieied ab lj jiusjieùf pjrteiuljr y prevjad J pjrtb ab lj pdseceleaja ab qub bl pbrouaeijad bobrzj idmd tjl lj jiieùf pbfjl idmd jiusjadr pjrteiuljr bf lds abletds pÿcleids y sbmepÿcleids, bl bobrieied prevjad ab lj jiieùf sb rbhebrb jl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr bl pbrouaeijad bf lds abletds prevjads j trjvås ab qubrbllj, bxiluyåfadsb ab bstj hdrmj lj pdseceleaja ab lj jiieùf pbfjl pÿcleij tjftd abl Mefestbred Hesijl idmd pdpuljr. Bf tdad ijsd y absab uf sbftead mês jmpled, j prdpùsetd abl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr bl pbrouaeijad idmd víitemj abl abletd bs empdrtjftb bl idftbfead abl jrtíiuld :;5 ces. LBIre, sb`ÿf bl iujl, ljs víitemjs abl abletd qub fd gucebrjf rbfufiejad j su abrbigd pdarêf bobribr lj jiieùf pbfjl bf iujlquebr mdmbftd jftbs abl trêmetb ab ijleheijieùf abl abletd, se cebf blld fd pbrmeterê rbtrdtrjbr fe rbetbrjr ljs jitujiedfbs yj prjiteijajs jftbs ab su pbrsdfjieùf. Bf bl ijsd ab mubrtb d absjpjreieùf ab lj víitemj j idfsbiubfiej abl abletd, lj jiieùf pbfjl pdarê sbr bobrieaj pdr su iùfyu`b fd sbpjrjad lb`jlmbftb d ab gbigd y pdr lds geods ab bstj d abl iùfyu`b fd sbpjrjad lb`jlmbftb d ab gbigd qub bf bl mdmbftd ab lj mubrtb d absjpjreieùf ab lj víitemj idfvevebrjf idf bllds> pdr lj pbrsdfj qub gjstj bl mdmbftd ab lj mubrtb d absjpjreieùf gucebrj bstjad ufeaj j bllj pdr ufj jfêld`j rbljieùf ab jhbiteveaja y pdr lds geods ab bstj qub bf bl mdmbftd ab lj mubrtb d absjpjreieùf ab lj víitemj idfvevebrjf idf bllj> pdr sus prd`bfetdrbs y pjrebftbs bf lífbj rbitj d idljtbrjl abftrd abl tbribr `rjad qub sb bfidftrjrbf cjod su `ujraj, pbrsdfjs suobtjs j su tutblj d iurjtblj d qub sb bfidftrjrbf cjod su jid`emebftd hjmelejr. Bf ijsd ab fd bxester lds jftbredrbs, pdarê sbr bobrieaj pdr lds abmês pjrebftbs bf lífbj rbitj y pdr sus gbrmjfds, idf prbhbrbfiej, bftrb bllds, abl qub dstbftjrj lj rbprbsbftjieùf lb`jl ab lj víitemj. Bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr jl`ufj ab ljs pbrsdfjs lb`etemjajs idfhdrmb j bstb jrtíiuld fd empeab su bobrieied pdstbredr pdr iujlquebr dtrd ab lds lb`etemjads. Iujfad bxestj ufj plurjleaja ab víitemjs, tdajs blljs pdarêf pbrsdfjrsb efabpbfaebftbmbftb idf su prdpej rbprbsbftjieùf. Yef bmcjr`d, bf bstds ijsds, iujfad pubaj vbrsb jhbitjad bl cubf drabf abl prdibsd d bl abrbigd j uf prdibsd sef aeljiedfbs efabceajs, bl Oubz d Qrecufjl, bf rbsdluieùf mdtevjaj y trjs dír j tdajs ljs pjrtbs, pdarê empdfbr qub sb j`rupbf bf ufj d vjrejs rbprbsbftjiedfbs y qub sbjf aere`eads pdr lj mesmj d vjrejs abhbfsjs, bf hufieùf ab sus rbspbitevds eftbrbsbs. Lj jiieùf pbfjl tjmceåf pdarê sbr bobrietjaj pdr ljs jsdiejiedfbs ab víitemjs y pdr ljs pbrsdfjs ouríaeijs j ljs qub lj lby rbidfdib lb`etemjieùf pjrj abhbfabr lds abrbigds ab ljs víitemjs, sebmprb qub blld hubrj jutdrezjad pdr lj víitemj abl abletd. Iujfad bl abletd idmbtead tbf`j pdr hefjleaja empbaer u dcstjiulezjr j lds mebmcrds ab ljs idrpdrjiedfbs ldijlbs bl bobrieied ab sus hufiedfbs pÿcleijs, pdarê tjmceåf pbrsdfjrsb bf lj ijusj lj Jamefestrjieùf ldijl bf iuyd tbrretdred sb gucebrb idmbtead bl gbigd pufeclb.

B. Abfufiej j. Idfibptd Jitd ab abiljrjieùf pdr bl qub ufj pbrsdfj idmufeij j lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl, jl Mefestbred Hesijl, j lj [dleiíj d j ùr`jfd idmpbtbftb pjrj rbiecerlj, bl idfdiemebftd aerbitd ab uf gbigd qub rbvestb lds ijrjitbrbs ab abletd. Lj abfufiej pdr sí mesmj fd empleij lj pbrsdfjieùf abl abfufiejftb bf bl prdibsd pbfjl, fe sequebrj lj efidjieùf abl mesmd, abceåfadsb aehbrbfiejr j prdpùsetd ab lj mesmj su adclb idfhe`urjieùf idmd abrbigd y idmd abcbr pÿcleid.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

80

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Jtbfieùf

c. Dcle`jieùf ab abfufiejr 

Bl qub prbsbfiejrb lj pbrpbtrjieùf ab iujlquebr abletd pÿcleid bstê dcle`jad j pdfbrld efmbaejtjmbftb bf idfdiemebftd abl Oubz ab efstruiieùf, ab pjz, d hufiedfjred hesijl mês prùxemd jl seted bf qub sb gjlljrb, cjod lj multj ab ;,:2 j :,2; burds.

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J lds lds qub prbsbfiebf lj pbrpbtrjieùf ab iujlquebr abletd pÿcleid (bx. jrt. 325 LBIre)

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J lds qub pdr rjzùf ab su ijr`d, prdhbseùf prdhbseùf u dheied tuvebrbf tuvebrbf fdteiej ab jl`ÿf abletd pÿcleid, cjod lj multj ab 32 j 32; ptjs. (gdy ;,:2 j :,2; burds). Ye lj dmeseùf bf ajr pjrtb hubrb ab uf [rdhbsdr bf Mbaeiefj, Ieru`íj d Hjrmjiej y tuvebsb rbljieùf idf bl bobrieied ab sus jiteveajabs prdhbsedfjlbs, lj multj fd pdarê sbr efhbredr j :32 pbsbtjs fe supbredr j 32; ptjs. (gdy fd pdarê sbr efhbredr j ;,02 burds, fe supbredr j :,2;). Ye bl qub gucebsb efiurread bf lj dmeseùf hubrb bmplbjad pÿcleid, sb pdfarê jabmês bf idfdiemebftd ab su supbredr efmbaejtd pjrj lds bhbitds j qub gucebrb lu`jr bf bl drabf jamefestrjtevd (jrt. 383 LBIre)

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J lds qub pdr iujlquebr iujlquebr dtrd mdad aehbrbftb j ld ld mbfiedfjads tuvebrb idfdiemebftd aerbitd ab jl`ÿf abletd ab lds qub abcbf pbrsb`uersb ab dheied, sef qub sb bftebfaj dcle`jad pdr bstd j prdcjr lds gbigds abfufiejads fe j hdrmjlezjr qubrbllj. Bl abfufiejadr fd idftrjbrê bf fef`ÿf ijsd dtrj rbspdfsjceleaja qub lj idrrbspdfaebftb j lds abletds qub gucebsb idmbtead pdr mbaed ab lj abfufiej, d idf su dijseùf. (jrt. 381 LBIre)

Yb empdfb?

Bstjclbieåfadsb ljs se`uebftbs bxibpiedfbs jl abcbr ab abfufiejr absab lj bxe`bfiej idfstetuiedfjl abl pêrrjhd 3¿ abl jrt. 31.3 IB? -

Jcsdlutj? Idrrbspdfab j lds empÿcbrbs y j lds qub qub fd `dibf ab plbfd usd ab su rjzùf (jrt. 38; LBIre)

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Sbljtevjs? Ljs qub qub sb abtbrmefjf pdr rjzùf rjzùf ab pjrbftbsid bf bl jrt. 38: LBIre? :.¿ Bl iùfyu`b abl ablefiubftb fd sbpjrjad lb`jlmbftb d ab gbigd d lj pbrsdfj qub idfvevj idf ål bf jfêld`j rbljieùf ab jhbiteveaja. 3.¿ Lds jsibfaebftbs y absibfaebftbs abl ablefiubftb y sus pjrebftbs idljtbrjlbs gjstj bl 3¿ `rjad efilusevb.

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[dr sbirbtd prdhbsedfjl (jrt. 389 LBIre)

Lj dcle`jieùf empubstj bf bl pêrrjhd prembrd abl jrtíiuld jftbredr fd idmprbfabrê j lds Jcd`jads fe j lds [rdiurjadrbs rbspbitd ab ljs efstruiiedfbs d bxpleijiedfbs qub rbiecebrbf ab sus ilebftbs. Qjmpdid idmprbfabrê j lds bilbseêsteids y mefestrds ab iultds aeseabftbs rbspbitd ab ljs fdteiejs qub sb lbs gucebrbf rbvbljad bf bl bobrieied ab ljs hufiedfbs ab su mefestbred.

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baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

i. Hdrmj ab lj abfufiej Ljs abfufiejs pdarêf gjibrsb pdr bsiretd d ab pjljcrj, pbrsdfjlmbftb d pdr mbaed ab mjfajtjred idf pdabr bspbiejl. Lj abfufiej qub sb geiebrb pdr bsiretd abcbrê bstjr hermjaj pdr bl abfufiejadr> y se fd puaebrb gjibrld, pdr dtrj pbrsdfj j su rub`d. Lj jutdreaja d hufiedfjred qub lj rbiecebrb rucreijrê y sblljrê tdajs ljs gdojs j prbsbfiej abl qub lj prbsbftjrb, quebf pdarê tjmceåf rucreijrlj pdr sí d pdr mbaed ab dtrj pbrsdfj j su rub`d. Iujfad lj abfufiej sbj vbrcjl, sb bxtbfabrê uf jitj pdr lj jutdreaja d hufiedfjred qub lj rbiecebrb, bf lj qub, bf hdrmj ab abiljrjieùf, sb bxprbsjrêf iujftjs fdteiejs tbf`j bl abfufiejftb rbljtevjs jl gbigd abfufiejad y j sus ieriufstjfiejs, hermêfadlj jmcds j idftefujieùf. Ye bl abfufiejftb fd puaebrb hermjr, ld gjrê dtrj pbrsdfj j su rub`d. Bl Oubz, Qrecufjl, Jutdreaja d hufiedfjred qub rbiecebrbf ufj abfufiej vbrcjl d bsiretj gjrêf idfstjr pdr lj iåaulj pbrsdfjl, d pdr dtrds mbaeds qub rbputbf suheiebftbs, lj eabfteaja ab lj pbrsdfj abl abfufiejadr. Ye bstb ld bxe`ebrb, lb ajrêf uf rbs`ujrad ab gjcbr hdrmjlezjad lj abfufiej.

HDSMJ AB LJ ABFRFIEJ Abfufiej pdr bsiretd Hermjaj pdr bl abfufiejadr d pdr dtrj pbrsdfj j su rub`d Lj jutdreaja d hufiedfjred rucreij y sbllj tdajs ljs gdojs

Abfufiej vbrcjl Yb bxtebfab uf jitj pdr lj jutdreaja d hufiedfjred qub lj rbiecb Bl jitj bs rmjaj pdr lj jutdreaja d hufiedfjred hufiedfjred y bl abfuf abfuf iejftb

a. Bhbitds Hdrmjlezjaj qub sbj lj abfufiej, sb prdibabrê d mjfajrê prdibabr efmbaejtjmbftb pdr bl Oubz d hufiedfjred j quebf sb geiebsb j lj idmprdcjieùf abl gbigd abfufiejad, sjlvd qub bstb fd rbvestebrb ijrêitbr ab abletd, d qub lj abfufiej hubrb mjfehebstjmbftb hjlsj. Bf iujlquebrj ab bstds ads ijsds, bl Qrecufjl d hufiedfjred sb jcstbfarêf ab tdad prdibaemebftd, sef pbroueied ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja bf qub efiurrjf se absbstemjsbf jqubllj efabceajmbftb (jrtíiuld 385 LBIre) Ijcbf pubs ads supubstds? -

Zub sbj jameteaj ajfad lu`jr j lj idmprdcjieùf abl gbigd abfufiejad abfufiejad

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Zub sbj efjameteaj pdr fd rbvbster bl gbigd abfufiejad ijrêitbr ijrêitbr ab abletd, abletd, d pdr sbr mjfehebstjmbftb hjlsj.

H. Lj qubrbllj j. Idfibptd Abiljrjieùf ab vdluftja aere`eaj jl ùr`jfd ouresaeiiedfjl idmpbtbftb, pdr lj qub jabmês ab pdfbr bf su idfdiemebftd lj fdtetej iremefes, sb bobrietj lj jiieùf pbfjl, ld qub abtbrmefj lj efidjieùf abl prdibsd pbfjl y lj pbrsdfjieùf bf ål idmd pjrtb, d sdld bstd ÿltemd se bstuvebrb yj efidjad. baetdrejl    }         ibp

85

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

c. Lb`etemjieùf Qdads lds ieuajajfds bspjúdlbs, gjyjf sead d fd dhbfaeads pdr bl abletd, pubabf qubrblljrsb, bobrietjfad lj jiieùf pdpuljr. Qjmceåf pubabf qubrblljrsb lds bxtrjfobrds pdr lds abletds idmbteads idftrj sus pbrsdfjs d cebfbs, d ljs pbrsdfjs d cebfbs ab sus rbprbsbftjads. Lds hufiedfjreds abl Mefestbred Hesijl bobrietjrêf tjmceåf, bf hdrmj ab qubrbllj, ljs jiiedfbs pbfjlbs bf lds ijsds bf qub bstuvebrbf dcle`jads.

i. Ijpjieaja Se`bf ljs rb`ljs `bfbrjlbs bf mjtbrej ab ijpjieaja pjrj idmpjrbibr bf oueied, pbrd sb bstjclbibf fd dcstjftb pdr lj LBIre ufj sbreb ab prdgeceiedfbs tjftd jcsdlutjs idmd rbljtevjs qub empeabf bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl, y bf idfsbiubfiej lj eftbrpdseieùf ab qubrbllj, bf lds tårmefds ab lds jrts. :;3 y :;9 qub gbmds tbfead yj dijseùf ab jfjlezjr j prdpùsetd abl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pdpuljr.

a. Eftbrpdseieùf Lj qubrbllj sb eftbrpdfarê jftb bl Oubz ab efstruiieùf idmpbtbftb. Ye bl qubrblljad bstuvebsb sdmbtead, pdr aespdseieùf bspbiejl ab lj Lby, j abtbrmefjad Qrecufjl, jftb bstb sb eftbrpdfarê lj qubrbllj. Ld mesmd sb gjrê iujfad hubrbf vjreds lds qubrblljads pdr uf mesmd abletd d pdr ads d mês idfbxds, y jl`ufd ab jqubllds bstuvebsb sdmbtead bxibpiedfjlmbftb j uf Qrecufjl qub fd hubrb bl lljmjad j idfdibr pdr rb`lj `bfbrjl abl abletd. Bf lds ijsds jftbredrbs, iujfad sb trjtb ab uf abletd «ef hrj`jfte¾ d ab lds qub fd abojf sbújlbs pbrmjfbftbs ab su pbrpbtrjieùf, d bf qub hubrb ab tbmbr hufajajmbftb lj diultjieùf d hu`j abl prbsuftd iulpjclb, bl pjrteiuljr qub eftbftjrb qubrblljrsb abl abletd pdarê jiuaer absab lub`d jl Oubz ab efstruiieùf d mufeiepjl qub bstuvebrb mês prùxemd, d j iujlquebr hufiedfjred ab pdleiíj, j hef ab qub sb prjitequbf ljs prembrjs aele`bfiejs fbibsjrejs pjrj gjibr idfstjr lj vbraja ab lds gbigds y pjrj abtbfbr jl ablefiubftb. Bl pjrteiuljr qubrblljftb, iujlquebrj qub sbj su hubrd, qubajrê sdmbtead, pjrj tdads lds bhbitds abl  oueied pdr ål prdmdvead, jl Oubz ab efstruiieùf d Qrecufjl idmpbtbftb pjrj idfdibr abl abletd abletd dcobtd ab lj qubrbllj. [brd pdarê jpjrtjrsb ab lj qubrbllj bf iujlquebr tebmpd, qubajfad, sef bmcjr`d, suobtd j ljs rbspdfsj celeajabs qub puaebrjf rbsultjrlb pdr sus jitds jftbredrbs. Ye lj qubrbllj hubsb pdr abletd qub fd pubaj sbr pbrsb`uead sefd j efstjfiej ab pjrtb, sb bftbfabrê jcjfadfjaj pdr bl qub lj gucebrb eftbrpubstd iujfad abojsb ab efstjr bl prdibaemebftd abftrd ab lds aebz aíjs se`uebftbs j lj fdteheijieùf fdt eheijieùf abl jutd bf qub bl Oubz d bl Qrecufjl jsí ld gucebsb jidrajad. Jl bhbitd, j lds aebz aíjs ab gjcbrsb prjiteijad ljs ÿltemjs aele`bfiejs pbaeajs pdr bl qubrblljftb, d ab bstjr pjrjlezjaj lj ijusj pdr hjltj ab efstjfiej abl mesmd, mjfajrê ab dheied bl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub idfdiebrb ab lds jutds qub jqubl peaj ld qub idfvbf`j j su abrbigd bf bl tårmefd heojad bf bl pêrrjhd jftbredr. Yb tbfarê tjmceåf pdr jcjfadfjaj lj qubrbllj iujfad pdr mubrtb d pdr gjcbrsb efijpjietjad bl qubrblljftb pjrj idftefujr lj jiieùf, fd idmpjrbiebrb fef`ufd ab sus gbrbabrds d rbprbsbftjftbs lb`jlbs j sdstbfbrlj abftrd ab lds trbeftj aíjs se`uebftbs j lj ietjieùf qub jl bhbitd sb lbs gjrê, aêfadlbs idfdiemebftd ab lj qubrbllj.

0;

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

b. Sbquesetds Yb`ÿf aespdfb bl jrtíiuld 330 LBIre, lj qubrbllj sb prbsbftjrê sebmprb pdr mbaed ab [rdiurjadr idf pdabr cjstjftb y susiretj pdr Lbtrjad. Yb bxtbfabrê bf pjpbl (ab dheied), y bf bllj sb s b bxprbsjrê? :.¿ Bl Oubz d Qrecufjl jftb quebf sb prbsbftb. 3.¿ Bl fdmcrb, jpblleads y vbiefaja abl qubrblljftb. 9.¿ Bl fdmcrb, jpblleads y vbiefaja abl qubrblljad. Bf bl ijsd ab e`fdrjrsb bstjs ieriufstjfiejs, sb abcbrê gjibr gjibr lj abse`fjieùf abl qubrblljad pdr ljs sbújs qub mbodr puaebrjf ajrlb j idfdibr. 1.¿ Lj rbljieùf ieriufstjfiejaj abl gbigd, idf bxprbseùf abl lu`jr, júd, mbs, aíj y gdrj bf qub sb bobiutb, se sb supebrbf. 2.¿ Bxprbseùf ab ljs aele`bfiejs qub sb abcbrêf prjiteijr pjrj lj idmprdcjieùf abl gbigd. 8.¿ Lj pbteieùf ab qub sb jametj lj qubrbllj, sb prjitequbf ljs aele`bfiejs efaeijajs bf bl fÿmbrd jftbredr, sb prdibaj j lj abtbfieùf y preseùf abl prbsuftd iulpjclb d j bxe`erlb lj hejfzj ab lecbrtja prdvesedfjl, y sb jiubrab bl bmcjr`d ab sus cebfbs bf lj ijfteaja fbibsjrej bf lds ijsds bf qub jsí prdibaj. 0.¿ Lj hermj abl qubrblljftb d lj ab dtrj pbrsdfj j su rub`d se fd supebrb d fd puaebrb hermjr, iujfad bl [rdiurjadr fd tuvebrb pdabr bspbiejl pjrj hdrmuljr hdr muljr lj qubrbllj.

