Essential Science 3

September 17, 2017 | Author: Gus | Category: Skeleton, Vertebral Column, Verb, Life, Noun
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Teacher’s Book

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Essential Science 853672_C.ai

27/2/06

20:00:43

• Essential Science teaches basic concepts of Science, Geography and History through English. • Content and language are carefully interwoven in Essential Science. Science, Geography and History

• The syllabus covers all the scientific contents which students require at this level.

Código de pedido: S-06794

• The language objectives correlate with those set out in the Cambridge Young Learners suite.

Código de pedido: S-06743

Science, Geography and History

• The Student’s Book guides students towards curricular objectives.

Activity Book

• A series of presentations explain key concepts in clear and simple language. • Basic activities in the Student’s Book give students the confidence to ask simple questions, and make short, descriptive statements.

• The Activity Book provides reinforcement and extension activities. • It includes projects and tasks to widen the students’ horizons, and stimulate reflection on work and progress. • The Student’s CD gives an extensive selection of recorded texts. • The students’ self-confidence will grow, as their fluency and pronunciation improve. • Learner autonomy is encouraged.

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Teacher’s Book

• Essential Science provides a wealth of material to teachers and students. This gives teachers great flexibility to choose. They can adapt their work in view of the time the students spend on Science, Geography and History in English. • Internet resources are available for teachers and students on our websites. Links encourage students to go further in their research. • Posters and flashcards give teachers important visual back-up. • Richmond Student’s Dictionary: a valuable reference tool.

Essential

Science3

• Assessment, Extension and Reinforcement worksheets provide teachers with additional resources.

Science, Geography and History

LEVEL

3 • This Teacher’s Book offers page-by-page teaching suggestions, solutions to the Activity Book activities, and a guide to other resources.

F INS ,W INGS AND L EGS

LEVEL

3 www.richmondelt.com

CLOUDS

• The Teacher’s CDs contains a selection of recorded texts as well as all the Student’s CD recordings.

• Richmond World Facts Readers provide a series of stimulating and carefully graded texts on Geography, Science, Culture and History.

www.richmondelt.com

• 58 readers at 6 levels of proficiency are available.

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CONTENTS FOR SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

Natural sciences

UNIT

4

CONCEPTS

BOOK 3, SECOND CYCLE

PROCEDURES

CITIZENSHIP

01. Living things

• The life cycle • Living things • Animals and plants • Where animals and plants live

• Comparing photos • Completing a chart

• Pollution

02. Our senses

• Touch • Sight • Hearing • Taste • Smell

• Completing a chart • Doing an experiment

• Blind people

03. Our body

• Movement • The skeleton • Muscles • How we use our muscles

• Labelling a diagram • Doing an experiment

• Changes in the body

04. Animals

• The classification of animals • What animals eat • How animals are born

• Classifying pictures • Labelling photos

• Animal protection

05. Vertebrates and invertebrates

• Vertebrates • Invertebrates

• Matching photos and diagrams • Completing index cards

• Respecting small animals

06. The Earth

• The Earth • Solids, liquids and gases • Changes in matter

• Analysing a picture • Labelling a diagram

• Pollution

07. Water

• Characteristics of water • Water as a resource • The three states of water • The water cycle

• Comparing photos • Labelling pictures

• Water as a valuable resource

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Geography and History

UNIT

CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

CITIZENSHIP

08. Air

• Air as a gas • The atmosphere

• Classifying pictures • Comparing photos

• Fresh air

09. Plants

• Stems, leaves and roots • Trees, bushes and grass

• Compiling information about plants in our region • Labelling a picture

• Protection of plants and trees

10. Flowering plants

• Plant seeds and fruit • Plants are born • Plants grow and change

• Drawing the life of a bean plant • Doing an experiment

• Fruit in season

11. The landscape

• Changes in the landscape • Mountains and flat lands

• Completing descriptions • Labelling a map

• Landscapes in our region

12. Water and weather

• Water • The coast and the sea • Weather

• Drawing a weather map • Describing coastal relief

• Clean beaches

13. Population

• Cities, towns and villages • Transport

• Interpreting graphs • Compiling information about our area

• Customs and traditions

14. Work

• Crop and animal farming • Industry

• Labelling a chart • Making a relief model

• The right to work

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The Student's Book indicates Richmond World Facts Readers.

Title

Our senses

• This is the number and title of the unit.

LOOK

indicates an Internet Activity.

Imagine you are in this room. Your eyes are covered. What can you know?

indicates a reading activity.

Look • The units begin with a LOOK or COMPARE section which focuses attention on the theme of the unit.

READ

1. The senses

5

We need our senses in order to understand our surroundings. We have five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Each sense goes with an organ in the body.

shows that it is also recorded.

• We use our eyes to see. They are the organs of sight. • We use our ears to hear. They are the organs of hearing. • We use our nose to smell. It is our organ of smell. • We use our tongue to taste. It is our organ of taste. • We use our skin to feel. It is our organ of touch.

2. Touch The skin on our hands is very sensitive. We can use our hands to model a piece of clay.

Our body is completely covered by skin. Through our skin we feel cold, heat and pain.

indicates that the activity should first be done orally.

Some parts of our body are very sensitive. For example, the skin on our fingers is very sensitive. However, the skin on our legs is not so sensitive.

Activities • Activities at the bottom of the page reinforce basic concepts, and practise structures and vocabulary. • Some are linked to citizenship themes.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. We use our skin to feel.

6

OUR SENSES

indicates that it can also be used as a writing exercise.

Read • Information is organised into numbered sections.

Water EXPRESSING FACTS Water can be found in three different states. Rivers, lakes, drinking water Ice, snow, hailstones Water vapour

Essential language • The Essential Language section summarises all the key language used at this level.

6

Air DESCRIBING PROPERTIES The Earth is surrounded by an enormous layer of gases called the atmosphere. In the lower parts of the atmosphere, The higher parts of the atmosphere, In outer space,

there is a lot of oxygen. there is a little oxygen. there is no oxygen.

is / are

liquid water. solid water. a gas.

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The Activity Book • Learner autonomy: the students assess their own progress.

I can do it

• The Activity Book offers a wealth of activities.

Activities

Contents

Worksheet 1. Date

Apply your knowledge THE LIFE CYCLE

UNIT

Read and tick ✔

I CAN DO IT

Living things Our senses Our body

3

I can compare living things and non-living things. I can identify animal and plant habitats.

6

I can identify our five senses. I can name the parts of the eye and the ear.

10

Animals Vertebrates and invertebrates The Earth Water Air Plants Flowering plants The landscape Water and weather Population Work Extra Past and present

1. What do living things do? Match and write. • reproduce

• eat

• are born

• die

• grow

I can name some bones and muscles. I can say how we use our muscles.

13

I can classify animals in different groups. I can identify what different animals eat.

16

I can identify vertebrates and invertebrates. I can name the characteristics of mammals.

25

I can identify the three parts of the Earth. I can compare solids, liquids and gases.

27

I can say where we find water. I can describe the water cycle.

30

I can describe the characteristics of air. I can identify some atmospheric phenomena.

32

I can identify stems, leaves and roots. I can compare trees, bushes and grasses.

a®æ bor> 2. How do living things begin? Connect.

35

I can name some of the parts of a flower. I can describe how plants grow.

40

I can identify different landscapes. I can name the parts of a mountain.

44

I can describe the course of a river. I can talk about the weather.

48

I can compare cities, towns and villages. I can identify some means of transport.

51

I can identify some types of work. I can talk about the needs of industry.

53

I can talk about the past. I can make a family tree.

3

1

5

4

2

6

A E C D

F

B PROJECT 1: PROJECT 2: PROJECT 3: PROJECTS 4-7: PROJECT 8: GLOSSARY:

Animal index cards Make a skeleton to study bones and joints An experiment Make objects to experiment with air Make a relief model of your autonomous community

20 21-24 37 38-39 56-57 58-64 3

2

Name

Date

Project 3

Glossary

INVESTIGATION SHEET AN EXPERIMENT

Design and carry out an experiment. Answer these questions. Question:

How does water affect the growth of plants?

Method:

How can you find the answer?

Living things

Model answers:

Glossary

Ta§æ two plantfi, wa†e® o>æ ®egularl¥ an∂ do no† wa†e® t™æ ot™e®, t™e> compa®æ. What resources do you need? Two plantfi in potfi, wa†e®. How much time do you need?

• Students use the glossary to record the vocabulary they have learned.

Abou† th®ææ ∑æekfi.

T™æ o>æ withou† wa†e® wil¬ d^æ. Results: How can you record your results? Dra∑ å pictu®æ o® å char†. How often do you take measurements? E√±r¥ 2 o® 3 dayfi. What are you looking for? To ßææ iƒ t™æ plantfi a®æ [email protected] Conclusions: Compare your results with your hypothesis. T™æ firs† plan† ifi [email protected] an∂ ™ealth¥. T™æ ot™e® o>æ ifi dr¥ an∂ wil†e∂. What do your results show you? T™æ plan† withou† wa†e® ifi [email protected] Evaluation: Was the experiment a good one? Yefi. What did you learn? Plantfi >æe∂ wa†e® to li√¶. What went wrong, if anything? I forgo† to wa†e® t™æ plan†. Can you improve it next time? Yefi. I ca> ∫¶ mo®æ ca®efu¬. Hypothesis:

What do you think will happen?

Multicultural non-sexist education

Peace education

Health education

eyelash

cold

eyelid

die

eyesight

grow

flavour

habitat

focus

life cycle

hearing

need

inner ear

pollution

iris

reproduce

lens

root

outer ear

soil

protect

sunlight

pupil

warm

retina

Our senses

• Projects and tasks lead the students to reflect, and carry out simple experiments.

Road safety

eyebrow

breathe

salty

Projects and tasks

37

eyeball

born (be)

Consumer education

short-sighted

blind

sight

cochlea

skin

colour-blind

smell

ear canal

soil

ear drum

sour

58

Environmental education

Citizenship

Sex education

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The Teacher's Book Materials for reinforcement and extension

UNIT 1

UNIT 0

Living things

Contents for Science skills

UNIT CONTENT

RESOURCES

Content objectives

Resource folder

1. Distinguishing living things from non-living things 2. Understanding the meaning of the life cycle 3. Understanding that nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction are common life processes 4. Learning characteristics of animals and plants 5. Distinguishing animals and plants 6. Understanding that living things only live in places where all their needs are satisfied 7. Understanding that living things can live on land or in water 8. Developing a responsible altitude towards animals, plants and their habitats

PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

– Reinforcement: Worksheet 1 – Extension: Worksheet 1

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 1

Language objectives

Internet resources

1. Describing and identifying objects, people and animals (present simple): Living things grow. Non-living things do not grow. 2. Comparing and contrasting: Some living things … Other living things … 3. Describing ability: Animals can move. Plants cannot move. 4. Talking about habits and facts: Animals live … Do bison live …?

www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Teaching strategies http://www.scienceacross.org/index.cfm?fuseaction= content.showcontent&node=29 Advice for teaching Science to students whose first language is not English.

Contents

Contents for English skills

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Reinforcement and extension

CONCEPTS

• Everything around us: living and non-living things • The life cycle of living things • Characteristics of animals and plants • The needs of living things

PROCEDURES

ATTITUDES

• Distinguish living things from non-living things • Classify different living things into animals or plants • Sequence correctly the events in the life cycle of living things

• Interest in knowing about and protecting living and non-living things around us

Living things http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/revisewise/science/living/ Information and interactive activities and tests about living things. Life processes and living things http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html Click on What are living things? or The Five Kingdoms of living things for pictures, information and interactive puzzles. Useful for students and teachers.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/index_flash.shtml

LEVEL

2

Other resources • • • •

Assessment criteria • • • • • • •

Learning the characteristics of living things Identifying living and non-living things Classifying living and non-living things Distinguishing living from non-living things Describing the life cycle of some living things in the right order Identifying the needs of living things Recognising that people are living things

W HERE D O P LANTS G ROW ?

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

P LANES , T RAINS AND M ORE

* Not yet available in English

www.richmondelt.com

16

17

Other resources

Internet resources

Worksheet 15. Date

Apply your knowledge

Worksheet 14. Date

Apply your knowledge

COMPARE SKELETONS

• There are solutions to all Activity Book activities.

VERTEBRATE ANIMALS

1. Look carefully. Then read and circle. A

1. Use these words to label the parts of the skeletons. Then colour the skeletons. • skull

B

• spinal column

• ribs

• legs

• tail

skul¬

skul¬

spina¬ colum>

tai¬

C

¬[email protected] spina¬ colum>

ribfi ● What are the differences between the human skeleton (A) and the cow’s skeleton (B)?

2. Use these words to complete the sentences.

• The human skeleton has got / has not got tail bones. • It has more / fewer bones in the legs. • It has two / four legs.

√±r†ebra†efi bo>efi backbo>æ

• Animals with a skeleton are called

.

• The skeleton is made up of

.

• All vertebrates have a

.

• The cow has two / four legs. VOCABULARY Match.

2. Read and circle.

The skull

● What are the differences between the human skeleton (A) and the chimpanzee’s skeleton (C)?

• Human arm bones are longer / shorter than human leg bones. 17

8



The spinal column •

• The chimpanzee’s arm bones are longer / shorter than its legs.

16

• is made up of many vertebrae joined together. • is an external protection of the body.

Invertebrates



• is made up of the bones in the head.

An exoskeleton



• are animals with no bones on the inside.

bones backbone vertebrates

Activity Book

54

Solutions

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Language objectives Content objectives • A cross-reference to the content objectives on the previous double page.

• A cross-reference to the language objectives.

Hands on

Vocabulary • This presented in alphabetical order. • It is recommended that students learn it.

Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 4, 5, 8. Language objectives: 1.

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

body, bones, head, involuntary movement, limbs, muscles, trunk, voluntary movement

READ

• Understanding that bones and muscles are connected to each other and work together

1. Movement

■ Hands on

The body 10

The skeleton is made up of all the bones in our body. The skeleton has two important functions:

head

2. The parts of the skeleton shoulder

An involuntary movement is one that we do not control. For example, we touch something hot, and then take our hand away quickly.

elbow

12

arm trunk

■ Hands on jawbone

Our bones

• Bones are hard and rigid. They are different in shape and size. For example, the bones in our fingers are small and short. The bones in our legs are big and long.

ulna

• Cartilage is soft and flexible. We have cartilage at the end of some of our bones, for example, our nose.

radius

ribs

• Ss touch their hands and describe what they feel. Ask: What can you feel under the skin? Is there anything hard? What shape are the hard parts? Are they big? Can they move? • Tell the Ss that what they can feel are the bones. Ask them: What do you notice if you touch your index finger? It is in three sections, each with a bone.

humerus

vertebra

hip

3. The joints

Our joints are important for movement:

ankle

Look at the boy. What parts of his body can he bend? Decide and complete. He can bend…

M.A. … arm (elbow) … leg (knee). OUR BODY

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

pelvis

spinal column (backbone) femur

tibia

• The neck is the joint between the head and the trunk. • The shoulder, elbow and wrist are the joints in our arms.

■ Presentation

fibula

• The hip, knee and ankle are the joints in our legs.

Running is a voluntary movement.

10

13

A joint is a place where two bones meet. Some bones are joined together so closely that they cannot move, for example, the bones in the skull. Other bones have a special joint which means they can move.

wrist

• READ Present 1 with 16 . The Ss say if the following movements are voluntary or involuntary: Moving our hand away when we prick a finger (I). Raising your hand to ask a question (V). Opening a book (V). Closing your eyes when a fly is buzzing round (V or I). Your heartbeat (I).

Changes in the body. Children grow and become men and women. Ask Ss how the body of the boy in the photo will change as he grows. Then choose another photo in the book of a girl and ask how her body will change.

• Passive forms: are joined … sternum (breastbone)

The skeleton is made up of bones and cartilage.

A voluntary movement is when we make a movement that we want to, for example, when we pick up a glass.

■ Presentation

to practise the vocabulary.

• Learning the vocabulary

skull

neck

knee

17

• Understanding that bones are beneath the skin and muscles

The skeleton 14

• It holds the body up. It gives it shape.

limbs

• Play

■ Special attention LOOK

11

• It protects the most delicate parts of the body like the brain, the heart and the lungs.

• Muscles are soft and flexible. Many muscles are joined to bones. When muscles move, they pull and push the bones.

• Draw the parts of a puppet: head and neck, trunk, limbs (in two sections to include elbows and knees), hands and feet. Mark where a hole needs to be made. • Make photocopies of the puppet and give them to the Ss. They stick the puppet onto cardboard and then cut out the figure and make holes where indicated. Fix the pieces with pins. • Ss move the joints of the puppet.

ankle, bone, cartilage, elbow, hip, knee, neck, shoulder, skeleton, wrist, names of the most important bones

READ

1. The skeleton

9

• Bones are hard and rigid. We cannot bend our bones.

Making a puppet

• Points which may be difficult for the students in both Science and English.

The skeleton LOOK

We make many different movements through the day. Our muscles and bones work together to move our body.

Special attention

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 2.

Our body

■ Special attention

• LOOK The Ss learn the names of parts of the body by looking at the photo of the boy and focussing on the highlighted words: head, limbs, trunk … The other words describe the parts which make up these three main sections. For example: The limbs are the arms and legs. The leg includes the knee and the ankle.

• A classroom experience, which is motivating and simple to do.

Parts of the body: Simon says

Ss study the names of parts of the body. They stand up. Say: Simon says touch your head. The Ss must obey the instructions. Then continue giving instructions to touch other parts of the body, beginning with the phrase: Simon says. Occasionally this phrase is omitted, which means the students must not obey the instructions. Any student who does, is out of the game and has to sit down. The winners are the Ss left standing.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. The shoulder is a joint in our arms.

M.A. The ankle is a joint in our legs. The wrist is a joint in our arms. The knee is a joint in our legs. The elbow is a joint in our arms.

OUR BODY

11

• Ss touch their chest and find their ribs and sternum. Explain that these bones protect the lungs and heart.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Names of bones. Make photocopies of the skeleton but erase the names of the bones. Ss study the names for 5 minutes. Then, without looking, they write them in the correct place. 2

• READ Present 1 and 2 with 18 and 19 . Ask: Are bones hard? Are they soft? What would happen if we didn’t have a skeleton? What would our body be like? (a sack, a balloon without air …).

Vocabulary game: Hangman

The Ss study the vocabulary related to the skeleton. Then one student chooses a word and writes on the BB the spaces for each letter, for example: _ _ _ _ (N E C K) The Ss say letters of the alphabet to guess the word. Correct letters are written in the spaces but if the letter is not in the word, the S at the board begins to draw the Hangman. When someone guesses the word correctly, it is their turn to choose a word.

• Suggest they learn the names of the bones by starting at the top of the head and working their way down to the feet, visualising the bones they are naming. • Present 3 with 20 . To illustrate the joints in the body refer the Ss to page 10 of the book. Then ask the Ss to do the activity. • LOOK Present with

21 .

➔ R Activity Book, pages 10, 22 and 23. Calcium. We need calcium to grow and to be healthy. Milk and dairy products like yoghurt and cheese are rich in calcium.

34

35

Presentation • The suggestions include texts as well as graphic materials, such as photographs, drawings, diagrams and graphs.

Content and language development

Citizenship

• These activities combine Science and Language skills.

Activity Book ➔ R This symbol indicates a revision activity. E ➔ This symbol indicates an extension activity.

• Citizenship themes are identified with symbols.

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Learning skills Techniques Various learning skills can help students to master the contents of Essential Science:

Memorisation

• To extract information, it is important to study the whole picture carefully as well as look at the details. • The students study the accompanying texts, which give the names of the different parts or functions.

Highlighted words

• To memorise new vocabulary, it is useful to associate the words with mental pictures, and then revise them in order. • In order to teach human bones, for example, ask students to begin with their head, and move downwards until they reach their feet. • Touching the corresponding parts of their bodies can help memorisation.

Photographs

• These are printed in bold. They highlight key points and vocabulary.

Experiments • Before an experiment begins, the students are asked to predict how they think it will end. • Students need to have a clear idea of an experiment’s different stages. • Point out the following:

• The photographs help students to obtain information. It can be helpful to ask the students to study a picture before they have read the caption or received any other external information. • Focus the students’ attention: What do you see in the photo? Can you see …? • Go on to analyse the picture systematically, highlighting all the details.

Drawings • These drawings represent parts of the human body, plants, etc. Some are realistic, while others are simplified. skull

sternum (breastbone)

• material they will need • initial situation • sequence of events • final result

Enquiry questions • Learning should never be a purely mechanical process. Questions can be used to elicit prior knowledge, and find out students’ ideas. • Students should be encouraged to predict what they will learn: What do you know about mammals? What do you think this unit / this page is going to be about? • Comparison questions encourage students to relate information from different sections: In what ways are … different from …? • This type of question should be adapted to the language level of the class.

jawbone

ribs humerus

ulna

vertebra radius

pelvis

spinal column (backbone) femur

tibia

fibula

10

Activities • Initially, the activities at the bottom of the page should be done orally with the whole class. Later, most can be written down, either as homework or as whole class activites. This will help students to master the key concepts and language. • Some citizenship questions may be difficult for the students in English. It is advisable to begin by eliciting short, simple replies, for example, hearing, smell, taste and touch, in response to the question: What senses are very important to blind people?

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Recorded Material Some sections of each Unit are recorded on the Student’s CD. There is a more complete selection of texts on the Class CD. • The listening exercises can be used in the presentation stage of the Unit. • Students should listen to the recording at least twice before they check their answers. • The exercises can be corrected on the board, or by looking at the text in the book. • For revision purposes, the listening exercises can be used at the end of the unit to recycle vocabulary or revise the content. • At the end of each unit on the Class CD, there is an additional recorded text for use with higher level classes. • The recorded material will help students with the pronunciation of new language and vocabulary.

Essential Language The Essential Language section in the Student’s Book (pages 49 – 54), summarises the main functions and structures. Here are some practical suggestions for using this section:

Describing functions • Verbs, concrete nouns, abstract nouns: Students copy the tables into their notebooks. They test each other in pairs.

Defining • Prepositions of place: Students copy the texts, or use pencils to underline prepositions of place. In pairs they ask each other: Where is …?, and answer using the correct preposition. • Relative pronouns: Students identify examples of relative pronouns (who … which …). They write True / False sentences to test their partners, using relative pronouns to give correct or incorrect definitions.

Describing • Properties: verb to have: The students write affirmative and negative sentences. • Describing a process, using linking words: First, next, then, etc. The students find more examples of processes using these linkers in other units. • Landscapes: There is / there are + singular / plural nouns. Students find and underline more examples of this structure in other units. • The weather: Students write examples to describe the weather today, or in different seasons of the year.

Expressing facts • The Present Simple tense in the affirmative, negative, interrogative forms: Students underline examples of the structure in each unit, either copying the texts, or using pencils. • The verb to be born: The students ask and answer questions about how different animals are born. • Passive verb forms: Students identify the structure: verb to be + past participle, and write examples from each unit.

Flowering plants We classify fruit

DESCRIBING PROPERTIES

into two group s. Fleshy fruits have a lot of water.

Nuts do not have

a lot of water.

Ask and answ er. Are apples a flesh y fruit? Are melons nuts?

Pears, apples, and melons are fleshy fruits . Acorns and pean uts are nuts.

Yes, they are. / No, they aren' t. Yes, they are. / No, they aren' t.

DESCRIBING A PROCESS First, the flowe rs grow. Then, the flowe rs become fruit. Next, the fruit falls and open s. Then, the seed s fall out of the fruit into the soil. Finally, the seed s grow into new plants.

The landscape DESCRIBING LANDSCAPES types of landscape . Mountain lands capes narrow rivers, Flat landscape villages and fores s ts cities, farms and Coastal landscape motorways s cliffs, the sea and tourist towns Match. There are differ ent

Expressing ability • Can / cannot: Students ask questions related to examples from the unit, for example: Can birds swim?

You: We can see

motorways.

Mountains have three The summit The slopes The foot

Your partner: Flat

DEFINING

landscapes.

parts.

is / are

the highest part of a mountain. the sides of a mountain. the lowest part of a mountain.

ESSENTIAL LANG

UAGE

53

11

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About this book Linking units and contents • Before students look at the Contents list, write a few titles on the left of the board: Living things; Our senses; Our body; The Earth; The landscape; Water and weather. • On the right, write, in a different order, some of the information about the titles: Animals and plants; Sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch; The skeleton; Solids, liquids and gases; Mountains and flat lands; The coast and the sea. • Students volunteer to go to the board and draw a line between a title and its information. • The students now have the list of contents (page ii of the Student’s Book), open in front of them. Draw on the board something to represent a title, for example, a dog (Unit 4), and a mountain (Unit 11). • Students guess which unit is referred to. Students then volunteer to draw other titles on the board, and the activity continues. They may also do this activity in pairs.

Anagrams • Write anagrams on board, for example RATEW (WATER) and ask the students to say which unit is being referred to. The students could do this in pairs.

Contents PAGE

01 Learning to learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Living things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 01 Animals and plants. Where do animals and plants live? senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 02 Our Sight. Hearing. Taste and smell Our body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 03 The skeleton. Muscles. How do we use our muscles? Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 04 What do animals eat? How are animals born? Vertebrates and invertebrates 05 Vertebrates. Invertebrates

The Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 06 Solids, liquids and gases. Changes in matter Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 07 Water, a valuable resource. The three states of water. The water cycle Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 08 Air is a gas. The atmosphere Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 09 Plants have stems, leaves and roots. Trees, bushes and grasses Flowering plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 10 Plant seeds and fruit. Plants are born. Plants grow and change The landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 11 Changes in landscapes. Mountains and flat lands Water and weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 12 The coast and the sea. Weather Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 13 Cities, towns and villages. Transport Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 14 Crop and animal farming. Industry

14 Essential language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Multicultural non-sexist education

Notes:

12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Peace education

Health education

Road safety

Consumer education

Environmental education

Citizenship

Sex education

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General questions • Ask general questions: A

B

How many units are there in the book? What is the first / last unit about?