IDFQBFEAD AB LJ ZRBSBLLJ - Oubz d Qrecufjl Qrecufjl jftb quebf sb prbsbftb - Fdmcrb, jpblleads y vbiefaja vbiefaja abl qubrblljftb - Fdmcrb, jpblleads y vbiefaja vbiefaja abl qubrblljad - Sbljieùf ieriufstjfieja ieriufstjfiejaj j abl gbigd - Bxprbseùf ab ab ljs aele`bfiejs aele`bfiejs qub sb abcbrêf prjiteijr pjrj lj lj idmprdcjieùf idmprdcjieùf abl gbigd - [bteieùf ab qub sb jametj jametj lj qubrbllj, sb prjitequbf ljs aele`bfiejs aele`bfiejs efaeijajs efaeijajs bf bl fÿmbrd jftbredr, sb prdibaj j lj abtbfieùf y preseùf abl prbsuftd iulpjclb d j bxe`erlb lj jfzj ab lecbrtja prdvesedfjl, y sb jiubrab bl bmcjr`d ab sus cebfbs bf lj ijfteaja fbibsjrej bf lds ijsds bf qub jsí prdibaj - Hermj abl qubrblljftb

Ye lj qubrbllj tuvebrb pdr dcobtd jl`ÿf abletd ab lds qub sdljmbftb pubabf pbrsb`uersb j efstjfiej ab pjrtb, bxibptd bl ab vedljieùf d rjptd, jidmpjújrê tjmceåf lj ibrteheijieùf qub jirbaetb gjcbrsb iblb crjad d eftbftjad bl jitd ab idfielejieùf bftrb qubrblljftb y qubrblljad. qubrblljad. [darêf, sef bmcjr`d, prjiteijrsb sef bstb rbquesetd ljs aele`bfiejs ab ijrêitbr ur`bftb pjrj lj idmprd cjieùf ab lds gbigds d pjrj lj abtbfieùf abl ablefiubftb, suspbfaebfad abspuås bl iursd ab a b lds jutds gjstj qub sb jirbaetb bl iumplemebftd ab ld aespubstd bf bl pêrrjhd jftbredr. Bf lds abletds ab ijlumfej d efourej ijusjajs bf oueied sb prbsbftjrê jabmês lj leibfiej abl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub gucebsb idfdiead ab jqubl, idf jrrb`ld j ld aespubstd bf bl Iùae`d [bfjl.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

0:

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Bl pjrteiuljr qubrblljftb prbstjrê hejfzj ab lj iljsb y bf lj iujftíj qub heojrb bl Oubz d Qrecufjl pjrj rbspdfabr ab ljs rbsultjs abl oueied. Zubajf bxbftds ab iumpler ld aespubstd jftbredrmbftb? :.¿ Bl dhbfaead y sus gbrbabrds d rbprbsbftjftbs lb`jlbs. 3.¿ Bf lds abletds ab jsbsefjtd d ab gdmeieaed, gdm eieaed, bl iùfyu`b abl aehuftd d pbrsdfj vefiuljaj j ål pdr ufj jfêld`j rbljieùf ab jhbiteveaja, lds jsibfaebftbs y absibfaebftbs y sus pjrebftbs idljtbrjlbs gjstj bl sb`ufad `rjad efilusevb, lds gbrbabrds ab lj víitemj y lds pjarbs, mjarbs b geods abl ablefiubftb 9.¿ Ljs jsdiejiedfbs ab víitemjs y ljs pbrsdfjs ouríaeijs j ljs qub lj lby rbidfdib lb`etemjieùf pjrj abhbfabr lds abrbigds ab ljs víitemjs sebmprb qub bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl gucebrj sead bxprbsjmbftb jutdrezjad pdr lj prdpej víitemj. Lj bxbfieùf ab hejfzj fd bs jpleijclb j lds bxtrjfobrds se fd lbs idrrbspdfaebrb bf vertua ab trjtjads eftbrfjiedfjlbs d pdr bl prefieped ab rbieprdieaja.

h. Bhbitds ab lj qubrbllj Bl oubz pdarê? -

Jameterlj, ld qub qub sb ajrê lu`jr j lj efidjieùf abl prdibsd se fd ld bstuvebrb bstuvebrb yj y sb tbfarê jl qubrbqubrblljftb pdr pbrsdfjad bf lj ijusj.

-

Efjameterlj bf bf lds tårmefds abl jrtíiuld jrtíiuld 9:9 LBIre? Absbstemjrê bf lj mesmj hdrmj lj qubrbllj qubrbllj iujfad lds gbigds bf qub sb hufab fd idfstetuyjf abletd, d iujfad fd sb idfseabrb idmpbtbftb pjrj efstruer bl sumjred dcobtd ab lj mesmj. Idftrj bl jutd j qub sb rbhebrb bstb jrtíiuld prdibabrê bl rbiursd ab jpbljieùf, qub sbrê jameseclb bf jmcds jmcd s bhbitds.

Lj bxbfieùf ab hejfzj fd bs jpleijclb j lds bxtrjfobrds se fd lbs idrrbspdfaebrb bf vertua ab trjtjads eftbrfjiedfjlbs d pdr bl prefieped ab rbieprdieaja. Iujfad sb prbsbftjrb qubrbllj, bl Oubz ab Efstruiieùf, abspuås ab jameterlj se hubrb prdibabftb, mjfajrê prjiteijr ljs aele`bfiejs qub bf bllj sb prdpusebrbf, sjlvd ljs qub idfseabrb idftrjrejs j ljs lbybs, d effbibsjrejs d pbrouaeiejlbs pjrj bl dcobtd ab lj qubrbllj, ljs iujlbs abfb`jrê bf rbsdluieùf mdtevjaj. Absbstemjrê bf lj mesmj hdrmj lj qubrbllj iujfad lds gbigds bf qub sb hufab fd idfstetuyjf abletd, d iujfad fd sb idfseabrb idmpbtbftb pjrj efstruer bl sumjred dcobtd ab lj mesmj. Idftrj bl jutd absbstemjtdred prdibabrê bl rbiursd ab jpbljieùf, qub sbrê jameseclb bf jmcds bhbitds.

@. Jtbstjad Lds hufiedfjreds ab [dleiíj ouaeiejl bxtbfabrêf, cebf bf pjpbl sblljad, cebf bf pjpbl idmÿf, uf jtbstjad ab ljs aele`bfiejs qub prjitequbf, bf bl iujl bspbieheijrêf idf lj mjydr bxjitetua lds gbigds pdr bllds jvbre`ujads, efsbrtjfad ljs abiljrjiedfbs b efhdrmbs rbieceads y jfdtjfad tdajs ljs ieriufstjfiejs qub gucebsbf dcsbrvjad y puaebsbf sbr prubcj d efaeied abl abletd. Lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl rbmeterê idf bl jtbstjad uf efhdrmb ajfad iubftj ab ljs abtbfiedfbs jftbredrbs y ab lj bxestbfiej ab rbquesetdrejs pjrj su lljmjmebftd y cusij iujfad jsí idfstb bf sus cjsbs ab ajtds. Ljs pbrsdfjs prbsbftbs, pbretds y tbste`ds qub gucebrbf eftbrvbfead bf ljs aele`bfiejs rbljiedfjajs bf bl jtbstjad, sbrêf efvetjajs j hermjrld bf lj pjrtb j bllds rbhbrbftb. Ye fd ld geiebrbf, sb bxprbsjrê lj rjzùf. Ye fd puaebrb rbajitjr bl jtbstjad bl hufiedfjred j quebf idrrbspdfaebsb gjibrld, sb sustetuerê pdr ufj rbljieùf vbrcjl ieriufstjfiejaj, qub rbauierê j bsiretd ab uf mdad hbgjiebftb bl hufiedfjred abl Mefes-

03

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

tbred Hesijl, bl Oubz ab efstruiieùf d bl mufeiepjl j quebf abcj prbsbftjrsb bl jtbstjad, mjfehbstêfadsb bl mdtevd ab fd gjcbrsb rbajitjad bf lj hdrmj draefjrej. Bf fef`ÿf ijsd lds hufiedfjreds ab [dleiíj Ouaeiejl pdarêf abojr trjfsiurrer mês ab 31 gdrjs sef ajr idfdiemebftd j lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl d jl Mefestbred Hesijl ab ljs aele`bfiejs qub gucebrjf prjiteijad, sjlvd bf lds supubstds ab hubrzj mjydr y bf bl prbvestd bf bl jpjrtjad 3 abl jrtíiuld 371 LBIre (se gucebrjf rbid`ead jrmjs, efstrumbftds d bhbitds ab iujlquebr iljsb qub puaebrjf tbfbr rbljieùf idf bl abletd y sb gjllbf bf bl lu`jr bf qub bstb sb idmbteù d bf sus efmbaejiedfbs, d bf pdabr abl rbd d bf dtrj pjrtb idfdieaj, bxtbfabrêf aele`bfiej bxprbsevj abl lu`jr, tebmpd y dijseùf bf qub sb bfidftrjrbf, qub efiluerê ufj absirepieùf mefuiedsj pjrj qub sb pubaj hdrmjr eabj ijcjl ab lds mesmds y ab ljs ieriufstjfiejs ab su gjlljz`d, qub pdarê sbr sustetueaj pdr uf rbpdrtjob `rêheid. Lj aele`bfiej sbrê hermjaj pdr lj pbrsdfj bf iuyd pdabr hubrbf gjlljads). Lds qub efhrefojf bstj aespdseieùf sbrêf idrrb`eads aesieplefjrejmbftb idf multj ab :,2; j 8,;: burds, se lj dmeseùf fd mbrbiebrb lj ijleheijieùf ab abletd, y jl prdped tebmpd sbrê idfseabrjaj aeigj efhrjiieùf idmd hjltj `rjvb lj prembrj vbz y idmd hjltj muy `rjvb ljs se`uebftbs.

Jtbfieùf Bl jtbstjad sbrê hermjad pdr bl qub sb ld gjyj bxtbfaead, y se usjrb sblld ld bstjmpjrê idf su rÿcreij bf tdajs ljs gdojs.

Lds qub, sef bxibabr bl tebmpd ab ljs vbefteiujtrd gdrjs, abmdrjsbf mês ab ld fbibsjred bl ajr idfdiemebftd, sbrêf idrrb`eads aesieplefjrejmbftb idf ufj multj ab ;,8; j 3,:; burds, y jabmês, bstj efhrjiieùf idfstetuerê j bhbitds abl bxpbaebftb pbrsdfjl abl eftbrbsjad, hjltj lbvb lj prembrj vbz, `rjvb ljs ads se`uebftbs y muy `rjvbs ljs rbstjftbs. Iujfad gucebrbf prjiteijad aele`bfiejs pdr drabf d rbqubremebftd ab lj Jutdreaja ouaeiejl d abl Mefestbred Hesijl, idmufeijrêf bl rbsultjad dctbfead bf lds pljzds qub bf lj drabf d bf bl rbqubremebftd sb gucebsbf heojad. Lds jtbstjads qub rbajitjrbf y ljs mjfehbstjiedfbs qub geiebrbf lds hufiedfjreds ab [dleiíj ouaeiejl, j idfsbiubfiej ab ljs jvbre`ujiedfbs qub gucebsbf prjiteijad, sb idfseabrjrêf abfufiejs pjrj lds bhbitds lb`jlbs. Ljs abmês abiljrjiedfbs qub prbstjrbf abcbrêf sbr hermjajs, tbfarêf bl vjldr ab abiljrjiedfbs tbsteheijlbs bf iujftd sb rbhebrjf j gbigds ab idfdiemebftd prdped. Bf tdad ijsd, lds hufiedfjreds ab [dleiíj ouaeiejl bstêf dcle`jads j dcsbrvjr bstreitjmbftb ljs hdrmjleajabs lb`jlbs bf iujftjs aele`bfiejs prjitequbf, y sb jcstbfarêf cjod su rbspdfsjceleaja ab usjr mbaeds ab jvbre`ujieùf qub lj Lby fd jutdreib.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

09

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

3.

BWQEFIEÙF AB LJ JIIEÙF [BFJL? BY[BIEJL SBHBSBFIEJ J LJ SBFRFIEJ

3.: Ijusjs ab bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf pbfjl Yb`ÿf bl jrtíiuld ::2 ab lj LBIre, lj jiieùf pbfjl sb bxtef`ub pdr lj mubrtb abl iulpjclb> pbrd bf bstb ijsd sucsestb lj ievel idftrj sus gbrbabrds y ijusjgjcebftbs, qub sdld pdarê bobrietjrsb jftb lj ouresaeiieùf y pdr lj víj ab ld ievel. Lj jiieùf pbfjl bs rbfufiejclb pdr bl dhbfaead pdr bl gbigd pufeclb, sebmprb qub gjyj sead bobrieaj. Gjcrê qub aestef`uer sb`ÿf sb trjtb ab abletds prevjads d pÿcleids? j) Bf bl ijsd ab lds abletds prevjads, idmd sdf lds abletds abletds ab efourejs y ijlumfejs, bl abletd sdld pubab sbr pbrsb`uead j efstjfiej ab pjrtb. Bf bstds ijsds lj rbfufiej ab lj jiieùf pbfjl prdauib lj bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf. Yb jijcj bl prdibaemebftd sef fbibseaja qub sb aeitb sbftbfiej. s bftbfiej.  c) Bf lds abletds pÿcleids pbrsb`ueclbs pbrsb`ueclbs ab dheied, fd sb bxtef`ub lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr sbr pÿcleij> bl dhbfaead fd bs bl ÿfeid aubúd ab lj jiieùf y bl abrbigd ab ijste`jr idrrbspdfab jl Bstjad, j trjvås abl Mefestbred Hesijl. Bl Mefestbred Hesijl bstê dcle`jad j bobrietjrlj, fd puaebfad sbr rbfufiejaj pdr ål. Lub`d ab rbfufiejaj lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr bl dhbfaead, bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf idftefujrê j efstjfiej abl Hesijl. Bl jrtíiuld ::3 ab lj LBIre bstjclbib qub, bobrietjaj sdld lj jiieùf pbfjl, sb bftbfabrê utelezjaj tjmceåf lj ievel, j fd sbr qub bl ajújad d pbrouaeijad lj rbfufiejsb d lj rbsbrvjsb bxprbsjmbftb pjrj bobrietjrlj abspuås ab tbrmefjad bl oueied iremefjl, se j blld gucebrb lu`jr. Ye sb bobrietjsb sdld lj ievel qub fjib ab uf abletd ab lds qub fd pubabf pbrsb`uersb sefd bf vertua ab qubrbllj pjrteiuljr, sb idfseabrjrê bxtef`ueaj absab lub`d lj jiieùf pbfjl.

J. Lj mubrtb mubrtb abl iulpjclb (jrt. ::2 LBIre)

 Mubrtb abl rbd rbd

Lj jiieùf pbfjl sb bxtef`ub pdr lj mubrtb abl iulpjclb> pbrd bf bstb ijsd sucsestb lj ievel idftrj sus gbrbabrds y ijusjgjcebftbs, qub sdld pdarê bobrietjrsb jftb lj ouresaeiieùf y pdr lj víj ab ld ievel.

C. Lj sbftbfiej hermb (jrt. ::8 LBIre) LBIre) Lj bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf pbfjl fd llbvj idfse`d lj ab lj ievel, j fd sbr qub lj bxtefieùf prdibaj ab gjcbrsb abiljrjad pdr sbftbfiej hermb qub fd bxesteù bl gbigd ab qub lj ievel gucebsb pdaead fjibr.

01

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Bf lds abmês ijsds, lj pbrsdfj j quebf idrrbspdfaj lj jiieùf ievel pdarê bobrietjrlj, jftb lj ouresaeiieùf y pdr lj víj ab ld ievel qub prdibaj, idftrj quebf bstuvebrb dcle`jad j lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd d efabmfezjieùf abl pbroueied suhread.

I. Bl pbraùf abl dhbfaead (jrt. :9;.:, 2¿ I[) Lj rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl sb bxtef`ub pdr bl pbraùf abl dhbfaead, iujfad sb trjtb ab abletds lbvbs pbrsb`ueclbs j efstjfiejs abl j`rjvejad d lj lby jsí ld prbvbj. Bl pbraùf gjcrê ab sbr dtdr`jad ab hdrmj bxprbsj jftbs ab qub sb gjyj aeitjad sbftbfiej, j iuyd bhbitd bl oubz d trecufjl sbftbfiejadr abcbrê dír jl dhbfaead pdr bl abletd jftbs ab aeitjrlj. Bf lds abletds idftrj mbfdrbs d pbrsdfjs idf aesijpjieaja fbibsetjajs ab bspbiejl prdtbiieùf, lds  oubibs d trecufjlbs, díad bl Mefestbred Hesijl, pdarêf rbigjzjr lj bheijiej abl pbraùf dtdr`jad dtd r`jad pdr lds rbprbsbftjftbs ab jqubllds, drabfjfad lj idftefujieùf abl prdibaemebftd, idf eftbrvbfieùf abl Mefestbred Hesijl, d bl iumplemebftd ab lj idfabfj. [jrj rbigjzjr bl pbraùf j qub sb rbhebrb r bhebrb bl pêrrjhd jftbredr, bl oubz d trecufjl abcbrê dír fubvjmbftb jl rbprbsbftjftb abl mbfdr d pbrsdfj idf aesijpjieaja fbibsetjaj ab bspbiejl prdtbiieùf.

3.3 Bspbiejl rbhbrbfiej lj rbfufiej Sbspbitd ab bstj abcbmds aehbrbfiejr? -

Abletds pÿcleids? Fd sb jametb bf lds tårmefds tårmefds abl jrtíiuld jrtíiuld :;8. pêrrh. pêrrh. :¿ LBIre, lj jiieùf pbfjl pdr abletd qub aå lu`jr jl prdibaemebftd ab dheied fd sb bxtef`ub pdr lj rbfufiej ab lj pbrsdfj dhbfaeaj. Ld qub sb bxpleij absab bl gbigd ab qub bl dhbfaead fd pubab pubab rbfufiejr ufj jiieùf qub fd bs suyj sefd abl Bstjad j trjvås abl bobrieied ab su eus pufebfae.

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9.

Abletds prevjads? Ye cebf bf bstds ijsds, lj tetuljreaja ab lj jiieùf tjmpdid bs prevjaj, sí qub sb idfaeiedfj su aespdfeceleaja j lj vdluftja abl pbrouaeijad, ab subrtb qub sdld ål pubab abieaer bobrietjr lj jiieùf pbfjl y pubab bf idfsbiubfiej rbfufiejrlj bf lds tårmefds abl jrtíiuld :;8, pêrrh. 3¿ LBIre qub abtbrmefj qub sb bxtef`ubf pdr bstj ijusj ljs jiiedfbs pbfjlbs qub fjibf ab abletd qub fd pubajf sbr pbrsb`ueads sefd j efstjfiej ab pjrtb.

BL BOBSIEIED AB LJ JIIEÙF IEXEL? BL JIQDS IEXEL

9.: Lj jiieùf ievel bx ableitd J. Fjturjlbzj ouríaeij Idmd gbmds tbfead dijseùf ab sbújljr yj, lj idmeseùf ab uf gbigd ableitevd pubab tbfbr idmd idfsbiubfiej, jabmês ab lj empdseieùf ab pbfj y mbaeaj ab sb`ureaja idmd idfsbiubfiej abl eus pufebfae abl Bstjad, lj bxe`bfiej ab rbspdfsjceleaja ievel bx ableitd. Bstj bxe`bfiej sb gjrê bhbitevj bf su ijsd j trjvås abl bobrieied ab lj idrrbspdfaebftb jiieùf ievel bf bl prdibsd pbfjl, jiieùf qub bfiubftrj su hufajmbftd bf lds se`uebftbs jrtíiulds? -

Jrtíiuld :;53 II? Ljs dcle`jiedfbs ievelbs qub fjzijf ab lds abletds sb rb`erêf pdr ljs ljs aespdseiedfbs abl I[.

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Jrtíiuld :;5 I[? I[? Lj bobiuieùf bobiuieùf ab uf gbigd absiretd pdr lj lj lby idmd abletd abletd dcle`j j rbpjrjr, bf lds lds tårmefds prbvestds bf ljs lbybs, lds ajúds y pbroueieds pdr ål ijusjads.

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Bl pbrouaeijad pdarê dptjr, bf tdad ijsd, pdr bxe`er lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel jftb lj Ouresaeiieùf Ievel.

C. Sb`uljieùf y idftbfead j. Sbidfdiemebftd Ab tdad abletd fjib jiieùf pbfjl pjrj bl ijste`d abl iulpjclb, y pubab fjibr tjmceåf jiieùf ievel pjrj lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, lj rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd y lj efabmfezjieùf ab pbroueieds ijusjads pdr bl gbigd pufeclb (jrtíiuld :;; LBIre) Ljs jiiedfbs qub fjibf ab uf abletd pdarêf bobrietjrsb ouftj d sbpjrjajmbftb> pbrd mebftrjs bstuvebsb pbfaebftb lj jiieùf pbfjl fd sb bobrietjrê lj ievel idf sbpjrjieùf gjstj qub jqubllj gjyj sead rbsubltj bf sbftbfiej hermb, sjlvd sebmprb ld aespubstd bf lds jrts. 1.¿, 2.¿ y 8.¿ ab bstb Iùae`d (pjrj ljs iubstedfbs prbouaeiejlbs) (jrtíiuld ::: LBIre).

c. Idftbfead? Bobrieied ab lj jiieùf Ydcrb lj cjsb ab ld jftbredr, lj LBIre bstjclbib prdpùsetd ab lj rbsbrvj ab lj jiieùf ievel ufj sbreb ab prefiepeds jpleijclbs j lj rbljieùf bftrb lj jiieùf ievel y pbfjl pdr lj pdseclb vefiuljieùf ab lds prdfufiejmebftds bf uf prdibsd rbspbitd abl dtrd, bf lds jrts. ::3 y ss. Jsí? -

Bobrietjaj sdld lj jiieùf pbfjl, sb bftbfabrê utelezjaj utelezjaj tjmceåf lj ievel, j fd sbr qub bl ajújad d pbrouaeijad lj rbfufiejsb d lj rbsbrvjsb bxprbsjmbftb pjrj bobrietjrlj abspuås ab tbrmefjad bl  oueied iremefjl, se j blld blld gucebrb lu`jr. Ye sb bobrietjsb sdld lj ievel qub fjib ab uf abletd ab lds qub fd pubabf pbrsb`uersb sefd bf vertua ab qubrbllj pjrteiuljr, sb idfseabrjrê bxtef`ueaj absab lub`d lj jiieùf pbfjl (jrtíiuld ::3 LBIre).

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[darêf bobrietjrsb bxprbsjmbftb ljs ads jiiedfbs pdr ufj mesmj pbrsdfj d pdr vjrejs> pbrd sebmprb sebmprb qub sbjf ads d mês ljs pbrsdfjs pdr quebfbs sb uteleibf ljs jiiedfbs abrevjajs ab uf abletd ld vbreheijrêf bf uf sdld prdibsd y, se hubrb pdseclb, cjod ufj mesmj aerbiieùf y rbprbsbftjieùf, j oueied abl Qrecufjl (jrtíiuld ::9 LBIre).

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[rdmdvead oueied iremefjl bf jvbre`ujieùf ab uf abletd, fd pdarê sb`uersb plbetd plbetd sdcrb bl bl mesmd gbigd> suspbfaeåfadlb, se lb gucebsb, bf bl bstjad bf qub sb gjlljrb, gjstj qub rbije`j sbftbfiej hermb bf lj ijusj iremefjl. Fd sbrê fbibsjred pjrj bl bobrieied bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl qub qub gjyj prbibaead bl ab lj ievel dre`efjaj abl mesmd abletd. Ld aespubstd aespubstd sb bftebfab sef pbroueied pbroueied ab ld bstjclbiead bstjclbiead rbspbitd j ljs iubstedfbs prbouaeiejlbs prbouaeiejlbs (jrtíiuld ::1 LBIre).

Bf abhefetevj, lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel bx ableitd, sjlvd rbsbrvj ab jiiedfbs ievelbs, sbrê mjtbrej suobtj j lds trecufjlbs pbfjlbs iujfad bxestj rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl ab jl`ufj pbrsdfj, ld qub absbfijabfjrê, sb`ÿf lds jrts. ::8 y ss. I[ ljs rbspdfsjceleajabs ievelbs ab lj mesmj y, bvbftujlmbftb, ab dtrjs pbrsdfjs. [dr bl idftrjred, se fd bxestb rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl, bf prefieped fd prdibab qub bl trecufjl pbfjl sb prdfufieb sdcrb ljs pdseclbs rbspdfsjceleajabs ievelbs. Lj jusbfiej ab rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl fd quebrb abier qub fd bxestj, sefd qub qubajf hubrj abl êmcetd ab bfoueiejmebftd ab lds trecufjlbs ab ld pbfjl. Yef bmcjr`d, bl jrt. ::7 I[ bstjclbib ufj sbreb ab empdrtjftbs bxibpiedfbs j bstjs rb`ljs, pubs bf bl mesmd sb prbvåf (idmd vbrbmds mês jabljftb), aesteftds supubstds ab ijusjs ab ousteheijieùf y ijusjs ab efemputjceleaja qub, se cebf bxiluybf lj rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl, fd gjibf ld mesmd idf lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel ab lj qub sb`uerê idfdiebfad bl ùr`jfd ouaeiejl pbfjl, gjclêfadsb bftdfibs ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel bxtrj ableitd. Jsí pubs, idmd bstjclbib bl jrt. ::5 I[, bf bstds supubstds bl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub aeitb sbftbfiej jcsdlutdrej pdr bstemjr lj idfiurrbfiej ab

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Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

jl`ufj ab ljs ijusjs ab bxbfieùf ietjajs, prdibabrê j heojr ljs rbspdfsjceleajabs ievelbs sjlvd qub sb gjyj gbigd bxprbsj rbsbrvj ab ljs jiiedfbs pjrj rbiljmjrljs bf lj víj qub idrrbspdfaj.

9.3 Bl jitdr ievel Ajad qub lj jiieùf ievel, j aehbrbfiej ab lj pbfjl, bs ufj jiieùf pbrsdfjl y prevjaj, lb idrrbspdfab bxilusevjmbftb bl pbrouaeijad d sus abrbigdgjcebftbs (v`. gbrbabrds d jsb`urjadrbs sucrd`jads). Sbspbitd abl jitdr ievel gjcrê qub bstjr jl jrtíiuld ::; LBIre qub lds pbrouaeijads pdr uf abletd qub fd gucebrbf rbfufiejad j su abrbigd pdarêf mdstrjrsb pjrtb bf lj ijusj se ld geiebrjf jftbs abl trêmetb ab ijleheijieùf abl abletd y bobrietjr ljs jiiedfbs ievelbs qub prdibajf, sb`ÿf lbs idfvefebrb, sef qub pdr blld sb rbtrdibaj bf bl iursd ab ljs jitujiedfbs. Juf iujfad lds pbrouaeijads fd sb mubstrbf pjrtb bf lj ijusj, fd pdr bstd sb bftebfab qub rbfufiejf jl abrbigd ab rbstetuieùf, rbpjrjieùf d efabmfezjieùf qub j su hjvdr pubab jidrajrsb bf sbftbfiej hermb, sebfad fbibsjred qub lj rbfufiej ab bstb abrbigd sb gj`j bf su ijsd ab ufj mjfbrj iljrj y tbrmefjftb. [dr dtrd ljad, aespdfb bl jrtíiuld ::1 I[ abtbrmefj qub se lj víitemj gucebrb idftrecuead idf su idfauitj j lj prdauiieùf abl ajúd d pbroueied suhread, lds Oubibs d Qrecufjlbs pdarêf mdabrjr bl empdrtb ab su rbpjrjieùf d efabmfezjieùf. [rbiesbmds pdr ÿltemd rbspbitd abl jitdr ievel qub fd pubabf tbfbr lj idfseabrjieùf ab tjl, pdr fd tbfbr lj ab pbrouaeijad? -

Ljs pbrsdfjs rbspdfsjclbs abl elíietd pbfjl, fe

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Lds tetuljrbs ab uf uf abrbigd ab iråaetd hrbftb j pbrouaeijad pbrouaeijad pdr abletd.

9.9 Bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pdr bl jitdr ievel Zuebfbs bobrietjf lj jiieùf ievel bf bl prdibsd pbfjl ld gjibf, idf bl hef ab dctbfbr idfhdrmb jl jrt ::; I[? :¿) Lj rbstetuieùf. 3¿) Lj rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd. 9¿) Lj efabmfezjieùf ab pbroueieds mjtbrejlbs y mdrjlbs. Qbfebfad bf iubftj qub idfhdrmb jl jrtíiuld ::2 I[, lds Oubibs y Qrecufjlbs, jl abiljrjr lj bxestbfiej ab rbspdfsjceleaja ievel, bstjclbibrêf rjzdfjajmbftb, bf sus rbsdluiedfbs ljs cjsbs bf qub hufajmbftbf lj iujftíj ab lds ajúds b efabmfezjiedfbs, puaebfad heojrlj bf lj prdpej rbsdluieùf d bf bl mdmbftd ab su bobiuieùf.

J. Lj rbstetuieùf rbstetuieùf ab ljs idsjs (jrt. ::: I[) Abcbrê rbstetuersb, sebmprb qub sbj pdseclb, bl mesmd cebf, idf jcdfd ab lds abtbredrds y mbfdsijcds qub bl oubz d trecufjl abtbrmefbf. Lj rbstetuieùf tbfarê lu`jr, jufqub bl cebf sb gjllb bf pdabr ab tbribrd y bstb ld gjyj jaqueread lb`jlmbftb y ab cubfj hb, abojfad j sjlvd su abrbigd ab rbpbteieùf idftrj quebf idrrbspdfaj y, bf su ijsd, bl ab sbr efabmfezjad pdr bl rbspdfsjclb ievel abl abletd. Bstj aespdseieùf fd bs jpleijclb iujfad bl tbribrd gjyj jaqueread bl cebf bf lj hdrmj y idf lds rbquesetds bstjclbieads pdr ljs lbybs pjrj gjibrld errbevefaeijclb.

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

C. Lj rbpjrjieùf rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd ajúd ijusjad ijusjad (jrt. ::3 I[) Lj rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd pdarê idfsester bf dcle`jiedfbs ab ajr, ab gjibr d ab fd gjibr qub bl Oubz d Qrecufjl bstjclbibrê jtbfaebfad j lj fjturjlbzj ab jqubl y j ljs idfaeiedfbs pbrsdfjlbs y pjtremdfejlbs abl iulpjclb, abtbrmefjfad se gjf ab sbr iumpleajs pdr ål mesmd d pubabf sbr bobiutjajs j su idstj.

I. Lj efabmfezjieùf efabmfezjieùf ab lds lds pbroueieds (jrt. ::9 I[) Lj efabmfezjieùf ab pbroueieds mjtbrejlbs y mdrjlbs idmprbfabrê fd sdld lds qub sb gucebrbf ijusjad jl j`rjvejad, sefd tjmceåf lds qub sb gucebrbf errd`jad j sus hjmelejrbs d j tbribrds.

9.1 [rdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd J. Dcobtd (jrtíiuld (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr b. LBIre) [darê sbr dcobtd abl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd rb`uljad bf bl prbsbftb Qítuld lj jiieùf mbaejftb lj iujl sb sdleietj bl abidmesd ab cebfbs, bhbitds d `jfjfiejs, d uf vjldr bquevjlbftb j lds mesmds, iujfad fd gucebrj sead bobrietjaj idf jftbredreaja, sjlvd ld aespubstd bf bl jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr p. Bf pjrteiuljr, sbrê jpleijclb bstb prdibaemebftd bf lds se`uebftbs ijsds?

Empdrtjftb Bf bl ijsd ab rbsbrvj ab lj jiieùf pdr bl hesijl, bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd sdljmbftb pdarê sbr efeiejad iujfad bl prdibsd bf bl qub sb rbsublvj sdcrb ljs rbspdfsjceleajabs pbfjlbs abl bfijusjad yj gucebrj idfiluead idf sbftbfiej hermb.

j) Iujfad bl hesijl sb lemetb bf su bsiretd bsiretd ab jiusjieùf j sdleietjr bl abidmesd ab cebfbs rbsbrvjfad bxprbsjmbftb pjrj bstb prdibaemebftd su abtbrmefjieùf.  c) Iujfad sb sdleietb sd leietb idmd idfsbiubfiej ab lj idmeseùf ab uf gbigd pufeclb iuyd jutdr gjyj hjllbiead d fd pubaj sbr bfoueiejad pdr gjlljrsb bf rbcblaíj d efijpjieaja pjrj idmpjrbibr bf oueied.

C. Idmpbtbfiej (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr h. LBIre) LBIre) Ybrê idmpbtbftb pjrj bl idfdiemebftd abl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd? j) bl oubz d trecufjl qub gucebrj gucebrj aeitjad lj sbftbfiej sbftbfiej hermb,  c) bl oubz d trecufjl trecufjl qub bstuvebrj bstuvebrj idfdiebfad ab lj ijusj pbfjl suspbfaeaj, d i) bl oubz d trecufjl idmpbtbftb pjrj bl bfoueiejmebftd ab lj mesmj iujfad åstj fd sb gucebrj efeiejad, bf ljs ieriufstjfiejs prbvestjs bf bl jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr b.

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Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

I. [rdibaemebftd (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr tbr `. LBIre) Ybrêf jpleijclbs jl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd jutùfdm d ljs fdrmjs qub rb`uljf bl oueied vbrcjl rb`uljad bf bl Qítuld EEE abl Lecrd EE ab lj LBI bf ld qub fd sbjf idftrjaeitdrejs idf ljs bstjclbieajs bf bstb ijpítuld.

A. Bxiluseveaja abl Mefestbred Mefestbred Hesijl Hesijl bf bl bobrieied bobrieied ab lj jiieùf jiieùf (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr g. LBIre) Lj jiieùf ab abidmesd bf bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd sbrê bobrietjaj bxilusevjmbftb pdr bl Mefestbred Hesijl.

B. Jsestbfiej lbtrjaj (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr e. LBIre) LBIre) Ybrêf jpleijclbs j tdajs ljs pbrsdfjs iuyds cebfbs d abrbigds puaebrbf vbrsb jhbitjads pdr bl abidmesd ljs fdrmjs rb`uljadrjs abl abrbigd j lj jsestbfiej lbtrjaj abl efvbste`jad prbvestjs bf bstj lby.

H. Lb`etemjieùf pjsevj y ietjieùf j oueied (jrtíiuld (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr o. LBIre) Ybrêf ietjads j oueied idmd abmjfajads lds suobtds idftrj lds qub sb aereoj lj jiieùf pdr su rbljieùf idf lds cebfbs j abidmesjr. Bl bfijusjad rbcblab sbrê ietjad mbaejftb fdteheijieùf aere`eaj j su rbprbsbftjieùf prdibsjl bf bl prdibsd suspbfaead y lj heojieùf ab baeitd bf bl tjclùf ab jfufieds abl trecufjl. Bl tbribrd jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd sbrê ietjad ab idfhdrmeaja idf ld prbvestd bf bl jpjrtjad 9 abl jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr c.

@. Idmpjrbibfiej Idmpjrbibfiej abl bfijusjad rbcblab d idf idf lj ijpjieaja mdaeheijaj ouaeiejlmbftb (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr n. LBIre) Ye bl bfijusjad abiljrjad rbcblab bf bl prdibsd suspbfaead fd idmpjrbib bf bl prdibaemebftd jutùfdmd ab abidmesd sb lb fdmcrjrê prdiurjadr y jcd`jad ab dheied qub jsumerêf su rbprbsbftjieùf y abhbfsj. Lj idmpjrbibfiej bf bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd abl bfijusjad idf lj ijpjieaja mdaeheijaj ouaeiejlmbftb pjrj idmpjrbibr bf bl prdibsd pbfjl suspbfaead sb rb`erê pdr ljs fdrmjs ab lj LBI.

G. Abmjfaj ab sdleietua sdleietua ab abidmesd abidmesd jutùfdmd (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr l. LBIre) Lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd jutùfdmd sb prbsbftjrê pdr bsiretd qub bxprbsjrê bf jpjrtjads sbpjrjads y fumbrjads? j) Ljs pbrsdfjs idftrj ljs qub qub sb aere`b lj sdleietua y sus admeieleds.  c) Bl cebf d cebfbs iuyd abidmesd sb prbtbfab. i) Bl gbigd pufeclb pufeclb y su rbljieùf rbljieùf idf bl cebf cebf d cebfbs. a) Lj ijleheijieùf pbfjl pbfjl abl gbigd pufeclb. b) Lj setujieùf ab lj pbrsdfj idftrj lj qub qub sb aere`b lj sdleietua rbspbitd rbspbitd jl cebf. h) Bl hufajmbftd lb`jl abl abidmesd. `) Lj prdpdseieùf ab prubcj. prubcj.

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

g) Lj sdleietua ab mbaeajs ijutbljrbs, ousteheijfad lj idfvbfebfiej ab su jadpieùf pjrj `jrjftezjr lj bhbiteveaja abl abidmesd, se prdibab. Jameteaj lj abmjfaj, bl ùr`jfd idmpbtbftb jadptjrê ljs se`uebftbs rbsdluiedfbs? :.¿ Jidrajrê d fd ljs mbaeajs ijutbljrbs sdleietjajs. 3.¿ Fdteheijrê lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd j ljs pjrtbs pjsevjmbftb lb`etemjajs, j quebfbs dtdr`jrê uf pljzd ab vbeftb aíjs pjrj pbrsdfjrsb bf bl prdibsd y prbsbftjr bsiretd ab idftbstjieùf j lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd. 9. Jadptjajs ljs mbaeajs ijutbljrbs, lj dpdseieùf, mdaeheijieùf d jlzjmebftd ab ljs mesmjs y lj prbstjieùf ab ijuieùf sustetutdrej sb absjrrdlljrê ab jiubrad idf ld prbvestd bf bl Qítuld XE abl Lecrd EEE ab lj LBI, ^bs abier idfhdrmb j ld aespubstd pjrj ljs mbaeajs ijutbljrbs], bf ld qub fd sbj idftrjaeitdred idf ljs fdrmjs bstjclbieajs bf bstb ijpítuld.

E.

Bsiretd ab idftbstjieùf idftbstjieùf j lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr m. LBIre)

Bl bsiretd ab idftbstjieùf j lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd idftbfarê, bf rbljieùf idf lds idrrbljtevds abl bsiretd ab abmjfaj, ljs jlb`jiedfbs ab lj pjrtb abmjfajaj. Ye bl abmjfajad fd eftbrpusebrj su bsiretd ab idftbstjieùf bf bl pljzd idfhbread d se absestebrj abl mesmd, bl ùr`jfd idmpbtbftb jidrajrê bl abidmesd abhefetevd ab lds cebfbs, bhbitds d `jfjfiejs, d ab uf vjldr bquevjlbftb j lds mesmds.

O. Sbsdluieùf sdcrb prubcj prubcj y vestj (jrtíiuld (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr f. LBIre) Bl ùr`jfd idmpbtbftb rbsdlvbrê sdcrb lj prubcj prdpubstj pdr JRQD, bf bl qub sbújljrê hbigj y gdrj pjrj lj vestj ab jiubrad idf ljs rb`ljs `bfbrjlbs. Bstj rbsdluieùf FD sbrê rbiurreclb, jufqub lj sdleietua ab prubcj pdarê rbetbrjrsb bf bl oueied.

N. Oueied y sbftbfiej (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr d. d. LBIre) Bl oueied sb absjrrdlljrê idfhdrmb j ld aespubstd bf bl jrtíiuld 199 ab lj LBI (pjrj bl oueied draefjred) y bl oubz d trecufjl rbsdlvbrê mbaejftb sbftbfiej bf bl pljzd ab 3; aíjs a íjs absab su hefjlezjieùf, idf jl`ufd ab lds se`uebftbs prdfufiejmebftds? :.¿ Bstemjr lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd y jidrajr bl abidmesd abhefetevd ab lds cebfbs. 3.¿ Bstemjr pjriejlmbftb lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd y jidrajr bl abidmesd abhefetevd pdr lj ijfteaja qub idrrbspdfaj. Bf bstb ijsd, sb abojrêf sef bhbitd ljs mbaeajs ijutbljrbs qub gucebrjf sead jidrajajs rbspbitd jl rbstd ab lds cebfbs. 9.¿ Absbstemjr lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd y abiljrjr qub fd prdibab pdr idfiurrer jl`ufd ab lds mdtevds ab dpdseieùf. Bf bstb ijsd, sb abojrêf sef bhbitd tdajs ljs mbaeajs ijutbljrbs qub gucebrjf sead jidrajajs. Iujfad lj sbftbfiej bstemb tdtjl d pjriejlmbftb lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd, eabfteheijrê j lds pbrouaeijads y heojrê ljs efabmfezjiedfbs qub hubrjf prdibabftbs. Bl prdfufiejmebftd bf idstjs sb rb`erê pdr ljs fdrmjs `bfbrjlbs prbvestjs bf bstj lby.

L. Bhbitds ab lj sbftbfiej ab abidmesd abidmesd (jrtíiuld (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr tbr p. LBIre) LBIre) Lj sbftbfiej absplb`jrê lds bhbitds mjtbrejlbs ab lj IDYJ [email protected] bf rbljieùf idf ljs pbrsdfjs idftrj ljs qub sb gjyj aere`ead lj jiieùf y lj ijusj ab pbaer pljftbjaj, idfsestbftb bf lds gbigds rblb-

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baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

vjftbs pjrj lj jadpieùf abl abidmesd, rbljtevds jl gbigd pufe clb y lj setujieùf hrbftb j lds cebfbs abl abmjfajad. Mês jllê abl bhbitd mjtbrejl ab lj idsj ouz`jaj bstjclbiead bf bl jpjrtjad jftbredr, bl idftbfead ab lj sbftbfiej abl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd fd vefiuljrê bf bl pdstbredr bfoueiejmebftd abl bfijusjad, se sb prdauib. Bf bl prdibsd pbfjl pdstbredr idftrj bl bfijusjad, se sb prdauib, fd sb sdleietjrê fe sbrê dcobtd ab bfoueiejmebftd bl abidmesd ab cebfbs sdcrb bl qub sb gjyj rbsubltd idf bhbitd ab idsj ouz`jaj bf bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd. J lds cebfbs abidmesjads sb lbs ajrê bl abstefd prbvestd bf bstj lby y bf bl I[. Iujfad bl abidmesd sb gucebrj jidrajad pdr uf vjldr abtbrmefjad, sb rbqubrerê j lj pbrsdfj idf rbljieùf j lj iujl sb gucebrj jidrajad pjrj qub prdibaj jl pj`d ab lj ijfteaja idrrbspdfaebftb abftrd abl pljzd qub sb lb abtbrmefb> d, bf dtrd ijsd, abse`fb cebfbs pdr uf vjldr suheiebftb sdcrb lds qub lj drabf ab abidmesd pubaj gjibrsb bhbitevj. Ye bl rbqubremebftd fd hubrj jtbfaead, sb prdibabrê abl mdad prbvestd bf bl jrtíiuld se`uebftb pjrj lj bobiuieùf ab lj drabf ab abidmesd.

M. Efvbste`jieùf abl Mefestbred Mefestbred Hesijl (jrtíiuld (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr q. LBIre) Bl Mefestbred Hesijl pdarê llbvjr j ijcd, pdr sí mesmd, j trjvås ab lj Dheiefj ab Sbiupbrjieùf y @bsteùf ab Jitevds d pdr mbaed ab dtrjs jutdreajabs d ab lds hufiedfjreds ab lj [dleiíj  Ouaeiejl, ljs aele`bfiejs aele`bfiejs ab efvbste`jieùf qub rbsultbf rbsultbf fbibsjrejs pjrj ldijlezjr lds cebfbs d abrbigds tetuljreaja ab lj pbrsdfj idf rbljieùf j lj iujl sb gucebrj jidrajad bl abidmesd. Ljs jutdreajabs y hufiedfjreds ab quebfbs bl Mefestbred Hesijl rbijcjsb su idljcdrjieùf vbfarêf dcle`jajs j prbstjrlj cjod jpbriecemebftd ab efiurrer bf uf abletd ab absdcbaebfiej, sjlvd qub ljs fdrmjs qub rb`ulbf su jiteveaja aespdf`jf dtrj idsj d heobf límetbs d rbstreiiedfbs qub abcjf sbr jtbfaeads, bf iuyd ijsd trjsljajrêf jl hesijl lds mdtevds ab su abieseùf. Iujfad bl hesijl idfseabrb fbibsjred llbvjr j ijcd jl`ufj aele`bfiej ab efvbste`jieùf qub abcj sbr jutdrezjaj ouaeiejlmbftb, prbsbftjrê lj sdleietua jl oubz d trecufjl qub gucebrj idfdiead bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd.