Learning to learn

What do you think you will study in Unit (5)? ABOUT THIS BOOK

What are Units 6, 9, 13 about? (These questions can also be asked in pairs.)

• Look at these pictures. Match them to the units on the opposite page. Then look at the book. Check your answers. Unit .........

C

D

E

Unit .........

F

Which unit is about animals / plants / the earth? (These questions can also be asked in pairs.) Which units discuss ‘water’? Which unit do you like best / is most interesting for you?

Unit 1

G

Unit .........

H

Unit 10

I

Unit .........

J

Pairwork activities • In pairs, the students test each other: A: The Earth? B: Unit 6. Animals?

Unit 12

K

Unit 5

L

Unit .........

M

Unit 7

N

A: Unit 4. Population? B: Unit 13. Answers: a – 2; b – 8; c – 1; d – 14; e – 10; f – 4; g – 12; h – 5; i – 3; j – 7; k – 9; l – 11; m – 13; n – 6.

Unit .........

Unit .........

Unit 13

Unit .........

Notes:

13

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You already know a lot! • This section shows students that they already have considerable prior knowledge. • Explain that this will help them throughout the year. • This section can also be used as a diagnostic test at the beginning of the year. • For example, to establish prior knowledge of the parts of the body, photocopy the boy on page 10, removing the text. Ask students to label the picture. • Choose how many words to include according to the level of the class.

YOU ALREADY KNOW A LOT! ANIMALS Can you name five animals? Where do they live? What do they eat?

PARTS OF THE BODY Ear, leg… Think of more words.

FOOD Do you know the names of three meals? Can you name five types of food?

TITLE What is the number of the unit? What is the title?

What is the first section on the page? LOOK AT THE PHOTO What animals can you see? Can you see water? Think about what you see in photos. Photos have a lot of information.

PLANTS Can you name three trees or flowers?

LANDSCAPES What can you see in the country? What can you see in a city?

WEATHER Do you know three weather words? Today it is…

What is the second section on the page?

PLACES Can you name three cities in your region? Can you name three European countries?

SYMBOLS • The text is on the CD

EXPLANATIONS These paragraphs have important information. Important words are like this: the life cycle.

• Richmond World Facts • There is an Internet activity

TRANSPORT Do you know more examples? Buses, planes, …

• Speak • Read • Write

• These are topics you will study this year. You already know a lot!

Notes:

14

ACTIVITIES These exercises give you practice in ESSENTIAL SCIENCE.

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Focus on the page Use the text in the right-hand column of page 2 to show the students how their textbook is organised.

Living things

TITLE AND PHOTO

LOOK

• Ask the students to tell you the number and title of the unit. Then ask them to look at the photo and predict what they think the unit will be about: What do you think this unit is going to be about?

In Africa Look at this photo. Point and identify. • animals • water • air • earth • plants

• Explain that photos include a great deal of information. Ask the students: What can you see in the photo?

Which of these are living things?

• If their language level allows it, suggest that they compare this African landscape with their own region or country: Is this landscape different from your region? (It’s dry …) • Further suggestions for teaching page 3 are given on page 18 of this Teacher’s Book.

READ

1. Living and non-living things

1

Everything around us can be put into two groups: living things and non-living things. • Living things are born, grow, eat, breathe and reproduce. People, animals and plants are all living things. • Non-living things do not eat or grow. The Sun and rocks are non-living things. Objects that people make, like tables or cars, are also non-living things. die

reproduce

2. The life cycle

2

• The use of photos is discussed in the Learning skills section on pages 10–11 of this Teacher’s Book.

The life of all living things has a beginning and an end. Some living things, like trees, have a very long life. Other living things, like insects, have a very short life. Living things are born, grow, relate to each other, reproduce and die. This process is called the life cycle.

EXPLANATIONS AND SYMBOLS

People are living things, and so we have a life cycle too.

• Explain that the students have their own Student’s CD.

grow

eat

• Students should listen to the recordings at home, which will help them to assimilate what they have learned.

breathe

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. All living things are born.

LIVING THINGS

3

• It is helpful if they sometimes listen to the recordings without using the Student’s Book. This sharpens their auditory capacity. • The recordings also help them to work on their pronunciation. • Further suggestions for exploiting the recording are given in the Learning skills section on pages 10–11.

Notes: ACTIVITIES • Some activities reinforce acquisition of the scientific contents. Others focus on citizenship reflection. • Suggestions for exploitation are given in the Learning skills section on pages 10–11.

15

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UNIT 1

Living things UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Distinguishing living things from non-living things 2. Understanding the meaning of the life cycle 3. Understanding that nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction are common life processes 4. Learning characteristics of animals and plants 5. Distinguishing animals and plants 6. Understanding that living things only live in places where all their needs are satisfied 7. Understanding that living things can live on land or in water 8. Developing a responsible altitude towards animals, plants and their habitats

Language objectives 1. Describing and identifying objects, people and animals (present simple): Living things grow. Non-living things do not grow. 2. Comparing and contrasting: Some living things … Other living things … 3. Describing ability: Animals can move. Plants cannot move. 4. Talking about habits and facts: Animals live … Do bison live …?

Contents CONCEPTS

• Everything around us: living and non-living things • The life cycle of living things • Characteristics of animals and plants • The needs of living things

PROCEDURES

ATTITUDES

• Distinguish living things from non-living things • Classify different living things into animals or plants • Sequence correctly the events in the life cycle of living things

• Interest in knowing about and protecting living and non-living things around us

Assessment criteria • • • • • • •

16

Learning the characteristics of living things Identifying living and non-living things Classifying living and non-living things Distinguishing living from non-living things Describing the life cycle of some living things in the right order Identifying the needs of living things Recognising that people are living things

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 1 – Extension: Worksheet 1

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 1

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Teaching strategies http://www.scienceacross.org/index.cfm?fuseaction= content.showcontent&node=29 Advice for teaching Science to students whose first language is not English. Living things http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/revisewise/science/living/ Information and interactive activities and tests about living things. Life processes and living things http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html Click on What are living things? or The Five Kingdoms of living things for pictures, information and interactive puzzles. Useful for students and teachers.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/index_flash.shtml

LEVEL

2

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

W HERE D O

P LANTS

G ROW ?

P LANES , T RAINS AND M ORE

www.richmondelt.com

17

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 1,2, 3.

life cycle, living things, non-living things

Living things

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that plants, although they cannot move, are living things

In Africa

• The use of the verb: to be born

Look at this photo. Point and identify.

• The use of the auxiliary verb: do in negative sentences in the present simple

• animals • water • air • earth • plants

■ Hands on

Which of these are living things?

Living things change • Draw two pictures on the blackboard (BB) of how you are now and how you were when you were younger. The students (Ss) draw similar pictures. • Ask the Ss to think about how they have changed. They compare their hair, teeth, height, the size of their feet, and the things they have learnt: My feet are big now. I can speak English now … • Point out that living things, including people, change throughout their lives.

■ Presentation

• Then ask: Is there water in the photo? Is there earth? Is there air? Ask the Ss: Are air, earth and water living things? Explain that they are non-living things. • Write a list of words on the BB: stones, grass, dog, tree, butterfly, worm, book, pencil, mountain, sea. Ask the Ss to classify the words into living or non-living things, for example: Stones are non-living things. Grass is a living thing.

➔ R Activity Book, page 3. E ➔ Activity Book, page 4.

18

1. Living and non-living things

1

and

2

,

2. The life cycle

1

• Living things are born, grow, eat, breathe and reproduce. People, animals and plants are all living things.

Living things are born, grow, relate to each other, reproduce and die. This process is called the life cycle.

• Non-living things do not eat or grow. The Sun and rocks are non-living things. Objects that people make, like tables or cars, are also non-living things. reproduce

2

The life of all living things has a beginning and an end. Some living things, like trees, have a very long life. Other living things, like insects, have a very short life.

Everything around us can be put into two groups: living things and non-living things.

die

• LOOK Ask the Ss: What do you notice about the photo? What animals can you see? Where are they? What are they doing? What plants can you see? Tell the Ss that animals and plants are living things.

• READ Present 1 and 2 with and do the activity.

READ

People are living things, and so we have a life cycle too. grow

eat

breathe

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. All living things are born.

All living things die. All living things reproduce… grow… eat… breathe.

LIVING THINGS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Sequencing. Write on the BB the verbs: reproduce, are born, relate to each other, die, grow.

The Ss write these verbs in the correct sequence in the following life cycle. Beginning: … → … → … → … → … End Answers: are born – grow – relate to each other – reproduce – die. 2 Comprehension. Write the sentences on the board. The Ss choose the correct alternative in each sentence.

Trees have a LONG / SHORT life. Insects have a LONG / SHORT life. Answers: 1. long. 2. short.

3

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Content objectives: 4, 5.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 3.

animals, move, plants, roots

Animals and plants

■ Special attention

READ

1. Animals and plants

3

Plants and animals are living things. How do they differ from each other? • Plants cannot move. They are fixed to the ground by their roots. Plants make their own food using water, minerals from the soil and sunlight. • Animals, including people, cannot make their own food. They need to eat plants and other animals. Animals can move from place to place. The heron can fly over the tree. However, the tree cannot move.

• Understanding that people belong to the animal group of living things • Understanding that plants make their own food • The use of the auxiliary verb do in the question form in the present simple tense

■ Hands on Animal and plant mobiles

COMPARE • Look at the photos. Choose one animal. How do you know it is an animal? Choose one plant. How do you know it is a plant?

tree bird

butterfly

ferns

• In class, Ss make mobiles by using a coat hanger, some string and pictures of living things. • Ss use only pictures of animals or plants. • Ss make pictures and hang them from the mobile on different lengths of string. • When the mobiles are finished, ask: What living things can you see? Are they plants or animals?

frog

■ Presentation 4

LIVING THINGS

Model answer (M.A.) A frog is an animal because it can move and eats other living things. Ferns are plants because they cannot move and they make their own food.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Can. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy and complete them with can or cannot. 1. A frog … move. 3. A bird … move. 2. A tree … move. 4. Ferns … move. Answers: 1. can. 2. cannot. 3. can. 4. cannot. 2 Comprehension. Now write these sentences and ask Ss to copy them and circle the correct answers. 1. Trees / frogs eat insects. 2. Trees / frogs make their own food. 3. Trees / frogs can move. 4. Trees / frogs have roots. 5. Trees / frogs cannot move. Answers: 1. frogs. 2. trees. 3. frogs. 4. trees. 5. trees.

• READ Ask the Ss: Can animals move? Can plants move? What do animals eat? Do plants eat? How do they get food? The Ss suggest answers. Then the teacher writes on the BB: Plants do not move. Plants make their own food. Animals move. Animals eat other living things. Present 1 with 3 . • COMPARE Divide the BB into two halves. Ask the Ss to write the names of plants in one half and the names of animals in the other half. They can use the words on page 4 of the book. Then ask them to choose one in each column and make sentences.

19

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Content objectives: 6, 7, 8.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 4.

cold places, habitat, in water, needs, on land, warm places

Where do animals and plants live?

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Understanding that living things only live in places where there is everything they need

Look at this photo. Do bison live in hot or cold areas?

• Expressions of quantity: some, some of them, others

What do they need? (Think about water and plants.) Is pollution dangerous to these animals?

■ Hands on Earthworms • Take a jar containing soil and worms into class. Ask: How can we find out about living things? • Pour the contents of the jar carefully onto a piece of cardboard. Ss look closely at the worms and describe them. • Explain that the worms’ habitat is soil. They need humidity to live. They eat the remains of living things.

READ

1. Animal and plant habitats

A habitat is a place where a plant or animal lives. Different animals and plants live in different habitats. They need water, air, soil, sunlight and food in the places where they live. • Different living things have different needs. Some of them can only live in very cold places. Others can only live in very warm places. Some living things need a lot of water. Others can live without water for several days.

■ Presentation

➔ R Activity Book, page 5. E➔

5

‘Life in a drop of water.’

This additional recorded text is for more advanced classes. Pollution. Pollution can be harmful to animals. They are affected by pollution in the air, the water and the earth.

20

• Living things can live on land or in water. Sardines and water lilies live in water. Lions and trees live on land.

Polar bears live in very cold places.

• LOOK Tell the Ss that living things are related to the place where they live. Earth, water, air, temperature and sunlight are all important. Explain that living things must have everything they need to live. Pollution may be harmful to the bison’s drinking water, and to the plants they eat. • READ Ss look at the picture of the polar bears. Ask them: What colour are they? What colour is the place where they live? Do they have fur? A lot or a little? Polar bears have fur to protect them from the cold. Their fur is the same colour as the ice that surrounds them. Present 1 with 4 . The SS then read the text and do the activity.

4

bison on land

water lilies lions polar bears trees in water in warm places in cold places

Make more questions. Change the underlined words. Do sardines live in water?

M.A. Where do lions live? Is it warm or cold? Do polar bears live in cold places? Do trees live on land?

LIVING THINGS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the sentence halves on the BB. The Ss copy them and draw lines to match them. Alternative: make photocopies of page 21. The Ss cut out the sentence halves and match them.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A habitat Sardines Different living things Lions Polar bears

a. live in warm places. b. have different needs. c. is a place where a plant or animal lives. d. live in cold places. e. live in water.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – e. 3 – b. 4 – a. 5 – d.

5

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b have different needs

e live in water



d live in cold places



c is a place where a plant or animal lives



a live in warm places



5 Polar bears



4 Lions



3 Different living things



2 Sardines



1 A habitat



Match.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – e. 3 – b. 4 – a. 5 – d. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S. L.

21

Worksheet 1. Date

Apply your knowledge

IDENTIFY LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS 1. Connect all the living things.

THE LIFE CYCLE 1. What do living things do? Match and write. • reproduce

START

• eat

• are born

• die

• grow

DOG

MUSSEL

It jumps and plays.

It attaches itself to rocks and moves very little. ROBOT

DORMOUSE

It can move and talk.

It sleeps a lot.

a®æ bor>

ea†

grow

®eprodu©æ

d^æ

2. How do living things begin? Connect. WIND

TORCH

It moves sailboats.

It helps us to see in the dark.

3

1

5

4

2

SNOWMAN

6

It disappears in the Sun. POPLAR TREE

FINISH

Its leaves fall in the winter. New leaves grow in the spring.

A E C

VOCABULARY

D

• cactus

• mosquito

• palm tree • snowman

4

• child

F

B

Cross out the non-living things. • penguin

• house • sardine

• hammer • dog • torch

• horse

3

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Apply your knowledge

Activity Book

22 Worksheet 2. Date

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Notes: Worksheet 3. Date

Apply your knowledge ANIMAL HABITATS

1. Where do the animals live? Complete the chart. Colour the animals.

polar bear

toucan

desert fox

walrus seal

camel

tapir

arctic fox

jaguar

gorilla WHERE ANIMALS LIVE North Pole

pola® ∫¶a® ßea¬ walrufi arcti© ƒo≈

Jungle

touca> jagua® gorillå tapi®

Desert

∂eßer† ƒo≈ caµe¬

5

23

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UNIT 2

Our senses UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Using the senses to discover and describe the environment: shapes, sizes, colours, smells and tastes 2. Identifying the five senses and how they work 3. Distinguishing the parts of the eye 4. Understanding that we need light in order to see 5. Identifying the path that sound takes in the ear 6. Understanding what taste buds are for 7. Appreciating the importance of all the senses 8. Differentiating healthy and unhealthy habits to look after our sense organs

Language objectives 1. Explaining the purpose of an object: We need our senses in order to … We use our eyes to see … 2. Conditions that are always true (zero conditional: if + present tense): If there is … we cannot see … 3. Expressing recommendation / obligation: We should … We must … 4. Describing where things are: in the centre; at the back; inside; behind 5. Describing movement: into; along; to 6. Making comparisons: Animals can smell better than …

Contents CONCEPTS

• Touch: feel cold, heat, pain • Sight: see shapes, colours, sizes, distances, position • Hearing: distinguish sounds • Taste: distinguish flavours • Smell: distinguish smells

PROCEDURES

• Associate each sense with an organ in the body • Interpret anatomical diagrams of the senses • Identify the parts of the eye and ear

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate the importance of the senses in order to react to the surroundings • Interest in developing a healthy lifestyle to take care of the sense organs

Assessment criteria • Associating the senses with their organs • Understanding how our senses work: perceive information from the world around us • Identifying the parts of the eye and ear

24

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 2 – Extension: Worksheet 2

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 2

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Sense organs http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chsense.html Information and activities about the senses. Eyes http://www.healthyeyes.org.uk/index.php?id=1 Information and activities for caring for eyes.

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

3

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

LET’S MAKE

MUSIC

* Not yet available in English

www.richmondelt.com

25

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2. Language objectives: 1.

ears, eyes, hearing, nose, sight, skin, smell, skin, taste, tongue, touch

Our senses

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that all of the body is sensitive to touch but certain areas, such as the hands, are very sensitive. We use them to find out more about our surroundings

Imagine you are in this room. Your eyes are covered. What can you know?

• Understanding the infinitive of purpose: … to see, … in order to understand …

■ Hands on READ

We sense things by touching them

1. The senses

• Bring a bag and several objects to class, for example, a sponge, crepe paper, shiny paper, a stone, a book, a pencil, a pencil sharpener and chalk. Before you show them to the class, ask: How can we find out about the senses? • Put one object in the bag at a time. Without looking at it, Ss take turns to put their hands in the bag, hold the object and describe it: It’s round. It’s soft … The other Ss try to guess what it is.

5

We need our senses in order to understand our surroundings. We have five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Each sense goes with an organ in the body. • We use our eyes to see. They are the organs of sight. • We use our ears to hear. They are the organs of hearing. • We use our nose to smell. It is our organ of smell. • We use our tongue to taste. It is our organ of taste. • We use our skin to feel. It is our organ of touch.

2. Touch The skin on our hands is very sensitive. We can use our hands to model a piece of clay.

Our body is completely covered by skin. Through our skin we feel cold, heat and pain. Some parts of our body are very sensitive. For example, the skin on our fingers is very sensitive. However, the skin on our legs is not so sensitive.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. We use our skin to feel.

■ Presentation

6

• LOOK To help Ss answer the first question, ask them: What can you smell? (the cake) What can you hear? (my friends blowing out the candles, children’s voices) What can you taste? (the sweets) What can you feel? (the paper cups, the serviettes …) • READ Present 1 and 2 with

6

and

7

.

OUR SENSES

M.A. We use our ears to hear. We use our eyes to see. We use our nose to smell. We use our tongue to taste.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Ask the Ss if the following sentences are true or false.

1. Our fingers are very sensitive. 3. Our body is covered by skin. 2. We use our tongue to hear. 4. We use our nose to feel.

• Ask Ss what sense we use when we do the following: smell an orange, taste an apple, decide how big a house is, hear a friend’s voice, decide how smooth a piece of paper is.

Ask the Ss to copy and complete the spaces.

• Ask Ss: How do your parents know if you have a temperature? (They put their hands or lips on your forehead because hands and lips are sensitive parts of the body.)

Parts of the Body eyes 2. 3. tongue skin

Answers: 1 – T. 2 – F. 3 – T. 4 – F. 2

Vocabulary. Write the table on the BB. Senses 1. hearing 4. 5.

Answers: 1. sight. 2. ears. 3. nose. 4. taste. 5. touch. E ➔ Activity Book, pages 6, 7.

26

smell

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 8.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 2, 3.

eye, eyeball, iris, lens, protect, pupil, retina, to see, sight

Sight

■ Special attention

READ eyebrow

1. Our eyes

• Interpreting the diagram of the eye 6

• Distinguishing between the modal verbs: should, must

We use our eyes to see. Some parts are for vision. Other parts are for protection.

eyelashes

• We use the eyeball, pupil, iris, lens and retina to see.

• Negative structure: We cannot see anything

• The eyelids, eyelashes and eyebrows all protect our eyes. eyelids We should always have enough light when we read or write.

2. Light If there is only a little light, we cannot see objects very well. If it is completely dark, we cannot see anything. We need light in order to see.

We must take good care of our eyes.

Eyes and distances

We can see colours, shapes, sizes, position and distances with our eyes.

• Hold a pen in one hand and the top of the pen in the other. Close one eye and hold your hands about 40 centimetres from your body. Ask the Ss to make a prediction: What will happen if I try to put the top on the pen? Carry out the experiment. • Ss carry out the same experiment. • Explain that we need both eyes to calculate distances. With only one eye we cannot put the top back on the pen.

LOOK AND READ The eye

pupil

7 lens

eyeball

This is in the centre of the eye. The light goes through the pupil.

This is inside the eye. It is behind the pupil. We use the lens to focus on things. iris The iris surrounds the pupil. It can be brown, green or blue.

■ Hands on

The eyeball is round.

retina This is at the back of the eye. The light goes through the pupil and reaches the retina.

■ Presentation 9

True or false? Decide and make more sentences. LIVING THINGS

• READ Present 1 and 2 with

We use our eyelashes to see. Eyelashes protect our eyes.

M.A. We use our eyelashes to see - false. Eyelashes protect our eyes – true. Other possible answers: We use the pupil to see. We use the lens to see. Eyelids protect our eyes. Eyebrows protect our eyes.

OUR SENSES

7

8

and

9

.

• LOOK AND READ Present with 10 . Explain that an eyeball has volume, like a balloon. In the diagram we can see inside the eyeball.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

• We normally see the eye from the front, protected above and below by the eyelids.

1 Comprehension. Write the following words and sentences on the BB. Ss complete the sentences with the correct word.

• The colours (which are not real) help identify the different parts of the eye.

inside / back / surrounds / centre / round 1. The retina: This is at the … of the eye. (back) 2. The pupil: This is in the … of the eye. (centre) 3. The lens: This is … the eye. (inside) 4. The eyeball is … (round) 5. The iris … the pupil. (surrounds) 2 A class survey. Ss find out the most common eye colour in the class. They carry out a survey by asking each other:

What colour are your eyes? How many students have brown eyes? Green eyes?

• Ask Ss: How do we close our eyes? (We move our eyelids.) What do we call the little hairs on our eyelids? (eyelashes) What are our eyebrows made of? (little hairs) ➔ R Activity Book, pages 8, 9. Looking after our eyes. To look after our eyes, we should read with enough light, have our eyesight checked, and wear glasses or contact lenses if we need them.

At the end of the activity they give their results.

27

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2, 5. Language objectives: 5.

cochlea, ear, ear canal, ear drum, hearing, inner ear, outer ear, small bones, sounds

Hearing

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding that the outer ear is the external part of the ear and that there is the inner ear inside the head

1. Our hearing There are two parts: • We can see the outer parts. These are our two ears.

• Understanding that sound is a vibration

• The inner ears are inside our head. They are very delicate. We can hear different sounds. We can tell where sounds come from.

• Following the path of sound by means of prepositions and verbs of movement

■ Hands on

We can distinguish the different sounds that a xylophone makes.

LOOK AND READ

Where sounds come from • The Ss close their eyes. Clap your hands once. The Ss say where the sound is from. Now stand in different places in the classroom and clap again. The Ss say: The sound is from the BB. The sound is from the window … • Tell Ss that we use our ears not only to hear, but to detect where sounds come from.

How we hear sound 8

small bones

1. Sound vibrates. The vibrations go into our outer ears. They go along the ear canal. 2. The vibrations reach the ear drum. It vibrates. 3. The movement of the eardrum reaches the small bones. Then it goes to the cochlea. 4. The cochlea collects the information. It sends it to the brain.

■ Presentation • READ Present 1 with

outer ear

Look. Follow the path that sound takes.

small bones

11 .

ear drum cochlea

ear canal

cochlea

ear canal

outer ear

ear drum

Follow the path that sound takes. Put these words in order.

• LOOK AND READ Present with 12 . The left part of the diagram is the part of the ear we can see, the right section is what is inside the head. • The colours of the diagram distinguish the different parts: the outer ear and the ear canal are coloured pink, the ear drum is green, the small bones are brown and the cochlea is blue. • Take a piece of cardboard and make it vibrate by moving it with the hand. Explain that sound is a vibration. When sound reaches the ear drum, it vibrates like the cardboard and transmits the vibration to the small bones. ➔ R Activity Book, page 9. Noise. Loud noises can damage our ears. It is important not to have the volume too loud when we use headphones.

28

8

OUR SENSES

ear, ear canal, ear drum, small bones, cochlea

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following words on the board. The Ss complete the sentences with the correct word.

bones / brain / ears / cochlea / drum / canal 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Vibrations go into our outer … (ears) They go along the ear … (canal) The vibrations reach the ear … (drum) The movement of the eardrum reaches the small … (bones) The … collects the information (cochlea) It sends the information to the … (brain)

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 6, 7.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 6.

flavours, nose, smell, taste, taste buds

Taste and smell

■ Special attention

COMPARE

• Understanding that taste and smell are related

• Copy and complete. Add more food.

• Use of the defining relative pronoun: … somebody who is lost lemons

ham

bananas

• Use of preposition and gerund: by following

cake

sweet

■ Hands on

salty sour

The perception of smells • Place a glass of lavender water in the corner of the classroom. • Ask the Ss: What do you notice? Ss will notice the smell. Ask them to say when they first smell it, and to identify it. • Explain that as it evaporates, it spreads round the room. We notice it when it reaches our noses. • Ask the Ss to predict: What will happen after a while? (The Ss will stop being aware of the smell.)

READ

1. Taste We taste food and drink with our tongue. The surface of our tongue is full of small dots called taste buds. We use these to distinguish flavours. We distinguish four different flavours: sweet, salty, sour and bitter.

2. Smell When we breathe, air goes in through our nose. We also use our nose to distinguish different smells. Our nose is our organ of smell. They can taste the water melon. They can smell the flowers.

Animals can smell better than people. For example, dogs can find somebody who is lost by following a trail.

■ Presentation

What senses are very important to blind people? In which situations do they use them?

M.A. All the senses are important except sight. With smell they can identify a flower; with hearing a person, with touch an object and with taste an apple.

OUR SENSES

9

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Read out the following sentences for Ss to correct.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ham is sour. Chocolate is salty. Bananas are sour. Cake is salty. Pizzas are sweet. Lemons are salty.