F. Sbiursds y rbveseùf ab lj sbftbfiej sbftbfiej hermb (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr r. LBIre) Ydf jpleijclbs bf bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd ljs fdrmjs rb`uljadrjs ab lds rbiursds jpleijclbs jl prdibsd pbfjl jcrbvejad. baetdrejl    }         ibp

Jtbfieùf Bl Mefestbred Hesijl pdarê aere`ersb j ljs bfteajabs hefjfiebrjs, dr`jfesmds y rb`estrds pÿcleids y pbrsdfjs híseijs d  ouría  our íaeij eijss pjr pjrjj qub hji hjiele eletb tbf, f, bf bl mjrid ab su fdrmjtevj bspbiíheij, lj rbljieùf ab  cebfbs  cebf bs d abrb abrbigds igds abl bobi bobiuutjad ab lds qub tbf`jf idfstjfiej.

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Ydf jpleijclbs jl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd ljs fdrmjs rb`uljadrjs ab lj rbveseùf ab sbftbfiejs hermbs.

Ú. Efidmpjrbibfiej Efidmpjrbibfiej abl bfijusjad rbcblab y abl tbribrd tbribrd jhbitjad (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr s. LBIre) Lj efidmpjrbibfiej abl bfijusjad rbcblab y abl 9¿ jhbitjad bf bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd jutùfdmd sb rb`erê pdr ld aespubstd bf bl jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr a.

D. Jiumuljieùf ab sdleietua sdleietua ab abidmesd idftrj bl bfijusjad rbcblab d pbrsdfj idf lj ijpjieaja mdaeheijaj ouaeiejlmbftb bf lj ijusj sb`ueaj idftrj dtrd bfijusjad (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr t. LBIre) Bf bl supubstd bf qub lj ijusj sb`ueaj idftrj bl bfijusjad rbcblab d pbrsdfj idf lj ijpjieaja mdaeheijaj ouaeiejlmbftb idftefÿb pjrj bl bfoueiejmebftd ab ufd d mês bfijusjads, pdarê jiumuljrsb bf lj mesmj ijusj lj jiieùf ab abidmesd jutùfdmd idftrj lds prembrds.

[. [rbsbftjieùf ab fubvj sdleietua sdleietua ab abidmesd (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr u. LBIre) LBIre) Bl Mefestbred Hesijl pdarê sdleietjr jl oubz d trecufjl qub aeitb ufj fubvj drabf ab abidmesd iujfad? j) sb absiucrj lj bxestbfiej ab cebfbs, cebfbs, bhbitds d `jfjfiejs j lds qub abcj bxtbfabrsb bl abidmesd, pbrd ab iuyj bxestbfiej d tetuljreaja fd sb gucebrj tbfead idfdiemebftd iujfad sb efeieù bl prdibaemebftd ab abidmesd, y  c) fd sb gjyj rbsubltd jftbredrmbftb sdcrb lj prdibabfiej prdibabfiej abl abidmesd ab lds mesmds.

1.

BL DHSBIEMEBFQD AB JIIEDFBY

Bl dhrbiemebftd ab jiiedfbs tebfb idmd hefjleaja bvetjr qub bl dhbfaead pdr uf abletd qubab sef idfdibr lds abrbigds qub sb abrevjf ab su idfaeieùf ab dhbfaead y idfdibr qub pubab bobrietjr lj jiieùf pbfjl, sef pbroueied ab qub bl Mefestbred Hesijl bobrzj ljs jiiedfbs pbfjlbs y ievelbs qub prdibaebrjf. Bl jrtíiuld :;5 LBIre bstjclbib qub, bf bl jitd ab rbiecersb abiljrjieùf pdr bl Oubz jl dhbfaead qub tuvebsb lj ijpjieaja lb`jl fbibsjrej, bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej lb efstruerê abl abrbigd qub lb jsestb pjrj mdstrjrsb pjrtb bf bl prdibsd y rbfufiejr d fd j lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd b efabmfezjieùf abl pbroueied ijusjad pdr bl gbigd pufeclb. Jsemesmd, lb efhdrmjrê ab lds abrbigds rbid`eads bf lj lb`esljieùf ve`bftb, puaebfad ablb`jr bstj hufieùf bf pbrsdfjl bspbiejlezjad bf lj jsestbfiej j víitemjs. Ye hubrj mbfdr d tuvebrj lj ijpjieaja ouaeiejlmbftb mdaeheijaj, sb prjiteijrê e`ujl aele`bfiej idf su rbprbsbftjftb lb`jl d lj pbrsdfj qub lb jsestj. Hubrj ab lds ijsds prbvestds bf lds ads pêrrjhds jftbredrbs, fd sb gjrê j lds eftbrbsjads bf ljs jiiedfbs ievelbs d pbfjlbs fdteheijieùf jl`ufj qub prdldf`ub d abtbf`j bl iursd ab lj ijusj, ld iujl fd dcstj pjrj qub bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej prdiurb efstruer ab jqubl abrbigd jl dhbfaead jusbftb. Bl jrt. :;5 ab lj LBIre L BIre aespdfb tjmceåf qub, bf iujlquebr ijsd, bf lds prdibsds qub sb se`jf pdr abletds idmprbfaeads bf bl jrtíiuld 20 abl Iùae`d [bfjl, bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej jsb`urjrê lj idmufeijieùf j lj víitemj ab lds jitds prdibsjlbs qub pubajf jhbitjr j su sb`ureaja. Bl mbfiedfjad jrt. 20 abl Iùae`d [bfjl bstjclbib qub?

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Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

“:. Lds oubibs d trecufjlbs, bf lds abletds ab gdmeieaed, jcdrtd, lbsedfbs, idftrj lj lecbrtja, ab tdrturjs td rturjs y idftrj lj eftb`reaja mdrjl, trjtj ab sbrbs gumjfds, idftrj lj lecbrtja b efabmfeaja sbxujlbs, s bxujlbs, lj eftemeaja, bl abrbigd j lj prdpej emj`bf y lj efvedljceleaja abl admeieled, bl gdfdr, bl pjtremdfed y bl drabf sdiedbidfùmeid, jtbfaebfad j lj `rjvbaja ab lds gbigds d jl pble`rd qub bl ablefiubftb rbprbsbftb, pdarêf jidrajr bf sus sbftbfiejs lj empdseieùf ab ufj d vjrejs ab ljs prdgeceiedfbs idftbmpljajs bf bl jrtíiuld 17, pdr uf tebmpd qub fd bxibabrê ab aebz júds se bl abletd hubrj `rjvb, d ab iefid se hubrj mbfds `rjvb. Fd dcstjftb ld jftbredr, se bl idfabfjad ld hubrj j pbfj ab preseùf y bl oubz d trecufjl jidrajrj lj empdseieùf ab ufj d vjrejs ab aeigjs prdgeceiedfbs, ld gjrê pdr uf tebmpd supbredr bftrb ufd y aebz júds jl ab lj aurjieùf ab lj pbfj ab preseùf empubstj bf lj sbftbfiej, se bl abletd hubrj `rjvb, y bftrb ufd y iefid júds, se hubrj mbfds `rjvb. Bf bstb supubstd, lj pbfj ab preseùf y ljs prdgeceiedfbs jftbs ietjajs sb iumplerêf fbibsjrejmbftb pdr bl idfabfjad ab hdrmj semultêfbj. 3. Bf lds supubstds ab lds abletds mbfiedfjads bf bl prembr pêrrjhd abl jpjrtjad : ab bstb jrtíiuld idmbteads idftrj quebf sbj d gjyj sead bl iùfyu`b, d sdcrb pbrsdfj qub bstå d gjyj bstjad le`jaj jl idfabfjad pdr ufj jfêld`j rbljieùf ab jhbiteveaja juf sef idfvevbfiej, d sdcrb lds absibfaebftbs, jsibfaebftbs d gbrmjfds pdr fjturjlbzj, jadpieùf d jhefeaja, prdpeds d abl iùfyu`b d idfvevebftb, d sdcrb lds mbfdrbs d pbrsdfjs idf aesijpjieaja fbibsetjajs ab bspbiejl prdtbiieùf qub idf ål idfvevjf d qub sb gjllbf suobtds j lj pdtbstja, tutblj, iurjtblj, jid`emebftd d `ujraj ab gbigd abl iùfyu`b d idfvevebftb, d sdcrb pbrsdfj jmpjrjaj bf iujlquebr dtrj rbljieùf pdr lj qub sb bfiubftrb eftb`rjaj bf bl fÿilbd ab su idfvevbfiej hjmelejr, jsí idmd sdcrb ljs pbrsdfjs qub pdr su bspbiejl vulfbrjceleaja sb bfiubftrjf sdmbteajs j su iustdaej d `ujraj bf ibftrds pÿcleids d prevjads sb jidrajrê, bf tdad ijsd, lj jpleijieùf ab lj pbfj prbvestj bf bl jpjrtjad 3 abl jrtíiuld 17 pdr uf tebmpd qub fd bxibabrê ab aebz júds se bl abletd hubrj `rjvb, d ab iefid se hubrj mbfds `rjvb, sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf bl pêrrjhd sb`ufad abl jpjrtjad jftbredr. 9. Qjmceåf pdarêf empdfbrsb ljs prdgeceiedfbs bstjclbieajs bf bl jrtíiuld 17, pdr uf pbredad ab tebmpd qub fd bxibabrê ab sbes mbsbs, pdr lj idmeseùf ab lds abletds mbfiedfjads bf bl prembr pêrrjhd abl jpjrtjad : ab bstb jrtíiuld qub tbf`jf lj idfseabrjieùf ab abletds lbvbs”. Jabmês ab lj rb`uljieùf abl “dhrbiemebftd ab jiiedfbs” idftbfeaj bf bl jrt. :;5 ab lj LBIre, gjy qub tbfbr bf iubftj qub lds jrtíiulds 08:.3, 00: y 008 ab lj LBIre, bf rbljieùf idf bl prdibaemebftd jcrbvejad, bstjclbibf qub? -

Bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej efstruerê jl dhbfaead d pbrouaeijad pdr bl abletd ab lds abrbigds qub lb jsestbf idfhdrmb j ld aespubstd bf lds jrtíiulds :;5 y ::; y abmês aespdseiedfbs, puaebfad mdstrjrsb pjrtb bf lj ijusj sef fbibseaja ab hdrmuljr qubrbllj. Jsemesmd, lb efhdrmjrê ab lj pdseceleaja y prdibaemebftd pjrj sdleietjr ljs jyuajs qub idfhdrmb j lj lb`esljieùf ve`bftb pubajf idrrbspdfabrlb (jrt. 08:.3 LBIre).

-

Bf bl tebmpd tebmpd emprbsiefaeclb emprbsiefaeclb y, bf tdad ijsd, aurjftb bl tebmpd ab lj abtbfieùf, abtbfieùf, se lj gucebrb, lj lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl prjiteijrê ljs se`uebftbs aele`bfiejs? :ª Iumplerê idf lds abcbrbs ab efhdrmjieùf j ljs víitemjs qub prbvå prbvå lj lb`esljieùf ve`bftb. Bf pjrteiuljr, efhdrmjrê jl dhbfaead y jl pbrouaeijad pdr bl abletd ab hdrmj bsiretj ab lds abrbigds qub lbs jsestbf ab jiubrad idf ld bstjclbiead bf lds jrtíiulds :;5 y ::;. Yb efstruerê jl dhbfaead ab su abrbigd j mdstrjrsb pjrtb bf lj ijusj sef fbibseaja ab hdrmuljr qubrbllj y, tjftd jl dhbfaead idmd jl pbrouaeijad, ab su abrbigd j fdmcrjr Jcd`jad d efstjr bl fdmcrjmebftd ab Jcd`jad ab dheied bf ijsd ab sbr tetuljrbs abl abrbigd j lj jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj, ab su abrbigd j, ufj vbz pbrsdfjads bf lj ijusj, tdmjr idfdiemebftd ab ld jitujad, b efstjr ld qub j su abrbigd idfvbf`j. Jsemesmd, sb lbs efhdrmjrê ab qub, ab fd pbrsdfjrsb bf lj ijusj y fd gjibr rbfufiej fe rbsbrvj ab jiiedfbs ievelbs, bl Mefestbred Hesijl ljs bobrietjrê se idrrbspdfaebrb.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

3ª Efhdrmjrê bf lj hdrmj mês idmprbfseclb jl efvbste`jad fd abtbfead ab iuêlbs sdf lds gbigds qub sb lb jtrecuybf y ab lds abrbigds qub lb jsestbf (jrt. 00: LBIre). -

Bf lj prembrj idmpjrbibfiej bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej efhdrmjrê jl dhbfaead y jl pbrouaeijad ab sus abrbigds, bf lds tårmefds prbvestds bf lds jrtíiulds :;5 y ::;, efilusd jufqub prbvejmbftb ld gucebrj gbigd lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl. Bf pjrteiuljr, sb efstruerê ab ljs mbaeajs ab jsestbfiej j ljs víitemjs qub prbvå lj lb`esljieùf ve`bftb y ab lds abrbigds mbfiedfjads bf lj rb`lj :ª abl jrtíiuld 00: jftbredrmbftb rbhbreaj. Lj empdseceleaja ab prjiteijr bstj efhdrmjieùf pdr lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl y pdr bl Oubz bf idmpjrbibfiej fd empbaerê lj idftefujieùf abl prdibaemebftd, sef pbroueied ab qub sb prdibaj j rbjlezjrlj pdr bl mbaed mês rêpead pdseclb. Lds qub sb pbrsdfjrbf pdarêf absab bftdfibs tdmjr idfdiemebftd ab ld jitujad b efstjr lj prêiteij ab aele`bfiejs y iujftd j su abrbigd idfvbf`j, jidrajfad bl Oubz ld prdibabftb bf drabf j lj prêiteij ab bstjs aele`bfiejs (jrt. 008 LBIre).

2.

BWQEFIEÙF AB LJ JIIEÙF IEXEL

Lj jiieùf ievel tjmceåf pubab sbr rbfufiejaj pdr bl dhbfaead y lj rbfufiej llbvj idfse`d su bxtefieùf, ab tjl hdrmj qub fe bl Mefestbred Hesijl fe lj jiusjieùf pjrteiuljr qub gjyj bobrietjad lj jiieùf pdpuljr (aesteftd abl dhbfaead) pdarêf mjftbfbr bf bl prdibsd pbteieùf jl`ufj rbhbrbftb j lj pjrtb ievel rbpjrjadrj abl prdibsd. Bf rbjleaja, lj rbfufiej ab lj jiieùf ievel bs ufj rbfufiej jl abrbigd j sbr efabmfezjad qub jsestb j lds pbrouaeijads pdr bl abletd.

Qdmb fdtj Lj sbftbfiej hermb jcsdlutdrej aeitjaj bf bl plbetd prdmdvead pdr bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf ievel, fd sbrê dcstêiuld pjrj bl bobrieied ab lj jiieùf pbfjl idrrbspdfaebftb. U tdad blld sef pbroueied ab lj pdseclb rbfufiej j lj jiieùf ievel pdr lj pjrtb dhbfaeaj pdr bl abletd.

[jrj qub lj rbfufiej ab jiieùf ievel prdauzij bl bhbitd qub gbmds bstuaejad abcb sbr bxprbsj y tbrmefjftb. Bs abier, quebf rbfufieb ld gjrê jftb bl Oubz bxprbsjmbftb, pubs idmd gbmds vestd, bobrietjaj lj jiieùf pbfjl sb bftebfab bobrietjaj lj jiieùf ievel idfouftjmbftb, pbrd bl gbigd ab fd mdstrjrsb pjrtb bl dhbfaead, pdr fd gjibr ijsd abl abrbigd qub sb lb aj bf bl dhrbiemebftd ab jiiedfbs, fd se`feheij qub rbfufieb j lj pdseclb efabmfezjieùf qub lb sdleietjrê bf su fdmcrb bl Mefestbred Hesijl. Lj jiieùf ievel pubab sbr tjmceåf rbsbrvjaj pjrj bl bobrieied bf lj víj ab ld ievel. Bstj rbsbrvj abcb sbr tjmceåf bxprbsj y bl bobrieied ab bllj sb suobtjrê gjstj lj hefjlezjieùf abl plbetd iremefjl. Idmd yj gbmds jhermjad bf jl`ÿf dtrd lu`jr, lj bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf pbfjl fd llbvj idfse`d lj ab lj jiieùf ievel, j fd sbr

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baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

qub lj bxtefieùf prdibaj ab gjcbrsb abiljrjad pdr sbftbfiej hermb qub fd bxesteù bl gbigd ab qub lj ievel gucebsb pdaead fjibr> iubsteùf abl tdad puftd lù`eij, yj qub sb prevj j lj jiieùf ievel ab lj cjsb hêiteij pjrj su bobrieied bf víj ievel. Bf lds abmês ijsds ab bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf pbfjl, lj pbrsdfj j quebf idrrbspdfaj lj jiieùf ievel pdarê bobrietjrlj jftb lj ouresaeiieùf y pdr lj víj ab ld ievel qub prdibaj, idftrj quebf bstuvebrb dcle`jad j lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd d efabmfezjieùf abl pbroueied suhread (jrt. ::8 LBIre). [dr dtrd ljad, bl jrt. ::0 ab lj LBIre sbújlj qub lj bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf ievel tjmpdid llbvj idfse`d lj ab lj pbfjl qub fjzij abl mesmd abletd.

BWQEFIEÙF AB LJ JIIEÙF IEXEL - Yb prdauib prdauib pdr rbfufiej rbfufiej abl pbrouaeijad pbrouaeijad jl abrbigd j sbr efabmfezjefabmfezjad - Lj rbfufiej rbfufiej abcb sbr bxprbsj y tbrmefjftb tbrmefjftb jftb bl Oubz - Ijcb lj rbsbrvj rbsbrvj ab lj jiieùf ievel ievel pjrj bl bobrieied bf víj ievel - Lj bxtefieùf bxtefieùf ab lj jiieùf ievel fd llbvj idfse`d lj ab lj pbfjl

8.

BL [email protected] D BFIJRYJAD. LJ SBCBLAÍJ

8.: Bl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad Bs lj pbrsdfj j lj qub sb jtrecuyb lj rbspdfsjceleaja ab uf gbigd ableitevd dcobtd abl prdibsd pbfjl bstjfad absab bsb mdmbftd lb`etemjaj pjsevjmbftb bf ål. Jgdrj cebf, pjrj qub bstj jtrecuieùf pbrmetj llb`jr j lj iblbcrjieùf ab oueied drjl bxe`b? -

Lj jprbiejieùf jprbiejieùf pdr bl oubz ab efstruiieùf ab lj bxestbfiej ab efaeieds rjiedfjlbs ab iremefjleaja.

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Lj jprbiejieùf pdr bl oubz ab efstruiieùf (bf bl prdibaemebftd prdibaemebftd jcrbvejad, prdibsd jftb bl Qrecufjl abl Ourjad d oueied rêpead) d pdr lj Juaebfiej [rdvefiejl (bf bl sumjred draefjred), ab lj prdibabfiej ab lj jpbrturj ab oueied drjl. d rjl.

Lj efvbste`jieùf d bfijusjieùf gj ab rbjlezjrsb pdr lj idmeseùf ab ufds gbigds qub prbsbftbf lds ijrjitbrbs ab abletd. Aeigj efvbste`jieùf d bfijusjieùf gjcrê ab gjibrsb j títuld ab jutdr d iùmpleib ab lds gbigds qub sb efvbste`jf bf lj ijusj. Lj bfijusjieùf ouaeiejl aurjftb lj efvbste`jieùf sb rbjlezj cebf aerbitj y hdrmjlmbftb j trjvås abl jutd ab prdibsjmebftd, bf bl prdibaemebftd draefjred, iujfad rbsultbf abl sumjred efaeieds rjiedfjlbs ab iremefjleaja, cebf efaerbitjmbftb, mbaejftb lj jadpieùf ab mbaeajs lemetjtevjs ab abrbigds abirbtjfad mbaeajs ijutbljrbs, pbrsdfjlbs d rbjlbs, bf lds prdibsds qub fd jametbf bl jutd ab prdibsjmebftd. Lj efvbste`jieùf d bfijusjieùf fd sdld tebfb lu`jr iujfad sb rbjlezj pdr lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl, sefd tjmceåf iujfad sb rbjlezj pdr pjrteiuljrbs, pdr lj jameseùf ab abfufiej d qubrbllj idftrj ufj pbrsdfj, d idmd rbsultjad ab iujlquebr jitujieùf prdibsjl, abceåfadsblb idmufeijr absab bftdfibs lj bxestbfiej abl prdibaemebftd. Lj pjrtb hrbftb j quebf sb bobrietb lj jiieùf rbiecb aehbrbftbs fdmcrbs, sb`ÿf bl mdmbftd prdibsjl bf qub sb bfiubftrb?

baetdrejl    }         ibp

72

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

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Bf lds prdibaemebftds jcrbvejads, sb lb abfdmefj efvbste`jad iujfad jÿf fd sb gj prdauiead lj bfijusjieùf pdr lj Jutdreaja Ouaeiejl bf lj efvbste`jieùf. Jcebrtd bl oueied drjl y prbsbftjad bl bsiretd ab jiusjieùf, pjsj j idfvbrtersb bf bfijusjad, abcebfad eftbrvbfer bf bl prdibsd fbibsjrejmbftb.

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Bf lds sumjreds y trjs aeitjrsb lds jutds ab prdibsjmebftd, prdibsjmebftd, sb trjtj ab bfijusjad.

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Iujfad gjyj rbijíad sbftbfiej idfabfjtdrej y åstj sbj hermb rbiecerê rbiecerê bl fdmcrb ab pbfjad.

8.3 Sbcblaíj Ybrê abiljrjad rbcblab bl bfijusjad qub bf bl tårmefd heojad bf lj rbquesetdrej fd idmpjrbzij, d qub fd hubrb gjcead y prbsbftjad jftb bl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub idfdzij ab lj ijusj abspuås ab gjcbr sead lljmjad pdr rbquesetdrejs. Ybrê lljmjad y cusijad pdr rbquesetdrej? :¿ Bl prdibsjad qub jl er j fdteheiêrsblb iujlquebr iujlquebr rbsdluieùf ouaeiejl fd hubrb gjlljad gjlljad bf su admeieled pdr gjcbrsb jusbftjad, se sb e`fdrjsb su pjrjabrd, y bl qub fd tuvebsb admeieled idfdiead. Bl qub prjitequb lj aele`bfiej eftbrrd`jrê sdcrb bl puftd bf qub sb gjlljrb bl prdibsjad j lj pbrsdfj idf quebf aeigj aele`bfiej abcj bftbfabrsb idf jrrb`ld j ld aespubstd bf bl jrtíiuld :03 ab lj LBIre, bs abier bl pjrebftb, hjmelejr d irejad, mjydr ab ijtdrib júds, qub sb gjllb bf su admeieled, y se fd gucebrb fjaeb, ufd ab lds vbiefds mês prùxemds. 3¿ Bl qub sb gucebrb hu`jad abl bstjclbiemebftd bf qub qub sb gjlljsb abtbfead d prbsd. 9¿ Bl qub, gjllêfadsb bf lecbrtja prdvesedfjl, abojrb ab idfiurrer j lj prbsbfiej ouaeiejl bl aíj qub lb bstê sbújljad d iujfad sbj lljmjad.

J. Sbquesetdrejs Efmbaejtjmbftb qub uf prdibsjad sb gjllb bf iujlquebrj ab aeigds ijsds, bl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub idfdzij ab lj ijusj mjfajrê bxpbaer rbquesetdrejs pjrj su lljmjmebftd y cusij. Lj rbquesetdrej bxprbsjrê tdajs ljs ieriufstjfiejs mbfiedfjajs bf bl jrtíiuld 2:9 LBIre, bxibptd lj ÿltemj (bs abier, bl fdmcrb y jpblleads, ijr`d, prdhbseùf u dheied, se idfstjrbf, abl prdibsjad rbcblab, y ljs sbújs bf vertua ab ljs qub pubaj sbr eabfteheijad, bl abletd pdr bl qub sb lb prdibsj y bl tbrretdred adfab sbj ab prbsumer qub sb bfiubftrj, iujfad fd sb gjyj abirbtjad lj preseùf d abtbfieùf abl prdibsjad)> y jabmês ljs se`uebftbs? :ª Lj ijusj qub aebrb lu`jr j lj bxpbaeieùf ab lj rbquesetdrej. 3ª Bl tårmefd abftrd abl iujl bl bl prdibsjad jusbftb abcbrê prbsbftjrsb, cjod jpbriecemebftd ab qub bf dtrd ijsd sbrê abiljrjad rbcblab y lb pjrjrê bl pbroueied j qub gucebrb lu`jr idf jrrb`ld j lj Lby. Lj rbquesetdrej sb rbmeterê j lds Oubibs, sb pucleijrê bf lds pbreùaeids y sb heojrê bf bl ldijl abl Ouz`jad d Qrecufjl qub idfdiebrb ab lj ijusj y bf bl ab lds Oubibs ab efstruiieùf j quebfbs sb gucebrb rbqubread, ufeåfadsb j lds jutds lj rbquesetdrej dre`efjl y uf bobmpljr ab ijaj pbreùaeid bf qub sb gjyj pucleijad. Qrjfsiurread bl pljzd ab lj rbquesetdrej sef gjcbr idmpjrbiead d sef gjcbr sead prbsbftjad bl jusbftb, sb lb abiljrjrê rbcblab. Lj pbrsdfj ouríaeij emputjaj ÿfeijmbftb sbrê lljmjaj mbaejftb rbquesetdrej iujfad fd gjyj sead pdseclb su ietjieùf pjrj bl jitd ab prembrj idmpjrbibfiej pdr hjltj ab uf admeieled sdiejl idfdiead.

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baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Bf lj rbquesetdrej ab lj pbrsdfj ouríaeij sb gjrêf idfstjr lds ajtds eabfteheijtevds ab lj bfteaja, bl abletd qub sb lb emputj y su dcle`jieùf ab idmpjrbibr bf bl pljzd qub sb gjyj heojad, idf Jcd`jad y [rdiurjadr, jftb bl Oubz qub idfdib ab lj ijusj. Lj rbquesetdrej ab lj pbrsdfj ouríaeij sb pucleijrê bf bl «Cdlbtíf Dheiejl abl Bstjad¾ y, bf su ijsd, bf bl «Cdlbtíf Dheiejl abl Sb`estrd Mbrijftel¾ d bf iujlquebr dtrd pbreùaeid d aejred dheiejl rbljiedfjad idf lj fjturjlbzj, bl dcobtd sdiejl d ljs jiteveajabs abl bftb emputjad. Qrjfsiurread bl pljzd heojad sef gjcbr idmpjrbiead lj pbrsdfj ouríaeij, sb lj abiljrjrê rbcblab, idftefujfad lds trêmetbs prdibsjlbs gjstj su idfiluseùf. Hefjlmbftb, pdr ld qub sb rbhebrb jl prdibaemebftd jcrbvejad, bl jrtíiuld 083. 9¿ y 1¿ LBIre aespdfb qub, se bl qub gucebrb ab sbr ietjad fd tuvebrb admeieled idfdiead d fd hubrb bfidftrjad pdr lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl bf bl pljzd sbújljad j åstj, bl Oubz d Qrecufjl mjfajrê pucleijr lj idrrbspdfaebftb iåaulj pdr bl mbaed qub bstemb mês eaùfbd pjrj qub pubaj llb`jr j idfdiemebftd abl eftbrbsjad, y sdld iujfad ld idfseabrb efaespbfsjclb jidrajrê su aevul`jieùf pdr lds mbaeds ab idmufeijieùf sdiejl. Ljs rbquesetdrejs qub gjyjf ab bxpbaersb sb efsbrtjrêf bf bl heigbrd jutdmjtezjad idrrbspdfaebftb ab ljs Hubrzjs y Iubrpds ab Yb`ureaja y, iujfad sb idfseabrb dpdrtufd, bf lds mbaeds ab idmufeijieùf bsiretj.

C. Sbcblaíj bf aesteftjs hjsbs abl prdibsd j. Sbcblab idf ijusj bf hjsb ab sumjred Ye lj ijusj bstuvebrb bf sumjred, sb idftefujrê gjstj qub sb abiljrb tbrmefjad pdr bl Oubz d Qrecufjl idmpbtbftb, suspbfaeåfadsb abspuås su iursd y jrigevêfadsb lds jutds y ljs pebzjs ab idfveiieùf qub puaebrbf idfsbrvjrsb y fd hubrbf ab uf tbribrd errbspdfsjclb.

c. Sbcblab idf ijusj bf oueied drjl Ye jl sbr abiljrjad bf rbcblaíj bl prdibsjad sb gjlljrb pbfaebftb bl oueied drjl, sb suspbfabrê åstb y sb jrigevjrêf lds jutds. Ye hubrbf ads d mês lds prdibsjads y fd j tdads sb lbs gucebsb abiljrjad bf rbcblaíj, sb suspbfabrê bl iursd ab lj ijusj rbspbitd j lds rbcblabs gjstj qub sbjf gjlljads, y sb idftefujrê rbspbitd j lds abmês. Bf iujlquebrj ab lds ijsds jftbredrbs, sb rbsbrvjrê, bf bl jutd ab suspbfseùf, j lj pjrtb dhbfaeaj pdr bl abletd lj jiieùf qub lb idrrbspdfaj pjrj lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj, lj rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd y lj efabmfezjieùf ab pbroueieds, j hef ab qub pubaj bobrietjrlj, efabpbfaebftbmbftb ab lj ijusj, pdr lj víj ievel idftrj lds qub hubrbf rbspdfsjclbs> j iuyd bhbitd fd sb jlzjrêf lds bmcjr`ds gbigds fe sb ijfibljrêf ljs hejfzjs prbstjajs. Iujfad lj ijusj sb jrigevb pdr bstjr bf rbcblaíj tdads lds prdibsjads, sb mjfajrê abvdlvbr j lds aubúds, qub fd rbsultbf ievel fe iremefjlmbftb rbspdfsjclbs abl abletd, lds bhbitds d efstrumbftds abl mesmd d ljs abmês pebzjs ab idfveiieùf qub gucebsbf sead rbid`eajs aurjftb lj ijusj> pbrd jftbs ab gjibrsb lj abvdluieùf, bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej bxtbfabrê aele`bfiej idfse`fjfad absirepieùf mefuiedsj ab tdad ld qub sb abvublvj. Jsemesmd, sb vbreheijrê bl rbidfdiemebftd pbreiejl qub gjcríj ab prjiteijrsb se lj ijusj idftefujrj su iursd draefjred. [jrj lj abvdluieùf ab lds bhbitds y pebzjs ab idfveiieùf pbrtbfbiebftbs j uf tbribrd errbspdfsjclb, sb dcsbrvjrê ld qub sb aespdfb bf lds jrtíiulds 891 y 892 ab lj LBIre pjrj bl ijsd ab sdcrbsbemebftd. [dr ld qub sb rbhebrb jl prdibaemebftd jcrbvejad, se, jcebrtd bl oueied drjl, lds jiusjads sb gjlljrbf bf e`fdrjad pjrjabrd y fd gucebrbf gbigd abse`fjieùf ab admeieled y, bf iujlquebr ijsd, se lj pbfj sdleiebaetdrejl    }         ibp

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

tjaj bxibaebrj ab ads júds ab prevjieùf ab lecbrtja d, se hubrj ab aesteftj fjturjlbzj, bxibaebrj ab sbes júds, bl Oubz mjfajrê bxpbaer rbquesetdrej pjrj su lljmjmebftd y cusij, abiljrêfadlds rbcblabs, se fd idmpjrbiebrjf d fd hubrbf gjlljads.

i. Sbcblaíj bstjfad pbfaebftb bl rbiursd ab ijsjieùf Ye bl rbd sb gucebrb hu`jad u diultjad abspuås ab fdteheijaj lj sbftbfiej y bstjfad pbfaebftb rbiursd ab ijsjieùf, åstb sb sustjfiejrê gjstj abhefetevj, eftbrbsjfad bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej qub sb fdmcrb jl rbcblab Jcd`jad y [rdiurjadr ab dheied. Lj sbftbfiej qub rbije`j sbrê hermb. Ld mesmd suibabrê se gjceåfadsb jusbftjad u diultjad bl rbd abspuås ab gjcbrlb sead fdteheijaj lj sbftbfiej, sb eftbrpusebsb bl rbiursd pdr su rbprbsbftjieùf d pdr bl Mefestbred Hesijl abspuås ab su jusbfiej u diultjieùf.

a. Iujfad bl rbcblab sbj gjcead Bstjfad lj ijusj bf sumjred d gjllêfadsb pbfaebftb bl oueied drjl, iujfad bl abiljrjad rbcblab sb prbsbftb d sbj gjcead, bl Oubz d Qrecufjl jcrerê fubvjmbftb lj ijusj pjrj idftefujrlj sb`ÿf su bstjad.

SBCBLAÍJ BF LJ HJYB AB YRMJSED Yb idftefujrê gjstj qub sb abiljrb tbrmefjad

BF BL OREIED DSJL Yb suspbfabrê åstb y sb jrigevjrêf lds jutds

BF BL SBIRSYD AB IJYJIEÙF Yb sustjfiejrê y lj sbftbfiej qub rbije`j sbrê rmb

0.

BL SBY[DFYJCLB IEXEL

0.: [brsdfjs rbspdfsjclbs Yb`ÿf bl jrtíiuld abl ::8.: I[, tdaj pbrsdfj iremefjlmbftb rbspdfsjclb ab uf abletd ld bs tjmceåf ievelmbftb se abl gbigd sb abrevjrbf ajúds d pbroueieds. Ye sdf ads d mês lds rbspdfsjclbs ab uf abletd lds oubibs d trecufjlbs sbújljrêf lj iudtj ab qub abcj rbspdfabr ijaj ufd. Jgdrj cebf, lj jiieùf ievel, j aehbrbfiej ab lj pbfjl, jabmês ab idftrj pbrsdfj iremefjlmbftb rbspdfsj clb ab uf abletd pubab pubab aere`ersb idftrj pbrsdfjs aesteftjs? -

Ljs pbrsdfjs rbspdfsjclbs abl gbigd fd pbfjlmbftb rbspdfsjclbs

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Bl jsb`urjadr idmd rbspdfsjclb ievel aerbitd

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Ljs pbrsdfjs rbspdfsjclbs sucseaejrejmbftb

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Lds pjrtíiepbs j títuld `rjtuetd

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baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Hefjlmbftb idfvebfb prbiesjr qub j pjrtb ab lds supubstds abl jrt. ::7 I[ (qub efmbaejtjmbftb vbrbmds), se efeiejad bl prdibaemebftd pbfjl, bstb idfiluyb sef idfabfj pbfjl, lj prbsirepieùf ab lj prbtbfseùf qub sb pubaj bobrietjr pjrj bxe`er lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel jftb dtrds ùrabfbs ouresaeiiedfjlbs fd idmebfzj j aesiurrer sefd absab lj rbibpieùf pdr bl pbrouaeijad ab lj idmufeijieùf ab lj rbsdluieùf ouaeiejl qub pdfb hef jl prdibsd pbfjl, juf iujfad bl pbrouaeijad fd gucebrj sead pjrtb bf aeigd prdibsd, tjl idmd bstjclbibf bl QI y lj Yjlj :ª abl QY.

J. Sbspdfsjclbs abl gbigd gbigd fd pbfjlmbftb rbspdfsjclbs Yb`ÿf bl jrt ::7 I[, lj bxbfieùf ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl abiljrjaj bf lds fÿmbrds :¿, 3¿, 9¿, 2¿ y 8¿ abl jrtíiuld 3; I[. fd idmprbfab lj ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel, qub sb gjrê bhbitevj idfhdrmb j ljs rb`ljs se`uebftbs? :ª) Bf lds ijsds ab lds fÿmbrds :¿ y 9¿, sdf tjmceåf rbspdfsj clbs pdr lds gbigds qub bobiutbf lds abiljrjads bxbftds ab rbspdfsjceleaja pbfjl quebfbs lds tbf`jf cjod su pdtbstja d `ujraj lb`jl d ab gbigd, sebmprb qub gjyj mbaejad iulpj d fb`le`bfiej pdr su pjrtb y sef pbroueied ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel aerbitj qub puaebrj idrrbspdfabr j lds emputjclbs. Lds Oubibs d Qrecufjlbs `rjaujrêf ab hdrmj bquetjtevj lj mbaeaj bf qub abcj rbspdfabr idf sus cebfbs ijaj ufd ab aeigds suobtds. 3ª) Ydf e`ujlmbftb rbspdfsjclbs bl bcred y bl eftdxeijad bf bl supubstd abl fÿmbrd 3¿. 9ª) Bf bl ijsd abl fÿmbrd 2¿ sbrêf rbspdfsjclbs ievelbs aerbitds ljs pbrsdfjs bf iuyd hjvdr sb gjyj prbijvead bl mjl, bf prdpdrieùf jl pbroueied qub sb lbs gjyj bvetjad, se hubrj bstemjclb d, bf dtrd ijsd, bf lj qub bl Oubz d Qrecufjl bstjclbzij sb`ÿf su pruabftb jrcetred. Iujfad ljs iudtjs ab qub abcj rbspdfabr bl eftbrbsjad fd sbjf bquetjtevjmbftb jse`fjclbs pdr bl Oubz d Qrecufjl, fe sequebrj pdr jprdxemjieùf, d iujfad lj rbspdfsjceleaja sb bxtebfaj j ljs Jamefestrjiedfbs pÿcleijs d j lj mjydr pjrtb ab ufj pdcljieùf y, bf tdad ijsd, sebmprb qub bl ajúd sb gjyj ijusjad idf jsbftemebftd ab lj jutdreaja d ab sus j`bftbs, sb jidrajrê, bf su ijsd, lj efabmfezjieùf bf lj hdrmj qub bstjclbzijf ljs lbybs y rb`ljmbftds bspbiejlbs. 1ª) Bf bl ijsd abl fÿmbrd 8¿, rbspdfabrêf prefiepjlmbftb lds qub gjyjf ijusjad bl mebad, y bf abhbitd ab bllds, lds qub gjyjf bobiutjad bl gbigd. Bf bl ijsd abl jrtíiuld :1 I[ (supubstds ab brrdr efvbfieclb sdcrb uf gbigd d idfstetutevd ab lj efhrjiieùf pbfjl d su eleietua), sbrêf rbspdfsjclbs ievelbs lds jutdrbs abl gbigd. baetdrejl    }         ibp

Empdrtjftb Jrt. 3;, :¿, 3¿, 9¿, 2¿ y 8¿ I[ Bstjf bxbftds ab rbspdfsjceleaja iremefjl? - Bl qub jl tebmpd ab idmbtbr lj efhrjiieùf pbfjl, j ijusj ab iujlquebr jfdmjlíj d jltbrjieùf psíqueij, fd pubaj idmprbfabr lj eleietua abl gbigd d jitujr idfhdrmb j bllj. - Bl qub jl tebmpd ab idmbtbr lj efhrjiieùf pbfjl sb gjllb bf bstjad ab eftdxeijieùf plbfj pdr bl idfsumd ab cbceajs jlidgùleijs, ard`js tùxeijs, bstupbhjiebftbs, sustjfiejs pseidtrùpeijs u dtrjs qub prdauzijf bhbitds jfêld`ds, sebmprb qub fd gjyj sead cusijad idf bl prdpùsetd ab idmbtbrlj d fd sb gucebsb prbvestd d abcead prbvbr su idmeseùf, d sb gjllb cjod lj efhlubfiej ab sífardmb ab jcstefbfiej, j ijusj ab su abpbfabfiej ab tjlbs sustjfiejs, qub lb empeaj idmprbfabr lj eleietua abl gbigd d jitujr idfhdrmb j bsj idmprbfseùf. - Bl qub, pdr suhrer jltbrjiedfbs bf lj pbribpieùf absab bl fjiemebftd d lj efhjfiej, tbf`j jltbrjaj `rjvbmbftb lj idfiebfiej ab lj rbjleaja. - Bl qub, bf bstjad ab fbibseaja, pjrj bvetjr uf mjl prdped d jobfd lbsedfb uf cebf ouríaeid ab dtrj pbrsdfj d efhrefoj uf abcbr, sebmprb qub? :¿ bl mjl ijusjad fd sbj mjydr qub bl qub sb trjtb ab bvetjr, 3¿, lj setujieùf ab fbibseaja fd gjyj sead prdvdijaj eftbfiedfjajmbftb pdr bl suobtd y 9¿, bl fbibsetjad fd tbf`j, pdr su dheied d ijr`d, dcle`jieùf ab sjireheijrsb. - Bl qub dcrb empulsjad pdr mebad efsupbrjclb.

75

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Bf tdads lds supubstds abl jrtíiuld jftbredr, bl Oubz d Qrecufjl qub aeitb sbftbfiej jcsdlutdrej pdr bstemjr lj idfiurrbfiej ab jl`ufj ab ljs ijusjs ab bxbfieùf ietjajs, prdibabrê j heojr ljs rbspdfsjceleajabs ievelbs sjlvd qub sb gjyj gbigd bxprbsj rbsbrvj ab ljs jiiedfbs pjrj rbiljmjrljs bf lj víj qub idrrbspdfaj (jrt. ::5 I[).

C. Bl jsb`urjadr jsb`urjadr idmd rbspdfsjclb ievel aerbitd aerbitd (jrt. ::0 I[) Lds jsb`urjadrbs qub gucebrbf jsumead bl rebs`d ab ljs rbspdfsjceleajabs pbiufejrejs abrevjajs abl usd d bxpldtjieùf ab iujlquebr cebf, bmprbsj, efaustrej d jiteveaja, iujfad, idmd idfsbiubfiej ab uf gbigd prbvestd bf bstb Iùae`d, sb prdauzij bl bvbftd qub abtbrmefb bl rebs`d jsb`urjad, sbrêf rbspdfsjclbs ievelbs aerbitds gjstj bl límetb ab lj efabmfezjieùf lb`jlmbftb bstjclbieaj d idfvbfiedfjlmbftb pjitjaj, sef pbroueied abl abrbigd ab rbpbteieùf idftrj quebf idrrbspdfaj.