• COMPARE After completing the table the Ss make sentences like: Lemons are sour. Ham is salty. • READ Present 1 and 2 with 13 and 14 . Tell the Ss that when we have a cold we cannot appreciate the taste of food because we cannot smell it. The sense of taste and smell are closely related. We can prove this by tasting food with our eyes closed and our nose covered up. E➔

15 ‘Is the sense of touch important?’ This additional recorded text is for practice with more advanced classes.

Answers: 1. salty. 2. sweet. 3. sweet. 4. sweet. 5. salty. 6. sour.

29

Worksheet 4. Date

Apply your knowledge THE FIVE SENSES

1. What can you find out using your sense of touch?

1. These words are related to the senses. Use the key to colour them.

You need: sight: red

A partner and some objects. For example:

hearing: blue taste: yellow

a pencil

a book

a ball

a rubber

a glue stick

a DVD

EAR DRUM

IRIS

Instructions:

YEL

EYE

1. Your partner sits on a chair. Blindfold him or her.

HOT

RED

EAR

FLA

2. Put one object in his or her hands.

LOW

touch: green smell: orange

SOFT LID

BIT MU

TER

SIC

PER FUME

SALT

Y

NOSE

COL

OUR

VOUR

3. Ask: What is it? 2. Protect your skin! Circle the things you should not touch with your hands. Then complete the sentence.

4. Write the answer on the chart. 5. Ask: How do you know? 6. Write the answer on the chart. Use these words. • round

Object

å bal¬ å πenci¬ å rub∫e® å boo§ å DVD å gl¤æ stic§

• square

• long

What is it?

• cold water

• a hot pan

• insecticide

• a hot iron

• boiling water

• ammonia

• soap

å ho† iro> , å ho† pa>, [email protected] wa†e®, inßectici∂æ o® ammoniå

We should not touch

• rectangular

with our hands because they are bad for our skin.

How do you know?

I†´fi å bal¬. I†´fi roun∂. I†´fi å πenci¬. I†´fi roun∂. I†´fi å rub∫¶®. I†´fi [email protected] I†´fi å boo§. I†´fi squa®æ. I†´fi å DVD. I†´fi ®ectangula®. I†´fi å gl¤æ stic§. I†´fi [email protected] an∂ roun∂.

3. Look at the objects. How do these things protect us? Decide and complete. heat

Sun

cold

1. They protect our ears from the

col∂

.

2. They protect our eyes from the

Su>

.

1 2

3. They protect our hands from the 3

7

6

™ea†

.

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Tasks USE YOUR SENSE OF TOUCH

Activity Book

30 Worksheet 5. Date

Worksheet 6. Date

Tasks

Tasks HOW GOOD IS YOUR EYESIGHT?

SIGHT AND HEARING 1. Look carefully and answer the questions.

1. Draw one of your eyes. Match the words.

• Which line is longer? Circle A or B. • Which circle is larger? Circle A or B. pupil eyelid

They are the same.

A B

eyebrow

iris A

B

eyelashes

bl¤æ • What colour is your pupil? blac§

2. Find and colour two fruits, two animals and two tools.

• What colour is your iris?

2. Identify and match. Then colour. outer ear •

• cochlea

VOCABULARY Match. blind ear drum •

• three small bones

9

8

when you can only see certain colours

short-sighted

when you cannot see

colour-blind

when you cannot see distant objects clearly

They are the same.

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Worksheet 7. Date

31

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UNIT 3

Our body UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Identifying main organs and basic functions: bones, muscles and joints Learning about the skeleton and its functions Understanding what joints are and their purpose Interpreting anatomical diagrams Identifying characteristics of bones and muscles Understanding what muscles are for and how they work Distinguishing voluntary muscles from involuntary muscles Associating different movements with the muscle used Recognising the importance of sports and physical exercise

Language objectives 1. Giving definitions: A voluntary movement is … An involuntary movement is … A joint is a place where … 2. Impersonal statements: The skeleton is made up of … Bones are joined together. 3. Describing possession: our skin; their movements 4. Expressing contrast: However, … 5. Expressing functions: We use … to raise / to bend … 6. Explaining how a movement occurs (reflexive pronouns): by itself; by themselves

Contents CONCEPTS

• Bones and muscles: characteristics and names of main ones • Body movements: voluntary and involuntary • The skeleton: parts and functions • Joints: location • How muscles work and movement

PROCEDURES

• Distinguish between voluntary and involuntary movements • Interpret anatomical diagrams and apply the new vocabulary correctly • Explain how muscles work

ATTITUDES

• Interest in developing good habits for taking care of the skeleton and muscles

Assessment criteria • • • • •

32

Distinguishing between voluntary movements and involuntary movements Knowing the characteristics of bones and muscles and how they work together Naming some bones and muscles Interpreting anatomical diagrams Developing healthy habits for bones, muscles and joints

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 3 – Extension: Worksheet 3

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 3

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es The skeleton http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/online/humanbody. swf Information about the human skeleton. The human body http://kidshealth.org/kid/body Simple explanations about the human body. Useful for students. Protecting bones and muscles http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20040505/ Feature1.asp Information about warming up before exercising. Useful for students.

This information was provided by kidsHealth, one of the largest resources online for medically reviewed health information written for parents, kids and teens. For more articles like this one, visit www.kidsHealth.org or www.teensHealth.org. © 1995-2006 The Nemovis Foundation.

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

33

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 4, 5, 8. Language objectives: 1.

body, bones, head, involuntary movement, limbs, muscles, trunk, voluntary movement

Our body

■ Special attention

LOOK

READ

• Understanding that bones and muscles are connected to each other and work together

1. Movement

9

We make many different movements through the day. Our muscles and bones work together to move our body.

■ Hands on

The body 10 head

• Bones are hard and rigid. We cannot bend our bones. neck

• Muscles are soft and flexible. Many muscles are joined to bones. When muscles move, they pull and push the bones.

Making a puppet • Draw the parts of a puppet: head and neck, trunk, limbs (in two sections to include elbows and knees), hands and feet. Mark where a hole needs to be made. • Make photocopies of the puppet and give them to the Ss. They stick the puppet onto cardboard and then cut out the figure and make holes where indicated. Fix the pieces with pins. • Ss move the joints of the puppet.

shoulder

A voluntary movement is when we make a movement that we want to, for example, when we pick up a glass. An involuntary movement is one that we do not control. For example, we touch something hot, and then take our hand away quickly.

elbow

arm trunk

hip

wrist

limbs knee

■ Presentation ankle

• READ Present 1 with 16 . The Ss say if the following movements are voluntary or involuntary: Moving our hand away when we prick a finger (I). Raising your hand to ask a question (V). Opening a book (V). Closing your eyes when a fly is buzzing round (V or I). Your heartbeat (I). • LOOK The Ss learn the names of parts of the body by looking at the photo of the boy and focussing on the highlighted words: head, limbs, trunk … The other words describe the parts which make up these three main sections. For example: The limbs are the arms and legs. The leg includes the knee and the ankle. • Play

17

to practise the vocabulary.

Changes in the body. Children grow and become men and women. Ask Ss how the body of the boy in the photo will change as he grows. Then choose another photo in the book of a girl and ask how her body will change.

34

Running is a voluntary movement. Look at the boy. What parts of his body can he bend? Decide and complete. He can bend…

M.A. … arm (elbow) … leg (knee). 10

OUR BODY

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

Parts of the body: Simon says

Ss study the names of parts of the body. They stand up. Say: Simon says touch your head. The Ss must obey the instructions. Then continue giving instructions to touch other parts of the body, beginning with the phrase: Simon says. Occasionally this phrase is omitted, which means the students must not obey the instructions. Any student who does, is out of the game and has to sit down. The winners are the Ss left standing.

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Vocabulary ankle, bone, cartilage, elbow, hip, knee, neck, shoulder, skeleton, wrist, names of the most important bones

Language objectives: 2.

The skeleton

■ Special attention

READ

LOOK

1. The skeleton

• Understanding that bones are beneath the skin and muscles

11

The skeleton is made up of all the bones in our body. The skeleton has two important functions:

The skeleton 14

• Learning the vocabulary

skull

• It holds the body up. It gives it shape.

• Passive forms: are joined …

• It protects the most delicate parts of the body like the brain, the heart and the lungs.

2. The parts of the skeleton

12

jawbone

The skeleton is made up of bones and cartilage.

Our bones

• Bones are hard and rigid. They are different in shape and size. For example, the bones in our fingers are small and short. The bones in our legs are big and long.

ulna

• Cartilage is soft and flexible. We have cartilage at the end of some of our bones, for example, our nose.

radius

3. The joints

■ Hands on

sternum (breastbone)

ribs humerus

vertebra

13

A joint is a place where two bones meet. Some bones are joined together so closely that they cannot move, for example, the bones in the skull. Other bones have a special joint which means they can move. Our joints are important for movement:

pelvis

spinal column (backbone) femur

tibia

• The neck is the joint between the head and the trunk. • The shoulder, elbow and wrist are the joints in our arms.

• Ss touch their hands and describe what they feel. Ask: What can you feel under the skin? Is there anything hard? What shape are the hard parts? Are they big? Can they move? • Tell the Ss that what they can feel are the bones. Ask them: What do you notice if you touch your index finger? It is in three sections, each with a bone.

■ Presentation

fibula

• The hip, knee and ankle are the joints in our legs. Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. The shoulder is a joint in our arms.

M.A. The ankle is a joint in our legs. The wrist is a joint in our arms. The knee is a joint in our legs. The elbow is a joint in our arms.

OUR BODY

11

• READ Present 1 and 2 with 18 and 19 . Ask: Are bones hard? Are they soft? What would happen if we didn’t have a skeleton? What would our body be like? (a sack, a balloon without air …).

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

• Ss touch their chest and find their ribs and sternum. Explain that these bones protect the lungs and heart.

Names of bones. Make photocopies of the skeleton but erase the names of the bones. Ss study the names for 5 minutes. Then, without looking, they write them in the correct place.

• Suggest they learn the names of the bones by starting at the top of the head and working their way down to the feet, visualising the bones they are naming.

1

2

Vocabulary game: Hangman

The Ss study the vocabulary related to the skeleton. Then one student chooses a word and writes on the BB the spaces for each letter, for example: _ _ _ _ (N E C K) The Ss say letters of the alphabet to guess the word. Correct letters are written in the spaces but if the letter is not in the word, the S at the board begins to draw the Hangman. When someone guesses the word correctly, it is their turn to choose a word.

• Present 3 with 20 . To illustrate the joints in the body refer the Ss to page 10 of the book. Then ask the Ss to do the activity. • LOOK Present with

21 .

➔ R Activity Book, pages 10, 22 and 23. Calcium. We need calcium to grow and to be healthy. Milk and dairy products like yoghurt and cheese are rich in calcium.

35

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 4, 5, 7.

move, muscle, involuntary, voluntary, names of the most important muscles

Language objectives: 3, 4.

Muscles

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Understanding that apart from the voluntary muscles that appear in the pictures, we have muscles in other parts of the body, for example, the tongue and the heart

Muscles 15 masseter trapezius trapezius

pectoral

deltoid

deltoid

• Learning the vocabulary biceps

• Verbs with infinitive: … when we want to

dorsal abdominal

• Use of the reflexive pronoun: … by themselves • Possessive adjectives: our arms, their movements

gluteal quadriceps gemellus (rotating muscle)

■ Hands on

gemellus

Anatomical model of the arm READ

• Use sticky tape to attach a cardboard hand to one end of a rectangular piece of cardboard (the forearm). At the other end use a pin (the elbow) to attach another rectangular piece of cardboard (the arm). • Put all the pieces in line. Place a piece of wool at the top of the rectangles and one at the bottom. Stick each end of the wool to a rectangle. • By pulling the top piece of wool the arm bends at the elbow and the hand moves upwards. On pulling the lower piece of wool, the arm returns to its original position.

• LOOK Use your body to show Ss the position of the muscles in the drawings. For example: This is the deltoid muscle. This muscle is the biceps. Play 22 and tell Ss to listen and point to the muscles.

➔ R and E ➔ Activity Book, page 11.

2. Types of muscles

The muscles in these pictures are just under our skin.

We divide muscles into two groups.

However, there are muscles in other parts of our body, for example, in the stomach. We need muscles in order to move.

• We move our voluntary muscles when we want to. The muscles in our arms are voluntary muscles. • The involuntary muscles move by themselves. We do not control their movements. For example, the heart is a muscle. It moves all the time.

Make more questions. Change the underlined words. Do we use the trapezius muscle when we walk?

12

OUR BODY

M.A. Do we use the deltoid muscle when we raise our arm? Do we use the gemellus when we walk? Do we use the biceps muscle when we write?

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the two halves of each sentence on the board for the Ss to match.

■ Presentation

• READ Present 1 and 2 with 23 and Then ask the Ss to do the activity.

1. Muscles

1. 2. 3. 4.

We move our voluntary muscles The involuntary muscles We need muscles The heart muscle

a. moves all the time. b. when we want to. c. in order to move. d. move by themselves.

Answers: 1 – b. 2 – d. 3 – c. 4 – a.

24 .

Types of muscles. Ask Ss: Are the following voluntary or involuntary muscles? 2

1. the tongue. 2. the abdominal muscles. 3. the masseter. 4. the heart. Answers: 1. involuntary. 2. voluntary. 3. voluntary. 4. involuntary.

36

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Content objectives: 6, 8.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 5, 6.

bending muscle, flexible, size, stretching muscle

How do we use our muscles?

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Understanding that muscles vary in size

Each muscle has a special job 16 We use our abdominal muscles to bend at the waist.

• Interpreting the diagrams of stretching the arm and bending the arm

The quadriceps and gemellus work together when we walk or run.

• Use of the reflexive pronoun: … move by itself

We use the deltoid muscle to raise our arms.

■ Hands on Our muscles

We use the trapezius to raise our shoulders.

LOOK AND READ

• Ask the Ss: How can we find out about our muscles? • In pairs, Ss analyse how the muscles of the face move when we make gestures, for example, when we smile, raise our eyebrows, and look angry, surprised or frightened. • In each case, Ss touch their faces to feel when the muscles are harder.

17

biceps (muscle)

radius (bone)

1. Movement The skeleton cannot move by itself. We need our muscles to move our bones.

Stretching the arm

• Muscles change in size. They move the part of the body they are connected to. biceps (muscle)

radius (bone)

■ Presentation

• Muscles are flexible. They become short or long without breaking.

• LOOK AND READ Play 25 . Ss imitate the movements they see in the photos of the children. They feel the muscle that is working. They will notice that it is hard. When the muscle stops working, it is soft.

For example, when the biceps muscle is short, it pulls on the radius. We bend our arm. Bending the arm

When the biceps muscle is long, we stretch our arm. OUR BODY

13

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Muscles and parts of the body. Write the following words and sentences on the BB. The Ss write one of the words in the appropriate sentence.

shoulders / arms / walk / waist / run 1. We use the deltoid muscle to raise our … (arms) 2. We use our abdominal muscles to bend at the … (waist) 3. We use the quadriceps and gemellus when we … or … (walk, run) 4. We use the trapezius to raise our … (shoulders)

• LOOK AND READ Play 26 . Help Ss to observe carefully the diagrams of what an arm looks like inside. The bones are coloured yellow, the muscles red and we see the outline of the arm and the hand. Ask the Ss to predict what will happen when they bend and stretch their arms as in the diagram. Ask: What will happen when the biceps becomes shorter? And when it stretches? When is the biceps harder? • Present 1 with

27 .

E ➔ Activity Book, page 12. E➔

28

‘Ready, steady go.’

Exercise. Physical exercise helps us to grow and be healthy. It is important to do exercise every day.

37

Apply your knowledge THE SKELETON

MUSCLES 1. Label the skeleton.

1. Classify the muscles. • pectoral

• deltoids

• trapezius

• dorsal

• quadriceps

• biceps

• gemellus (rotating muscle)

• femur

• skull

• tibia

• ulna

• sternum (breastbone)

• humerus

• fibula

• ribs

• jawbone

• spinal column (backbone)

skul¬

TRUNK

LEGS

ARMS

traπeziufi πectora¬ dorsa¬

@eµellufi quadri©epfi

∂eltoidfi bi©epfi

ulnå s†ernuµ

huµerufi rib

● Which muscles do you move? Look at Activity 1. Decide and write.

∂eltoidfi, bi©epfi @eµellufi, quadri©epfi

spina¬ colum>

tibiå

a) When I raise my arms: b) When I run:

jawbo>æ

fibulå 2. How can you protect your spinal column? Decide and tick three. 씲 ✔ Do not carry heavy things. 씲 Do not take long walks.

ƒemu®

씲 ✔ Swim regularly.

씲 ✔ Sit with your back straight. 2. Use these words to complete the text.

VOCABULARY

• body

Match the three columns. elastic



flexible • rigid



can change without breaking can stretch and later recover its shape is hard or impossible to bend

• femur

• ribs

• skull

• muscle

Our skeleton is made up of more than 200

• bone

our The

• muscle

and the

11

10

bod¥ skul¬ fibulå

up. Our

• tibia

bo>efi ribfi

protects the brain. The are leg bones.

• fibula

• bones

. They are used to hold

protect our heart and lungs.

ƒemu®

,

tibiå

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Worksheet 8. Date

Apply your knowledge

Activity Book

38 Worksheet 9. Date

Tasks FITNESS ACTIVITIES

The heart is a muscle. Exercise keeps it strong and healthy. Feel your pulse after exercise. Is your heart beating more rapidly? How many of these activities can you do in one minute? Instructions: 1. Work with a partner and time each other with a watch. 2. Write down the answer. Answers will vary. 1. Jump skips

2. Star jumps

/ one minute 3. Running lengths

/ one minute 4. Step ups

/ one minute 5. Sit ups

6. Hand walks

/ one minute 12

/ one minute

/ one minute

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Notes: Worksheet 10. Date

39

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UNIT 4

Animals UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Recognising and comparing basic features of different animals: movements, senses, birth, nutrition, external features, reproduction 2. Classifying animals using different criteria 3. Learning that carnivores, herbivores and omnivores eat different types of food 4. Identifying examples of carnivores, herbivores and omnivores 5. Learning how oviparous animals and viviparous animals are born and how they grow 6. Identifying examples of oviparous and viviparous animals

Language objectives 1. Giving information: Present Simple: affirmative, negative, interrogative 2. Describing movement: walk, fly, swim, crawl 3. Classifying animals: Herbivores eat plants. 4. Talking about groups: some … others 5. Giving examples: such as, for example 6. Possessive adjectives: their mother’s milk

Contents CONCEPTS

• Classification of animals using food as criteria: carnivores, herbivores, omnivores • Classification of animals using how they are born as criteria: oviparous, viviparous

PROCEDURES

• Classify animals using different criteria • Study photos to obtain information from them

ATTITUDES

• Respect animal life

Assessment criteria • Using vocabulary correctly: viviparous, oviparous, carnivore, herbivore, omnivore • Applying animal classification criteria • Obtaining information from photos

40

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 4 – Extension: Worksheet 4

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 4

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Endangered animals http://www.worldwildlife.org/endangered/index.cfm Information about wildlife protection and conservation. Invertebrates http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/Animals/ AnimalIndexInv.htm Pictures and information on the main types. Useful for students and teachers. The animal kingdom http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/ScienceIndex.htm A variety of animal topics including animal classification and animal comparison. Useful for students and teachers. LEVEL

3 Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

F INS ,W INGS AND L EGS

www.richmondelt.com

41

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2. Language objectives: 1, 2.

to be born, classification, food, head, movement, skeleton, scales, tail, trunk

Animals

■ Special attention

COMPARE

• Use of do not in the negative form owl

• Verb: to be born

■ Hands on

pelican deer

Classifying animals • Distribute some photos of animals in class. • Call out different animal characteristics. For example: animals with feathers, animals that swim, animals with bones, animals born from eggs … • The Ss having animals with those characteristics stand up and show the photos. • Ss say: The cat has bones. The sardine swims. The elephant eats grass …

• Put the animals into two groups.

READ

1. The classification of animals

18

• The skeleton. Vertebrates have a skeleton. Invertebrates do not have a skeleton. • The way animals are born. Viviparous animals are born from their mother’s womb. Oviparous animals are born from eggs. • The food they eat. Some animals eat meat, some eat plants and some eat both meat and plants.

• COMPARE Write these sentences on the BB: How many legs does it have? Does it have a beak? Does it have hair (fur)? Does it have feathers? Ask the Ss to compare the animals and divide the animals into two groups: Owls and pelicans are birds. Deer and puma are mammals.

• LOOK Say the parts of the fish. Play 30 and tell Ss to listen and point to the parts of the fish.

LOOK A fish 19

We can classify animals using different criteria.

■ Presentation

• READ Present 1 with 29 . Explain that using criteria to classify means looking at a specific aspect. For example, if we are looking at the way animals are born, animals can be viviparous or oviparous. Ask the Ss to name the four criteria for the classification of animals mentioned in the book.

• How are these animals similar? How are they different?

puma

The shape of fish helps them to move quickly through water. fin

trunk

tail

scales

• The way animals move. Some animals walk, some fly, some swim and some crawl along the ground. 14

mouth eye

ANIMALS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following questions on the BB and ask Ss to circle the correct answers after listening again to 29 .

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Vertebrates have a skeleton. Invertebrates do not have a skeleton. Viviparous animals are born from eggs. Oviparous animals are born from eggs. Some animals eat plants. Some animals swim.

YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO

Answers: 1. yes. 2. yes. 3. no. 4. yes. 5. yes. 6. yes.

42

head

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Content objectives: 3, 4.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 3.

carnivore, herbivore, omnivore

What do animals eat?

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Animals which eat fish and insects are carnivores

• What is the pony eating?

• Irregular plurals: teeth, deer, foxes

• Name three other animals that eat plants.

■ Hands on

• Do dogs eat plants?

Animal and food memory game

• Find pictures of animals and their food. • Form groups and distribute the pairs of pictures. The groups mix up the pairs and place them face down. • Players turn over two cards at a time and say what they are. If the cards match (animal and food), they keep the cards; if they do not match, they place the two cards in their original position. • Players keep turning over cards until all cards have been removed. The winner is the player with the most cards.

READ Foxes are carnivores. They eat mice, rabbits and other animals.

1. Animals and food

20

Animals are living things, so they need to eat food. We classify animals into three groups: herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. • Herbivores eat plants. They eat different parts of plants such as leaves, roots and fruit. Herbivores have special teeth to help them cut and chew plants. • Deer, cows and rabbits are herbivores. • Carnivores eat other animals. Carnivores hunt and eat meat. They have sharp teeth. They have excellent eyesight. • Foxes, eagles and lions are carnivores. • Omnivores eat plants and other animals. • Bears and chimpanzees are omnivores.

■ Presentation

Bears are omnivores. They eat fish, fruit and honey.

• LOOK Ask the Ss: What is the pony eating? (grass) Do dogs eat plants? (no)

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. Bears are omnivores.

M.A. Rabbits are herbivores. Deer are herbivores. Foxes are carnivores. Eagles are carnivores. Chimpanzees are omnivores.

ANIMALS

15

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Listening. Write these questions on the BB. Play 31 again and ask the Ss to note down their answers. Then correct the answers together. 1

1. How many groups of animals can we classify? (three) 2. What do herbivores eat? (plants)

• READ Present 1 with 31 . Then ask the Ss to say if the animal is a herbivore or a carnivore. Elephants eat grass. (Elephants are herbivores.) Caterpillars eat leaves … Wolves eat rabbits … Otters eat fish … • Explain that an animal’s teeth or beak is adapted to the type of food it eats. Eagles have sharp, hooked beaks to eat meat. Cows have large, flat teeth to eat grass. ➔ R Activity Book, pages 13, 14.

3. Is a rabbit a herbivore? (yes) 4. What do carnivores eat? (other animals) 5. Name one animal that is a carnivore. (foxes, eagles, lions …) 6. What do omnivores eat? (plants and animals) 7. Is a chimpanzee a carnivore? (No. It is an omnivore.)

Poison traps. Sometimes poisoned meat is used to kill wild animals. This practice is cruel. The animal suffers before dying and other unintended victims are also killed.

43

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Content objectives: 5, 6, 7.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 4, 5, 6.

to be born, eggs, oviparous, viviparous

How are animals born?

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Understanding that viviparous animals are formed inside the mother’s body and come out at the moment of birth

Look at these photos. How do these animals look after their babies?

■ Hands on

a cow and a calf orangutans

The life cycle • Prepare drawings or photos of different stages in the life cycle of an oviparous animal and a viviparous animal. Example: an egg, a chick breaking the shell, a newborn chick, a young chicken, a hen. • Make photocopies and distribute the pictures to the Ss in jumbled order for them to put in the correct order.

cheetahs

birds

READ

1. How animals are born

We classify animals into two groups: viviparous animals and oviparous animals. This depends on how they are born.

■ Presentation

• Oviparous animals are born from eggs. The female animals lay the eggs. Some oviparous animals, like birds, then keep their eggs warm. Others, like sardines and flies, do not keep their eggs warm.

• LOOK Focus the attention of the Ss on the photos: Which are adult animals? Which are baby animals? What do you notice about them? Talk about the way animals look after their babies: Calves drink their mother’s milk; Birds put food in the baby’s beak; Female orangutans carry babies close to their bodies; Female leopards lick their cubs. • READ Present 1 and 2 with 32 and 33 . Point out that viviparous animals drink their mother’s milk when they are born and stay with their mother until they are able to look after themselves. However, some viviparous animals are independent and receive no care from their parents when they are born. ➔ R Activity Book, page 15. E➔

34

‘The fox, a very clever animal.’

2. How baby animals grow

21

• Viviparous animals are born live. Animals such as cats and dogs are viviparous.

Some oviparous animals are independent when they are born. For example, snakes leave their eggs. The baby snakes move around and find food. Other oviparous animals cannot look after themselves. For example, baby sparrows stay with their parents. The adult birds feed them and protect them. Viviparous animals depend on their mothers when they are babies. They drink their mother’s milk.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. Flies are oviparous animals.