I. Ljs pbrsdfjs rbspdfsjclbs rbspdfsjclbs sucseaejrejmbftb sucseaejrejmbftb (jrts. :3; y :3: I[) Ydf tjmceåf rbspdfsjclbs ievelmbftb, bf abhbitd ab lds qub ld sbjf iremefjlmbftb? :.¿ Lds pjarbs d tutdrbs, pdr lds ajúds y pbroueieds ijusjads pdr lds abletds idmbteads pdr lds mjydrbs ab :7 júds suobtds j su pjtrej pdtbstja d tutblj y qub vevjf bf su idmpjúíj, sebmprb qub gjyj pdr su pjrtb iulpj d fb`le`bfiej. 3.¿ Ljs pbrsdfjs fjturjlbs d ouríaeijs tetuljrbs ab baetdrejlbs, pbreùaeids, rbvestjs, bstjiedfbs ab rjaed d tblbveseùf d ab iujlquebr dtrd mbaed ab aehuseùf bsiretj, gjcljaj d vesujl, pdr lds abletds idmbteads utelezjfad lds mbaeds ab lds qub sbjf tetuljrbs, abojfad j sjlvd ld aespubstd bf bl jrtíiuld 3:3 I[ (sb`ÿf bl iujl, sbrê rbspdfsjclb ievel sdleajrej lj pbrsdfj híseij d ouríaeij prdpebtjrej abl mbaed efhdrmjtevd j trjvås abl iujl sb gjyj prdpj`jad lj ijlumfej d efourej gbigjs idf pucleieaja). 9.¿ Ljs pbrsdfjs fjturjlbs d ouríaeijs, bf lds ijsds ab abletds idmbteads bf lds bstjclbiemebftds ab lds qub sbjf tetuljrbs, iujfad pdr pjrtb ab lds qub lds aereojf d jamefestrbf, d ab sus abpbfaebftbs d bmplbjads, sb gjyjf efhref`ead lds rb`ljmbftds ab pdleiíj d ljs aespdseiedfbs ab lj jutdreaja qub bståf rbljiedfjads idf bl gbigd pufeclb idmbtead, ab mdad qub bstb fd sb gucebrj prdauiead sef aeigj efhrjiieùf. 1.¿ Ljs pbrsdfjs fjturjlbs d ouríaeijs abaeijajs j iujlquebr `åfbrd ab efaustrej d idmbried, pdr lds abletds qub gjyjf idmbtead sus bmplbjads d abpbfaebftbs, rbprbsbftjftbs d `bstdrbs bf bl absbmpbúd ab sus dcle`jiedfbs d sbrveieds. 2.¿ Ljs pbrsdfjs fjturjlbs d ouríaeijs tetuljrbs ab vbgíiulds susibpteclbs ab irbjr rebs`ds pjrj tbribrds, pdr lds abletds idmbteads bf lj utelezjieùf ab jqubllds pdr sus abpbfaebftbs d rbprbsbftjftbs d pbrsdfjs jutdrezjajs. Bl Bstjad, lj Idmufeaja Jutùfdmj, lj prdvefiej, lj eslj, bl mufeieped y abmês bftbs pÿcleids, sb`ÿf lds ijsds, rbspdfabf sucseaejrejmbftb ab lds ajúds ijusjads pdr lds pbfjlmbftb rbspdfsjclbs ab lds abletds adldsds d iulpdsds, iujfad bstds sbjf jutdreaja, j`bftbs y idftrjtjads ab lj mesmj d hufiedfjreds pÿcleids bf bl bobrieied ab sus ijr`ds d hufiedfbs sebmprb qub lj lbseùf sbj idfsbiubfiej aerbitj abl hufiedfjmebftd ab lds sbrveieds pÿcleids qub lbs bstuvebrbf idfhejads, sef pbroueied ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja pjtremdfejl abrevjaj abl hufiedfjmebftd fdrmjl d jfdrmjl ab aeigds sbrveieds bxe`eclb idfhdrmb j ljs fdrmjs ab prdibaemebftd jamefestrjtevd, y sef qub, bf fef`ÿf ijsd, pubaj ajrsb ufj aupleieaja efabmfezjtdrej. Ye sb bxe`ebrj bf bl prdibsd pbfjl lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel ab lj jutdreaja, j`bftbs y idftrjtjads ab lj mesmj d hufiedfjreds pÿcleids, lj prbtbfseùf abcbrê aere`ersb semultêfbjmbftb idftrj lj Jamefestrjieùf d bftb pÿcleid prbsuftjmbftb rbspdfsjclb ievel sucseaejred.

5;

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

A. Lds pjrtíiepbs pjrtíiepbs j títuld luirjtevd luirjtevd (jrt. :33 I[) Bl qub pdr títuld luirjtevd gucebrb pjrteiepjad ab lds bhbitds ab uf abletd, bstê dcle`jad j lj rbstetuieùf ab lj idsj d jl rbsjriemebftd abl ajúd gjstj lj iujftíj ab su pjrteiepjieùf.

0.3 Yetujieùf prdibsjl

Sbspdfsjceleaja abl pjrtíiepb j títuld luirjtevd

Qdad rbspdfsjclb hrbftb jl qub sb aereoj lj jiieùf ievel bx ableitd d bxtrj ableitd bf bl prdibsd pbfjl jaquebrb su idfaeieùf ab pjrtb bf bl mesmd absab qub bs ietjad pjsjfad j sbr pjrtb idftef`bftb. Ab bstj hdrmj eftbrvebfb bf bl prdibsd bf lj abhbfsj idf hjiultjabs pjrjlbljs jl rbspdfsjclb pbfjl, ab subrtb qub lb sdf jpleijclbs ljs mbaeajs ijutbljrbs ab fjturjlbzj bidfùmeij prbvestjs pjrj bl bfijusjad (idmd lj hejfzj d bl bmcjr`d). Sbidrabmds jabmês qub Lj jusbfiej efousteheijaj abl tbribrd rbspdfsjclb ievel ietjad bf abceaj hdrmj fd sbrê pdr sí mesmj ijusj ab suspbfseùf abl oueied (bx. jrt. jr t. 078 LBIre). Hefjlmbftb, rbspbitd ab lds tbribrds rbspdfsjclbs ievelbs re`b bl jrtíiuld 8:2 LBIre, sb`ÿf bl iujl, iujfad bf lj efstruiieùf abl sumjred jpjrbzij efaeijaj lj bxestbfiej ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel ab uf tbribrd idf jrrb`ld j lds jrtíiulds rbspbitevds abl I[, d pdr gjcbr pjrteiepjad jl`ufd pdr títuld luirjtevd ab lds bhbitds abl abletd, bl Oubz, j efstjfiej abl jitdr ievel, bxe`erê hejfzj j lj pbrsdfj idftrj quebf rbsultb lj rbspdfsjceleaja. Ye fd sb prbstjsb, bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej bmcjr`jrê lds cebfbs qub sbjf fbibsjreds.

0.9 Dpdseieùf j lj abiljrjieùf abiljrjieùf ab rbspdfsjceleaja ievel ab tbribrjs pbrsdfjs Lj LBIre jrcetrj uf efieabftb pjrj qub bl prbsuftd rbspdfsjclb ievel pubaj abmdstrjr su errbspdfsjceleaja> ld qub fd empeab qub, se sb abiljrjrb, lj pjrtb rbiljmjftb pubaj rbiljmjr bf víj ievel. Jsí? -

Lj pbrsdfj j quebf quebf sb bxe`ebrb lj hejfzj d iuyds cebfbs hubrbf bmcjr`jads pdarê, aurjftb bl sumjred, mjfehbstjr pdr bsiretd ljs rjzdfbs qub tbf`j pjrj qub fd sb lj idfseabrb ievelmbftb rbspdfsjclb y ljs prubcjs qub pubaj dhrbibr pjrj bl mesmd dcobtd (jrt. 8:8 LBIre)

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Bl Lbtrjad ab lj Jamefestrjieùf ab Ousteiej ajrê vestj abl bsiretd j lj pjrtb j quebf eftbrbsb, y bstj ld bvjiujrê bf bl tårmefd ab 9 aíjs, prdpdfebfad tjmceåf ljs prubcjs qub abcjf prjiteijrsb bf jpdyd ab su prbtbfseùf (jrt. 8:0 LBIre)

-

Yb`ueajmbftb, bl Oubz abirbtjrê lj prêiteij ab ljs prubcjs prubcjs prdpubstjs, y rbsdlvbrê sdcrb ljs prbtbfsedfbs hdrmuljajs

baetdrejl    }         ibp

5:

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

sebmprb qub puaebrb gjibrld sef rbtrjsd fe pbroueied abl dcobtd prefiepjl ab lj efstruiieùf (jrt. 8:7 LBIre) -

[jrj tdad ld rbljtevd rbljtevd j lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel ab uf 9¿ y j lds efieabftbs efieabftbs j qub aebrb lu`jr lj lj diupjieùf y bf su aíj lj rbstetuieùf ab idsjs qub sb gjlljrbf bf su pdabr sb hdrmjrê pebzj sbpjrjaj, pbrd sef qub pdr fef`ÿf mdtevd sb bftdrpbzij fe suspbfaj bl iursd ab lj efstruiieùf (jrt. 8:5 LBIre)

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Lds jutds aeitjads bf bstds efieabftbs sb llbvjrêf j bhbitd, bhbitd, sef pbroueied pbroueied ab qub qub ljs pjrtbs pjrtbs j quebfbs quebfbs pbrouaequbf pubajf rbprdauier sus prbtbfsedfbs bf bl oueied drjl, d ab lj jiieùf ievel idrrbspdfaebftb, qub pdarêf bftjcljr bf dtrd ijsd (jrt. 83: LBIre)

0.1 Eftbrvbfieùf bf bl prdibsd prdibsd pbfjl ab lds tbribrds qub pubajf rbsultjr jhbitjads pdr bl abidmesd Bf bstb bpí`rjhb jcdrajrbmds lj setujieùf prdibsjl ab quebf eftbrvebfb bf bl prdibsd pbfjl idmd 9¿ jhbitjad pdr uf abidmesd jutùfdmd. Jl prdibaemebftd pjrj bstb abidmesd (ijp. EE abl mesmd títuld), fds rbhbrerbmds bf yj jftbredrmbftb.

J. Sbsdluieùf ouaeiejl ab lljmjaj jl prdibsd (jrtíiuld (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr j. LBIre) Bl oubz d trecufjl jidrajrê, ab dheied d j efstjfiej ab pjrtb, lj eftbrvbfieùf bf bl prdibsd pbfjl ab jqublljs pbrsdfjs qub pubajf rbsultjr jhbitjajs pdr bl abidmesd iujfad idfstbf gbigds ab lds qub pubaj abrevjrsb rjzdfjclbmbftb? j) qub bl cebf iuyd iuyd abidmesd sb sdleietj pbrtbfbib j uf tbribrd aesteftd abl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad, d  c) qub bxestbf tbribrds tetuljrbs ab abrbigds sdcrb bl cebf iuyd abidmesd sb sdleietj qub pdaríjf vbrsb jhbitjads pdr bl mesmd. Yb pdarê prbsiefaer ab lj eftbrvbfieùf ab lds tbribrds jhbitjads bf bl prdibaemebftd iujfad? j) fd sb gjyj pdaead eabfteheijr d ldijlezjr jl pdseclb tetuljr ab lds abrbigds sdcrb bl cebf iuyd iuyd abidmesd sb sdleietj, d  c) bxestjf gbigds ab lds qub pubaj abrevjrsb qub lj efhdrmjieùf bf qub sb hufaj lj prbtbfseùf ab eftbrvbfieùf bf bl prdibaemebftd fd bs iebrtj, d qub lds supubstds tetuljrbs ab lds cebfbs iuyd abidmesd sb sdleietj sdf pbrsdfjs eftbrpubstjs vefiuljajs jl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad d qub jitÿjf bf idffevbfiej idf ål. Idftrj lj rbsdluieùf pdr lj qub bl oubz abiljrb emprdibabftb lj eftbrvbfieùf abl 9¿ bf bl prdibaemebftd pdarê eftbrpdfbrsb rbiursd ab jpbljieùf. Ye bl jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd gucebrj mjfehbstjad jl oubz d trecufjl qub fd sb dpdfb jl abidmesd, fd sb jidrajrê su eftbrvbfieùf bf bl prdibaemebftd d sb pdfarê hef j lj qub yj gucebrj sead jidrajaj. Bf bl ijsd ab qub sb jidrajrb rbiecer abiljrjieùf abl jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd, sb lb efstruerê abl idftbfead abl jrtíiuld 1:8 LBIre (rbhbread j lj aespbfsj ab lj dcle`jieùf ab abiljrjr abl iùfyu`b d pbrsdfj ufeaj pdr rbljieùf ab gbigd jfêld`j, pjrebftb, jcd`jad abhbfsdr y trjauitdrbs b eftårprbtbs, idf rbljieùf j lds gbigds j qub bstuvebrj rbhbreaj su trjauiieùf d eftbrprbtjieùf).

C. Bspbiejleajabs ab lj eftbrvbfieùf eftbrvbfieùf y ietjieùf j oueied abl tbribrd jhbitjad (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr c. LBIre) Lj pbrsdfj qub pubaj rbsultjr jhbitjaj pdr bl abidmesd pdarê pjrteiepjr bf bl prdibsd pbfjl absab qub sb gucebrj jidrajad su eftbrvbfieùf, jufqub bstj pjrteiepjieùf vbfarê lemetjaj j lds jspbitds qub jhbitbf aerbitjmbftb j sus cebfbs, abrbigds d setujieùf ouríaeij y fd sb pdarê bxtbfabr j ljs iubstedfbs rbljiedfjajs idf lj rbspdfsjceleaja pbfjl abl bfijusjad. 53

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

[jrj lj eftbrvbfieùf abl 9¿ jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd sbrê prbibptevj lj jsestbfiej lbtrjaj. Bl jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd sbrê ietjad jl oueied ab idfhdrmeaja idf ld aespubstd bf bstj lby. Bf lj ietjieùf sb efaeijrê qub bl oueied pdarê sbr iblbcrjad bf su jusbfiej y qub bf bl mesmd pdarê rbsdlvbrsb, bf tdad ijsd, sdcrb bl abidmesd sdleietjad.

Empdrtjftb Lj efidmpjrbibfiej abl jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd fd empbaerê lj idftefujieùf abl oueied.

Bl jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd pdarê jitujr bf bl oueied pdr mbaed ab su rbprbsbftjieùf lb`jl, sef qub sbj fbibsjrej su prbsbfiej híseij bf bl mesmd.

I. Fdteheijieùf b empu`fjieùf empu`fjieùf ab lj sbftbfiej sbftbfiej (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr i. LBIre) Lj sbftbfiej bf lj qub sb jiubrab bl abidmesd sbrê fdteheijaj j lj pbrsdfj jhbitjaj pdr bl mesmd, jufqub fd gucebrj idmpjrbiead bf bl prdibsd, sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf bl jpjrtjad 3 abl jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr j. Lj pbrsdfj jhbitjaj pdarê eftbrpdfbr idftrj lj sbftbfiej lds rbiursds prbvestds bf bstj lby, jufqub abcbrê ieriufsirecer su rbiursd j lds prdfufiejmebftds qub jhbitbf aerbitjmbftb j sus cebfbs, abrbigds d setujieùf ouríaeij, y fd pdarê bxtbfabrld j ljs iubstedfbs rbljiedfjajs idf lj rbspdfsjceleaja pbfjl abl bfijusjad.

A. Efidmpjrbibfiej Efidmpjrbibfiej abl 9¿ jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd (jrtíiuld 7;9 tbr a. LBir.) Lj efidmpjrbibfiej abl 9¿ jhbitjad pdr bl abidmesd qub hub ietjad ab idfhdrmeaja idf ld aespubstd bf bstj lby tbfarê idmd bhbitd su abiljrjieùf bf rbcblaíj. Lj rbcblaíj abl 9¿ jhbitjad sb rb`erê pdr ljs fdrmjs bstjclbieajs pdr lj LBI rbspbitd jl abmjfajad rbcblab, efilueajs ljs prbvestjs pjrj ljs fdteheijiedfbs, lds rbiursds hrbftb j lj sbftbfiej y lj rbsieseùf ab lj sbftbfiej hermb j efstjfiej abl rbcblab, se cebf, bf ijsd ab rbsieseùf ab lj sbftbfiej, lj mesmj sb lemetjrê j lds prdfufiejmebftds qub jhbitbf aerbitjmbftb jl 9¿ bf sus cebfbs, abrbigds d setujieùf  ouríaeij.. Bf tjl ijsd, sb rbmeter  ouríaeij rbmeterêê ibrteheij ibrteheijieùf ieùf jl trecufjl qub gucebrj aeitjad sbftbfiej bf :ª efstjfiej, se bs aesteftd jl qub gucebrj aeitjad lj sbftbfiej rbsiefabftb y, j idftefujieùf, sb sb`uerêf ljs rb`ljs se`uebftbs? j) Yb dtdr`jrê jl 9¿ uf pljzd ab :; aíjs pjrj prbsbftjr bsiretd ab idftbstjieùf j lj abmjfaj ab abidmesd, idf prdpdseieùf ab prubcj, bf rbljieùf idf lds gbigds rblbvjftbs pjrj bl prdfufiejmebftd qub lb jhbitb.  c) [rbsbf [rb sbftja tja d bl bsi bsiret retd d bf plj pljzd, zd, bl ùr ùr`jf `jfd d our ouresa esa eii eiiedf edfjl jl rbsdlvbrê sdcrb lj jameseceleaja ab prubcj mbaejftb jutd y, idf jrrb`ld j ljs fdrmjs `bfbrjlbs, sb sbújljrê hbigj pjrj lj vestj, iuyd dcobtd sb ibúerê jl bfoueiejmebftd ab lj jiieùf ievel pljftbjaj idftrj bl 9¿ d ab lj jhbiieùf ab sus cebfbs, abrbigds d setujieùf ouríaeij pdr lj jiieùf pbfjl. baetdrejl    }         ibp

59

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

i) Hrbftb j lj sbftbfiej sb pdarêf eftbrpdfbr eftbrpdfbr lds rbiursds prbvestds bf bf bstj lby. Ye fd sb prbsbftj bsiretd ab idftbstjieùf j lj abmjfaj bf pljzd d bl 9¿ fd idmpjrbib bf lj vestj abceajmbftb rbprbsbftjad sb aeitjrê, sef mês trêmetb, sbftbfiej idefieabftb idf lj rbsiefaeaj bf lds prdfufiejmebftds jhbitjads. Lds mesmds abrbigds prbvestds bf bl jpjrtjad jftbredr sb rbidfdibf jl 9¿ jhbitjad qub fd gucebrj tbfead lj dpdrtufeaja ab dpdfbrsb jl abidmesd pdr absidfdibr su bxestbfiej.

0.2 Iumplemebftd ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel Bf drabf jl iumplemebftd ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja ievel, lds jrtíiulds :32 y :38 abl Iùae`d [bfjl bstjclbibf ld se`uebftb?

J. [dseceleaja ab hrjiiedfjr hrjiiedfjr bl bl pj`d Iujfad lds cebfbs abl rbspdfsjclb ievel fd sbjf cjstjftbs pjrj sjteshjibr ab ufj vbz tdajs ljs rbspdfsjceleajabs pbiufejrejs, bl Oubz d Qrecufjl, prbvej juaebfiej jl pbrouaeijad, pdarê hrjiiedfjr su pj`d, sbújljfad, sb`ÿf su pruabftb jrcetred y bf jtbfieùf j ljs fbibseajabs abl pbrouaeijad y j ljs pdseceleajabs bidfùmeijs abl rbspdfsjclb, bl pbrídad b empdrtb ab lds pljzds.

C. Emputjieùf ab pj`ds bhbitujads pdr bl pbfjad d bl rbspdfsjclb ievel sucseaejred Lds pj`ds qub sb bhbitÿbf pdr bl pbfjad d bl rbspdfsjclb ievel sucseaejred sb emputjrêf pdr bl drabf se`uebftb? :¿ J lj rbpjrjieùf abl ajúd ijusjad b efabmfezjieùf ab lds pbroueieds. pbroueieds. 3¿ J lj efabmfezjieùf jl Bstjad Bstjad pdr bl empdrtb ab lds `jstds qub sb gucebrjf gucebrjf gbigd pdr su iubftj bf lj lj ijusj. 9¿ J ljs idstjs abl jiusjadr pjrteiuljr d prevjad iujfad iujfad sb empusebrb bf lj sbftbfiej sbftbfiej su pj`d. 1¿ J ljs abmês idstjs prdibsjlbs, efilusd efilusd ljs ab lj abhbfsj abhbfsj abl prdibsjad, sef prbhbrbfiej prbhbrbfiej bftrb lds eftbrbsjads. 2¿ J lj multj. Iujfad bl abletd gucebrb sead ab lds qub sdld pubabf pbrsb`uersb j efstjfiej ab pjrtb, sb sjteshjrêf ljs idstjs abl jiusjadr prevjad idf prbhbrbfiej j lj efabmfezjieùf abl Bstjad. Qbfarê lj mesmj prbhbrbfiej bl pj`d ab ljs idstjs prdibsjlbs ijusjajs j lj víitemj bf lds supubstds j qub sb rbhebrb bl jrtíiuld :1 ab lj Lby abl Bstjtutd ab lj Xíitemj abl Abletd.

7.

SB[SBYBFQJIEÙF U ABHBFYJ AB LJY [JSQBY. ABHBFYJ AB DHEIED U CBFBHEIED AB ORYQEIEJ @SJQREQJ

7.: Sbprbsbftjieùf prdibsjl prdibsjl ab ljs pjrtbs Jquí gbmds ab aestef`uer? -

51

Bl Mefestbred Hesijl, bl jcd`jad abl Bstjad, Lbtrjads ab lj lj Jamefestrjieùf ab lj YY, y lds lbtrjads ab ljs IIJJ u dtrds bftbs pÿcleids bobrietjf fd sdld lj abhbfsj ab bstds, sefd qub tebfbf tjmceåf ijpjieaja ab pdstuljieùf, pdr ld qub fd rbquebrbf ab lj eftbrvbfieùf ab prdiurjadr (bx. jrt. 22: LD[O).

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

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Ljs abmês pjrtbs qub eftbrvebfbf bf bl prdibsd abcbrêf pbrsdfjrsb pdr mbaed ab prdiurjadr lb`jlmbftb gjceletjad idf pdabr `bfbrjl pjrj plbetds. Jgdrj cebf, jl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad fd abtbfead fd sb lb bxe`b lj pbrsdfjieùf hdrmjl bf bl prdibsd gjstj qub sb jcrb lj hjsb eftbrmbaej jufqub pdarê gjibrld bf iujlquebr mdmbftd j trjvås ab prdiurjadr> trjtêfadsb abl [rdibaemebftd Jcrbvejad d Oueied Sêpead, idmd vemds, bl jcd`jad pdarê bf bstj hjsb bobribr lj pdstuljieùf (bx. jrt. 082 LBIre).

[dr ld abmês rbspbitd abl bobrieied ab lj rbprbsbftjieùf prdibsjl y bl pdabr dtdr`jad jl prdiurjadr, fds rbmetemds jl tbmj ab prdibsjl ievel adfab sb bstuaejf jmplejmbftb.