16

ANIMALS

M.A. Dogs are viviparous animals. Cats are viviparous animals. Sardines are oviparous animals. Birds are oviparous animals.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the two halves of the following sentences on the BB. The Ss listen again to 32 and match the halves. Ss check their answers in their textbook.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Oviparous animals Birds Viviparous animals Sardines and flies Cats and dogs

a. are born live. b. do not keep their eggs warm c. are born from eggs. d. keep their eggs warm. e. are viviparous.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – d. 3 – a. 4 – b. 5 – e. Small fish. Fish need time to grow into adults and reproduce. Fishing laws prohibit catching very small fish.

44

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1. Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false ones. 1. Mice eat foxes.

True / False

2. Omnivores have sharp teeth.

True / False

3. Carnivores have excellent eyesight.

True / False

4. Bears are omnivores.

True / False

5. Herbivores have special teeth to hunt and eat meat. True / False

Answers: 1 – F. Foxes eat mice. 2 – F. Carnivores have sharp teeth. 3 – T. 4 – T. 5 – F. Herbivores have special teeth to help them cut and chew plants.

2. Circle the correct word. 1. Snakes are OVIPAROUS / VIVIPAROUS animals. 2. Snakes LEAVE / STAY WITH their eggs. 3. Baby sparrows LEAVE / STAY WITH their parents. 4. Viviparous animals depend on their FATHERS / MOTHERS when they are babies. 5. They drink their mother’s WATER / MILK.

Answers: 1. oviparous. 2. leave. 3. stay. 4. mothers. 5. milk. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

45

Worksheet 11. Date

Tasks

ANIMALS INTERACT 1. Use these words to label the picture. • fin

1. Use these words to complete the sentences.

™ea∂

fi>

• eye

ANIMAL FOOD

Carnivores Omnivores

• mouth

tai¬

e¥æ

sca¬efi

mout™

• tail • scales

trun§

E

A

G

L

E

N

B

U

Y

S

A

R

D

I

N

E

Z

M

F

L

Y

W

L

M

X

T

O

S

S

N

A

I

L

T

W

G

H

W

O

R

M

T

V

L

M

D

O

L

P

H

I

N

L

• •

Carnivo®efi Herbivo®efi Omnivo®efi

eat other animals. eat plants. eat plants and other animals.

2. Are these animals carnivores, herbivores or omnivores? Decide, label them and colour their food.

brown bear

omnivo®æ

2. Find the animals in the word search. Then classify. D

Herbivores



Animals that crawl:

snai¬

and

worµ

and

fl¥

squirrel

herbivo®æ

Animals that fly:

eag¾

pelican

omnivo®æ

Animals that swim:

sardi>æ

and

dolphi> eagle

VOCABULARY

carnivo®æ

Match. • excellent eyesight • excellent sense of hearing • very quick • excellent sense of smell

14

turtle

omnivo®æ 13

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Apply your knowledge

Activity Book

46 Worksheet 12. Date

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Notes: Worksheet 13. Date

Apply your knowledge CLASSIFY ANIMALS

1. Classify the animals. eagle

butterfly

fox

beetle

rabbit lizard

mouse Type of animal

Vertebrates

eag¬æ fo≈ lizar∂

Invertebrates

but†erfl¥ ∫¶et¬æ

rabbi† moußæ

How it is born

Viviparous

fo≈ rabbi† moußæ

Oviparous

lizar∂ eag¬æ

but†erfl¥ ∫¶et¬æ 15

47

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UNIT 5

Vertebrates and invertebrates UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Understanding differences betweeen vertebrates and invertebrates 2. Identifying the parts of vertebrate bodies 3. Learning that mammals are vertebrates, viviparous and drink their mother’s milk when they are babies 4. Discovering that birds are vertebrates, oviparous and have feathers on their bodies 5. Identifying protective coverings of some invertebrates 6. Knowing that insects are a kind of invertebrate with six legs and two antennae 7. Finding out about the main stages in the life cycle of some insects

Language objectives 1. Defining parts of the body: The skull protects the head. 2. Talking about quantities: All; some; most; almost all; many 3. Present Simple singular and plural: An insect has … All insects have …

Contents CONCEPTS

• Vertebrates: skeletons; invertebrates: no bones • Mammal, bird and insect characteristics

PROCEDURES

• Identify the different parts of vertebrate bodies • Identify the different parts of insect bodies • Apply the criteria learned to classify animals into birds, mammals or insects • Obtain information from diagrams and photographs

ATTITUDES

• Interest in learning about animals

Assessment criteria • • • • • •

48

Classifying animals using different criteria Distinguishing vertebrates and invertebrates Identifying the different parts of the bodies of vertebrates and insects Identifying and describing birds, mammals, insects and other invertebrates Applying animal classification criteria Obtaining information from drawings and photographs

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 5 – Extension: Worksheet 5

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 5

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Mammals http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/mammals/ Information about mammals, their habitats and behaviour. Children’s zone with games Invertebrates http://www.insecta-inspecta.com/ Information and activities about insects. Let’s talk about insects http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/insects/12.html A clever ant explains about insects using pictures and simple text. Useful for students and teachers.

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

49

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2.

head, invertebrate, limbs, spinal column, tail, trunk, vertebrate

Language objectives: 1.

Vertebrates and invertebrates

■ Special attention

COMPARE

22

• Interpreting diagrams of animal skeletons • Match the skeletons to the animals.

• Understanding that fish are vertebrates and that most fish have a skeleton made of bones

skull a

• Are the skeletons similar?

spinal column

skull spinal column duck

b

fish

ribs

■ Hands on

ribs skull

spinal column

Observing animals ribs

READ

1. Animal skeletons

23

Classification of vertebrates mammals

birds

■ Presentation

• READ Play 36 and practise the vocabulary. Present 1 and 2 with 37 and 38 . Tell Ss that the diagram shows vertebrate groups. Ask them to write sentences: Dogs are mammals. Robins are birds. Crocodiles are reptiles … ➔ R Activity Book, pages 16, 17.

50

2. Vertebrate bodies

25

Vertebrate bodies have several parts: • The head. The skull protects the head.

amphibians

• Ask the Ss to locate the spinal column in each picture. This is a characteristic of all vertebrates. Ask the Ss: Can you describe the spinal column? (long and made up of small bones called vertebrae) Where is it? (The spinal column extends from the head to the tail.)

24

Vertebrates are animals with a skeleton. The skeleton is made up of bones. The bones are joined together to hold the body up. They protect it. All vertebrates have a spinal column.

reptiles

• COMPARE Play 35 and tell Ss that in order to match the skeletons to the animals, they must look at the silhouette. (fish – a; duck – b; leopard – c) The skeleton gives shape to the body.

c

leopard

• Ask the Ss: How can we find out about animals? (Elicit: Observe them.) • The Ss study an animal, for example an ant, in its natural habitat. Ss draw a picture and write what the animal was doing. • Ask Ss to observe a pet. If possible, take a pet animal to class, such as a turtle or a hamster. Give some observation guidelines: Look at hair, feathers. Look at how it moves. Look at what the head, eyes … are like.

fish

• The trunk. The spinal column, ribs, shoulders and hips are all in the trunk. • The limbs. The bones are long. Some vertebrates have legs. Others have wings or fins. Some vertebrates, like snakes, have no limbs. • The tail. This is an extension of the spinal column. There are very small vertebrae in the tail. VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Vocabulary. Write the following list of vocabulary on the BB and then read aloud the first sentence. The Ss must say which word finishes the sentence correctly. Then do the same with the other sentences.

a spinal column / fins / legs / vertebrae / no limbs / wings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Birds have … (wings) Fish have … (fins) Snakes have … (no limbs) All vertebrates have … (a spinal column) Some vertebrates have … (legs) The tail has very small … (vertebrae)

17

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Content objectives: 3, 4.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 2.

birds, eggs, feathers, hair, mammals, milk

Vertebrates COMPARE

■ Special attention 26

• Understanding that marine mammals are not fish, although they live in water

Match the words to the pictures. • feathers -parrot

• wings

• ears

• skin

• legs

• bones

• beak

• eggs

• udders

• Distinguishing differences between all, almost all, most, many, some, other … parrot

• Expressing contrast: however

cow

■ Hands on Bird feathers

READ

1. Mammals

27

2. Birds

28

Mammals are vertebrates. They are born live. They drink their mother’s milk when they are babies.

Birds are vertebrates. They are born from eggs. They have feathers on their bodies.

• All mammals breathe air. • Most mammals are land animals. However, some mammals, like dolphins, are aquatic.

• Birds have two legs and two wings. All birds have wings. However, not all birds can fly, for example penguins.

• Most mammals have hair on their bodies. However, aquatic mammals have bare skin.

• Many birds, such as sparrows, live on land. They can fly and walk.

• Almost all mammals walk or swim. However, bats can fly.

• Other birds, such as ducks, live on land and water. They can fly, swim and walk.

• All birds breathe air.

• Collect different types of feathers and explain their function: What are feathers used for? (Feathers are used for flying, to keep birds warm, and to attract mates.) Compare the different feathers: small, soft, large, pointed. • Show that the base of the feather is hollow. Tell Ss that in the past, feathers were used for writing by introducing ink into the hollow part (quill).

■ Presentation

Describe birds. Make more sentences. Birds are vertebrates. They have…

18

M.A. They have feathers on their bodies. They have two legs and two wings. They breathe air. Many birds live on land. Other birds live on land and water.

VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB and tell the Ss to copy them in their notebook. Then Ss listen to 40 and 41 and circle the correct answer.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

• COMPARE Do the matching activity together Play 39 .

Mammals are born Most mammals are Bats can Birds are Birds have

a) from eggs a) land animals a) swim a) invertebrates a) feathers

b) live b) aquatic animals b) fly b) vertebrates b) udders

• READ Ask the Ss how they know if an animal is a mammal or not: Is a cow a mammal? And a sheep? What do they drink when they are babies? (their mother’s milk) • Ask the Ss: Does a bird or fish drink its mother’s milk? How do fish and birds eat when they are babies? Can you describe their bodies? The Ss then read 1 and 2 and do the activity. E ➔ Activity Book, page 20.

Answers: 1 – b. 2 – a. 3 – b. 4 – b. 5 – a.

51

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 5, 6, 9.

abdomen, exoskeleton, head, insect, invertebrate, shell, thorax

Language objectives: 3.

Invertebrates

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding that the bodies of invertebrates are soft, even though they have hard protective coverings

1. How invertebrates protect their bodies Invertebrates have no bones. Some invertebrates have a protective covering.

• The difference between a shell and an exoskeleton

• Shells are hard and strong.

beetle

• Exoskeletons can be thick or thin. Crabs have thick exoskeletons. Beetles have thin exoskeletons.

■ Hands on

Some invertebrates, like jellyfish and worms, have no protective covering.

mussel

Make a dragonfly

2. Insects

Insects are a kind of invertebrate. An insect has three parts to its body. earth worm

• The head has a mouth, two eyes and two antennae. • The thorax has wings and legs. Most insects have wings. All insects have six legs. • The abdomen is joined to the thorax.

head

antenna (feeler)

3. Insect life

eye

31

Insects are born from eggs. Young insects are called larvae. Some larvae are caterpillars. They have no wings or antennae.

■ Presentation

• All insects breathe air. thorax

43 , 44

• Check comprehension by asking the Ss to complete the sentences with shells or exoskeletons. Beetles have … (exoskeletons). Mussels have … (shells). Ask Ss which sentences are false: Insects have six legs. All insects have wings. (F) All insects are invertebrates. Insects are born from eggs. • Look at the insect. Ask Ss: What do you notice about the insect? How many wings does it have? (two pairs) How many legs? (six) How many antennae? (two) • Finally, distribute photocopies of the activity on the opposite page and ask Ss to choose the correct word. • Play 42 and 45 to practise the vocabulary of the illustrations. ➔ R Activity Book, pages 18, 19. E ➔ 47 ‘The storks are coming!’ Respecting animal life. Ants and other small animals deserve our respect.

52

30

crab

• Put a ball of plasticine on the point of a pencil to make the head. • Put plasticine all around the pencil for the thorax. The rest of the pencil is the abdomen. • Make wings with paper and glue them on the thorax. Make two eyes out of plasticine; two antenna and six legs with toothpicks.

• READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with and 46 .

29

leg

• Some insects, like butterflies, are herbivores. Other insects, like dragonflies, are carnivores. wing Others, like flies, are omnivores. abdomen

• Insects with wings fly or walk. Insects without wings walk.

Describe insects. Make more sentences. Insects are invertebrates. They have…

M.A. They have a head, thorax and abdomen. They have two antennae. They have six legs. They are born from eggs. They breathe air.

VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the words and gapped sentences on the BB. The Ss listen again to 46 and complete the sentences. Then they check their answers on page 19.

flies / air / walk / herbivores / eggs / dragonflies / insects / omnivores 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Insects are born from … (eggs) Young … are called larvae. (insects) All insects breathe … (air) Butterflies are … (herbivores) … are carnivores. (dragonflies) Flies are … (omnivores) Insects with wings fly or … (walk) Insects … wings walk. (without)

19

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Read the sentences and choose the correct word. 1. Crabs have THICK / THIN exoskeletons. 2. Beetles have THICK / THIN exoskeletons. 3. Jellyfish HAVE / HAVE NO protective covering. 4. ALL / MOST insects have wings. 5. ALL / MOST insects have six legs. 6. Butterflies are HERBIVORES / OMNIVORES. 7. Dragonflies are HERBIVORES / CARNIVORES. 8. Flies are HERBIVORES / OMNIVORES. 9. Insects WITH / WITHOUT wings can fly. 10. Young insects are called CATERPILLARS / LARVAE.

Answers: 1. thick. 2. thin. 3. have no. 4. most. 5. all. 6. herbivores. 7. carnivores. 8. omnivores. 9. with. 10. larvae. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

53

Worksheet 14. Date

Apply your knowledge

COMPARE SKELETONS

VERTEBRATE ANIMALS

1. Look carefully. Then read and circle. A

1. Use these words to label the parts of the skeletons. Then colour the skeletons. • skull

B

• spinal column

• ribs

• legs

• tail

skul¬ skul¬

spina¬ colum>

tai¬

C

¬[email protected] spina¬ colum>

ribfi ● What are the differences between the human skeleton (A) and the cow’s skeleton (B)?

2. Use these words to complete the sentences.

√±r†ebra†efi • The skeleton is made up of bo>efi • All vertebrates have a backbo>æ • Animals with a skeleton are called

• The human skeleton has got / has not got tail bones. • It has more / fewer bones in the legs. • It has two / four legs.

. . .

• The cow has two / four legs. VOCABULARY Match.

2. Read and circle.

The skull

● What are the differences between the human skeleton (A) and the chimpanzee’s skeleton (C)?



The spinal column •

• The chimpanzee’s arm bones are longer / shorter than its legs. • Human arm bones are longer / shorter than human leg bones. 17

16

• is made up of many vertebrae joined together. • is an external protection of the body.

Invertebrates



• is made up of the bones in the head.

An exoskeleton



• are animals with no bones on the inside.

bones backbone vertebrates

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Apply your knowledge

Activity Book

54 Worksheet 15. Date

Worksheet 16. Date

Tasks

Apply your knowledge DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMALS

IDENTIFY INSECT BODY PARTS 1. Match each invertebrate animal with its body covering.

1. Label the body parts of a bee.

beetle EXOSKELETON

• leg

antennå

• wing • head

SHELL

oyster

e¥æ

[email protected]

• antenna (feeler)

• abdomen

jellyfish

slug

• eye

NEITHER SHELL NOR EXOSKELETON

abdoµe>

snail

lobster

™ea∂

2. What characteristics do these groups of animals have? Decide and tick. Then draw an insect and a fish.

¬[email protected] 2. Complete the pictures and colour them.

They breathe air.

Mammals

Birds

Insects

Fish



✔ ✔

✔ ✔







They are oviparous. They are viviparous.



They have wings. They have fins. They have a skeleton. butterfly

beetle

ant

Insect

mosquito

dragonfly







They have six legs.

grasshopper

Answer key

19

18

Fish

✔ ✔

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Worksheet 17. Date

55

Project 2

Name

Date

Project 1 ANIMAL FILES

1. Glue the skeleton on a thin piece of card. Cut out the parts of the skeleton.

Answers will vary. ANIMAL INDEX CARDS

Anacondå Animal group (reptile, bird): Repti¬æ Name of animal:

skull

Description (what it looks like, size, etc.):

uπ to 9 µet®efi [email protected]

ribs humerus spinal column

Dar§ g®ee> wit™ [email protected]æ blac§ spotfi,

Eating habits (omnivore, carnivore, herbivore):

sternum

Carnivo®æ: al¬ kindfi oƒ animalfi,

[email protected] crocodi¬efi, ∂ee®, etc.

radius

Nea® ri√±rfi or swampfi. It sπendfi å lo† oƒ tiµæ i> t™æ wa†e®. I† ifi foun∂ i> Sout™ Aµericå.

Normal habitat (country, type of environment and home): femur

fibula

tibia

Cormoran† Animal group (reptile, bird): Bir∂ Name of animal:

T™e¥ ∑±ig™ abou† 2-3 kg. T™e¥ a®æ dar§ g®ee> an∂ blac§, wit™ whi†æ spotfi an∂ å ¥ello∑ ∫±a§. Eating habits (omnivore, carnivore, herbivore): Carnivo®æ: t™e¥ a®æ ex©el¬en† fis™erfi. T™e¥ di√¶ to catc™ t™ei® p®e¥. Normal habitat (country, type of environment and home): T™e¥ a®æ aquati© birdfi, so t™e¥ li√¶ >ea® la§efi o® pondfi. T™e¥ ca> ∫¶ foun∂ al¬ o√±® t™æ worl∂. Description (what it looks like, size, etc.):

22

20

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56 MAKE A SKELETON TO STUDY BONES AND JOINTS

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Notes: 2. Label each bone. 3. Use fasteners to join the parts of the skeleton at the joints.

Project 2

23

57

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UNIT 6

The Earth UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Understanding that the Earth is spherical and made up of water, land and air 2. Understanding that the Earth provides the necessary conditions for the existence of life 3. Identifying the properties of solids, liquids and gases 4. Recognising the states of matter 5. Identifying examples of solids, liquids and gases 6. Identifying changes in matter in the surroundings 7. Understanding what a change in state is 8. Identifying different changes in state

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Explaining where things are: in water; on dry land; inside the balloon Describing appearance: Liquids / gases do not have a shape. Solids keep … Conditions (zero conditional: always true): If we burst …, the air spreads … Describing a process: First, next … Giving simple instructions: Mix, add, boil, cook … Explaining a logical sequence: When we heat …, it becomes …

Contents CONCEPTS

• • • •

The composition of the Earth The states of matter Changes in matter Changes in the state of matter

PROCEDURES

• Compare the characteristics of matter in its three states • Explain changes in matter in the surroundings

Assessment criteria • • • •

58

Knowing what parts of the Earth are made up of water, land or air Distinguishing between the three states of matter Giving examples of solids, liquids and gases Identifying the changes in the states of matter

ATTITUDES

• Interest in explaining scientifically what can be seen or has been observed

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 6 – Extension: Worksheet 6

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Test and assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 6

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Solids, liquids and gases http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/science/science3a.htm An index of worksheets and activities for teachers working with the properties of matter. Science activities for all ages http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/index_flash. shtml In alphabetical order, click on: Solids and liquids or Changing states or Gases around us. Useful for students and teachers. http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matterintro.html

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

4 M AKING

M OUNTAINS

www.richmondelt.com

59

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Content objectives: 1, 2.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 1.

air, atmosphere, dry land, hydrosphere, water

The Earth

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that there is land under the seas and oceans

Choose a name for the Earth.

• Understanding that life on Earth depends on light and heat from the sun

• The Green Planet • The Dead Planet

• Distinguishing between prepositions to describe location (on, in, above, from) and movement (through the air)

• The Blue Planet • The Living Planet

■ Hands on READ

The Earth

1. The Earth

• Show a globe of the Earth. Ask the Ss: What shape is the Earth? Is it square or round? (round) • Tell the Ss to look at the seas and dry land: Which area is bigger? (the sea) Most of the Earth is covered by water. • The Ss find where they live.

32

Our planet is the Earth. It is round. In photos taken from space the Earth looks blue. It is called the Blue Planet. The Earth has three parts: water, land and air. • Water covers most of the Earth. Oceans, seas, lakes and rivers are called the hydrosphere. • Dry land is the part of the Earth above water. There are continents and islands. • Air surrounds the Earth. It is called the atmosphere. Islands are surrounded by sea.

2. Life on Earth Our planet has everything that living things need. It has air and water. The Sun gives us heat and light.

■ Presentation

• Many animals and plants live in water. • Human beings, animals and plants live on dry land.

• LOOK Describe the photo: This photograph was taken from space.

• Animals like butterflies move through the air. Turtles live in the sea. They go on land to lay their eggs.

• Ask the Ss to study the photo: What colour are the oceans? (blue) And the land? (brown) What are the white parts? (clouds) • Ask the Ss to think of a name for the Earth: What is the predominant colour? Are there living things here? etc. Probable answers: The Blue Planet. The Living Planet.

Complete the sentence. The Earth has three parts: …

… water, soil and air. 20

THE EARTH

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

• Ask the Ss what is necessary for life: What do we need to live? Water? Heat? Light? Explain the importance of the Sun: We cannot live without sunlight.

1 Classifying vocabulary. Make a table with the headings: Hydrosphere, Dry land, Atmosphere. Copy lakes, air, islands, rivers, oceans, continents, seas on the BB. Students copy and classify the words.

• READ Present 1 and 2 with 48 and The Ss read and do the activity.

Answers: Hydrosphere: lakes, rivers, oceans, seas. Dry land: islands, continents. Atmosphere: air.

49 .

➔ R Activity Book, page 25.

Water pollution. Contaminating substances from houses and factories reach rivers and seas. They harm many living things.

60

Comprehension. Copy the half sentences on the BB. Students match the halves. 2

1. Many animals and plants … 2. Human beings live … 3. Butterflies move … Answer key: 1 – b. 2 – c. 3 – a.

a. through the air. b. live in water. c. on dry land.

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Content objectives: 3, 4, 5.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 2, 3.

gases, liquids, matter, solids

Solids, liquids and gases COMPARE

■ Anticipated difficulties

2

2

• Understanding that liquids and gases do not have a shape

Look at these photos. Which photo shows a gas?

3 3

1

• Dependent prepositions: depends on … made up of … take the shape of …

3 1

■ Hands on Liquids do not have a shape • Take into class a jug of water and transparent containers of different shapes. • Pour the water from the jug into the containers. Show how the water has one shape in the jug and then takes on a different shape in each container. • Ask the Ss to explain what they have seen. • If this activity is carried out before starting the unit, give the students possible explanations to choose from.

READ

1. Solids, liquids and gases

33

Everything is made up of matter. Matter is in one of three states: solid, liquid or gas. • Solids always keep their shape. • Rocks and metals are solids. • Liquids do not have a shape. Their shape depends on the container they are in. For example, water can change and take the shape of a glass or a bottle. • Water and perfume are liquids. Geysers are formed by liquid water and water vapour. These rise from inside the Earth up to the surface.

• Gases do not have a shape. Their shape also depends on the container they are in. If we burst a balloon, the air that was inside the balloon spreads quickly. • Air is a gas.

■ Presentation

Make more questions. Change the underlined words. Is perfume a solid?

M.A. Is perfume a liquid? Is paper a solid? Is air a gas? THE EARTH

21

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

Summary table SOLIDS I have a shape

I rocks, metals

LIQUIDS I do not have a shape

I water, perfume

GASES I do not have a shape occupy the largest possible space I air in a balloon

Revise content with true or false statements. 1. Rocks are liquids (F – solids) 2. Air is a gas. (T) 3. Metals are solids. (T)

4. Perfume is a gas. (F – a liquid) 5. Water is a solid. (F – a liquid) 6. Air is a solid (F – a gas)

• COMPARE Identify the matter in each photograph. Ask the Ss: In photograph 1 we can see sand: What is it – a solid, a liquid or a gas? (a solid) In 2 we can see smoke from a volcano. Is it a solid, a liquid or a gas? (a gas) In 3 we can see a waterfall. Is it a solid, a liquid or a gas? (a liquid) • The smoke in Picture 2 is a gas. (Show its shape, colour and the fact it is rising.) The Ss can deduce this by eliminating other possibilities. Sand is a solid and a waterfall is a liquid. It is therefore a gas in picture 2. • READ Present 1 with 50 . The Ss read and do the activity. Write a summary table on the board which includes the three states of matter, their properties and examples. (See Content and Language development.) E ➔ Activity Book, page 26.

61

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Content objectives: 6, 7, 8.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 4, 5, 6.

become, stay, change, evaporated, matter, melted, solidified

Changes in matter

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Understanding that matter stays the same when there is a change in state

A recipe for rice pudding • First, mix milk and sugar.

■ Hands on

• Next, add cinnamon to the milk. • Then, boil the milk. Add the rice. • Finally, cook the pudding for 30 minutes. It is ready to eat!

Butter melts

How does the food change? Can you still see the sugar? Does the milk taste sweeter? Is the rice hard or soft?

• Take into class some pieces of butter of different sizes. Put each piece on a plastic plate and leave them in a warm place. Ask: What do you notice about the pieces? Are they solid or liquid? (solid) • Ask the Ss: What will happen to the butter? (It will be liquid.) At the end of the class ask: Are the pieces still solid? (no) Are they liquid? (yes) Explain that they are melting, or have melted completely. • Ask: Is it still butter? (yes) Tell the Ss that the heat has made the butter change state. It is still butter but now it is not solid, it is in a liquid state.

READ

1. Types of change

2. Changes in state

34

Things are continually changing.

Matter also changes when it goes from one state to another.

• Sometimes objects change, but the matter stays the same. When we drop a bottle, it breaks. However, the pieces are still glass.

• When we heat water, it becomes water vapour. This is a gas. The water has evaporated. • When we freeze water, it becomes ice. This is a solid. The water has solidified.

• Sometimes matter changes and becomes something else. When we make a fire, wood burns and becomes ash, water vapour and gas.

■ Presentation

water vapour

35

• When we heat ice, it becomes liquid water again. The ice has melted. ice

solid

gas

Make two more sentences. Change the underlined words. Drinking water is a liquid.

• LOOK Ask the Ss: Before cooking, is the rice hard or soft? (hard) After cooking, is it hard or soft? (soft) What makes the milk sweet? (sugar) Can we see the sugar in the milk? (no) Does the cinnamon change the flavour of the milk? (yes) Tell the Ss that when we cook the rice pudding there are changes in matter. • Explain changes in matter by comparing the following examples: – Matter stays the same: changes in the position of a ball when it bounces and when we make a car out of plasticine. – Changes in matter: making yoghurt or cheese from milk and baking dough. • The Ss then read the text and do the activity. •

READ

E➔

62

53

Present

1

and

‘Salt works.’

2

with

51

and

M.A. Water vapour is a gas. Ice is a solid. 22

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

Practising sequence

• Write the instructions for the recipe, one per line, and photocopy it. • Cut each list of instructions into strips, one sentence per strip. • Put the strips for each list into an envelope and give one envelope to each pair of Ss. • Ss work together to put the strips back into the correct order. • Ss check their answers with the textbook. 2

52 .

THE EARTH

Comprehension. The Ss copy and complete these sentences:

1. When we heat water it becomes … (water vapour) 2. When we freeze water it becomes … (ice) 3. When we heat ice it becomes … (water)

Apply your knowledge

Worksheet 18. Date

Tasks

QUESTIONS ABOUT THE STATES OF MATTER 1. Look, think and tick the correct answers.

OBSERVING THE EARTH 1. Use the key to colour the Earth. Then label the parts of the map. 1 land: brown 2 seas and oceans: dark blue 3 atmosphere: light blue

A piece of wood falls on the floor without breaking. What happens to the wood?

A glass full of water breaks. What happens to the water?

씲 It changes place and shape. 씲 It changes place but not shape. ✔

씲 The water keeps the shape of the glass. 씲 ✔ The water spreads all over the table.

lan∂

3

2

ßeafi an∂ o©eanfi

When a balloon breaks, When a balloon breaks, what happens to the air inside?

It rains on the roof. Where does the water go?

씲 The air stays inside the pieces. 씲 ✔ The air spreads in the room.

씲 It stays on the tiles. 씲 ✔ It runs to the lowest place.

VOCABULARY

atmosp™e®æ

2. Complete. When we look at the Earth from outer space, we can distinguish two colours. Brown is the colour of the

lan∂

, and blue is the colour of the

The layer of air that surrounds the Earth is called the

Match and draw small examples.

26

1

solids

• They adopt the shape of the container they are in.

liquids

• They keep the same shape, even if we change the container.

gases

• They occupy as much space as possible.

Answers may vary.

ßeafi and o©eanfi atmosp™e®æ .

.

3. Classify the pictures with colours. Solids: yellow

Liquids: green

Gases: blue

25

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Activity Book

Worksheet 19. Date

63

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UNIT 7

Water UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Understanding the characteristics of water Understanding that water is necessary for life Analysing the uses of water Discovering the places where we can find water Knowing about drinking water and where it comes from Relating changes of state to the water cycle Identifying and sequencing the water cycle Appreciating water and caring for this valuable resource on the Earth

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Asking for information: Does it have …? Can you …? Giving information: Water has … Water is … Identifying location: There is … in the sea / at the north pole / on the earth Countable and uncountable nouns: There is a lot … There are a few … Talking about excess / insufficient amounts: too much, not enough Describing a change: When liquid water gets very cold … When ice gets warm Defining a process: It is condensation when … Conditional: If it is very cold, the water freezes

Contents CONCEPTS

• Living things need water to survive • The characteristics of water • Places where we can find water on the Earth • The three states of water: solid, liquid and gas • The water cycle

PROCEDURES

• Explain the characteristics which distinguish water from other liquids • Identify water in different states • Describe and give examples of the changing states of water • Explain the water cycle

Assessment criteria • • • •

64

Knowing the characteristics of water and understanding its importance Recognising the places where we can find water in different states Identifying the three states of water and its changes Describing the water cycle

ATTITUDES

• Understand that water belongs to all of us and is a precious resource

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 7 – Extension: Worksheet 7

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 7

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es States of water http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/3grade cover.html What is water? Solid, liquid or gas. Useful for students and teachers. Water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/kids/ Graded games and activities about water. Water cycle http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/facilities/multimedia/ uploads/alberta/watercycle.html

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html

An animated water cycle including definitions. Useful for students and teachers. LEVEL

3 Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

FOLLOW A

RIVER

www.richmondelt.com

65

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 8.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 1, 2.

liquid, necessary, need, pure water, water

Water

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding water does not have its own shape • Question forms and word order: Does it have …? Can you use …? • Prepositions of movement: It goes out of a bottle, into some glasses

Answer the questions about each liquid.

water

• Does it have a smell? • Does it have a flavour? • Does it have a colour? • Can you wash in it? • Can you water plants with it?

• Verb: have in the negative: It does not have … Pure water has no smell

■ Hands on

oil perfume vinegar

Aquatic living things READ

• Prepare a large blue poster paper and put it up on the BB. • Hand out markers and ask the Ss to draw and write the names of living things we find in water. For example: seaweed, coral, octopus, fish, whales, dolphins, sponges, frogs.

■ Presentation • LOOK Refer to the previous lesson about how liquids do not have a shape. Take the liquids to class so the Ss can smell them. Ask: What do you notice about water? Water is the only liquid that has no smell, taste or colour. It is also the only liquid we use to wash in and to water plants. Emphasize the importance of water for all living things. • READ Present 1 and 2 with 54 and 55 . Ask: why do we need water? The Ss think of all the uses of water.

We need water. Every day we use many litres of water without thinking. Propose a situation: What happens if there is no water? Tell the Ss that we must encourage people to save water.

66

1. Water has no smell, taste or colour

36

Water is a liquid. It does not have its own shape. Its shape depends on the container it is in. The same quantity of water changes shape when it goes out of a bottle and into some glasses. Pure water has no smell, colour or taste.

2. Water is necessary for life

Hippos spend a long time in water.

People, animals and plants cannot survive without water. • A plant dries up and dies without water. • People and animals can go for many days without eating, but only four days without drinking. People need at least 1 litre of water a day to survive. • Many animals live in water.

What do people need water for?

M.A. We need water for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, cleaning, toilets, watering plants, washing street, swimming pools…

WATER

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Question forms. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy them in their notebooks and then circle the correct answer.

1. Does vinegar have a smell? 2. Does oil have a flavour? 3. Can you water plants with perfume? 4. Can you wash in oil? 5. Does water have a colour? 6. Can we live without water?

YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO

Answers: 1. yes. 2. yes. 3. no. 4. no. 5. no. 6. no.

23

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 3, 4, 7. Language objectives: 3, 4, 5.

drinking water, ice, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, sea, snow, underground, wells

Water, a valuable resource

■ Special attention

READ

1. Where can we find water?

37

We can find water in many different places. • There is water in the sea, rivers and lakes. • There is water underground. • There is water on the tops of mountains in the form of snow. • There is water in the huge blocks of ice at the North and South Poles.

• Understand that most of our drinking water comes from rain • Countable / Uncountable nouns: There is very little rainfall. There are only a few rivers

■ Hands on

Snow is made of water.

2. Drinking water

38

Drinking water is water that is safe for people to drink. There is a lot of water on the Earth, but not much drinking water. We cannot drink water from the sea because it has too much salt.

Drinking water is water that is safe to drink.

In some parts of the world, there is very little rainfall, and there are only a few rivers and reservoirs. The people who live in these dry areas, like Ethiopia, walk several kilometres every day to find drinking water. They take water from wells in the ground.

3. Water in our country In some areas it rains a lot. In other areas it rains very little, and there is not enough drinking water, especially in the summer.

We store water from rainfall in reservoirs.

Water from rainfall is stored in reservoirs. However, in very dry years there is not enough water in the reservoirs. We have to use less water.

Water is a valuable resource. How can we save water at home?

M.A. Shower instead of bath, turn the tap off when I clean my teeth. 24

WATER

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss listen again to 57 and choose the correct answer.

1. There is a lot of water on the Earth. 2. There is a lot of drinking water on the Earth. 3. We can drink water from the sea. 4. Ethiopia has a lot of water. 5. Ethiopia is a dry area.

YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO

A water filter

• Place a funnel in a clear bottle. Place a paper filter in the funnel. Put a layer of fine sand, about four cm, in the bottom of the filter. Mix a handful of sand and water. Pour this sandy water in the funnel. • Ask the Ss to predict what will happen: What will happen to the water? Show them that the water is clear when it comes out of the funnel: What do you notice about the water now? (It’s clear.) The sand remained in the filter.

■ Presentation • READ Use a globe and atlas to show the polar ice caps. Remind the Ss that ice is frozen water. Compare the size of the ice caps to the size of a country. • Tell Ss that when it rains, water seeps into the soil and accumulates underground. We can extract it and use it for drinking and watering. • Ask: Can you drink the water in your home? Why? (It has been cleaned and purified to make it safe to drink. Chlorine is usually added to drinking water.) • Present 1 , 2 and 3 with Ss then do the activity.

56 , 57

and

58 .

Answers: 1. yes. 2. no. 3. no. 4. no. 5. yes. Drinking water is precious. Some people have to walk several kilometres to find drinking water. Then they have to transport it to their home. Many people have no taps or toilets in their home.

67

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 6. Language objectives: 6, 7.

condensation, evaporation, gas, liquid, melting, solid, solidification, states

The three states of water

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Identifying the processes involving condensation

At the South Pole, ice covers almost all the land.

• Understanding that clouds are made up of tiny drops of liquid water

Look at this photo. Where is the water?

• Abbreviated phrase: So is the water …  The water in the rivers lakes and seas is also liquid water • Describing changes: verb get  adjective  become  adjective

READ

1. The three states of water

■ Hands on

39

Water can be found in three different states: liquid, solid and gas. • The water we drink is liquid water. So is the water in the rivers, lakes and the sea. Clouds are made up of tiny drops of liquid water. • Ice, snow and hailstones are solid water. • Water vapour is a gas.

Water evaporates • Take a glass of water into the class. Add salt and stir to dissolve it. • Then pour the water onto several flat plastic plates. Put the plates in a warm place. Ask: What do you think will happen to the water? • After a while there will be no water on the plates, only salt crystals. • Explain that the water evaporated and the salt was left in a solid state on the plate.

2. Water can change states

40

Water can change from one state to another. When it is very cold, the drops of water freeze on the leaves. We call this frost.

• When liquid water gets very cold, it freezes and becomes a solid (ice, frost or snow). This is solidification. • When ice or snow gets warm, it becomes liquid water. This is melting. • When liquid water gets hot, it becomes water vapour. This is evaporation. • When water vapour gets cold, it becomes liquid water. This is condensation. It is condensation when windows steam up on a cold day.

Complete the sentence. The three states of water are liquid, ...

… solid and gas

■ Presentation • LOOK Ask Ss: Think about ice and rain. Can you compare them? What is ice? (solid water) What is rain? (liquid water) What is water vapour? (a gas) Water has different properties in each state. For example, when it is a gas (water vapour), it does not have its own shape but when it is a solid (ice), it does. • READ Present 1 and 2 with 59 and 60 . Ask Ss: What happens when we put water in the freezer? (The water freezes and becomes ice.) What happens when we remove the ice from the freezer? (The ice melts and becomes liquid water.) This shows that water can change from one state to another but it is still water. ➔ R and E ➔ Activity Book, pages 27, 28.

68

WATER

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. The Ss copy and complete the sentences with the correct word.

Condensation / Evaporation / Melting / Solidification 1. 2. 3. 4.

… is when water freezes. (Solidification) … is when ice gets warm. (Melting) … is when liquid water gets hot. (Evaporation) … is when water vapour gets cold. (Condensation)

Vocabulary. Ask the Ss to find one word in each list which is different from the others and say why. 2

1. ice / sea / snow / frost / hailstones 2. water vapour / lakes / sea / clouds / rivers Answers: 1. sea because it is a liquid. 2. water vapour because it is a gas.

25

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 6, 7, 8. Language objectives: 8.

clouds, evaporate, evaporation, falls, freezes, heat, lakes, ponds, underground water, water vapour

The water cycle LOOK AND READ

■ Special attention

41

• Understanding that water vapour condenses in the air to form clouds evaporation sea

• Understanding that the water cycle takes place everywhere on the Earth and the cycle is continuous

water vapour

river

1. Liquid water in the sea, rivers and lakes evaporates because of heat from the Sun. The liquid water becomes water vapour.

• Zero conditional: If it falls …, If it is very cold …

clouds move clouds

■ Hands on

water vapour

Cloud formation 2. The water vapour rises in the air. It changes into tiny drops of water. The drops form clouds. The clouds move.

clouds

rain

sea

snow river 3. Water from the clouds falls to the earth as rain. If it is very cold, the water freezes and falls as snow. evaporation

the Sun sea

river

underground water

4. The water from rain and snow forms rivers, lakes and ponds. If it falls on to the land, it is used by plants or becomes underground water. Some water goes into the sea or evaporates. The water cycle starts again! 26

• Pour hot water into a glass and cover it with clear plastic wrap. Tiny drops of water will appear on the plastic wrap inside the glass. Ask: What can you see inside the glass now? What happened to the water? • Tell Ss the liquid water evaporated and became water vapour. Then the water vapour condensed on the plastic and formed tiny drops of water. Clouds form in a similar way.

WATER

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following text on the BB. Ss copy the summary into their notebooks and choose the correct words.

Liquid water evaporates because of heat from the 1. CLOUDS / SUN. The liquid water becomes water vapour. The water vapour rises in the air and changes into tiny 2. RIVERS / DROPS of water. The drops form clouds and the clouds 3. FALL / MOVE. Water from the clouds falls to the earth as rain. If it is very 4. HOT / COLD, the water freezes and falls as snow. The water from rain and snow forms rivers, lakes and ponds. If it falls on the 5. SKY / LAND, it is used by plants or becomes underground water. 6. SOME / ALL water goes into the sea or evaporates.

■ Presentation • Ask the Ss to look up the word cycle in the dictionary: a cycle is a process that is repeated in the same order without stopping. The same can be said about the water cycle; it is continuous and never stops. • LOOK AND READ Present the cycle with 61 . Photocopy page 26 of the Student’s Book and cut out each drawing. Then tape them together to form a circle. Use arrows to show the sequence. • Point out that the water cycle involves changes from one state to another and also water movement. A large quantity of water in the sea evaporates and the clouds which are formed move over dry land. ➔ R Activity Book, page 29. E➔

62

‘Old steam locomotives.’

Answers: 1. sun. 2. drops. 3. move. 4. cold. 5. land. 6. some.

69

Tasks

Worksheet 20. Date

Apply your knowledge

WATER CONSUMPTION

THE STATES OF WATER 1. Where are the different states of water found? Decide and draw them on the landscape.

1. Look at the picture. Use the key to colour the picture. • Blue: pipes for drinking water.

• snow

• hail

• rain

• clouds

• a lake

• a river

• Red: pipes for waste water. Answers may vary.

• Use any colour for the rest of the picture.

● Complete the sentences with these words: liquid, gaseous, solid. • The water in snow is in a • The water in a river is in a • The water in clouds is in a

soli∂ liqui∂ gaßeoufi

state. state. state.

2. Match and write. • freezing

● In which rooms do you use the most water?

• melting

• evaporation

bathrooµ, kitc™e>

2. Use the words to complete the answers. Then write your own idea. tap

shower

bath

evaporatio>

teeth

● What can you do to save water?

sho∑±® and not a bat™ . taπ †æet™ . • I can turn the off when I brush my Model answer: • I ca> ußæ dis™ wa†e® to c¬ea> m¥ bi§æ an∂ ska†efi.

µ[email protected]

3. What to do? Decide and write heat water, heat ice or freeze water.

• I can take a

28

f®æ[email protected]

™ea† wa†e® • To make ice: f®æeΩæ wa†e® • To turn ice into water: ™ea† i©æ • To make water vapour:

.

. . . 27

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Activity Book

70 Worksheet 21. Date

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Notes: Worksheet 22. Date

Apply your knowledge THE WATER CYCLE

1. Look carefully at the picture. Order the sentences. Colour the picture.

3 2

4 1

5

5 1 4 3 2

Streams and rivers carry the water back to the sea. Liquid water in the sea, rivers and lakes evaporates. The water forms rivers, lakes and ponds. Underground water dampens the lower layers of soil. The water from the clouds falls back to the land as rain. The water vapour rises in the air and forms clouds.

VOCABULARY Classify these words: ocean, lake, sea, reservoir, rain, snow Fresh water: Salt water:

la§æ, ®eßervoi®, rai>, sno∑ o©ea>, ßeå

29

71

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UNIT 8

Air UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Understanding that air is necessary for life Appreciating the uses of air Analysing the characteristics of air Knowing the composition of air Learning about the atmosphere, its functions, and some atmospheric phenomena Appreciating the importance of breathing clean air

Language objectives 1. Describing the uses of air: to breathe; in tyres; for pushing sailing boats 2. Stating facts: zero conditional: If we burst a balloon, the air escapes. 3. Making comparisons: It weighs less than…; there is more … than … 4. Describing a hypothetical situation: 2nd conditional: If there were … the Sun would burn …

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• The air: importance, composition, physical characteristics • The atmosphere: the layer of gases surrounding the Earth • The atmosphere and its functions: filters the Sun’s rays and has the oxygen we need to breathe • Atmospheric phenomena: precipitation, wind, storms

• Interpret diagrams • Identify everyday situations in which air is useful to people • Apply the characteristics of gases to air • Associate oxygen in the atmosphere with life • Analyse why the atmosphere is necessary for living things • Identify some atmospheric phenomena

Assessment criteria • • • •

72

Appreciating the importance of air and oxygen for living things Knowing the characteristics, basic composition and uses of air Knowing the structure and functions of the atmosphere Identifying some atmospheric phenomena

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate the importance of breathing clean air

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 8 – Extension: Worksheet 8

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 8

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Earth observatory http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ Images and information about space, the atmosphere and oceans. Useful for students and teachers. The atmosphere http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/kids/index.html Information sheets and games about taking care of our atmosphere. Useful for students and teachers.

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

3 CATCHING THE WIND

www.richmondelt.com

73

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 6.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 1.

air, breathe, underwater

Air

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that some marine animals breathe air

Why does this girl need special equipment underwater?

• Identifying air in different places and objects • Infinitive or gerund to describe purpose: Some animals come to the surface to breathe. Fish have gills for breathing.

■ Hands on Experiment with air

READ

1. We breathe air

• Ask the Ss to predict what will happen when you put an empty bottle into a container of water: What will you hear? (a sound) What will you see? (bubbles) Carry out the experiment. The bubbles are the air that was in the bottle. • When the water enters the bottle, the air escapes. Since air weighs less than water, bubbles rise to the surface.

42

Animals and plants need air to breathe. We can live for a few days without food. We can also live for a short time without water. However, we die if we cannot breathe. Some animals, such as whales and dolphins, live in water, and come to the surface to breathe. Fish have special organs called gills for breathing air in water.

2. Other uses of air Animals, like butterflies and birds, fly through air. People use air in many different ways. • There is air in the tyres of cars and bicycles. • There is air in the rubber rings that we use to learn to swim. • Air pushes sailing boats through water.

■ Presentation

Rubber rings contain air.

• LOOK Ask Ss: Can you swim underwater? Can you breathe underwater? What do you do? There is no air underwater and that is why we cannot breathe. To breathe underwater, we need compressed air tanks. Ask the Ss to point to the air tank in the photograph. • READ Present 1 and 2 with

63

and

Is it important to open the windows often at home and in the classroom?

M.A. Yes, because we need to let fresh air enter the room and the air in the room escape.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. The Ss copy the following sentences in their notebooks and try to complete them. Then they listen again to 63 and check their answer.

1. Animals and plants need … to breathe. (air) 2. Some animals live in … (water) 3. … have special organs called gills for breathing in water. (fish) Comprehension. Write the following exercise on the BB and ask the Ss to match the two halves of the sentences. 2

Ventilation. Frequent ventilating is important, especially in closed spaces where there are a lot of people, for example, in classrooms and cinemas.

74

AIR

64 .

• Ask Ss to make up sentences with words associated with air. Isabel blows up a balloon. Charlie inflates his bicycle tyres. ➔ R Activity Book, page 30.

• Aeroplanes move through the air.

1. We can live for a few days 2. We can live for a short time 3. We die Answers: 1 – c. 2 – b. 3 – a.

a. if we cannot breathe. b. without water. c. without food.

27

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Content objectives: 3, 4.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 2, 3.

gas, nitrogen, own shape, oxygen, space

Air is a gas

■ Special attention

COMPARE 3

• Which photos show places with air? • Where is the air?

• Understanding that air does not have its own shape • Understanding that air occupies the greatest possible space

2

1

• Zero conditional: If + present + present: If we burst a balloon, the air escapes • Superlative: … the greatest possible space

■ Hands on Balloons and air 1. The characteristics of air

READ

43

Air is a gas. Like all gases, air does not have its own shape. It takes the shape of the container it is in. Air occupies the greatest possible space. If we burst a balloon, the air escapes. The balloon deflates. Hot air balloons

Hot air weighs less than cold air. There is hot air in hot air balloons. This is why they go up.

2. The composition of air

44

There are different gases in air. The main gases are nitrogen and oxygen.

nitrogen oxygen other gases

There is more nitrogen than oxygen in air. However, oxygen is very important. Living things need oxygen to breathe. Complete the sentence. The main gases in air are … and …

Gases in the air

• Inflate some balloons and ask: Why do they inflate? (because air enters the balloons) Where does the air come from? (our lungs) • Pass a big balloon and a small one around the class and ask: What do you notice about the two balloons? Which has more air? (the big balloon) Which weighs more? (the big balloon) Does this mean air has weight? (yes) • Untie the knot in one balloon and ask Ss: What is going to happen? (When we untie the knot, the air escapes and the balloon deflates.)

nitrogen …. oxygen 28

AIR

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Word order. Write the words on the BB. The Ss put them in order to make 5 sentences.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

is / air / gas / a less / than / hot air / cold air / weighs air / gases / in / are / there / different important / is / oxygen / very oxygen / things / living / need / to / breathe

Answers: 1. Air is a gas. 2. Hot air weighs less than cold air. 3. There are different gases in air. 4. Oxygen is very important. 5. Living things need oxygen to breath.

■ Presentation • COMPARE Ask Ss: Is there air around us? (yes) Can we breathe underwater? (No, there is no air.) How can we breathe underwater? (with air tanks) How can astronauts breathe in space? (They wear special suits that have their own air because there is no air in space.) • READ Explain the figure. There are 100 little squares: 72 red (nitrogen), 21 green (oxygen), 1 yellow (other gases). Ask Ss: Which is the main gas in the air? (the one with the most little squares: nitrogen) • Present 1 and 2 with

65

and

66 .

• The Ss complete the sentence. ➔ R Activity Book, page 38.

75

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 5.

atmosphere, filter, outer space, oxygen, precipitation, storms, Sun’s rays, wind

Language objectives: 3, 4.

The atmosphere

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding that the atmosphere is a layer of gases

outer space

• Understanding that the atmosphere filters the Sun’s rays

no oxygen

a little oxygen

a lot of oxygen

• Describing a hypothetical situation: If there were no atmosphere, …

45

The Earth is surrounded by an enormous layer of gases. This is the atmosphere. The atmosphere has many gases, for example, oxygen and water vapour.

atmosphere

• Describing location: lower, higher, outside

1. What is the atmosphere?

the Earth

• The oxygen that living things need to breathe is in the lower parts of the atmosphere. • There is very little oxygen in the higher parts of the atmosphere. • Outer space is outside the atmosphere. There is no air and no life.

■ Hands on

the Sun

2. The functions of the atmosphere the Earth

The heat of the Sun Some of the Sun’s rays bounce off the atmosphere.

• Fill two plastic bottles with the same quantity of water and put the caps on. • Place one in the sun and the other in the shade. Ask the Ss: What will happen to the water after half an hour? • After a half hour or more, take the water temperature with a thermometer. The temperature of the water in the bottle in the sun will be higher because it has been heated by the Sun.

• It has the oxygen that we need to breathe.

atmosphere

The Earth’s atmosphere protects us from the Sun’s rays.

3. Atmospheric phenomena

• Precipitation is rain and snow. • Wind is the movement of air. • Storms have rain, wind, thunder and lightning.

We cannot see air. However, we can see the effects of wind. Wind moves the branches of trees.

• The illustration below shows how the atmosphere protects us from the Sun’s rays. The bottom illustration shows the effects of the wind.

• The atmosphere filters the Sun’s rays. If there were no atmosphere, the Sun would burn us more.

There are different phenomena in the atmosphere.

■ Presentation • READ Look at the illustrations together. The top one shows the Earth, the atmosphere and outer space. Ask Ss: Where can we find the most oxygen? (in the lower parts of the atmosphere)

The atmosphere has some very important functions:

True or false? Decide and make more sentences. There are no gases in the atmosphere. Oxygen is in the lower parts of the atmosphere.

There are no gases in the atmosphere. (F) Oxygen is in the lower parts of the atmosphere. (T)

AIR

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

Comprehension. The Ss choose the correct word.

➔ R Activity Book, page 31.

1. There is more oxygen is in the LOWER / HIGHER parts of the atmosphere. 2. There is very little oxygen in the LOWER / HIGHER parts of the atmosphere. 3. In outer space THERE IS / THERE IS NO air or life.

E➔

Answers: 1. lower. 2. higher. 3. there is no.

• Present 1 , 2 and 3 with

70

67 , 68

and

69 .

‘Wind power.’