7.3 Abhbfsj ab ljs pjrtbs J. Bl abrbigd ab abhbfsj abhbfsj j. Idfibptd Absjrrdlld ab lj jiteveaja fbibsjrej pjrj blemefjr lj auaj irbjaj bf tdrfd j lj rbspdfsjceleaja abl bfijusjad bf bl gbigd dcobtd ab bfoueiejmebftd idmd idfsbiubfiej ab lj jiieùf pbfjl.

c. Hufajmbftd idfstetuiedfjl -

Bl jrtíiuld 31 IB? “:. Qdajs ljs pbrsdfjs tebfbf abrbigd j dctbfbr lj tutblj bhbitevj ab lds oubibs y trecufjlbs bf bl bobrieied ab sus abrbigds b eftbrbsbs lb`ítemds, sef qub, bf fef`ÿf ijsd, pubaj prdauiersb efabhbfseùf. 3. Jsemesmd, tdads tebfbf abrbigd jl Oubz Oubz draefjred prbabtbrmefjad pdr lj lby, lby, j lj abhbfsj y j lj jsestbfiej ab lbtrjad, j sbr efhdrmjads ab lj jiusjieùf hdrmuljaj idftrj bllds, j uf prdibsd pÿcleid sef aeljiedfbs efabceajs y idf tdajs ljs `jrjftíjs, j utelezjr lds mbaeds ab prubcj pbrtefbftbs pjrj su abhbfsj, j fd abiljrjr idftrj sí mesmds, j fd idfhbsjrsb iulpjclbs y j lj prbsufieùf ab efdibfiej. Lj lby rb`uljrê lds lds ijsds bf qub, qub, pdr rjzùf ab pjrbftbsid d ab sbirbtd prdhbsedfjl, fd sb bstjrê dcle`jad j abiljrjr sdcrb gbigds prbsuftjmbftb ableitevds”.

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Bl jrtíiuld :0 IB? “:) Qdaj pbrsdfj tebfb abrbigd j lj lecbrtja y j lj sb`ureaja. Fjaeb pubab sbr prevjad ab su lecbrtja, sefd idf lj dcsbrvjfiej ab ld bstjclbiead bf bstb jrtíiuld y bf lds ijsds y bf lj hdrmj prbvestds bf lj lby. 3) Lj abtbfieùf prbvbftevj fd pdarê pdarê aurjr mês abl tebmpd bstreitjmbftb fbibsjred fbibsjred pjrj lj rbjlezjieùf ab ljs jvbre`ujiedfbs tbfabftbs jl bsiljrbiemebftd ab lds gbigds, y, bf tdad ijsd, bf bl pljzd mêxemd ab sbtbftj y ads gdrjs, bl abtbfead abcbrê sbr pubstd bf lecbrtja d j aespdseieùf ab lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl. 9) Qdaj pbrsdfj abtbfeaj abcb sbr efhdrmjaj ab hdrmj efmbaejtj, y ab mdad qub lb sbj idmprbfseclb, ab sus abrbigds y ab ljs rjzdfbs ab su abtbfieùf, fd puaebfad sbr dcle`jaj j abiljrjr. Yb `jrjftezj lj jsestbfiej ab jcd`jad jl abtbfead bf ljs aele`bfiejs pdleiejlbs y ouaeiejlbs, bf lds tårmefds qub lj lby bstjclbzij. 1) Lj lby rb`uljrê uf prdibaemebftd ab “gjcbjs idrpus” pjrj prdauier lj efmbaejtj pubstj j aespdseieùf ouaeiejl ab tdaj pbrsdfj abtbfeaj elb`jlmbftb. Jsemesmd, pdr lby sb abtbrmefjrê bl pljzd mêxemd ab aurjieùf ab lj preseùf prdvesedfjl”.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

52

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

C. Qepds ab abhbfsj j. Abhbfsj mjtbrejl Yb`ÿf abtbrmefj bl jrt. 3 LBIre, tdajs ljs Jutdreajabs y hufiedfjreds qub eftbrvbf`jf bf bl prdibaemebftd pbfjl iueajrêf, abftrd ab lds límetbs ab su rbspbitevj idmpbtbfiej, ab idfse`fjr y jprbiejr ljs ieriufstjfiejs jsí javbrsjs idmd hjvdrjclbs jl prbsuftd rbd> y bstjrêf dcle`jads, j hjltj ab aespdseieùf bxprbsj, j efstruer j bstb ab sus abrbigds y ab lds rbiursds qub pubaj bobrietjr, mebftrjs fd sb gjlljrb jsestead ab abhbfsdr.

c. Abhbfsj hdrmjl • Jiteveaja abhbfsevj abl efvbste`jad efvbste`jad

J aehbrbfiej ab ld qub diurríj bf bl oueied ab abletds lbvbs, bl jitujl sestbmj a b lj LBIre fd rbidfdib uf supubstd ab jutdabhbfsj, lj iujl abcbrê jrteiuljrsb sebmprb pdr mbaed ab lbtrjad. Bstd fd dcstj j qub lj LBIre jrteiulb ufj sbreb ab `jrjftíjs bf ljs qub bl efvbste`jad pubab bobrietjr abtbrmefjajs jiiedfbs qub pubabf ijleheijrsb idmd ab fjturjlbzj abhbfsevj. Jsí? -

Qdaj pbrsdfj j quebf sb jtrecuyj uf gbigd pufeclb pdarê bobrietjr bl abrbigd ab abhbfsj, abhbfsj, eftbrvefebfad bf ljs jitujiedfbs, absab qub sb lb idmufequb su bxestbfiej, gjyj sead dcobtd ab abtbfieùf d ab iujlquebr dtrj mbaeaj ijutbljr d sb gjyj jidrajad su prdibsjmebftd, j iuyd bhbitd sb lb efstruerê, sef abmdrj efousteheijaj, ab lds se`uebftbs abrbigds? j) Abrbigd j sbr efhdrmjad ab lds gbigds qub sb lb jtrecuyjf, jsí idmd ab iujlquebr ijmced rblbrblbvjftb bf bl dcobtd ab lj efvbste`jieùf y ab a b lds gbigds emputjads. Bstj efhdrmjieùf sbrê hjieletjaj idf bl `rjad ab abtjllb suheiebftb pjrj pbrmeter bl bobrieied bhbitevd abl abrbigd ab abhbfsj.  c) Abrbigd j bxjmefjr ljs jitujiedfbs idf lj abceaj jftbljieùf pjrj sjlvj`ujrajr bl abrbigd ab abhbfsj y bf tdad ijsd, idf jftbredreaja j qub sb lb tdmb abiljrjieùf. i) Abrbigd j jitujr bf bl prdibsd pbfjl pjrj bobribr bobribr su abrbigd ab abhbfsj ab jiubrad idf ld aespubstd bf lj lby. a) Abrbigd j abse`fjr lecrbmbftb jcd`jad, sef sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf bl jrt. 230.:, 230.:, j) (rbspbitd ab lj abse`fjieùf ab Jcd`jad ab dheied mebftrjs bl abtbfead d prbsd sb gjllb efidmufeijad). b) Abrbigd j sdleietjr jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj, prdibaemebftd pjrj gjibrld y idfaeiedfbs pjrj dctbfbrlj. h) Abrbigd j lj trjauiieùf b eftbrprbtjieùf eftbrprbtjieùf `rjtuetjs ab idfhdrmeaja idf ld aespubstd bf bf lds jrts. :39 y :30 (rbspbitd ab lds efvbste`jads d jiusjads qub fd gjclbf d bftebfajf bl ijstblljfd d lj lbf`uj dheiejl bf lj qub sb absjrrdllb lj jitujieùf, d ljs pbrsdfjs idf aesijpjieaja sbfsdrejl). `) Abrbigd j `ujrajr selbfied y j fd prbstjr abiljrjieùf se fd absbj gjibrld, y j fd idftbstjr j jl`ufj d jl`ufjs ab ljs prb`uftjs qub sb lb hdrmulbf. g) Abrbigd j fd abiljrjr idftrj sí mesmd y j fd idfhbsjrsb iulpjclb. iulpjclb. Lj efhdrmjieùf j qub sb rbhebrb bstb jpjrtjad sb hjieletjrê bf uf lbf`ujob idmprbfseclb y qub rbsultb jiibseclb. J bstds bhbitds sb jajptjrê lj efhdrmjieùf j lj baja abl abstefjtjred, su `rjad ab mjaurbz, aesijpjieaja y iujlquebr dtrj ieriufstjfiej pbrsdfjl ab lj qub pubaj abrevjr ufj mdaeheijieùf ab lj ijpjieaja pjrj bftbfabr bl jlijfib ab lj efhdrmjieùf qub sb lb hjieletj. Bl abrbigd ab abhbfsj sb bobribrê sef mês lemetjiedfbs qub ljs bxprbsjmbftb prbvestjs bf lj lby absab lj jtrecuieùf abl gbigd pufeclb efvbste`jad gjstj gjst j lj bxtefieùf ab lj pbfj.

58

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Bl abrbigd ab abhbfsj idmprbfab lj jsestbfiej lbtrjaj ab uf jcd`jad ab lecrb abse`fjieùf d, bf su abhbitd, ab uf jcd`jad ab dheied, idf bl qub pdarê idmufeijrsb y bftrbvestjrsb rbsbrvjajmbftb, efilusd jftbs ab qub sb lb rbiecj abiljrjieùf pdr lj pdleiíj, bl hesijl d lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl, sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf bl jrt. 230, ^pjrj bl ijsd ab efidmufeijieùf], y qub bstjrê prbsbftb bf tdajs sus abiljrjiedfbs jsí idmd bf ljs aele`bfiejs ab rbidfdiemebftd, ijrbds y rbidfstruiieùf ab gbigds. -

Jabmês, bf bl prdibaemebftd Jcrbvejad abcb fdteheiêrsblb pbrsdfjlmbftb bl jutd pdr bl qub sb jiubraj lj idftefujieùf abl prdibaemebftd, tjl y idmd gj rbidfdiead bl Qrecufjl Idfstetuiedfjl j lj vestj ab lds jrts. 31 IB y ::0 LBIre

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Bl efvbste`jad qub sbj dcobtd ab abtbfieùf abtbfieùf tebfb rbidieads pjrj su abhbfsj lds abrbigds rbid`eads bf bl jrt. 23;.3, 3ces, 9 y 1 LBIre? -

Qdaj pbrsdfj abtbfeaj d prbsj sbrê efhdrmjaj pdr bsiretd, bf uf lbf`ujob sbfielld y jiibseclb, bf ufj lbf`uj qub idmprbfaj y ab hdrmj efmbaejtj, ab lds gbigds qub sb lb jtrecuyjf y ljs rjzdfbs mdtevjadrjs ab su prevjieùf ab lecbrtja, jsí idmd ab lds abrbigds qub lb jsestbf y bspbiejlmbftb ab lds se`uebftbs?

Qdmb fdtj Lj jameseùf ab abfufiej d qubrbllj, y iujlquebr jitujieùf prdibsjl ab lj qub rbsultb lj emputjieùf ab uf abletd idftrj pbrsdfj d pbrsdfjs abtbrmefjajs, sbrêf pubstjs efmbaejtjmbftb bf idfdiemebftd ab lds prbsuftjmbftb rbspdfsjclbs.

j) Abrbigd j `ujrajr selbfied fd abiljrjfad se fd quebrb, j fd idftbstjr jl`ufj d jl`ufjs ab ljs prb`uftjs qub lb hdrmulbf, d j mjfehbstjr qub sdld abiljrjrê jftb bl oubz.  c) Abrbigd j fd abiljrjr idftrj sí mesmd y j fd idfhbsjrsb iulpjclb. i) A brbigd j abse`fjr jcd`jad, sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf bl jpjrtjad :.j) abl jrtíiuld 230 y j sbr jsestead pdr ål sef abmdrj efousteheijaj. Bf ijsd ab qub, abcead j lj lbojfíj `bd`rêheij fd sbj pdseclb ab efmbaejtd lj jsestbfiej ab lbtrjad, sb hjieletjrê jl abtbfead idmufeijieùf tblbhùfeij d pdr veabdidfhbrbfiej idf jqubl, sjlvd qub aeigj idmufeijieùf sbj empdseclb. a) Abrbigd j jiibabr j lds blbmbftds ab ljs ljs jitujiedfbs qub sbjf bsbfiejlbs pjrj empu`fjr lj lb`jleaja ab lj abtbfieùf d prevjieùf ab lecbrtja. b) Abrbigd j qub sb pdf`j bf idfdiemebftd abl hjmelejr hjmelejr d pbrsdfj qub absbb, sef abmdrj efousteheijaj, su prevjieùf ab lecbrtja y bl lu`jr ab iustdaej bf qub sb gjllb bf ijaj mdmbftd. Lds bxtrjfobrds tbfarêf abrbigd j qub ljs ieriufstjfiejs jftbredrbs sb idmufequbf j lj dheiefj idfsuljr ab su pjís. h) Abrbigd j idmufeijrsb tblbhùfeijmbftb, sef abmdrj efousteheijaj, idf uf tbribrd ab su blbiieùf. Bstj idmufeijieùf sb iblbcrjrê bf prbsbfiej ab uf hufiedbaetdrejl    }         ibp

50

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

fjred ab pdleiíj d, bf su ijsd, abl hufiedfjred qub abse`fbf bl oubz d bl hesijl, sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf bl jrtíiuld 230. `) Abrbigd j sbr vesetjad pdr ljs jutdreajabs idfsuljrbs ab su pjís, pjís, j idmufeijrsb y j mjftbfbr idrrbspdfabfiej idf blljs. g) Abrbigd j sbr jsestead `rjtuetjmbftb pdr uf eftårprbtb, eftårprbtb, iujfad sb trjtb ab bxtrjfobrd qub fd idmprbfaj d fd gjclb bl ijstblljfd d lj lbf`uj dheiejl ab lj jitujieùf ab qub sb trjtb, d ab pbrsdfjs sdrajs d idf aesijpjieaja juaetevj, jsí idmd ab dtrjs pbrsdfjs idf aeheiultjabs abl lbf`ujob. e) Abrbigd j sbr rbidfdiead pdr pdr bl måaeid hdrbfsb d su sustetutd lb`jl y, bf su abhbitd, pdr bl ab lj efstetuieùf bf qub sb bfiubftrb, d pdr iujlquebr dtrd abpbfaebftb abl Bstjad d ab dtrjs Jamefestrjiedfbs [ÿcleijs.  o) Abrbigd j sdleietjr jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj, prdibaemebftd prdibaemebftd pjrj gjibrld y idfaeiedfbs idfaeiedfbs pjrj dctbfbrlj. Jsemesmd, sb lb efhdrmjrê abl pljzd mêxemd lb`jl ab aurjieùf ab lj abtbfieùf gjstj lj pubstj pubstj j aespdseieùf ab lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl y abl prdibaemebftd pdr mbaed abl iujl pubab empu`fjr lj lb`jleaja ab su abtbfieùf. Iujfad fd sb aespdf`j ab ufj abiljrjieùf ab abrbigds bf ufj lbf`uj lbf`uj qub idmprbfaj bl abtbfead, sb lb efhdrmjrê ab sus abrbigds pdr mbaed ab uf eftårprbtb tjf prdftd rbsultb pdseclb. Bf bstb ijsd, abcbrê bftrb`êrsblb, pdstbredrmbftb y sef abmdrj efabceaj, lj abiljrjieùf bsiretj ab abrbigds bf ufj lbf`uj qub idmprbfaj. Bf tdads lds ijsds sb pbrmeterê pbrmeterê jl abtbfead idfsbrvjr bf su pdabr lj abiljrjieùf bsiretj bsiretj ab abrbigds aurjftb tdad bl tebmpd ab lj abtbfieùf. -

Lj efhdrmjieùf j qub sb rbhebrb bl jpjrtjad jftbredr sb hjieletjrê bf uf lbf`ujob idmprbfseclb y qub rbsultb jiibseclb jl abstefjtjred. J bstds bhbitds sb jajptjrê lj efhdrmjieùf j su baja, `rjad ab mjaurbz, aesijpjieaja y iujlquebr dtrj ieriufstjfiej pbrsdfjl ab lj qub pubaj abrevjr ufj lemetjieùf ab lj ijpjieaja pjrj bftbfabr bl jlijfib ab a b lj efhdrmjieùf qub sb lb hjieletj.

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Ye bl abtbfead hubrb bxtrjfobrd, sb idmufeijrê jl iùfsul ab su pjís bl gbigd ab su abtbfieùf y bl lu`jr ab iustdaej y sb lb pbrmeterê lj idmufeijieùf idf lj jutdreaja idfsuljr. Bf ijsd ab qub bl abtbfead tbf`j ads d mês fjiedfjleajabs, pdarê blb`er j quå jutdreajabs idfsuljrbs abcb efhdrmjrsb ab qub sb bfiubftrj prevjad ab lecbrtja y idf queåf absbj idmufeijrsb. id mufeijrsb.

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Ye sb trjtjrb ab uf mbfdr, sbrê pubstd j aespdseieùf ab ljs Ybiiedfbs ab Mbfdrbs ab lj Hesijlíj y sb idmufeijrê bl gbigd y bl lu`jr ab iustdaej j quebfbs bobrzjf lj pjtrej pdtbstja, lj tutblj d lj `ujraj ab gbigd abl mesmd, tjf prdftd sb tbf`j idfstjfiej ab lj mefdríj ab baja. Bf ijsd ab idfhleitd ab eftbrbsbs eftbrbsbs idf quebfbs bobrzjf lj pjtrej pdtbstja, lj tutblj tutblj d lj `ujraj ab gbigd abl mbfdr, sb lb fdmcrjrê uf abhbfsdr ouaeiejl j quebf sb pdfarê bf idfdiemebftd abl gbigd y abl lu`jr ab abtbfieùf. Ye bl abtbfead abtbfead tuvebrb tuvebrb su ijpjieaja ijpjieaja mdaeheijaj mdaeheijaj ouaeiejlmbftb, ouaeiejlmbftb, lj efhdrmjieùf prbvestj prbvestj bf bf bl jpjrtjad 3 ab bstb jrtíiuld sb idmufeijrê j quebfbs bobrzjf lj tutblj d `ujraj ab gbigd abl mesmd, ajfad iubftj jl Mefestbred Hesijl. Ye bl abtbfead mbfdr d idf ijpjieaja mdaeheijaj mdaeheijaj ouaeiejlmbftb ouaeiejlmbftb hubrj hubrj bxtrjfobrd, bxtrjfobrd, bl gbigd ab lj abtbfieùf sb fdteheijrê ab dheied jl Iùfsul ab su pjís.

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Bl abrbigd j lj lj ÿltemj ÿltemj pjljcrj (jrt. 095 LBIre) Qbrmefjajs lj jiusjieùf y lj abhbfsj, abhbfsj, bl [rbseabftb prb`uftjrê prb`uftjrê j lds prdibsjads se tebfbf jl`d qub mjfehbstjr jl Qrecufjl.