2 Vocabulary. Write the following three words on the BB: storms / precipitation / wind

Sunscreens. We need to use sunscreens to protect our skin when we are out in the Sun. They help prevent sunburn and skin cancer.

76

Ss copy the definitions and match them to the correct word. 1. rain and snow  (precipitation) 2. the movement of air  (wind) 3. rain, wind, thunder, lightning  (storms)

29

Apply your knowledge

Worksheet 23. Date

Tasks

WEATHER CONDITIONS

AIR

1. Label each picture: snow, rain, or wind. Then match and write a benefit and a risk of each.

1. Circle everything that needs air to live or to work.

• Benefits: clean energy; water for agriculture; winter tourism • Risks: avalanches; floods; hurricanes and tornadoes

Benefit:

Risk:

wa†e® fo® agricultu®æ

floodfi 2. Colour the rainbow:

Benefit:

Risk:

win†e® tourisµ

● Then write the names of the colours in order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. 1.

avalanc™efi

2. 3. 4.

Benefit:

c¬ea> e>erg¥

5. 6.

Risk:

hurrica>efi an∂ tornadø±fi

7.

®e∂ [email protected]æ ¥ello∑ g®æe> bl¤æ indigo vio¬e†

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

● Complete the text with the words: Sun, air, water and the colours of the rainbow. 2. Look at the picture. What is polluting the air?

After it rains we can see a rainbow in the sky. Light from the

Smo§æ an∂ gaßeß froµ t™æ houßæ, t™æ ca® an∂ t™æ factor¥

hits drops of

wa†e®

You can see the colours of the rainbow:

indigo an∂ vio¬e† 31

30

Su>

ai® . ®e∂, [email protected]æ, ¥ello∑, g®æe>, bl¤æ,

in the

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Activity Book

Worksheet 24. Date

77

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UNIT 9

Plants UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Understanding that nutrition, growth and reproduction are common life processes for plants 2. Understanding the characteristics of plants 3. Identifying the parts of a plant and their characteristics 4. Understanding the effect of light, air, water and temperature on plant growth 5. Distinguishing hard stems from soft stems 6. Classifying plants according to the type of stem: trees, bushes and grasses 7. Identifying examples of trees, bushes and grasses 8. Understanding the importance of plants for all living things

Language objectives 1. Describing actions: adjectives of manner: grow quickly; grow very slowly; not grow well 2. Describing conditions: first conditional: If the air is … will not grow. 3. Identifying parts of plants: There are usually two parts … 4. Superlative adjectives: Trees are the biggest plants. 5. Prepositions of movement and location: out of, far from, close to

Contents CONCEPTS

• Plants are living things, they are born, grow, make their own food, and react • Parts of plants: stems, leaves, roots • Types of plants using stems as a classification criteria: trees, bushes, grasses • The importance of plants

PROCEDURES

• Identify the characteristics of plants • Distinguish the parts of a plant • Classify plants into trees, bushes and grasses

Assessment criteria • • • •

78

Knowing that plants make their own food Identifying the different parts of a plant Distinguishing between trees, bushes and grasses Showing interest in protecting plants

ATTITUDES

• Interest in protecting plants • Appreciate the importance of plants for all living things

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 9 – Extension: Worksheet 9

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 9

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es The parts of a plant http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/online/plant.swf An easy matching game. Plants need light and water to grow http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/plants_light_water_to_ grow/eng/Introduction/default.htm Information and different interactive activities help to learn about plants. Useful for students and teachers.

http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/HowPlantsGrow/HowPlantsGrow. htm

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

79

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 4.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 1, 2.

born, grow, react, reproduce, towards

Plants

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that plants make their own food from inorganic substances

Look at this photo. • Do you think the jungle is full of life?

• Comprehending that plants react to change • Infinitive of purpose: they use their roots to take … • Prepositions: from the soil, in their leaves • First conditional: if  present  future: If the air is … they will not grow …

■ Hands on READ

Plants grow towards the light

1. Plants are living things

• Make a big hole in the side of an opaque box with a cover. • Place a young, fast-growing plant inside. Ask the Ss: What will happen to the plant? • After several days, remove the plant and show how it has grown towards the light.

Plants make their own food. They use their roots to take water and minerals from the soil. Plants use this mixture and sunlight to make food in their leaves. Like animals, plants reproduce. All plants are born from other plants.

2. Plants react to their surroundings

■ Presentation

➔ R Activity Book, page 32.

Cultivated plants. We are responsible for the plants we have in our homes. We should give these plants the care they need: water, light, soil and fertiliser.

80

Plants cannot move from one place to another. However, they can grow towards light, and the roots can grow towards water in the ground.

Describe plants. Make more sentences. Plants are living things. They...

• LOOK Point out that plants are living things. In some parts of the rainforest, plants take up all the space.

• Present 1 and 2 with 71 and 72 . Ask Ss: Are plants living things? (Yes, plants are born and grow.) How are plants different from animals? (Plants make their own food and cannot move.)

47

Plants react to their surroundings. If the air is too hot or cold, they will not grow well.

Plants grow towards the light.

• READ All plants grow towards the sunlight because they need light to make food. If we move a plant, after a few days it will continue growing towards the light.

46

Plants are born and grow. Some plants, like geraniums, grow very quickly. Others, like oak trees, grow very slowly.

30

PLANTS

M.A. … are born. … grow. … make their own food. … grow towards light.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB. The Ss listen again to 71 and correct them.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Plants are born and die. All plants grow very quickly. Plants make food in their trees. All animals are born from other plants.

Answers: 1. … and grow. 2. Some plants … 3. … their leaves. 4. All plants …

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 3, 5.

branches, hard stems, leaves, main stem, roots, soft stems, stem

Language objectives: 3.

Plants have stems, leaves and roots

■ Special attention

READ

1. Stems

• Irregular plurals: leaf – leaves, branch – branches

48

Stems grow above the ground. There are usually two parts to the stem: the main stem and the branches.

■ Hands on

Some stems are hard. Others are soft. soft stems branches

• Hard stems are made of wood. Trees have hard stems (trunks).

Leaves

• Soft stems are usually green. Grasses have soft stems.

• Show Ss several types of leaves, and ask them to compare them: What do you notice about the leaves? Ask about their shape, the colour and the edges. • Ask Ss to touch them and say if the leaves are soft, rough or smooth. Ss should touch the leaf veins and realise that they can feel them better on the underside than on the outer surface. • Glue the leaves onto some paper and organise them by specific criteria (shape, edges …).

main stem (trunk) hard stems

2. Leaves Leaves grow on the stems and the branches. Each type of plant has a different type of leaf.

olive leaf

oak leaf

3. Roots Roots fix the plant in the ground. The roots are connected to the stem.

roots of the oak tree

■ Presentation Complete the sentences. Hard stems… Soft stems…

roots of the wheat plant

M.A. … are made of wood. … are usually green.

• READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with and 75 .

PLANTS

31

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write on the BB the two halves of the sentences below and tell the Ss to match them after listening again to 73 .

1. 2. 3. 4.

Hard stems Trees have Soft stems Grasses have

a. b. c. d.

are usually green. are made of wood. soft stems. hard stems.

73 , 74

• Look at the drawings and point out the difference between oak tree roots (a thick, long, main root with other thin roots) and wheat plant roots (many roots all the same size). • Tell Ss that flowers are also a part of a plant, but not all plants have flowers. ➔ R Activity Book, page 33.

Answers: 1 – b. 2 – d. 3 – a. 4 – c.

Vocabulary. In pairs, one student draws a plant, including the roots, stem and leaves. The other draws a tree, including roots, trunk, branches and leaves. They exchange pictures and label the different parts of their partner’s picture. They check their answers in the book. 2

81

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 5, 6, 7, 8. Language objectives: 4, 5.

branches, bushes, flexible, grasses, hard stem, soft, trees, trunk

Trees, bushes and grasses

■ Special attention LOOK

• Distinguishing the three types of plants: trees, bushes and grasses

• Put the plants in order, from the biggest to the smallest.

• Superlative adjectives: biggest, smallest • Opposite prepositions: close to, far from

■ Hands on

poplar

Making cologne • Use a pestle and mortar to crush some aromatic leaves: lavender, pine, eucalyptus, rosemary. Ask the Ss: What do you notice about the leaves now? (They smell more strongly.) • Add some alcohol, mix, and pour through a filter. Pour the filtered liquid into a spray bottle. • When you crush the leaves, the oil is released and is mixed with the alcohol. Spray the mixture and smell.

■ Presentation

• Ask the Ss: What do you think the difference is between trees and bushes? Point out that the difference between trees and bushes is not size but where the branches start growing. Branches grow close to the ground on bushes and far from the ground on trees. • Ask Ss: Which plants have hard stems? (trees and bushes) Which plants have branches? (trees and bushes) Which plants have flexible stems? (grasses) 76 , 77

➔ R Activity Book, page 34. E➔

79

clover

READ

1. Trees

2. Bushes

49

Trees are the biggest plants. They have a hard stem called a trunk. Branches grow out of the trunk far from the ground.

• LOOK Stems are valuable criteria for classifying plants into trees, bushes and grasses.

• READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with and 78 .

rosemary

‘The holm oak.’

50

Bushes also have a hard stem. Branches grow out of the stem close to the ground. Rosemary is a bush.

3. Grasses

51

Grasses have a soft, flexible stem. The stem on grasses is usually green. Clover is a grass.

A poplar is a tree. How can we protect trees and plants?

32

PLANTS

M.A. . By helping to prevent forest fires, by never picking leaves, breaking branches or harming tree trunks

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write these words on the BB: stem, green, hard, bush, soft, trunk. Then write the following sentences on the BB or photocopy page 83. Tell the Ss to copy and complete them with one of the words. Some words may be used more than once.

1. A poplar is a tree. It has a … stem called a … Branches grow out of the ... far from the ground. 2. Rosemary is a … It has a hard … Branches grow out of the … close to the ground. 3. Clover is a grass. Grasses have a … flexible stem. The stem is usually … Answers: 1. hard, trunk, trunk. 2. bush, stem, stem. 3. soft, green.

Recycled paper. Trees are used to manufacture paper. Recycled paper to save trees.

82

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Complete the sentences below with these words. You can use the words more than once. green soft

hard

bush

trunk

stem

1. A poplar is a tree. It has a

stem called a

Branches grow out of the

far from the ground.

2. Rosemary is a It has a hard Branches grow out of the

close to the ground.

3. Clover is a grass. Grasses have a

flexible stem.

The stem is usually

Answers: 1. hard, trunk, trunk. 2. bush, stem, stem. 3. soft, green. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S. L.

83

Worksheet 25. Date

Apply your knowledge PLANTS ARE LIVING THINGS

1. Identify and label the parts of a melon. • fruit

• stem

• seeds

1. Tick the true sentences. • flower

• leaf

• roots

씲 씲 ✓ 씲 씲 씲 ✓

• Plants move, just like animals.

frui† flo∑±® ßæedfi

¬eaƒ s†eµ rootfi

• Plants and animals are living things. • Trees do not usually live very long. • Plants eat other plants. • Plants need water and light to make food.

2. What trees and plants are there near you? Circle them.

Model answer:

2. Colour the part of the plants we eat. Then match and write the names. • roots

• leaves

• fruit

• stem

• seeds

lettuce

pea

strawberry

leek

tomato

carrot

¬ea√±fi

ßæedfi

frui†

s†eµ

frui†

roo†

cactus

banana tree giant sequoia

3. Do you know the names of trees and plants? Write the vowels and find out. Then copy the names of the four trees or plants.

holm oak

pine tree

ash tree

VOCABULARY P L

Look at the pictures and match.

A

U S T

R C

O



C A

P

T O M A T O



• L

E E K

popla® tomato cactufi ¬æe§

hard stem • soft stem



small roots •

33

32

• Wheat and some other plants have many small roots. • Grasses have soft stems. They are usually green. • Trees have a hard stem, called a trunk. It is made of wood.

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Apply your knowledge THE PARTS OF A PLANT

Activity Book

84 Worksheet 26. Date

Tasks IDENTIFY PLANTS

1. Look at the garden. Use the key to colour the different paths. Red: for trees Blue: for bushes Yellow: for grasses

elm

roßemar¥

cyp®esfi oleander

tuliπ

dais¥

geranium

pansy

roßæ bus™ box

pi>æ

acacia

● Which plant names are missing in the garden? Look at the chart and find them. Write them in the correct places. TREES elm cypress

34

BUSHES pine acacia

rosemary rose bush

GRASSES box oleander

geranium pansy

daisy tulip

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Notes: Worksheet 27. Date

85

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UNIT 10

Flowering plants UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Identifying the main parts of a flower and their functions Distinguishing types of fruit Understanding the purpose of seeds Associating flowers, fruits and seeds with plant reproduction Describing the life processes of a plant Understanding the importance of plants for all living things

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Describing different parts of a flower: Most flowers have petals … Defining the functions of these parts: … which protect … Classifying fruit: fleshy fruit, nuts; some fruit …, others … Describing a process: First, then … Describing development: It gets bigger / taller / thicker Making comparisons: several years / a long time / the longest

Contents CONCEPTS

• Plants reproduce: flowers, fruits, seeds • Parts of flowers: petals, corolla, sepals, calyx, stamens, ovary • Fruits grow from flowers • Types of fruits: fleshy fruit, nuts • Seeds are inside fruit • Plants are born and their parts grow and change

PROCEDURES

• Identify the different parts of a flower • Classify fruits into fleshy fruit and nuts • Put the life processes of plants in the right order • Analyse pictures to obtain information

Assessment criteria • • • • •

86

Identifying the different parts of a flower Knowing that fruits grow from flowers Classifying fruits into fleshy fruits and nuts Associating flowers, fruits and seeds with plant reproduction Appreciating the importance of fruits and seeds in our diet

ATTITUDES

• Recognise the importance of plants for people

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 10 – Extension: Worksheet 10

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 10

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es The parts of a plant http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/online/plant.swf An easy matching game. Plants need light and water to grow http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/plants_light_water_ to_grow/eng/Introduction/default.htm Different interactive activities help to learn about plants. Useful for students and teachers.

http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/ScienceIndex.htm

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

4 C OCONUT : S EED

OR

F RUIT ?

www.richmondelt.com

87

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1.

calyx, corolla, ovary, ovules, petals, pollen, sepals, stamens

Language objectives: 1, 2.

Flowering plants

■ Special attention LOOK

READ

• Understanding how seeds form stamens

• Prepositions of location: in the middle of; at the end of

ovary petals

• Collective nouns: corolla, calyx

1. Flowers come out in the spring Plants do not have flowers all year round. When spring starts, new flowers appear. Flowers grow from stems.

2. Flowers have different parts

■ Hands on

Most flowers have petals, sepals, ovaries and stamens.

sepals

• The petals are the coloured part of the flower. All the petals together are the corolla.

Changing flowers

corolla

• First, put some blue food colouring in a vase one quarter full of water. • Then, put several white carnations in the vase. Cut the stems at an angle. Ask the Ss: What will happen to the flowers? (They will turn blue.) • After a while the carnations will turn blue. • Explain that the blue colouring travels up the stem of the flowers. This is how water in the ground rises from the roots and is distributed to all parts of the plant.

closed calyx

• READ Present 1 and 2 with 80 and 81 . Ask Ss which sentences are true. Flowers are born in spring. (T) Flowers grow from roots. (F) Flowers grow from stems. (T) Stamens are a part of a flower. (T) The calyx is a part of a flower. (T) • LOOK AND READ Present the three photos with the texts. ➔ R Activity Book, page 35.

88

open calyx

• The sepals are the small green leaves which protect the flower before it opens. All the sepals together are the calyx. • The stamens and the ovary are in the middle of the flower. The stamens make pollen, and the ovary makes ovules. • When a male pollen joins with a female ovule, a seed is made.

LOOK AND READ Bees depend on flowers Pollen is at the ends of the stamen. Nectar is in the middle of the corolla.

Flowers are essential for bees. They collect nectar and pollen from flowers.

■ Presentation • LOOK Explain that the drawing represents a cross-section of a flower. Ask Ss to compare the drawing and the picture of the carnation. You can see a bud on the left. The calyx is closed to protect the flower. We only see the petals when the flower is open; the stamens and the ovary are hidden by the petals.

52

They make honey with the nectar. Honey is their food in winter.

FLOWERING PLANTS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB. The Ss listen again to 81 . They must decide which ONE of the sentences is NOT correct.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Petals are coloured. All the petals together are the corolla. The sepals are small green leaves. All the sepals together are the ovules. The stamens and the ovary are in the middle of the flower. The stamens make pollen.

Answers: Incorrect sentence – 4. All the sepals together are the calyx.

33

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Content objectives: 2, 3, 6.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 3.

fleshy fruit, nuts, seeds

Plant seeds and fruit

■ Special attention

LOOK pumpkin

Where can you see the seeds in this fruit?

• Distinguishing between the whole fruit (nuts) and the seed

pepper

• Understanding that we eat some seeds such as peanuts • Countable / uncountable nouns: a different fruit, fruits, fleshy fruit

water melon

• Classifying fruit: some … others …

avocado plum

kiwi

lemon

READ

Studying fruits and seeds 1. Fruits

acorn

53

nut

Fruits grow from flowers. Each plant produces a different fruit. Fruits have different colours, shapes and sizes.

seed seeds

We classify fruit into two groups: fleshy fruit and nuts. melon

• Fleshy fruit is juicy because it has a lot of water. Pears, apples and melons are fleshy fruits. • Nuts do not have a lot of water. Acorns and peanuts are nuts.

fleshy fruit

peach fleshy fruit

nut seeds

Seeds are inside fruit. Some fruits have only one seed. Others have a lot of seeds. Some seeds, like tomato seeds, are soft. Others, like lemon seeds, are hard. Make more questions. Change the underlined words. Are pears a fleshy fruit? Are pears nuts?

tomato

peanut

FLOWERING PLANTS

M.A. Are peaches a fleshy fruit? Are peaches nuts? Apples, bananas, almonds, pistachios…

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Read out the following descriptions and ask the Ss to guess which fruit is being described.

1. 2. 3. 4.

It is fleshy. It is big, round, green or yellow. We eat it in summer. It is red or green. It is bigger than a tomato. It is in salads. It is a yellow fruit like an orange but not as sweet. It is a big round fruit which is dark green on the outside and red on the inside. We eat it in summer.

Answers: 1. melon. 2. pepper. 3. lemon. 4. water melon. A class survey. Ask the Ss to name as many fruits as possible and write them on the BB. Then ask them to write the name of their favourite fruit on a piece of paper. One student collects the papers and reports back to the class on the most popular fruit among the Ss. 2

• Ask Ss to bring different fruits to class: cherries, avocado, pear, apple, melon, watermelon, peach, tomato, pumpkin, kiwi … • Open the fruits to study the seeds: Ask: How many are there? Where are they? What are they like?

2. Seeds

seed

34

■ Hands on

■ Presentation • LOOK Seeds are inside fruit. Ask Ss to compare the different seeds: Avocado seeds are big, brown and round. Kiwi seeds are very small and black. • Distinguish the whole fruit (nuts) from the seed inside. • Some seeds, like plum seeds and peach seeds, have thick protective coverings. Others, like melon seeds, have thinner coverings. Tomato seeds are even softer. • READ Present 1 and 2 with

82

and

83 .

• The Ss do the activity. ➔ R Activity Book, page 36.

Fruit in season. Fruit provides us with essential vitamins. We should eat a variety of fruits every day. Fresh fruit in season is less expensive and easier to find in the market.

89

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Content objectives: 4, 5.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 4.

flowers, fruits, ovaries, seeds

Plants are born

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Understanding that fruits and seeds come from flowers

Look at these pictures. Do apples come from apple flowers?

• Following the sequence of how plants are born: first … then … when …

It gets bigger.

■ Hands on



The petals fall.





Germination • First, place some moist cotton in a glass jar. • Then, place several lentils on top of the cotton. • Moisten the cotton as needed. Ask the Ss: What will happen to the lentils? • Ss observe the first thing to come out is a small root and then a little green stem.

Inside, the seeds grow.

1. Plants are born

54

Plants are born from seeds. This is how plants reproduce: • First the flowers grow. Then the ovaries inside the flowers become fruit. They have seeds inside.

• When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground. It opens. The seeds fall out of the fruit. • The seeds are in the soil. They slowly grow into a new plant. A new plant grows from each seed.

How do plants reproduce? Put these sentences in the right order.

• LOOK The drawing of the flower on the left side shows the parts that will become the fruit and seeds.

1

• The right side shows the sequence that occurs after the pollen joins with the ovules. This process is gradual and happens slowly.

• After Ss have done the exercise at the bottom of the page, ask them to copy the sentences in the right order.

It changes colour. It is an apple.

The ovary becomes a fruit.

READ

■ Presentation

• READ Present 1 with 84 . Ask Ss: Which grows first, the flower or the fruit? (the flower) In which part of the plant do the seeds grow? (inside the fruit)





apple flower

The flowers become fruit.

The plants grow and have new leaves.

Flowers grow on the plant.

The seeds grow into new plants.

The seeds fall out of the fruit into the soil.

The fruit falls and opens.

From top to bottom and left to right: 2, 1, 4, 6, 5, 3.

FLOWERING PLANTS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. The Ss copy them and circle the correct answer.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Plants are born from seeds. First the flowers grow. The petals inside the flowers become fruit. The fruit has seeds inside The seeds fall out of the fruit. A new plant grows from each seed.

YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO YES / NO

Answers: 1. yes. 2. yes. 3. no. 4. yes. 5. yes. 6. yes.

90

35

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Content objectives: 4, 5.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 5, 6.

change, grow, leaves, roots, stem

Plants grow and change

■ Special attention

READ

1. Plants grow

• Understanding that, over time, seeds can grow into complete plants, even into trees

55

Plants grow if they have the right soil and water. During the life of a plant, its stem grows and new leaves grow. • The stem gets taller and thicker. Hard stems divide into branches.

Some plants live longer than others. Some plants only live for a few months. They grow flowers and fruit, and then they die.

• Comparative adjectives: taller, thicker …

Other plants live for several years. Trees can live for a very long time. Trees are the plants that live the longest.

■ Hands on

• The roots grow down into the ground. They divide into smaller roots.

Plants grow

• The leaves get bigger and new leaves grow.

LOOK AND READ

seeds

The life of a bean plant

56

The fruit of a bean plant is the bean pod. Inside the pods are the seeds. The seeds are called beans.

bean pod

GERMINATION



The seed takes in water and gets bigger.

A small root grows from the seed. GROWTH

The stem and the first few leaves grow.



The plant grows taller and more leaves grow.



36





The seed falls to the ground.

• First, cut the middle section of a plastic bottle to make a cylinder and line it with black paper. • Then, place a germinated lentil inside. Next, cover both ends of the plant with moist soil. Ask the Ss: What will happen to the lentil? • After a while, a green sprout (stem and leaves) will grow up, and a white sprout (root) will grow down. • Finally, turn the cylinder over. After a while, the root will grow down and the stem will grow up.

The roots and the stem grow.

FLOWERING PLANTS

■ Presentation • READ Present 1 with 85 . Point out that roots always grow down. They obtain the water they need in the ground. • Stems always grow up. They find the sunlight they need to live and grow.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write on the BB the sentences describing the life of a bean plant. The Ss copy the sentences and as they listen to 86 , they underline the correct alternative in each sentence. They listen twice and then check the answers in their book.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The TREE / SEED falls to the ground. The seed takes in WATER / AIR and gets bigger. A BIG / SMALL root grows from the seed. The plant grows SMALLER / TALLER and more leaves grow. The roots and the stem GO / GROW. The stem and the first few SEEDS / LEAVES grow.

• LOOK AND READ Use the drawings and texts to make a diagram with all the plant’s life processes. Include the contents on this page and the previous one. The Ss can also add sentences to the exercise on page 35. E ➔ Activity Book, page 37. E➔

87

‘Hungry plants.’

Answers: 1. seed. 2. water. 3. small. 4. taller. 5. grow. 6. leaves.

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Match the sentence halves. 1. When spring starts

a. before it opens.

2. Flowers grow

b. ovules.

3. The petals are

c. new flowers appear.

4. All the petals together are

d. the calyx.

5. The sepals protect the flower

e. from stems.

6. All the sepals together are

f. pollen.

7. The stamens make

g. the corolla.

8. The ovary makes

h. the coloured part of the flower.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – e. 3 – h. 4 – g. 5 – a. 6 – d. 7 – f. 8 – b.

92

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S. L.

Tasks

Worksheet 28. Date

Apply your knowledge

SEEDS AND FRUITS 1. What colour are the seeds of these fruits? Decide and colour.

THE PARTS OF A FLOWER 1. Label the parts of this flower. • corolla

staµe>

• petal • stamen peas

melon

watermelon

peach

avocado

pear

corollå

πeta¬

2. Look at the pictures and circle. Green: fleshy fruit. Brown: nuts.

2. Use the key to colour the parts of the flowers.

3. Draw the life of a bean plant in the correct order.

petals: blue

1

2

3

sepals: green

stamens: yellow

ovary: green

4

3. Read and answer the questions. • Bees gather pollen from flowers. What part of the flower is the pollen on?

t™æ staµenfi

VOCABULARY Read the definition. Tick the correct answer.

36

• They protect the flower before it opens. What are they?

• a group of leaves that protects the flower:

sepals

씲 ✔

corolla 씲

• the part of the plant with pollen at the top:

stamen

씲 ✔

ovary

• the coloured part of a flower:

petals

씲 ✔

sepals 씲



t™æ ßepalfi • When we say a rose is yellow, what part of the flower are we talking about?

t™æ πetalfi 35

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Activity Book

Worksheet 29. Date

93

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94 MAKE OBJECTS TO EXPERIMENT WITH AIR

Project 4

Name

Date

Project 3 INVESTIGATION SHEET

1. Make a weather vane.

AN EXPERIMENT

Design and carry out an experiment. Answer these questions. Question:

How does water affect the growth of plants?

Method:

How can you find the answer?