57

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Jl qub idftbstjrb jhermjtevjmbftb lb sbrê idfibaeaj lj pjljcrj. Bl [rbseabftb iueajrê ab qub lds prdibsjads, jl usjrlj, fd dhbfajf lj mdrjl fe hjltbf jl rbspbtd abcead jl Qrecufjl fe j ljs idfseabrjiedfbs idrrbspdfaebftbs j tdajs ljs pbrsdfjs, y qub sb ieújf j ld qub sbj pbrtefbftb, rbterêfadlbs lj pjljcrj bf ijsd fbibsjred • Abhbfsj tåifeij

Bs lj qub idrrbspdfab, idmd idfsbiubfiej abl abrbigd ab abhbfsj y bl prefieped ab e`ujlaja ab pjrtbs, jl jcd`jad abse`fjad pdr bl efvbste`jad d bf su abhbitd fdmcrjad ab dheied idfhdrmb jl jrtíiuld 212.: LD[O, sjlvd qub lj lby aespdf`j dtrj idsj, ljs pjrtbs pdarêf abse`fjr lecrbmbftb j sus rbprbsbftjftbs y abhbfsdrbs bftrb lds [rdiurjadrbs y Jcd`jads qub rbÿfjf lds rbquesetds bxe`eads pdr ljs lbybs. Jabmês, bs dcle`jieùf ab lds pdabrbs pÿcleids `jrjftezjr lj abhbfsj y lj jsestbfiej ab Jcd`jad d lj rbprbsbftjieùf tåifeij ab @rjaujad Ydiejl bf lds tårmefds bstjclbieads bf lj Idfstetuieùf y bf ljs lbybs. [dr dtrd ljad, pjrj jitujr bf bl prdibsd, ljs pbrsdfjs efvbste`jajs abcbrêf sbr rbprbsbftjajs pdr prdiurjadr y abhbfaeajs pdr jcd`jad, abse`fêfadsblbs ab dheied iujfad fd lds gucebsbf fdmcrjad pdr sí mesmds y ld sdleietjrbf, y bf tdad ijsd, iujfad fd tuvebrjf jptetua lb`jl pjrj gjibrld. Ye fd gucebsbf abse`fjad prdiurjadr d jcd`jad, sb lbs rbqubrerê pjrj qub ld gj`jf d sb lbs fdmcrjrê ab dheied se, rbqubreads, fd lds fdmcrjsbf, iujfad lj ijusj llb`ub j bstjad bf qub sb fbibsetb bl idfsbod ab jqubllds d gjyj ab eftbftjr jl`ÿf rbiursd qub geiebsb efaespbfsjclb su jitujieùf. Qdajs ljs idmufeijiedfbs bftrb bl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad y su jcd`jad tbfarêf ijrêitbr idfheabfiejl. Ye bstjs idfvbrsjiedfbs d idmufeijiedfbs gucebrjf sead ijptjajs d eftbrvbfeajs aurjftb lj bobiuieùf ab jl`ufj ab ljs aele`bfiejs rb`uljajs bf bstj lby, bl oubz drabfjrê lj blemefjieùf ab lj `rjcjieùf d lj bftrb`j jl abstefjtjred ab lj idrrbspdfabfiej abtbfeaj, abojfad idfstjfiej ab bstjs ieriufstjfiejs bf ljs jitujiedfbs. Ld aespubstd fd sbrê ab jpleijieùf iujfad sb idfstjtb lj bxestbfiej ab efaeieds dcobtevds ab lj pjrteiepjieùf abl jcd`jad bf bl gbigd ableitevd efvbste`jad d ab su empleijieùf ouftd idf bl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad bf lj idmeseùf ab dtrj efhrjiieùf pbfjl, sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf lj Lby @bfbrjl [bfetbfiejrej. Bf iujftd j lj jsestbfiej abl jcd`jad idfsesterê bf? j) Ydleietjr, bf su ijsd, qub sb efhdrmb jl abtbfead abtbfead d prbsd ab lds abrbigds bstjclbieads bf bl jpjrtjad 3 y qub sb prdibaj, se hubrj fbibsjred, jl rbidfdiemebftd måaeid sbújljad bf su lbtrj e).  c) Eftbrvbfer bf ljs aele`bfiejs ab abiljrjieùf abl abtbfead, bf ljs aele`bfiejs ab rbidfdiemebftd ab qub sbj dcobtd y bf ljs ab rbidfstruiieùf ab lds gbigds bf qub pjrteiepb bl abtbfead. Bl jcd`jad pdarê sdleietjr jl oubz d hufiedfjred qub gucebsbf prjiteijad lj aele`bfiej bf lj qub gjyj eftbrvbfead, ufj vbz tbrmefjaj bstj, lj abiljrjieùf d jmplejieùf ab lds bxtrbmds qub idfseabrb idfvbfebftbs, jsí idmd lj idfse`fjieùf bf bl jitj ab iujlquebr efieabfiej qub gjyj tbfead lu`jr aurjftb su prêiteij. i) Efhdrmjr jl abtbfead ab ljs idfsbiubfiejs ab lj prbstjieùf d abfb`jieùf ab idfsbftemebftd j lj prêiteij ab aele`bfiejs qub sb lb sdleietbf. Ye bl bl abtbfead abtbfead sb dpusebrj j lj rbid`eaj ab ljs mubstrjs mbaejftb hrdtes cuijl, idfhdrmb j ljs prbveprbvesedfbs ab lj Lby Dr`êfeij :;/3;;0, ab 7 ab ditucrb, rb`uljadrj ab lj cjsb ab ajtds pdleiejl sdcrb eabfteheijadrbs dctbfeads j pjrter abl JAF, bl oubz ab efstruiieùf, j efstjfiej ab lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl d abl Mefestbred Hesijl, pdarê empdfbr lj bobiuieùf hdrzdsj ab tjl aele`bfiej mbaejftb bl rbiursd j ljs

baetdrejl    }         ibp

55

[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

mbaeajs idjitevjs mífemjs efaespbfsjclbs, qub abcbrêf sbr prdpdriedfjajs j ljs ieriufstjfiejs abl ijsd y rbspbtudsjs idf su ae`feaja. a) Bftrbvestjrsb rbsbrvjajmbftb idf bl abtbfead, efilusd jftbs ab qub sb lb rbiecj abiljrjieùf pdr lj pdleiíj, bl hesijl d lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl, sef pbroueied ab ld aespubstd bf bl jrtíiuld 230 LBIre. Ljs idmufeijiedfbs idmufeijiedfbs bftrb bl efvbste`jad d bfijusjad bfijusjad y su jcd`jad tbfarêf ijrêitbr ijrêitbr idfheabfiejl bf lds mesmds tårmefds y idf ljs mesmjs bxibpiedfbs prbvestjs bf bl jpjrtjad 1 abl jrtíiuld ::7 LBIre. Fd dcstjftb, bl abtbfead d prbsd pdarê rbfufiejr j lj prbibptevj jsestbfiej ab jcd`jad se su abtbfieùf ld hubrb pdr gbigds susibpteclbs ab sbr tepeheijads bxilusevjmbftb idmd abletds idftrj lj sb`ureaja abl trêheid, sebmprb qub sb lb gjyj hjieletjad efhdrmjieùf iljrj y suheiebftb bf uf lbf`ujob sbfielld y idmprbfseclb sdcrb bl idftbfead ab aeigd abrbigd y ljs idfsbiubfiejs ab lj rbfufiej. Bl abtbfead pdarê rbvdijr su rbfufiej bf iujlquebr mdmbftd.

7.9 Abhbfsj ab dheied y cbfbheied cbfbheied ab ousteiej `rjtuetj Ld prembrd j tbfbr prbsbftb bf bstb ÿltemd bpí`rjhb bs lj aestefieùf ab jmcjs iubstedfbs, yj qub lj abhbfsj ab dheied empleij qub se jqubl qub sb pbrsdfj bf bl prdibsd pbfjl fd abse`fj uf lbtrjad ab su idfhejfzj, pdarê sdleietjr qub sb abse`fb ab dheied> mês bstd fd empeab qub gbigj lj abse`fjieùf bl qub lj gucebrb sdleietjad fd abcj jcdfjr lds gdfdrjreds abl jcd`jad y bf su ijsd prdiurjadr, bstd sdld diurrerê bf bl supubstd ab qub sb lb idfibaj bl cbfbheied ab Ousteiej @rjtuetj bf lds tårmefds ab lj Lby :/:558 ab [email protected]

J. Abhbfsj ab Dheied Sbspbitd ab lj abhbfsj ab dheied abstjijrbmds jquí qub? -

Yb abse`fjrêf ab dheied, idf jrrb`ld j ld qub bf ljs lbybs sb bstjclbzij, j quebf quebf ld sdleietb d sb feb`ub j fdmcrjrlds, sebfad prbibptevj su eftbrvbfieùf. Lj abhbfsj d rbprbsbftjieùf ab dheied tbfarê ijrêitbr `rjtuetd pjrj quebf jirbaetb efsuheiebfiej ab rbiursds pjrj lete`jr bf lds tårmefds qub bstj clbzij lj lby (jrt. 212.9 212.9 LD[O)

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Bl abtbfead abse`fjrê lecrbmbftb jcd`jad y se fd ld gjib sbrê jsestead pdr uf uf jcd`jad ab dheied. Fef`ufj jutdreaja d j`bftb lb bhbitujrê rbidmbfajieùf jl`ufj sdcrb bl jcd`jad j abse`fjr mês jllê ab efhdrmjrlb ab su abrbigd. Lj jutdreaja qub tbf`j cjod su iustdaej jl abtbfead idmufeijrê efmbaejtjmbftb jl Idlb`ed ab Jcd`jads bl fdmcrb abl abse`fjad pdr bl abtbfead pjrj jsesterlb j lds bhbitds ab su ldijlezjieùf y trjfsmeseùf abl bfijr`d prdhbsedfjl d, bf su ijsd, lb idmufeijrê lj pbteieùf ab fdmcrjmebftd ab jcd`jad ab dheied. Ye bl abtbfead fd gucebrb abse`fjad abse`fjad jcd`jad, d bl blb`ead blb`ead rbgusjrb bl bfijr`d d fd hubrb gjlljad, gjlljad, bl Idlb`ed ab Jcd`jads prdibabrê ab efmbaejtd jl fdmcrjmebftd ab uf jcd`jad abl turfd ab dheied. Bl jcd`jad abse`fjad jiuaerê jl ibftrd ab abtbfieùf idf lj mêxemj prbmurj, sebmprb abftrd abl pljzd mêxemd ab 9 gdrjs absab lj rbibpieùf abl bfijr`d. Ye bf aeigd pljzd fd idmpjrbiebrj, bl Idlb`ed ab Jcd`jads abse`fjrê uf fubvd jcd`jad abl turfd ab dheied qub abcbrê idmpjrbibr j lj mjydr crbvbaja y sebmprb abftrd abl pljzd efaeijad, sef pbroueied ab lj bxe`bfiej ab lj rbspdfsjceleaja aesieplefjrej bf qub gjyj pdaead efiurrer bl efidmpjrbiebftb (jrt. 23;.2 LBIre)

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Qdads lds qub sbjf sbjf pjrtb bf ufj ijusj, se fd sb lbs gucebrb gucebrb rbidfdiead bl bl abrbigd j lj jsestbfiej ouríouríaeij `rjtuetj, tbfarêf dcle`jieùf ab sjteshjibr lds abrbigds ab lds prdiurjadrbs qub lbs rbprbsbftbf, lds gdfdrjreds ab lds jcd`jads qub lbs abhebfajf, lds ab lds pbretds qub efhdrmbf j su efstjfiej y ljs efabmfezjiedfbs ab lds tbste`ds qub prbsbftjrbf, iujfad lds pbretds y tbste`ds, jl abiljrjr, gucebsbf hdrmuljad su rbiljmjieùf y bl Oubz d Qrecufjl lj bstemjrbf.

:;;

 

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

Fe aurjftb lj lj ijusj fe abspuås ab tbrmefjaj tbfarêf lj dcle`jieùf ab sjteshjibr ljs abmês idstjs prdibsjlbs, j fd sbr qub j blld hubrbf idfabfjads (jrt.:3: LBIre) LB Ire)

C. Cbfbheied ab ousteiej `rjtuetj j. Eftrdauiieùf Sbspbitd ab lj jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj, sebfad tjmceåf dcobtd ab bstuaed bf ufd ab lds tbmjs ab Abrbigd [rdibsjl Ievel, fds rbmetemds jl mesmd, abspuås ab efaeijr, fd dcstjftb, qub lj idfibseùf abl cbfåheid sb jtrecuyb bf lds tårmefds ab lj Lby :/:558, ab :; ab bfbrd, ab Jsestbfiej Ouríaeij @rjtuetj ([email protected]), j uf dr`jfesmd jamefestrjtevd (lj Idmeseùf ab Jsestbfiej Ouríaeij @rjtuetj)> cjstj rbidrajr jquí lj idmd jrtíiulds fuilbjrbs bf su rbidfdiemebftd, lds se`uebftbs? -

Jrt. ::5 IB? “Lj ousteiej sbrê `rjtuetj iujfad iujfad jsí ld aespdf`j lj lby y, bf tdad ijsd, rbspbitd ab quebfbs jirbaetbf efsuheiebfiej ab rbiursds pjrj lete`jr”.

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Jrt. 212.9 ef hefb LD[O? “Lj abhbfsj d rbprbsbftjieùf ab dheied tbfarê ijrêitbr `rjtuetd pjrj quebf jirbaetb efsuheiebfiej ab rbiursds pjrj lete`jr bf lds tårmefds qub bstj clbzij lj lby.”

c. Sbquesetds cêseids (jrt. 9 [email protected]) Yb rbidfdibrê bl abrbigd ab jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj j jqublljs pbrsdfjs híseijs qub ijrbiebfad ab pjtremdfed suheiebftb iubftbf idf ufds rbiursds b ef`rbsds bidfùmeids crutds, idmputjads jfujlmbftb pdr tdads lds idfibptds y pdr ufeaja hjmelejr, qub fd supbrbf lds se`uebftbs umcrjlbs? j) 3 vbibs bl efaeijadr pÿcleid ab rbftj ab bhbitds mÿlteplbs (E[SBM), ve`bftb bf bl mdmbftd ab bhbitujr lj sdleietua iujfad sb trjtb ab pbrsdfjs fd eftb`rjajs bf fef`ufj ufeaja hjmelejr.  c) 3 vbibs y mbaej bl E[SBM ve`bftb bf bl mdmbftd ab bhbitujr lj sdleietua iujfad sb trjtb ab pbrsdfjs eftb`rjajs bf jl`ufj ab ljs mdajleajabs ab ufeaja hjmelejr idf mbfds ab 1 mebmcrds. i) Bl treplb ab aeigd efaeijadr iujfad sb trjtb ab ufeajabs hjmelejrbs eftb`rjajs pdr iujtrd d mês mebmcrds d qub tbf`jf rbidfdieaj su idfaeieùf ab hjmelej fumbrdsj ab jiubrad idf lj fdrmjtevj ve`bftb. [jrj lj abtbrmefjieùf abl idfibptd ab ufeaja hjmelejr bf sus aevbrsjs mdajleajabs sb bstjrê j ld bstjclbiead bf lj Lby abl ES[H, bquepjrêfadsb j lds iùfyu`bs fd sbpjrjads lb`jlmbftb ljs pjrbojs ab gbigd idfstetueajs ab idfhdrmeaja idf lds rbquesetds qub lbs hubrjf bxe`eclbs.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

Empdrtjftb Lds mbaeds bidfùmeids sbrêf vjldrjads efaeveaujlmbftb iujfad bl sdleietjftb jirbaetb lj bxestbfiej ab eftbrbsbs hjmelejrbs idftrjpubstds bf bl lete`ed pjrj bl qub sb sdleietj lj jsestbfiej.

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[rdibaemebftds [rdibaemebf tds Ouaeiejlbs. A) [rdibaemebf [rdibaemebftd td [bfjl. Qbmj 11

Bl abrbigd j lj jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj sdld pdarê rbidfdibrsb j quebfbs lete`ubf bf abhbfsj ab abrbigds d eftbrbsbs prdpeds, d jobfds iujfad tbf`jf hufajmbftd bf ufj rbprbsbftjieùf lb`jl. Bf bstb ÿltemd ijsd, lds rbquesetds pjrj lj dctbfieùf abl cbfbheied vbfarêf rbhbreads jl rbprbsbftjad. Yb rbidfdibrê bl abrbigd ab jsestbfiej ouríaeij `rjtuetj j ljs pbrsdfjs ouríaeijs mbfiedfjajs bf bl jpjrtjad i) abl jrtíiuld 3 [email protected] (:.¿ Jsdiejiedfbs ab uteleaja pÿcleij, prbvestjs bf bl jrtíiuld 93 ab lj Lby Dr`êfeij :/3;;3, ab 33 ab mjrzd, rb`uljadrj abl Abrbigd ab Jsdiejieùf, y 3.¿ Hufajiedfbs efsiretjs bf bl Sb`estrd [ÿcleid idrrbspdfaebftb), iujfad ijrbiebfad ab pjtremdfed suheiebftb bl rbsultjad idftjclb ab lj bfteaja bf iùmputd jfujl hubsb efhbredr j lj ijfteaja bquevjlbftb jl treplb abl efaeijadr pÿcleid ab rbftj ab bhbitds mÿlteplbs.

7.1 Lemetjieùf bf bl abrbigd ab abhbfsj Qdaj pbrsdfj abtbfeaj idmd prbsuftd pjrtíiepb ab jl`ufd ab lds abletds j qub sb rbhebrb bl jrtíiuld 971  ces (abletd idmbtead pdr pbrsdfj eftb`rjaj d rbljiedfjaj idf cjfajs jrmjajs d efaeveauds tbrrdrestjs d rbcblabs), sbrê pubstj j aespdseieùf abl Oubz idmpbtbftb abftrd ab ljs sbtbftj y ads gdrjs se`uebftbs j lj abtbfieùf. Fd dcstjftb, pdarê prdldf`jrsb lj abtbfieùf bl tebmpd fbibsjred pjrj lds hefbs efvbste`jadrbs, gjstj uf límetb mêxemd ab dtrjs iujrbftj y digd gdrjs, sebmprb qub, sdleietjaj tjl prùrrd`j mbaejftb idmufeijieùf mdtevjaj abftrd ab ljs prembrjs iujrbftj y digd gdrjs absab lj abtbfieùf, sbj jutdrezjaj pdr bl Oubz bf ljs vbefteiujtrd gdrjs se`uebftbs. Qjftd lj jutdrezjieùf idmd lj abfb`jieùf ab lj prùrrd`j sb jadptjrêf bf rbsdluieùf mdtevjaj. Abtbfeaj ufj pbrsdfj pdr lds mdtevds bxprbsjads bf bl fÿmbrd jftbredr, pdarê sdleietjrsb sd leietjrsb abl Oubz qub abirbtb su efidmufeijieùf, bl iujl abcbrê prdfufiejrsb sdcrb lj mesmj, bf rbsdluieùf mdtevjaj, bf bl pljzd ab vbefteiujtrd gdrjs. Ydleietjaj lj efidmufeijieùf, bl abtbfead qubajrê bf tdad ijsd efidmufeijad sef pbroueied abl abrbigd ab abhbfsj qub lb jsestb y ab ld bstjclbiead bf lds jrtíiulds 23; y 230, gjstj qub bl Oubz gucebrb aeitjad lj rbsdluieùf r bsdluieùf pbrtefbftb. Aurjftb lj abtbfieùf, bl Oubz pdarê bf tdad mdmbftd rbqubrer efhdrmjieùf y idfdibr, pbrsdfjlmbftb d mbaejftb ablb`jieùf bf bl Oubz ab Efstruiieùf abl pjrtead d abmjrijieùf adfab sb bfiubftrb bl abtbfead, lj setujieùf ab bstb. J lds abtbfeads bf bspjieds mjrefds pdr lj prbsuftj idmeseùf ab lds abletds idftbmpljads bf bl jrtíiuld 39.1.a) ab lj LD[O (abletds ab perjtbríj, tbrrdresmd, trêheid elb`jl ab ard`js tùxeijs, bstupbhjiebftbs d sustjfiejs pseidtrùpeijs, trjtj ab sbrbs gumjfds, idftrj lds abrbigds ab lds ieuajajfds bxtrjfobrds y abletds idftrj lj sb`ureaja ab lj fjvb`jieùf mjrítemj qub sb idmbtjf bf lds bspjieds mjrefds), lbs sbrêf jpleijads lds abrbigds rbidfdieads bf bl prbsbftb ijpítuld bf lj mbaeaj qub rbsultbf idmpjteclbs idf lds mbaeds pbrsdfjlbs y mjtbrejlbs bxestbftbs j cdrad abl cuqub d jbrdfjvb qub prjitequb lj abtbfieùf, abcebfad sbr pubstds bf lecbrtja d j aespdseieùf ab lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl idmpbtbftb tjf prdftd idmd sbj pdseclb, sef qub pubaj bxibabr abl pljzd mêxemd ab sbtbftj y ads gdrjs. Lj pubstj j aespdseieùf ouaeiejl pdarê rbjlezjrsb pdr lds mbaeds tblbmêteids ab lds qub aespdf`j bl cuqub d jbrdfjvb, iujfad pdr rjzùf ab lj aestjfiej d su setujieùf ab jesljmebftd fd sbj pdseclb llbvjr j lds abtbfeads j prbsbfiej híseij ab lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl abftrd abl efaeijad pljzd. Bf lds supubstds abl jrt. 2;5 (bf bl qub bl Oubz ab Efstruiieùf d trecufjl pdarê jidrajr bxibpiedfjlmbftb, mbaejftb rbsdluieùf mdtevjaj, lj abtbfieùf d preseùf efidmufeijajs), bl abtbfead d prbsd pdarê sbr prevjad ab lds se`uebftbs abrbigds se jsí ld ousteheijf ljs ieriufstjfiejs abl ijsd? j) Abse`fjr uf jcd`jad ab su idfhejfzj.  c) Idmufeijrsb idf tdajs d jl`ufj ab ljs pbrsdfjs idf ljs qub tbf`j abrbigd j gjibrld, sjlvd idf lj jutdreaja ouaeiejl, bl Mefestbred Hesijl y bl Måaeid Hdrbfsb.

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baetdrejl    }         ibp

Ljs pjrtbs bf bl prdibsd pbfjl

i) Bftrbvestjrsb rbsbrvjajmbftb idf su jcd`jad. a) Jiibabr ål d su jcd`jad j ljs jitujiedfbs, sjlvd j lds blbmbftds bsbfiejlbs pjrj pdabr empu`fjr lj lj lb`jleaja ab lj abtbfieùf. Lj efidmufeijieùf d rbstreiieùf ab dtrd abrbigd abl jpjrtjad jftbredr sbrê jidrajaj pdr jutd. Iujfad lj rbstreiieùf ab abrbigds sbj sdleietjaj pdr lj [dleiíj Ouaeiejl d pdr bl Mefestbred Hesijl sb bftbfabrêf jidrajajs ljs mbaeajs prbvestjs pdr bl jpjrtjad : qub gjyjf sead efstjajs pdr uf pljzd mêxemd ab 31 gdrjs, abftrd abl iujl bl oubz gjcrê ab prdfufiejrsb sdcrb lj sdleietua, jsí idmd sdcrb lj pbrtefbfiej ab jidrajr bl sbirbtd ab ljs jitujiedfbs. Lj efidmufeijieùf y lj jpleijieùf jl abtbfead d prbsd ab jl`ufj ab ljs bxibpiedfbs rbhbreajs bf bl jpjrtjad jftbredr sbrê jidrajaj pdr jutd abceåfadsb mdtevjr ljs rjzdfbs qub ousteheijf lj jadpieùf ab ijaj ufj ab ljs bxibpiedfbs jl rå`embf `bfbrjl ab idfhdrmeaja idf ld aespubstd bf bl jrt. 2;5. Bl oubz idftrdljrê bhbitevjmbftb ljs idfaeiedfbs bf qub sb absjrrdllb lj efidmufeijieùf, j iuyd bhbitd pdarê rbqubrer efhdrmjieùf j hef ab idfstjtjr bl bstjad abl abtbfead d prbsd y bl rbspbtd j sus abrbigds. Lds rbidfdiemebftds måaeids jl abtbfead j quebf sb lb rbstrefoj bl abrbigd j idmufeijrsb idf tdajs d jl`ufj ab ljs pbrsdfjs idf ljs qub tbf`j abrbigd j gjibrld sb rbjlezjrêf idf ufj hrbiubfiej ab jl mbfds 3 rbidfdiemebftds ijaj 31 gdrjs, sb`ÿf iretbred hjiultjtevd.

baetdrejl    }         ibp

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