Ta§æ two plantfi, wa†e® o>æ ®egularl¥ an∂ do no† wa†e® t™æ ot™e®, t™e> compa®æ. What resources do you need? Two plantfi in potfi, wa†e®. How much time do you need?

38

Project 5

Abou† th®ææ ∑æekfi.

T™æ o>æ withou† wa†e® wil¬ d^æ. Results: How can you record your results? Dra∑ å pictu®æ o® å char†. How often do you take measurements? E√±r¥ 2 o® 3 dayfi. What are you looking for? To ßææ iƒ t™æ plantfi a®æ [email protected] Conclusions: Compare your results with your hypothesis. T™æ firs† plan† ifi [email protected] an∂ ™ealth¥. T™æ ot™e® o>æ ifi dr¥ an∂ wil†e∂. What do your results show you? T™æ plan† withou† wa†e® ifi [email protected] Evaluation: Was the experiment a good one? Yefi. What did you learn? Plantfi >æe∂ wa†e® to li√¶. What went wrong, if anything? I forgo† to wa†e® t™æ plan†. Can you improve it next time? Yefi. I ca> ∫¶ mo®æ ca®efu¬. Hypothesis:

2. Make an anemometer.

Model answers:

What do you think will happen?

37

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Notes: 3. Make a spiral mobile that spins in hot air.

4. Build a toy that moves with the force of the air.

Project 6

Project 7

39

95

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UNIT 11

The landscape UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Distinguishing the physical features of different landscapes: mountain, flat, coastal 2. Recognising changes in the environment and identifying their cause 3. Learning about mountains 4. Identifying the parts of a mountain: summit, foot, slopes 5. Distinguishing valleys and plains 6. Describing how people can damage the environment

Language objectives 1. Describing geographical features of landscape: we can see mountain / flat / coastal 2. Describing how landscapes change: Wind and rain wear down … 3. Describing shapes of mountains: highest part, lowest part 4. Prepositions of movement and location: over, through, between

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• Types of landscapes: mountain, flat, coastal • Natural and artificial changes in landscapes • Definition and parts of a mountain • The shape of mountains • Flat land: plains, valleys

• Differentiate the three types of landscapes: mountain, flat, coastal • Distinguish natural and artificial changes in landscapes • Observe, analyse and describe photographs of different landscapes • Analyse the impact of people on landscapes

Assessment criteria • • • • •

96

Distinguishing the different types of landscapes: mountain, flat, coastal Understanding the causes of changes in landscapes: natural, artificial Identifying the parts of a mountain: summit, foot, slopes Studying pictures to obtain information from them Describing landscapes using the correct terms

ATTITUDES

• Interest in our natural heritage and helping to preserve it

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 11 – Extension: Worksheet 11

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 11

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Volcanoes http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/kids/kids.html Information, activities, games and stories about volcanoes. Map of Spain http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/countrys/ europe/es.htm Maps of Spain and Europe with quick facts and figures. Useful for students and teachers. Test your geography knowledge http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/index.html Click and find quizzes for world geography for an overall perspective. Useful for students and teachers.

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

97

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1. Language objectives: 1.

landscape: coastal landscape, flat landscape, mountain landscape

The landscape

■ Special attention LOOK

• Identifying characteristics of different types of landscapes

Look at this photo. • What do you see?

• Phrasal verb: is made up of

■ Hands on Comparing photographs • Take some photos to class of different landscapes: mountain landscapes, flat landscapes and coastal landscapes. Ask Ss to compare the landscapes: What do you notice about this landscape? … • Write the three different landscapes on the BB. Ask Ss to name things in the photos and write the words under the correct landscape. For example, sea under coastal landscape.

READ

1. Landscape When we drive through the countryside in a car, we see flat lands, mountains, rivers, reservoirs, forests, villages and factories. The landscape is made up of all of the things we can see in a place.

2. Different landscapes

57

There are different types of landscape. • Mountain landscapes. We can see mountains, with narrow rivers, forests, villages and steep roads.

■ Presentation

This is a landscape of flat land used for agriculture.

• LOOK Ask Ss to name things they can see in the photos. Write words for them to choose from on the BB: sky, clouds, beach, rain, air, land, mountains, sea, river, crops, trees, island, houses, snow, sand, cars, cliffs, boats. • Show a photograph of a coastal landscape and repeat the previous exercise. Ask Ss: What do you take to the mountains in the summer? What do you take in the winter? What do you take to the coast in the summer? • READ Present 1 and 2 with

88

and

89 .

• Flat landscapes. We can see flat land, wide rivers, farms, cities, and motorways. • Coastal landscapes. We can see cliffs, the sea and tourist towns.

What kind of landscape is there in your region?

M.A. a flat landscape / a coastal landscape / a mountain landscape

THE LANDSCAPE

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following words on the BB and ask the Ss to copy them. Ss listen again to 89 and circle the words they hear.

mountains / lakes / rivers / reservoirs / forests / jungles / villages / monuments / roads / flat land / farms / airports / cities / motorways / cliffs / ships / sea / towns / buses Answers: mountains, rivers, forests, villages, roads, flat land, farms, cities, motorways, cliffs, sea, towns.

Protecting natural landscapes. Governments protect natural landscapes with regulations and laws. They also protect the living things which inhabit them.

98

2 Vocabulary. In groups of three, the Ss choose a different landscape, either mountain, flat or coastal and draw a picture to illustrate the geographical features listed on page 37. Then they exchange drawings and label the features on their partner’s drawing.

37

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Content objectives: 2, 6.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 2.

artificial changes, disasters, natural changes

Changes in landscapes

■ Special attention

COMPARE Look at the photos. • What is the same in the two photos? What is different?

1

• Distinguishing between natural changes and artificial changes in landscapes

2

• Imagining landscapes before and after changes

• Which is a summer landscape? Which is an autumn landscape?

■ Hands on Volcanoes

READ

1. Natural changes in landscapes There are natural changes in landscapes. • The seasons change. For example, in winter many trees lose their leaves. However, during the spring new leaves grow. • Rain and wind wear down the soil and the rocks. • Natural disasters like droughts, floods, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes all change the landscape.

58

2. Artificial changes in landscapes

59

People change landscapes. There are artificial changes, for example: • Building villages, cities and farms. • Building roads, bridges and dams across the rivers. • Mining minerals and rocks. • Electrical power lines. • Crops and tree plantations. • Disasters caused by fire.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. Floods cause natural changes in landscapes.

38

THE LANDSCAPE

M.A. Volcanic eruptions … natural …The seasons … natural … Building bridges … artificial … Electrical power lines … artificial.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss listen twice to 90 decide if the sentences are true or false. If they are false they correct them.

1. 2. 3. 4.

• Make a volcano out of plasticine. • Place a tube of toothpaste in the centre. • Squeeze the toothpaste tube firmly to simulate an eruption. The toothpaste is the lava.

In spring many trees lose their leaves. During the winter new leaves grow. Rain and wind wear down the soil and rocks. Natural disasters change the landscape.

■ Presentation • COMPARE Ask Ss: How do trees change with the seasons? (In winter trees lose their leaves; in spring, new leaves grow) When do flowers grow? (in spring) When are landscapes wet / dry? (when it rains / when there are floods / when it doesn’t rain / when there are droughts) What colour is the landscape in summer / winter? • Take a news article about a natural disaster to class. Ask students what the landscape was like before and after. • Use photos to analyse artificial changes in landscapes. Ask Ss: What do you notice about this photo? What was the landscape like before the tunnel / the bridge / the road / the houses was / were built? • READ Present 1 and 2 with 90 and 91 . The Ss then read the texts and do the activity. ➔ R Activity Book, page 40.

Answers: 1 – F. In winter … 2 – F. During the spring … 3 – T. 4 – T. Pronunciation. Write on the BB the words: droughts, floods, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes. Ask Ss to focus on the pronunciation of these words. Play the last sentence of the recording again and ask Ss to repeat the words. 2

Environmental impact. People have a great capacity for changing the environment with technology and machines. It is important to control environmental change.

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 3, 4, 5. Language objectives: 3, 4.

■ Special attention

hill, mountain pass, mountain range, mountain, plains, slopes, summit, tunnel

Mountains and flat lands READ

• Distinguishing the shape of mountains and how mountains can be grouped

1. The shape of mountains

• Prepositions of movement and location: over, through, between

Mountains are high lands with steep slopes. Low mountains are called hills. Several mountains together are called a mountain range.

■ Hands on

We can travel over mountains using a mountain pass. We can also travel through the mountains using tunnels.

This is a mountain range.

Mountains

the summit

2. The parts of a mountain

60

61

Mountains have three parts:

• Ask Ss to make mountains with plasticine. • They place the mountains on poster paper to create a mountain landscape. • Discuss the difference between mountains and plains, the shape of mountains, the different heights of the three parts. • Makes signs with the words: mountain, valley, plains, summit, slopes, foot and use toothpicks to stick them where they belong.

• The summit is the highest part of the mountain. the slopes

• The foot is the lowest part. • The slopes of the mountain are the sides that go from the foot to the summit.

the foot The parts of a mountain.

3. Flat land

62

Plains are huge extensions of flat land. Many plains have fertile soil, and people grow crops there. Valleys are the flat lands between mountains. Rivers start in the mountains, and run through the valleys.

■ Presentation • READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 92 , 93 and 94 . Explain that mountain roads are usually steep and narrow with many curves. Roads through the plains are usually wide and straight. Ask Ss: Where can we build roads more easily, in the mountains or on the plains? (plains) • Ask Ss: Is there a lot of land to grow crops in the mountains? (no) Can we travel easily from one side of a mountain to the other? (no) Why do few people live in the mountains? (life is difficult, fewer jobs …) • Ask similar questions about flat land.

Complete the sentence. A mountain has three parts:... Many towns and cities are on flat land called plains.

… summit, foot and slopes.

THE LANDSCAPE

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Vocabulary. Write the following words and sentences on the BB and ask Ss to copy them into their notebooks, completing each one with the correct word from the list.

pass / hills / tunnel / steep / range 1. Mountains are highlands with … slopes. (steep) 2. Low mountains are called … (hills)

➔ R Activity Book, page 40.

3. Several mountains together are called a mountain … (range)

E ➔ Activity Book, pages 42, 43 and 56.

4. We can travel over mountains using a mountain … (pass) 5. We can travel through mountains using a … (tunnel)

100

39

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Write the words in the box in the correct column. mining

trees lose their leaves

droughts farms

dams rain

new leaves grow building cities

electrical power lines

Natural changes

disasters caused by fire wind

earthquakes floods

Artificial changes

Answers: Natural: trees lose their leaves, droughts, new leaves grow, wind, rain, earthquakes, floods. Artificial: mining, disasters caused by fire, dams, building cities, farms, electrical power lines. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S. L.

101

Apply your knowledge

Worksheet 30. Date

Tasks

LAND FORMS

DIFFERENT LANDSCAPES

1. Colour the landscape. Identify and label the landforms. • mountain range

• mountain

• hill

• valley

1. What can you see in each postcard? Circle A or B.

• plain

mountai> [email protected]æ

mountai>

A

B

val¬e¥ plai>

2. Complete the description with: village, trees or castle. • There is a • There are

cast¬æ t®æefi [email protected]æ

• There is a of the mountain.

on the summit. on the slopes. at the foot

• I see a mountain landscape.

A

B

• I see a mountain range.

A

B

• I see a flat landscape.

A

B

• I see a hill on flat land.

A

B

• I see a wide river.

A

B

• I see a town.

A

B

• I see a narrow river.

A

B

• I see a village.

A

B

• I see motorways and factories.

A

B

• I see crops.

A

B

2. Copy the picture and add these things. • a road

VOCABULARY Find the incorrect word in each sentence. Change it and write the corrected sentence. • If we go up a mountain slope, we reach the foot of the mountain.

Iƒ ∑¶ go dow> å mountai> sloπæ, ∑¶ reac™ t™æ foo† oƒ t™æ mountai>. Lo∑ mountainfi a®æ cal¬e∂ hillfi.

• Low mountains are called chains.

• A long line of mountains is called a valley.

A [email protected] li>æ o£ mountainfi ifi cal¬e∂ å [email protected]æ. 41

40

• a bridge

• a reservoir

• two houses

• a forest

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Activity Book

102 Worksheet 31. Date

Tasks

Worksheet 32. Date

DRAW A RELIEF MAP 1. Follow the instructions and label the map.

MOUNTAINS

Model answer:

1. Read carefully.

The Yorkshire Dales

N W

Read and learn

E

3

The Yorkshire Dales National Park is an area in the North of England. It is very beautiful, and many tourists visit it.

Cantabria> [email protected]æ 1

1

S

eµ ys† >S ria I∫±

Py®e>æefi

2

In the Yorkshire Dales there are big rocks that look like people or animals. These rocks have names. One is called The Cow, and another is The Calf.

3

ys†eµ S ¬ a r t ● Cen Madri∂

There are also animals. There are sheep and rabbits, and there are many fish in the rivers. Beautiful flowers and trees grow there.

1

Is there a place like the Yorkshire Dales near where you live?

3

2

3

1

ys†eµ Beti© S

3

1

2. Complete the index card.

T™æ Yorkshi®æ Da¬efi I> t™æ Nort™ oƒ Englan∂. What animals live there? S™æeπ, rabbitfi, fis™. Describe the landscape: T™e®æ a®æ man¥ [email protected] rockfi an∂ å ri√±® a† t™æ foo† oƒ t™æ rockfi. NAME:

Where is it? 1. Colour the map: 1 brown; 2 yellow; 3 green. 2. Label: Cantabrian Range, Pyrenees, Iberian System, Central System, and Betic Systems. 3. Mark the approximate location of the capital of your Autonomous Community.

43

42

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Worksheet 33. Date

103

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UNIT 12

Water and weather UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Understanding what a river is and describing its characteristics Identifying the three parts of a river Distinguishing coastal relief (gulf, bay, cape, island) Recognising differences in the weather Identifying weather characteristics on the plains, near the sea and in the mountains 6. Describing how people can improve the environment

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4.

Describing the course of a river: start in, run through, flow down to Comparing different stages in the river: less water, more water, not as quickly Identifying land formations: A peninsula is … Islands are … Talking about weather conditions: It is colder … It rains less …

Contents CONCEPTS

• Rivers: definition and characteristics (course, flow) • Coastal relief: beaches, cliffs, capes, gulfs • Types of weather • Weather symbols

PROCEDURES

• Describe characteristics of rivers • Interpret a diagram about the course of a river and the three parts • Interpret a drawing about coastal relief • Study photographs of landscapes to obtain information • Match weather symbols with the information they represent

ATTITUDES

• Keep our rivers and coasts clean • Respect and protect natural areas

Assessment criteria • • • •

Knowing what rivers are and describing their characteristics Recognising coastal relief (gulf, bay, cape, island …) Identifying differences in the weather Identifying the differences in weather on the plains, in the mountains, and near the sea • Interpreting pictures of landscapes • Appreciating natural parks and reserves and showing interest in conserving them

104

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 12 – Extension: Worksheet 12

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 12

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es

INDONESIA

INDIAN

Gulf of Carpentaria

OCEAN

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

Gr

Human and physical geography http://www.scalloway.org.uk/ Aspects of human and physical geography. Useful for teachers.

Arafura Sea

Timor Sea

ea

Coral Sea

t B ar

ri

er

R

e

ef

A U S T R A L I A

Climate kids http://www.dnr.state.sc.us/climate/sercc/education/ education.html Activities, games and resources about weather.

Great Australian Bight

SOUTHERN OCEAN SCALE

0

207

Kilometres

Tasman Sea

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

105

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2, 6.

course, flow, lower course, middle course, river, source, upper course

Language objectives: 1, 2.

Water and weather

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding the meaning of course and flow

Look at the photo. Is it a river or a lake?

• Distinguishing the parts of a river

• Is the water moving? • Where does the water come from?

• Adjectives: narrow Adverbs: quickly Comparisons: It does not flow as quickly

• Do you know a river like this?

■ Hands on READ

LOOK AND READ

Rivers of the world 1. Rivers

• Use a globe or atlas to show some important rivers (Orinoco, Nile, Danube …). Ask: Do you know any important rivers? Where are they? • Ask Ss to look at the length and course. • Make a chart on the BB. Write these headings: Rivers of the world – Country and complete it together. For example: Nile – Egypt, Amazon – Brazil, Mississippi – United States, Yangtse – China …

Water is a very important element in a landscape. It is in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Rivers are made of moving water.

95

and

96 .

• LOOK AND READ Play 97 . Then the Ss read the text. Then ask: What are the parts of a river? (upper, middle and lower course) Why is there more water in the middle course than in the upper course? (the river is wider) Why does water flow more slowly in the lower course? (there is much more water) • Ss could look up information about a local river (name, location of source and mouth).

106

The source: This is in the mountains. The upper course: The river is narrow and there is less water. It flows very quickly.

• They run through flat lands and get bigger. More water goes into them from rainfall and other rivers.

Reservoir

The middle course: The river is wider. There is more water. It does not flow as quickly.

• They flow down to the sea or into another river.

2. The course and the flow of a river The course of a river is the route the river takes. The quantity of water in a river is called the flow. In some places, rivers have a lot of water in the autumn and in the spring. It rains more, and snow melts in the mountains.

The lower course: The river is much wider, and there is now much more water. It flows slowly.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. The upper course: the river flows quickly.

• LOOK Ask the Ss: What do you notice about the photo? How do we know that this is a river? We know it is a river because the water is moving. Water in rivers comes from the mountains, where it accumulates and flows down to lower lands.

E ➔ Activity Book, page 44.

Look at the three parts of a river.

• Rivers start high in the mountains, or from an underground source.

■ Presentation

• READ Present 1 and 2 with

The course of a river 64

63

40

WATER AND WEATHER

M.A. … middle … not as fast. lower … slowly

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following questions and answers on the BB. The Ss copy them into their notebooks and circle the correct answer.

1. Where is the source of a river? 2. Where does the river flow very quickly? 3. Where is the river wider? 4. Where is there more water? 5. Where does the river flow slowly?

In the mountains / sea In the upper / lower course In the upper / middle course In the upper / middle course In the upper / lower course

Answers: 1. in the mountains. 2. in the upper course. 3. in the middle course. 4. in the middle course. 5. in the lower course.

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 3, 6.

archipelago, bay, beach, cape, cliff, coast, coastal relief, gulf, island, land, peninsula, sea

Language objectives: 3.

The coast and the sea

■ Special attention

READ

1. Land and sea

LOOK

• Identifying types of relief

Coastal relief 67

65

A peninsula is a piece of land surrounded by water on all sides except one. Islands are pieces of land which are surrounded by water on all sides.

• Relative prounouns: land which touches … • Prepositions: next to, on all sides

B

archipelago

When several islands are close to each other they are called an archipelago.

2. The coastline

• Passive forms: surrounded by, are called

A coastline has different types of relief: gulfs, capes, bays, islands and peninsulas.

peninsula

■ Hands on

66

The coastline is land which touches the sea.

bay

Dunes

• There are high coastlines which form cliffs. Cliffs are huge rock walls next to the sea.

be ach

• There are low coastlines which form beaches. Beaches are flat extensions of sand next to the sea. cape

gulf

island

• Sprinkle a layer of sand in a shoebox cover. • Tell Ss to blow gently across the surface through a straw. Ask the Ss: What will happen to the sand? (The air will move the sand. The sand will pile up like dunes at the beach.) • Explain that the energy from the wind moves the sand. When the sand builds up, dunes and ripples form.

A

• Imagine that you are going from A to B. Describe the relief that you see.

The water from the Atlantic Ocean hits the rocks. It creates a cliff.

■ Presentation • READ Present 1 and 2 with

Complete the sentence. A coastline has different types of relief: islands, ...

archipelago, peninsula, cliff, beach, gulfs, capes, bays WATER AND WEATHER

41

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Vocabulary. Ask the Ss to copy the following incomplete words. Then read the definitions and ask the Ss to complete the words.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

P_N_NS_L_ __LAN_S ARC__P__A_O C_A_T_IN_ B_AC___

(peninsula) (islands) (archipelago) (coastline) (beaches)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a piece of land surrounded by water on all sides except one pieces of land surrounded by sea several islands close to each other land which touches the sea flat extensions of sand next to the sea

98

and

99 .

• LOOK If we go from A to B we can see: the sea, an archipelago, the coast, a peninsula, a bay, a cape, a gulf, a beach, an island. Play 100 . • Compare the cliff (high coastline) in the photo with the beach (low coastline) in the drawing. Ask the Ss: What do you notice about the photo and the picture? (There are huge rocks next to the sea in the photo of the cliff. There is only sand on the beach.) ➔ R Activity Book, page 45.

Beaches and rubbish. To prevent pollution from getting on the sand and in the water, do not leave rubbish on beaches (plastic bags, tins, bottles, food). The beach might not be safe on your next visit.

107

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■ Special attention

Content objectives: 4, 5, 6.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 4.

cloudy, cold, dry, raining, sunny, warm, weather, windy

Weather LOOK AND READ

• Understanding what influences the weather TYPES OF WIND ACCORDING TO WIND SPEED

• Comparative forms: drier, hotter, lower

1. Types of weather

68

• Impersonal form to talk about weather

In order to see what the weather is like, we look around us. We can see if it is sunny, or if it is raining.

■ Hands on

We can also use a weather map. A weather map tells us if it is warm or cold, if it is raining or windy. breeze

gale

hurricane

Charting the weather • Ask the Ss: What’s the weather like today? How can we know about changes in the weather? • Draw a chart and write two headings: Day and Weather. Under Day, write the days of the week. Ask Ss to copy the chart and to record the weather during the week. They use weather symbols from the book. • They write sentences to go with the symbols: It is cloudy. It is snowing.

2. Differences in the weather The weather can change during the day. It also changes in each season. In winter, it is colder, and in some regions it snows. In summer, it is hotter. It usually rains less. It is different from one place to another. A sunny day with a few clouds. This is the beginning of summer.

Weather symbols 69

It is sunny.

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Ask Ss to compare hurricanes, gales and breezes: Which is the strongest / fastest? Explain that hurricanes are fastest, then gales, and then breezes. Ask: What happens when the wind blows very hard? (It can damage trees, buildings, electrical power lines.) • Present 1 and 2 with 101 and 102 . Show Ss a weather map from a newspaper. Ask them to interpret the symbols. • Play

103

to practise the vocabulary.

• Ask the Ss why we study weather. (To plan agriculture, prevent disasters, organise trips, prepare clothes …)

When we describe the weather we use words like: hot, cold, sunny, raining, dry, windy or cloudy.

It is raining.

42

It is cloudy.

It is windy.

WATER AND WEATHER

On the plains, the winters are cold. The summers are very hot. It is usually drier than in the mountains, or on the coast. In the mountains, the temperatures are lower than on the plains. It rains and snows more often.

It is foggy.

It is snowing.

Near the sea, it is not so cold in winter. It usually rains more than on the plains.

Draw a simple map of your region, with the names of six cities. Draw one weather symbol next to each city. According to your map, what is the weather like today?

Students draw their maps as indicated. Then in pairs they ask each other: What’s the weather like in….?

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following words on the BB and then the questions. Ss listen again to 102 and complete each sentence with the correct word.

sea / hotter / plains / colder / snows 1. In winter it is … (colder)

➔ R Activity Book, page 47.

2. In summer it is … (hotter)

E➔

3. In the mountains it rains and … more often. (snows)

104

‘The Spanish imperial eagle.’

The recording can be used with the Activity Book, page 46. Driving in bad weather. When the weather is bad, drivers need to be especially careful to avoid accidents.

108

4. Near the … it is not so cold in winter. (sea) 5. It usually rains more than on the … (plains)

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Write sentences.

1. Describe the weather in summer.

2. Describe the weather in winter.

3. Describe the weather on the plains.

4. Describe the weather in the mountains.

5. Describe the weather near the sea.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S. L.

109

Worksheet 34. Date

Apply your knowledge

COASTAL LANDFORMS

RIVERS

1. Colour the picture. Identify and label. • peninsula

• island

• cape

1. Unscramble the name of each river. Then colour the rivers blue and number them. • gulf

• beach

• cliff 1. It goes through Zaragoza. 2. ORBE:



E 씲 B 씲 R 씲 O 씲



Zaragoza

Zamora

2. It passes near Zamora.

caπæ



D 씲 U 씲 E 씲 R 씲 O 4. EDURO: 씲

islan∂

Toledo

쎻 Badajoz

3. It passes through Toledo.

∫±ac™

T 씲 A 씲 J 씲 O 6. AOJT: 씲

πeninsulå gulƒ clif£



Doñana

4. It goes through Badajoz.

N

G 씲 U 씲 A 씲 D 씲 I 씲 A 씲 N 씲 A 8. IANADAGU: 씲

W

5. It ends in the Doñana National Park.

E S

G 씲 U 씲 A 씲 D 씲 A 씲 L 씲 Q 씲 U 씲 I 씲 V 씲 I 씲 R 10. GVDUAQUIRLIA: 씲 2. Think and tick. What happens to a river when it does not rain for a long time? 씲 The course of the river gets bigger.

씲 ✔ The flow of the river gets smaller.

What happens to a river when the snow in the nearby mountains melts? 씲 ✔ The flow of the river increases.

씲 The river freezes.

3. Why did they put up these signs at the reservoir? Decide and match.

VOCABULARY Think and match.

1

course of a river •

• flat extension of sand next to the sea

flow of a river



• the quantity of water in a river

cliff



• huge rocks next to the sea

beach



• the route a river takes

NO LITTERING

2 3

45

44

NO

FISHING

NO BOATS ALLOWED

씲 1 Because they do not want any litter in the water. 씲 3 Because they do not want any pollution from the boats’ fuel. 씲 2 Because they want the fish to grow.

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Apply your knowledge

Activity Book

110 Worksheet 35. Date

Worksheet 36. Date

Tasks

Read and learn BIRDS OF PREY

DRAW A WEATHER MAP 1. Read carefully and answer the questions.

1. Look at these maps of Ireland. Read the texts. Then draw the symbols in the correct circles.

The Spanish Imperial Eagle sunny

cloudy

rain

snow

storms

It It It It It

is is is is is

Eagles are magnificent birds. The rarest bird of prey in Europe is the Spanish imperial eagle. It lives in the mountains, forests and grasslands of Spain. This large bird of prey hunts during the day.

windy

Its wingspan, which is the distance from one wing tip to the other, measures two metres. The Spanish imperial eagle has a different colouring from other eagles. It is black-brown in colour. Its head and neck are pale, and there are large white areas on its shoulders.

a winter day. snowing in the North. cloudy in the East. cloudy in the South. raining and it is windy in the West.

The Spanish imperial eagle is a protected species, and it is in danger of extinction.

● Answer:

Spanis™ imπeria¬ eag¬æ . I> t™æ mountainfi, fo®estfi an∂ grosslandfi oƒ Spai>. . Becaußæ i† ifi i> [email protected]® oƒ extinctio>. .

What is the bird’s name? Where does it live? It is a spring day. There are storms in the North. It is sunny in the South. There is some sun and it is windy in the East. It is cloudy in the West.

Why is it protected?

2. Tick the meaning of wingspan: 씲 The distance from one wing tip to the other. 씲 The height of the eagle. 씲 ✔ The height the eagle flies. 3. Identify and label the animals. rabbit vulture lizard squirrel eagle

47

46

rabbi†

eag¬æ lizar∂

vultu®æ

squir®e¬

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Worksheet 37. Date

111

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UNIT 13

Population UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4.

Understanding what population is and how it changes Distinguishing immigrants from emigrants Differentiating cities, towns and villages Understanding the differences between urban populations and rural populations 5. Assessing the pros and cons of different forms of transport 6. Recognising the importance of transport for people 7. Appreciating rural life and village life

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Giving definitions: A place where … The people that live there … Identifying groups: demonstrative pronouns: These people Describing cities: superlative forms: The biggest settlements, the most populated Talking about transport: by land / sea / air Defining purpose: We use vehicles to go …, Ships are for moving …

Contents CONCEPTS

• Population growth and migratory movements • Urban populations and rural populations • Means of transport (vehicles) and facilities

PROCEDURES

• Interpret a population bar graph • Classify means of transport (vehicles) by type of transport • Analyse pictures of different towns and cities to describe their similarities and differences • Reading maps to locate cities • Interpret drawings about population and transport

Assessment criteria • • • • • •

112

Defining population Using the terms immigrant and emigrant correctly Distinguishing between rural populations and urban populations Classifying of means of transport (vehicles) by type of transport Appreciating means of transport Respecting rural and urban ways of life

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate rural and urban life • Recognise the importance of transport

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 13 – Extension: Worksheet 13

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 13

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es

73

Human and physical geography http://www.scalloway.org.uk/ Aspects of human and physical geography. Useful for teachers. Transport activities http://education.dot.gov/k5/gamk5.htm Activities and games about transport and communications. Useful for students.

79

69

77

10 11

14 9

64 68 64 68 22 8 22 9

64

77

39 13

23

72

53 56

71

18 8

7

Transport in big cities http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/initiatives-projects/education/ Multimedia presentations and teachers’ resources. Useful for students and teachers.

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

113

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2.

census, emigrant, graph, immigrant, inhabitants, population

Language objectives: 1, 2.

Population

■ Special attention READ

• Distinguishing the difference between immigrants and emigrants • Interpreting population bar graphs • Get  comparative adjective: gets bigger

1. Settlements

70

A settlement is a place where people live. The people that live there are the inhabitants of the settlement. The number of inhabitants is called the population.

births emigrants

The population gets bigger for two reasons:

■ Hands on Course graph • Draw the x axis and y axis on the BB. • On the x axis write the names of the groups in third year (3A, 3B, 3C …). • Draw the bar for each course to show the number of students. Ask: How many students are there in our group? Which group has more students?

■ Presentation • READ Present 1 with 105 and look at the drawing. Then tell Ss to answer increase or decrease. Ask: What happens if more people die than are born? (decrease) What happens if many immigrants come? (increase) What happens if many emigrants leave? (decrease) • LOOK Discuss the graph. The x axis: number of inhabitants; y axis: years. The height of the bars shows the number of inhabitants there were in each year. ➔ R Activity Book, page 48. E ➔ Activity Book, page 49.

• More people are born than die. • People come in from other places. These people are immigrants. Sometimes, the population gets smaller:

immigrants deaths

• More people die than are born. • People go away to other places. These people are emigrants.

Reasons that explain the increase or decrease of a population.

LOOK Graphs showing the census A census shows the number of inhabitants in a place.

Number of inhabitants in millions 45 40

We can give this information in graphs.

35

Spain's population increased after the census of 2001.

25

In 2006 it was 44 million.

30

20 15 10 5

Graph showing the evolution of Spain’s population.

0 1950

1960

1970

1981

1991

2001 Years

Make new questions. Change the year. How many inhabitants were there in 1960?

M.A. How many inhabitants were there in 1970? How many inhabitants were there in 1991?

POPULATION

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Vocabulary. The Ss copy the definitions and match the corresponding word to each one.

population / settlement / inhabitants 1. A place where people live (settlement) 2. The people who live in a place (inhabitants) 3. The total number of people who live in a place (population)

Our surroundings. Peace begins with our family at home, with our friends at school, in our neighbourhood with our neighbours, Ask what we can do to encourage peace.

114

2 Easily confused words. Ask the Ss to write a definition of IMMIGRANT and EMIGRANT.

Answers: Immigrants are people who come in from other places. Emigrants are people who go away to other places.

43

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 3, 4, 7. Language objectives: 3.

cities, inhabitants, rural population, towns, urban population, villages, work

Cities, towns and villages

■ Special attention

READ

1. Cities, towns and villages

71

Many people live and work in towns and cities. Towns and cities are examples of urban populations. Other people live and work in villages in the countryside. This is the rural population. There are three main differences between cities, towns and villages: the size, the number of inhabitants and the type of work that people do.

This is a small village.

2. Urban populations Cities are the biggest settlements, and the most populated. Their inhabitants do many different types of work. For example, they work in business, government, education and other services. San Francisco is a big city with tall buildings and wide avenues in the United States.

3. Rural populations Villages are small settlements and do not have many inhabitants. Some villages get bigger, and become towns or cities. Many of the people who live in villages work in farming or small businesses.

This is a small town in Great Britain. Complete the sentences. Urban populations work in… Rural populations work in…

44

POPULATION

M.A. Urban populations work in business. … education. Rural populations work in farming. … small businesses.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. The Ss copy the words and sentences below. After listening again to 106 , they complete each sentence with one of the words.

three / rural / inhabitants / work / urban 1. Towns and cities are examples of … populations. (urban) 2. People who live in villages in the countryside are the … population. (rural) 3. There are … main differences between cities, towns and villages. (three) 4. One of the differences is the number of … (inhabitants) 5. Another difference is the type of … that people do. (work)

• Understanding the difference between rural population and urban population • Noun people  plural verb: People are … • Verb: to do work

■ Hands on Improve our surroundings

• The class makes a group proposal to improve the neighbourhood or town. They consider these things: urban furniture: benches, flower boxes, wastepaper bins …; pedestrian crossings, traffic signs; basic services: schools, doctors; shops and banks; parks and gardens; leisure. • Ask Ss what they could improve and how.

■ Presentation • READ Ask the Ss to compare the photos. Write words to choose from on the BB: sky, clouds, tall buildings, low buildings, trees, cultivated land, narrow streets, wide streets, cars, countryside … Ask: What do you notice about the photos? Where do the most people live? Where is there more noise? • Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 106 , 107 and 108 . Ask Ss to give examples of urban and rural jobs. E ➔ Activity Book, page 50.

Customs and traditions. People have different customs and traditions in rural and urban areas. They deserve our respect because they enrich our cultural diversity.

115

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 5, 6. Language objectives: 4, 5, 6.

airport, by air, by land, by sea, ports, roads, stations, transport, travel, vehicles

Transport

■ Special attention

READ

LOOK

• Matching types of transport and facilities An airport is like a big city

• Impersonal statements using the passive: … is widely used, need to be sent quickly

Most big cities have an airport. Airports are often built several kilometres from the city. This is because of the noise the planes make.

• Expressions of purpose: We use … to go • Phrasal verb: Planes take off

■ Hands on

control tower fuel tanks

Transport map runway

• Guide the interpretation of a transport map. • Point out colours, lines and thickness, drawing and symbols. • Ss interpret the map to answer questions. For example: How can we travel from A to B? Can we go by road from C to D?

1. Transport

72

fire brigade

We use vehicles to go from one place to another. We also use vehicles to move goods. • Transport by land • Cars, buses, and trains travel by land. • We build roads, railways and stations. Land transport is very widely used.

car park

• Where do the planes take off and land?

• Transport by sea • Ships transport people. They are also used for moving large quantities of goods. This means of transport is slower. • Ships sail in and out of ports. There are special machines in ports for lifting containers.

109 .

• Ask the Ss to guess the means of transport: It goes in and out of ports. (boat) It moves on railways. (train) It has wings and engines. (plane) It has big wheels and many seats. (bus) • LOOK Ask the Ss to write sentences using words in the airport picture. The fuel tanks contain fuel for the planes. The control tower controls take-off and landing of the planes … E ➔ 110 ‘Some towns grow and others disappear.’ The recording can be used with Activity Book, page 49.

Traffic signs and regulations. To be good pedestrians and drivers, people must respect all the traffic signs and safety regulations to avoid accidents.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. Cars are an example of land transport.

M.A. Planes … air. Ships … sea.

POPULATION

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

Vocabulary. Write the following list of vocabulary on the BB:

planes / ports / fly / roads / airports / stations / containers / passenger terminal / railways / ships / runway / cars / take off / buses / to land / control tower Ask Ss to make three columns in their notebooks with the headings below. Then they write the words under the correct heading. BY LAND

116

passeng er termin al

• Transport by air • Planes transport people. They also take goods which need to be sent quickly. • Planes fly in and out of airports.

■ Presentation • READ Present 1 with

transport for passengers and goods

Many people use buses to travel in cities.

BY AIR

BY SEA

Answers: By land: roads, stations, railways, cars, buses. By air: planes, fly, airports, passenger terminal, runway, take off, to land, control tower. By sea: ports, containers, ships.

45

857371 _ 0112-0119.qxd 29/6/06 18:31 Página 117

Write the words in the box in the correct column. planes containers runway

ports

fly

roads

passenger terminal cars

take off

airports railways buses

stations ships to land

control tower

By land

By air

By sea

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 3 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S. L.

117

Apply your knowledge POPULATION

TOWNS 1. Observe, colour and complete.

1. Read carefully.

Some towns grow and others disappear Many towns and villages have existed for over a thousand years. However, not all of them have developed equally. Some have grown quickly in a short time, and are now cities. Others have grown little by little, and have not changed much. Some towns and villages have seen their populations decrease. Today their populations are so small that there are more empty houses than inhabited ones. Some even have fewer than 50 inhabitants.

This is a

We must preserve our villages and towns, and their history. They are a very important part of our regional and national heritage.

tow>.

This is a

cit¥.

2. Read, decide and tick. A village / town It has the largest area. It has a small population.



a) b)

People work in farming.

Mo®æ πeop¬æ a®æ bor> tha> d^æ. Peop¬æ coµæ froµ ot™e® pla©efi to li√¶ t™e®æ.



VOCABULARY Explain the meaning.

3. What does a town need to keep the population from getting smaller? Think and circle. • jobs

• medical services

• parks

• amusement parks

• schools

• shops

• good transportation

• beaches

• universities

• cinemas

immigrant: emigrant:

49

48

✔ ✔

It has tall buildings. 2. Why can a population get bigger? Give two reasons.

A city

A πerso> who coµefi froµ anot™e® countr¥. A πerso> who hafi ¬e‡† hifi ow> countr¥.

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Worksheet 38. Date

Read and learn

Activity Book

118 Worksheet 39. Date

Tasks FIND TOWNS AND CITIES

1. Read the clues. Complete the names with the missing vowels. Then connect the name to the place. 1. The running of the bulls takes place here.

4. The largest city in Andalusia.

2. The largest city in Catalonia.

5. Some important prizes are given here.

3. There is a famous cathedral here.

N W

P_ A M P L _O N _A E

B_ U R G _O S

S

_ O V _I _E D _O

S _E V _I L L _ A

B_ A RC _E L _O N _A

2. Complete. Model answer:

Córdobå T™æ mosq¤æ, t™æ Jewis™ quar†e®

Name of the town / city where I live: Important monuments or sights:

50

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Notes: Worksheet 40. Date

119

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UNIT 14

Work UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Understanding what the active population is Distinguishing work by economic sectors, and rural and urban populations Distinguishing irrigated crops and dry crops Recognising different kinds of animal farming Understanding industry Following a product from its manufacture to end result Identifying professions

Language objectives 1. Asking for information: question forms: What do these people do? Do as auxiliary verb and main verb 2. Defining different groups: People who work … 3. Present participle used as an adjective: working people 4. Describing a farm: Some crops …, other crops … 5. Describing different kinds of animal farming: cattle / sheep / equine … 6. Distinguishing between different materials: raw materials, industrial products

Contents CONCEPTS

• The active population and types of work people do • Crop farming: irrigated crops, dry crops • Different kinds of animal farming • Industrial products • The transformation of raw materials into industrial products

PROCEDURES

• Classify types of crops and where farm animals live and eat • Differentiate raw materials and industrial products • Interpret pictures about work, crop farming and animal farming

Assessment criteria • • • • • •

120

Defining active population Classifying work based on jobs and economic sectors Identifying dry crops and irrigated crops Classifying farm animals by type of animal Distinguishing raw materials from industrial products Appreciating and respecting the work done by people

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate all the different types of jobs and the people who do them

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 14 – Extension: Worksheet 14

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 14

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Farming http://www.friendlyfarmclub.com/ Games, facts, vocabulary and activities on and about the farm. Useful for students. Glass recycling http://www.glassforever.co.uk/ Information and games about glass and recycling. Images of a toy factory http://www.designboom.com/contemporary/toys3.html A German photographer visits toy factories in China. Useful for students.

http://www.fsa.usda.gov/ca/agforkids.htm

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

121

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Work

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understand service as it refers to work • Prepositions: over the age of, about 65, obtain resources from, transforming resources into, provide services for

active population, farmers, fishing, industrial jobs, obtain resources, services, transform resources, work

2

1

3

Look at the photos. People do many different jobs. • What jobs do these people do?

■ Hands on Role-play • The Ss role-play different types of jobs. • Ss use the first person singular to describe what the job is, where they do it, what they use, what they wear, why they like it … • For example: I’m a teacher. I work in a school. I teach science to nine-year old students.

LOOK AND READ Active population Obtaining natural resources People who work in crop and animal farming, mining and fishing

■ Presentation •

Ask the Ss to describe what they can see in the photos: 1. A crop farmer driving a harvester. 2. Industrial workers packaging products in a factory. 3. A doctor / nurse working in a hospital.

• LOOK AND READ Present 1 and 2 with 111 and 112 . Tell Ss that people who are not working but are able to work, for example the unemployed, are also included in the active population. • The diagram classifies different types of jobs.

73

People work to earn money. With this money, they buy the things they and their families need. Working people form the active population. These are people over the age of 16 who have jobs. Most working people retire when they are about 65.

Transforming resources

2. Types of work

People who work in factories and construction

People do many different kinds of work.

Providing services People who work in banks, transport, health services and government

LOOK

1. Work

Different types of job.

74

• Some people obtain resources from the land, for example, farmers. Others obtain resources from the sea, for example, people who work in fishing. • Some people have industrial jobs, transforming resources into products. • Some people provide services for other people, for example, doctors and teachers.

Give examples of the active population. People who work in animal farming, people who work in…

46

WORK

M.A. crop farming, mining, fishing, factories, banks, transport, health services, government

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss listen again to 111 and underline the correct alternative in each sentence.

1. People work to earn MONEY / HONEY. 2. With this they buy the things they EAT / NEED 3. The active population are working people over the age of 60 / 16. 4. Most working people retire when they are about 60 / 65 Answers: 1. money. 2. need. 3. 16. 4. 65. The right to work. Everybody has the right to work. Physically challenged people and women often have difficulty finding jobs.

122

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Vocabulary Content objectives: 3, 4, 7.

farming, dry crops, equine farming, irrigated crops, pig farming, poultry farming, sheep farming

Language objectives: 4, 5.

Crop and animal farming

■ Special attention

READ

1. Crops

2. Animal farming

75

Crop farming is the cultivation of plants, used mainly for food. • Some crops need a lot of water. These are irrigated crops, for example, fruit and vegetables. • Other crops grow mainly with rain water. These are dry crops, for example, olives and some cereals.

• Distinguishing types of animal farming 76

• Understanding the meaning of crops: irrigated and dry crops

Farmers breed animals for food and other products. There are different kinds of animal farming: • Cattle farming (bulls and cows). • Sheep farming. • Pig farming. • Equine farming (horses and donkeys). • Poultry farming (chickens and eggs).

■ Hands on Farm animals

• Ask the Ss to make farm animals with plasticine. Sizes should be in proportion. • The Ss draw the different animal homes. • They write the animal’s name on the home. • The Ss place each animal in the right home.

LOOK crops

Crop farming Irrigated crops fruit

vegetables

cereals

houses

silos milking shed stables for cows

milk truck

Dry crops grapes

olives

cereals

tractor feeding trough drinking trough

■ Presentation

bull sheep

• Ask the Ss: What food do you think we can get from animal farming? And crop farming? Make a list of products on the BB: fruit, vegetables, cereals, cheese, eggs, feathers, leather, meat, milk, processed meats, wool …

pig horse Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. Pig farming – pigs; cattle farming – bulls;… chicken

M.A. Sheep farming - sheep; equine farming - horses and WORK donkeys; poultry farming - chicken and eggs.

47

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Read aloud the following sentences and Ss decide if they are true or false. If they are false, they try to correct them.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Crop farming is the cultivation of trees. Dry crops grow mainly with rain water. Fruit and vegetables are dry crops. Irrigated crops need a lot of water. Poultry farming refers to chicken and eggs. Cattle farming refers to pigs.

T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F

• Present 1 and 2 with

113

and

114 .

• LOOK Ask the Ss to make sentences using the words in the boxes: Oranges are irrigated crops. We eat cereals for breakfast. Olives grow in Spain. Explain that the drawing on the right shows a cattle farm. Ask them to make sentences with the words in the drawing: Animals drink water from the drinking trough. The farmer milks the cows in the milking shed.

Answers: 1 – F … of plants. 2 – T. 3 – F They are irrigated crops. 4 – T. 5 – T. 6 – F It refers to bulls and cows.

123

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Content objectives: 5, 6.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 6.

energy, factory, industrial product, industry, raw materials

Industry

■ Special attention

COMPARE

• Distinguishing raw materials and industrial products

Why are all these bikes the same? • The same person made all these bikes.

• Understanding the industrial process

• Machines can make many identical pieces.

• Active / passive sentences: the same person made … The objects we use are made …

■ Hands on

READ The process of transformation in two types of industry

• Take to class two of the same handcrafted objects and two of the same industrially-produced objects. • Ask the Ss to compare them: What do you notice about these objects? Explain that handcrafted products are never exactly the same. • Industrial objects can be identical.

Raw materials iron ore

1. Industry

77

Most of the objects we use are made in factories. cotton





Handicrafts and industry

We use raw materials to make things. For example, wood is a raw material. We use wood to make paper. Paper is not a raw material. It is an industrial product.

Transport

2. What industry needs trains

lorries



➧ Factory metal works

textile factory

78

Industry needs four things: • Raw materials like wood and cotton. • Factories with special machinery. • Energy, like electricity and gas, to make machines work. • People who do the work.

■ Presentation Product steel

• Ss make a chart showing raw materials and industrial products: wood – furniture; fruit – jam; leather – shoes; rubber – tyres … E ➔ Activity Book, pages 51, 52.

Safety at work. Industry and workers need to follow certain safety rules to prevent accidents. Companies should provide use gloves, masks and helmets where necessary.

124

clothes Complete the sentence. Industry needs four things:…

• READ The diagram shows that raw materials are transformed into industrial products. • Present 1 and 2 with 115 and 116 . The Ss analyse which objects around them are made in factories. They should conclude that this is the majority.





• COMPARE Bicycles are alike because they are made industrially with machines which make many identical pieces.

48

WORK

M.A. … raw materials, factories, energy, people

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Vocabulary. Write the two columns of words on the BB. The Ss copy them and then draw a line to match the words on the left to the definitions on the right.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

cotton paper metal works steel lorries electricity

a. b. c. d. e. f.

transport raw material energy industrial product factory product

Answers: 1 – b. 2 – d. 3 – e. 4 – f. 5 – a. 6 – c.

Worksheet 41. Date

Apply your knowledge

THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1. Imagine you are making a cart like the one in the picture. Organise your work.

MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS 1. Label the pictures: raw material or manufactured product.

1. MATERIALS Circle the materials you want to use.

ra∑ ma†eria¬

manufactu®e∂ produc†

ra∑ ma†eria¬

manufactu®e∂ produc†

manufactu®e∂ produc†

ra∑ ma†eria¬

2. TOOLS Colour the tools you need.

● Complete the sentences. Use cotton, milk or fish. Canned sardines are made with 3. PROCESS

Cheese is made from

Who can help you? Decide and tick. 씲 a plumber

씲 ✔ a carpenter

씲 an electrician

4. FINISHING Colour the materials you would use to finish your cart.

T-shirts are made of

fis™.

mil§. cotto>.

2. What manufactured foods do you eat? Name three. Model answer:

yoghur†

b®ea∂

chocola†æ

VOCABULARY

2. Answer.

å car† What materials did you use? soµæ woo∂, å hamµe®, nailfi an∂ pain† What colour did you paint your cart? purp¬æ

MINER Circle the professions. Green: people who obtain natural resouces Red: people who make things DENTIST Blue: people who provide services

What did you make?

52

TAXI DRIVER DRESSMAKER

TEACHER FACTORY WORKER FISHERMAN

POLICEMAN / POLICEWOMAN

CONSTRUCTION WORKER

CATTLE FARMER

51

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Tasks

Activity Book

Worksheet 42. Date

125

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126 Worksheet 44. Date

Tasks A FAMILY TREE

1. Draw pictures of your family, or glue photos on the page. Use these words and complete your family tree.

Extra

Worksheet 43. Date

PAST AND PRESENT

1. Think and number the pictures 1, 2 or 3. (1 ⴝ oldest; 3 ⴝ newest)

Model answers:

2 grandmother

father

sister / brother

grandmother grandfather

Apply your knowledge

1

3

mother grandfather

● Describe the changes in kitchens. Write electric, wood or fireplace.

brot™e® sis†e®

In the past, people cooked food over a Then later they used a cooker with a

µæ

sis†e®

Today we use

fi®epla©æ woo∂

e¬ectri©

. fire inside. cookers.

2. Remember three of your experiences and complete the sentences.

Model answers:

[email protected] fo® å [email protected]æ exaµ. • Last month I ©e¬ebra†e∂ m¥ birthda¥. • Last year I visi†e∂ m¥ cousinfi i> Burgofi. • Last week I was

fat™e®

mot™e®

VOCABULARY

grandfat™e®

grandmot™e® grandfat™e® 54

grandmot™e®

Match each word with its meaning. biography •

• a written summary of historical events in order

history



• a description of a person’s life

legend



• a story about past events (These events may or may not be true.)

53

1. Look at this model of Ireland. Then draw the outline of your Autonomous Community on a big piece of card. Cover it with green plasticine.

Project 8

Worksheet 45. Date

857371 _ 0120-0128.qxd 29/6/06 17:25 Página 127

MAKE A RELIEF MODEL OF YOUR AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY

Tasks COMPLETE A TIMELINE

1. Read, decide and write. • My 1st birthday.

• I went to school.

• My 5th birthday.

• I learned to read.

You can ask your family for help. You can add your own information.

Model answers:

YEAR

2. Mark the elevated lands on the green plasticine. Cover them with yellow plasticine.

56

1998

I wafi bor>.

1999

M¥ firs† birthda¥.

2001

I ∑±n† to schoo¬.

2002

I ¬ear>e∂ to ®ea∂.

2003

M¥ fift™ birthda¥.

2004

I ¬ear>e∂ to ri∂æ å bi§æ.

2005

I go† å [email protected]

2006

Wæ mo√±∂ to å >e∑ houßæ.

55

127

5. Finish by placing small labels on the model with the names of the mountains and rivers.

4. Use blue plasticine to make the rivers in your Autonomous Community.

3. Mark on the yellow plasticine the contour lines formed by mountain ranges. Cover this area with brown plasticine and shape the plasticine like mountains.

Project 8

57

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Essential Science, Science, Geography and History, for Year 3 of Primary Education is a collective work, conceived, designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana, under the supervision of JOSÉ LUIS ALZU GOÑI, JOSÉ TOMAS HENAO and MICHELE C. GUERRINI Contributing authors: Cristina Zarzuelo, Jane Kilner English language editors: Martin Minchom, Cathy Myers, Encarnación Diez, Sheila Klaiber, Lesley Thompson, Nancy Konvalinka English language specialist: Jeannette West Art director: José Crespo Design coordinator: Rosa Marín Design Team: Cover: Martín León-Barreto Interior: Rosa Barriga Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera Design development: Raúl de Andrés, José Luis García and Javier Tejeda Technical director: Ángel García Encinar Technical coordinator: Marisa Valbuena Layout: María Delgado, Miguel Á. Mora-Gil, Lourdes Román and Linocomp, S. L. Proofreader: Lorenzo Antón Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodríguez Photographs: DIGITALVISION; EFE/SIPA-PRESS/Dickinson; SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; WWF/ADENA; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA

Richmond Publishing 4 Kings Street Cloisters Albion Place London W6 0QT United Kingdom © 2006 by Santillana Educación, S. L./Richmond Publishing Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educación, S. L. PRINTED IN SPAIN Printed in Spain

ISBN: 84-294-4384-3 CP: 857371 D.L.: All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.

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